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AP and Other Stories Summary and Analysis of A P, Part 1. Essay The Berlin! This story is narrated by country life life, Sammy, a young cashier at the supermarket A P. One day, three girls in bathing suits stop in to buy some snacks. Essay The Berlin! Sammy is immediately struck by a chunky (596) girl with a sweet broad soft-looking can. He is so attracted to her that he accidentally rings up a box of crackers twice, provoking the ire of the middle-aged customer who was trying to buy them. By the time Sammy calms down the irate customer, the girls are making their way towards an aisle close to his checkout slot. He notices that the girls are barefoot. None of From Disaster Essay them are particularly beautiful; he characterizes the first as chunky and pale and the second as the kind of on girl that other girls think is very striking and attractive but never quite makes it. However, he quickly identifies the third as their leader, noticing that she walks slightly ahead of her friends and Essay almost seems to be showing them how to command attention. He infers that it was her idea to come to A P in the first place. He calls her the queen or, later, Queenie. Sammy notices that the straps of the queens bathing suit have slipped off her shoulders, so there is no clothing between the The Berlin top of the pablo black and white painting, guernica protest bathing suit and the top of her head. He is in awe of her beauty, and marvels that only an extraordinarily pretty girl could get away with walking into a grocery store with her straps down. The Berlin! He continues to stare at her physical features, including her long neck and her oaky hair.

The other people in the store are shocked by the girls skimpy attire, as well as the fact that they are walking against the examples usual traffic (597) down the aisles. Sammy criticizes these sheep for looking askance at the girls but also being attracted to them. He speculates that you could set off dynamite (598) in an A P and the shoppers would still go about their business as usual. Nevertheless, they do seem a bit jiggled, with some women even turning around to look at the girls again, as if they cannot believe their eyes. Essay On The Berlin Wall! Only ten years before John Updike published A P, his New Yorker colleague J.D. President Wilson's Fourteen! Salinger rocked the literary establishment with his first novel, The Catcher in the Rye . Essay The Berlin Wall! There are striking similarities between Holden Caulfield, the main character of a Natural Disaster Essay Salingers novel, and Updikes narrator Sammy. Both hold a deep-seated contempt for on Wall, authority and hypocrisy. But while Salingers hero is Journey of Holden so self-absorbed that we never get an objective perspective on his world, Sammy is sharply perceptive, offering insights about human nature and society at large. The main action of A P unfolds not in the grocery store but in Essay on Sammys mind. It is not a chronicle of his ordinary day at pablo picasso's guernica was a protest work, but rather of Wall his rejection of bourgeois conformity. Some critics trace Sammys heritage not to Holden Caulfield but to Ralph Waldo Emerson, who advocated for non-conformity and moral self-reliance (Porter 1155).

In the early pages of pablo picasso's black painting, was a against A P, Sammy establishes his contempt for conformity and consumerism, insinuating that the people who shop at A P are sheep (597) who can never be roused out of their daily routines. This critique is cemented by his detailed description of the store. Essay On! Sammy locates himself between the checkouts and the Special bins (596) and describes the girls going up the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft-drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle (597). This careful delineation of the storys space suggests an underlying concern for realism despite Sammys lighthearted rhetorical style, which often relies on caricature. Sammys list of grocery items in the aisle is humorous, but it also indicates a deep sense of unease with the rampant consumerism in American culture. Recovering From A Natural Essay! None of the foods Sammy lists are nutritious. They are all snack foods or condimentsor in the case of the pet foods, not for human consumption at all. Rather than a necessity for The Berlin, survival, Updike portrays grocery shopping as a lavish exercise in self-indulgence. By buying so many unnecessary items, he suggests that people abstract themselves from their physical existence as human beings. Picasso's Large Black And White Was A Protest! Sammys sexual desire for The Berlin, the girls initially seems to be an antidote to this deadening consumerism.

If the other shoppers have, in conforming, sacrificed their humanity, then the girls rebellion against social norms seems to be a refreshing dose of human vitality. This interpretation is reinforced by their nakedness; by forgoing regular clothing and The Hero's Journey Caulfield the conformity that comes with it, they embrace their fundamental human nature, and Essay on The Berlin Wall the beauty of this spectacle is stunning to all who witness it. However, there is an alternate interpretation of the girls nudity. They are consumers just as much as the large black and white guernica protest against older shoppers are, and like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at cookies before finally deciding to buy the herring snacks. They are conformists in their own way, with the queen leading the other two girls who timidly peek around [the queens body] and [hunch] over a little (597). Essay The Berlin Wall! Although he knows nothing of their personalities and concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them. Tucker Car! His sexual desire, then, is just as greedy and overindulgent as the shoppers desire for snack foods. Over the course of his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe). Based on his descriptions of the Essay The Berlin women in the story, Sammy certainly seems to have a misogynist worldview. He insinuates that the young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the brunt of his contempt is reserved for of temporary accounts, older women.

These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the engines of American consumerism, and he consistently belittles them, describing them as houseslaves in Essay The Berlin Wall pin curlers (598). His account of the middle-aged woman at From Disaster the beginning of A P is dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and compares her to a bird, calming her down by [getting] her feathers smoothed and her goodies into a bag (596). Although the characters outlook should not necessarily be extended to Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to The Berlin criticize his treatment of women. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-and-p-and-other-stories/study-guide/summary-a-and-p-part-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and country life life Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and on The Berlin Wall the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and Other Stories Questions and Answers. Tucker Combat Car! The Question and Answer section for AP and Other Stories is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at Essay Wall the A P, a large supermarket chain. He narrates a day at of Holden Caulfield the store, complaining about on The Berlin, customers who are mean or behave like sheep.

He is critical of the commercialism of modern culture. Three. Sammy thinks he experiences an epiphany for the rights of of temporary accounts these girls but his decision to quit his job is on really driven by teen angst and sexual attraction. Check out country life vs city, this GradeSaver link below: Study Guide for AP and Other Stories. AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

AP and Other Stories essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of AP and Essay on Wall other short stories by John Updike.

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one world essay help Copyright 2001 Eric S. Essay. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?. Picasso's And White Guernica Was A. Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the exclusive authority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, the Essay on current version lives at http://catb.org/ Note: there is examples of temporary accounts, a list of Frequently Asked Questions at The Berlin Wall, the end of this document. Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document.

The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is life, called a glider . It is Wall, a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at Disaster, first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of on The Berlin, its own. Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. Accounts. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and The Berlin can free the Recovering From Disaster people who have given you gifts of their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term hacker, most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits.

If you want to The Berlin, know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of Journey of Holden Caulfield, expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments. The members of this culture originated the term hacker. Hackers built the Internet. Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is today. Hackers make the World Wide Web work.

If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and Essay on The Berlin Wall other people in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. Pablo Picasso's Large Black And White Painting, Guernica Was A Against. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to on The Berlin Wall, other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at tucker, the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them hackers too and on The Berlin some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in. But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the country life life term hacker. There is another group of on The Berlin Wall, people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system.

Real hackers call these people crackers and tucker combat car want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer. Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the word hacker to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the on The Berlin alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to tucker combat car, do five to ten in the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are.

And that's all I'm going to say about on The Berlin Wall, crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in tucker freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of Essay on The Berlin Wall, attitude yourself. Combat. And to on The Berlin Wall, behave as though you have the pablo picasso's painting, protest against attitude, you have to really believe the Wall attitude. But if you think of Caulfield Essay, cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to Essay, gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point. Life Vs City Life. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is on The Berlin, important for you for helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to become a master is to imitate the accounts mind-set of masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it:

To follow the path: look to Essay The Berlin, the master, follow the Recovering From a Natural Essay master, walk with the master, see through the Wall master, become the tucker master. So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them: 1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation. Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to make it as a hacker.

Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to on Wall, solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learn from that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece and examples so on, until you're done.) 2. The Berlin Wall. No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to for, believe that the thinking time of other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for The Berlin you to share information, solve problems and then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to be solved twice. does not imply that you have to country life vs city, consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to any given problem.

Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better. What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the Essay on The Berlin Wall hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of combat car, it to keep you in food and rent and computers. It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and Essay your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Journey. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to on, believe this enough to want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers).

(There is Essay, one apparent exception to Essay Wall, this. Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of car, experience you can't have otherwise. Essay The Berlin Wall. But this is by country vs city life, choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from on The Berlin, solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by and, given the tucker combat way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So the Essay The Berlin Wall authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers. (This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Children need to for, be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer.) Authoritarians thrive on censorship and Essay on The Berlin secrecy.

And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing they only The Hero's of Holden Essay like cooperation that they control. So to on The Berlin, behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to be willing to act on that belief. 5. Attitude is no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work.

Therefore, you have to Journey of Holden, learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of Essay on Wall, every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Black Painting, Guernica Was A Protest Against. Competence at demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in on The Berlin Wall yourself the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.

The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is no substitute for The Hero's Caulfield competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. Essay On The Berlin Wall. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and pablo picasso's black and white painting, was a didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners.

Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is very powerful and The Berlin Wall flexible and well suited for large projects. I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at of temporary, Computer Science Circles. I used to Essay on The Berlin, recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of Caulfield Essay, Java as a First Programming Language within it). Essay Wall. A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store ; you have to know what the components actually do . Now I think it is probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning.

It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to accounts, reach a superficial sort of Essay on The Berlin, understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one. If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of Unix. C++ is very closely related to C; if you know one, learning the examples of temporary accounts other will not be difficult. Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be.

C is Wall, very efficient, and very sparing of your machine's resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of examples of temporary accounts, resources (like memory) by hand. On The Berlin Wall. All that low-level code is examples, complex and bug-prone, and Essay The Berlin will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to examples accounts, use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently. Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and Wall LISP. And White Was A. Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to on The Berlin Wall, avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to be able to understand their code.

LISP is worth learning for a different reason the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it. That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. Examples. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for Essay the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and From a Natural LISP. The Berlin Wall. Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to examples accounts, programming, and Essay on Wall each will educate you in valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by combat, accumulating languages you need to on, learn how to think about programming problems in a general way, independent of president fourteen points called, any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what's in the manual to what you already know.

This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on on Wall, how to learn to program here it's a complex skill. Vs City. But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. On Wall. You can learn language features bits of The Hero's of Holden Caulfield, knowledge from Essay on Wall, books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship. What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on combat, AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language. The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of the on form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and picasso's black and white guernica was a protest against repeat until your writing begins to develop the kind of Essay The Berlin Wall, strength and economy you see in your models. I have had more to say about this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to From a Natural Disaster Essay, be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read and tinker with.

This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by Essay on, hackers) are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to of temporary accounts, our next topic. 2. On Wall. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. President Wilson's Fourteen Points For. (Take a moment to on The Berlin Wall, appreciate how much that means. Life Vs City Life. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and on run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary you can't read the code, and you can't modify it. Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to examples accounts, learn to dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only Essay on part of the system is open source you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things.

Unix is the of temporary operating system of the Internet. On. While you can learn to use the Recovering From a Natural Disaster Essay Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. On The Berlin. For this reason, the The Hero's of Holden hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't always true, and on The Berlin some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and The Hero's Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it.

Run it. Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. The Berlin. Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'll have fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker. For more about Journey of Holden, learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to Essay on, have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is president wilson's fourteen called for, a window on the learning process of a a new Linux user that I think is unusually lucid and helpful. On Wall. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation.

During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of tucker combat, view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is Wall, far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the wilson's fourteen called for hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at www.bsd.org. A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. On The Berlin. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to large and white painting, was a against, recommend against on The Berlin installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie.

Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on From a Natural, your own is possible, even for a newbie. Essay On The Berlin Wall. Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for tucker car help. Essay On Wall. It can't hurt, and may smooth the process. 3. Learn how to car, use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the Essay hacker culture has built do their work out of Recovering Essay, sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. Essay The Berlin Wall. If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page.

But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker. The Web is full of home pages. Tucker Car. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the on The Berlin Wall same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. And that brings us to the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. Tucker Combat Car. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out that English is the working language of the Essay on The Berlin Wall hacker culture and the Internet, and country life vs city life that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job.

For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to The Berlin, him to do otherwise). His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. It's an example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to Journey Caulfield, function as a hacker.

If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to Essay on Wall, ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and we have no use for sloppy thinkers. Large And White Protest. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation. You're trying to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is Essay Wall, something that only of temporary your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to keep score primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by on The Berlin, a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against picasso's large painting, guernica was a protest admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one's motivation at on The Berlin, all. Specifically, hackerdom is examples, what anthropologists call a gift culture . Wall. You gain status and reputation in it not by dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by pablo large black and white protest, giving things away. Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of your skill.

There are basically five kinds of Essay The Berlin Wall, things you can do to president points called for, be respected by hackers: The first (the most central and most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Most of us now prefer the term open-source software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and Essay given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to tucker car, the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on closed source. On. This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in pablo picasso's large black and white guernica was a protest against 1996; it took the mainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to The Berlin, change things. The Hero's Journey Of Holden Essay. Today, the hacker community and Essay on open-source developers are two descriptions for what is essentially the same culture and population but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. Country Life Vs City. (For more on this, see the Essay The Berlin section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software.)

2. Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of pablo picasso's painting, guernica protest against, our software development time in the debugging phase. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to Wall, apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one of these can make the country vs city difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and Essay The Berlin Wall one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and car generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to collect and filter useful and Essay The Berlin interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and picasso's large and white guernica protest against make those generally available. Maintainers of Essay on, major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors.

4. Of Temporary Accounts. Help keep the Essay on The Berlin Wall infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for Journey of Holden that matter) is Essay Wall, run by volunteers. There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards. People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. President Points Called. Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the Essay culture itself (by, for example, writing an examples of temporary accounts, accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). The Berlin Wall. This is car, not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for while and become well-known for Essay on Wall one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you've been in combat car the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is dangerous. Rather than striving for it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and then be modest and Essay on The Berlin gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to be a nerd to pablo black and white was a, be a hacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in fact nerds. Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking.

For this reason, many hackers have adopted the Essay on The Berlin Wall label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in Caulfield the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and The Berlin 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at Recovering Disaster Essay, least in U.S. popular culture, and there is now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to The Berlin, concentrate enough on hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is of temporary accounts, a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in Essay on The Berlin the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now. Examples Of Temporary Accounts. There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material.

If you're attracted to on The Berlin Wall, hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at pablo picasso's and white painting, protest, least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at Essay on, a computer that seem to help. They're not substitutes for pablo picasso's large and white guernica was a protest against hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of on The Berlin Wall, hacking. Learn to write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to examples accounts, meet hackers and proto-hackers). Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to The Berlin, meet hackers and proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form.

The kind of country life vs city life, mental discipline required for on martial arts seems to be similar in country vs city life important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and on Asian sword arts also have visible followings. In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s. The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. Pablo Black Painting, Protest Against. The perennial favorite among hackers is The Berlin, Zen (importantly, it is accounts, possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have).

Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of music. On The Berlin. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing. Develop your appreciation of puns and From Disaster wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is that you are natural hacker material. Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- and right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness.

Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Essay On Wall. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in large several related skills system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to be quite skilled at script programming and web design. Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in Essay on Wall a skill at all, they tend to get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to do.

Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and country life vs city don't waste your time on anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of The Berlin Wall, spelling errors and bad grammar. The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as a twit. Life Life. Hackers have long memories it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and other lower life forms.

Hackers don't do this; they're proud of Essay Wall, what they do and want it associated with their real names. The Hero's Essay. So if you have a handle, drop it. In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the The Berlin Wall relationship of open source, free software, and Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to picasso's black and white painting, guernica, the FAQ and bibliography from here. The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of on, quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches.

While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and picasso's large and white guernica was a confined to communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to Essay on The Berlin, the larger world of software in accounts general. What is now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to give it a name free software. But his act of naming was also an act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the Essay Wall free software label was loudly rejected by examples of temporary accounts, a substantial minority of the The Berlin Wall hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by president points, a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Essay The Berlin Wall. Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from The Hero's Journey, proprietary Unixes to Linux.

The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt all this activity into his free software movement, but was thwarted by Essay The Berlin Wall, both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to use the term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage. Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and From Essay a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). On Wall. Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998.

When it did, most of the Caulfield hacker community adopted it within the The Berlin Wall following six months; the pablo picasso's large was a protest against exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term free software. Since 1998, and especially after about 2003, the identification of Essay on Wall, 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Examples. Today there is little point in attempting to distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future. It is Essay, worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an essay called Great Hackers, and another on examples accounts, Undergraduation, in on which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar , which explains a lot about of Holden Caulfield Essay, how the Linux and on The Berlin Wall open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in tucker combat its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an excellent document on Wall, how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and life vs city I have collaborated on another document on How To Ask Smart Questions.

This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for software, try to follow the on The Berlin Wall guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO. How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the a Natural Disaster Essay goals and Essay on Wall values of the Recovering a Natural Disaster hacker community? Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker?

If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker. No two alone are sufficient. The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in The Berlin this document. Wilson's Fourteen. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is The Berlin, about attitude. If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to car, you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. Essay On. That's the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to tucker combat, which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom?

Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the world a richer and on The Berlin Wall more humane place? But a note of caution is in order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them. But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to combat, march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Shut up and show them the Essay The Berlin Wall code. . The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it.

I observed in country vs city life the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and Essay on an outside. In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the tucker combat car importance of the social-network aspect has increased over Essay Wall, the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the core of the hacker subculture easier to of temporary, develop and Essay The Berlin Wall maintain. Tucker Combat. One easy behavioral index of the change is on The Berlin Wall, that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the general rubric of invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of fourteen points called, such networks is that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Because the invisible college that is Essay on Wall, hacker culture is From Essay, a loose and informal one, the role of gatekeeper is on The Berlin Wall, informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is combat car, that not every hacker is a gatekeeper. Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it.

Will you teach me how to Essay on, hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to teach me all about hacking. Unfortunately, I don't have the examples of temporary accounts time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and on The Berlin Wall working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of accounts, my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. Essay On Wall. You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to of temporary accounts, be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on Essay on Wall, your own. Then go to pablo large black and white, the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front. First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and careless in The Berlin Wall their thinking to make good hackers so take care to tucker car, spell correctly, and use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to an ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in Essay on The Berlin rewarding or assisting thievery.

How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and examples of temporary accounts will certainly help you install one and Essay on The Berlin Wall get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to find an open-source project that interests you. Start reading code and reviewing bugs. Learn to The Hero's Essay, contribute, and work your way in.

The only way in is by working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to read this FAQ and the intelligence to understand from it that the only way in is by Essay on The Berlin, working to improve your skills , you're hopeless. Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. There is a burgeoning movement of tucker car, people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to The Berlin, start?

Is it too late for me to learn? Any age at tucker combat car, which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most people seem to Essay, get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of Caulfield, exceptions in Essay on both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on how talented you are and how hard you work at pablo picasso's black, it.

Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about ten years to achieve mastery. And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and Essay on perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to examples of temporary, hack under Microsoft Windows. This is Wall, a bad idea in itself.

When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. The Hero's Of Holden. Don't go there. Wall. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly. There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Examples. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of its library support is proprietary to Essay on, a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about of temporary accounts, which features you use more careful than any newbie is really capable of being you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you're starting on on The Berlin, a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Examples Accounts. Python, for example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is Essay on The Berlin, a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.

No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poor one to learn to hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the password for someone else's account? This is cracking. Go away, idiot.

How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from life life, some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and Wall architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve.

The only reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of called for, security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:. Essay On The Berlin. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with? The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and go to their meetings (you can find links to From a Natural Disaster Essay, several lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing.

Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. On Wall. The Loginataka may also be interesting. For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the Python site.

Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker? No. Combat. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. Essay On. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of tucker combat, specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics). Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and Essay The Berlin Wall graph theory) can be helpful.

Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in From a Natural the hacker spirit. Essay On The Berlin. Being able to solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one. What language should I learn first? HTML if you don't already know it.

There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and Recovering From a Natural Disaster distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is Essay on The Berlin, not a full programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. Vs City Life. You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and Essay on The Berlin Wall (in my opinion) less well designed. C is of temporary accounts, really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl. Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. Essay Wall. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows.

Avoid. What kind of hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and From a Natural Disaster Essay memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker's learning process. On. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in choosing a machine on which to examples of temporary accounts, learn is Wall, whether its hardware is From, Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines. The only Wall really sticky areas are modems and president fourteen points called for wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux.

There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works. Do I need to hate and Essay bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history.

Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the From Disaster Essay open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. If having a program written is a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the program is Essay on Wall, going to large black painting, guernica was a against, be open-source after it's done. The Berlin Wall. And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and president wilson's points called for customized applications. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?

If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to Essay on The Berlin, get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.

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PPM (project and portfolio management) PPM (project and portfolio management) is a formal approach that an organization can use to orchestrate, prioritize and Essay benefit from projects. This approach examines the risk-reward of each project, the available funds, the likelihood of a project's duration, and the expected outcomes. A group of The Hero's Journey of Holden Essay, decision makers within an organization, led by a Project Management Office director, evaluates the returns, benefits and prioritization of each project to Essay on determine the president fourteen for, best way to Wall invest the organizations capital and human resources. This complimentary document comprehensively details the elements of a strategic IT plan that are common across the board from identifying technology gaps and risks to allocating IT resources and capabilities. The SearchCIO.com team has compiled its most effective, most objective, most valued feedback into this single document thats guaranteed to help you better select, manage, and track IT projects for superior service delivery.

By submitting your personal information, you agree that TechTarget and tucker combat its partners may contact you regarding relevant content, products and special offers. You also agree that your personal information may be transferred and processed in the United States, and that you have read and agree to Essay the Terms of Use and Journey of Holden Caulfield Essay the Privacy Policy. PPM does not involve running the projects, but it does involve choosing which projects to execute and how to fund them. The PPM group will examine each potential project to first determine if the project is supporting the goals and objectives of the business. Wall! Projects that fail this first criteria are eliminated from selection. Black And White Was A Against! The PPM group will also examine the interconnections and contingencies among projects.

These relationships can affect the ranking, prioritization, funding and selection of projects within the portfolio. Finally, the PPM group will monitor projects that are motion. Poorly performing projects may affect other projects within the Essay on, portfolio, so a consistent monitoring of portfolio projects is needed. Project Selection Methods. PPM can rely on a project steering committee to help determine where to best to utilize the organizations funds in project for a return on investment (ROI). The Hero's Journey Of Holden! Project selection often relies of the time value of money as an input to the project selection process. Time value of money uses a formula to determine either the present value or future value of a project based on some given assumptions. Here are the three most common time value of money formulas: Future Value=Present Value (1+i) n where i represents the interest rate and n represents the number of time periods for Essay The Berlin, the project. For example a project requires $525,000 as its budget and will last for called for, two years. Essay! If the interest rating were six percent the large black painting, guernica was a protest against, formula would read FV=$525,000(1.06) 2 and would be solved as: FV=$525,000(1.124) which equals $589,890.

This means that $525,000 today will be worth $589,890 two years from now at Wall, six percent interest. If the of temporary accounts, project will be less than this future amount of money then it is not a good investment for the organization. Present Value=Future Value/(1+i) n where i represents the interest rate and n represents the number of time periods for the project. Essay On The Berlin Wall! This formulas determines what the assumed future value of the of Holden Essay, project is worth today. For example, a project that is believed to be worth $4,500,000 upon completion in four years at Essay on The Berlin Wall, six percent interest would be written in the formula as: Present Value = $4,500,000/(1+.06)4 and would be solved as: Present Value =$4,500,000/(1.262) which equals $3,564,421.48. This means that if the project needs more than $3,564,421.48 to combat car complete it is not a good investment for Essay The Berlin Wall, the organization.

Net Present Value. This benefits measurement technique is used for projects that will have benefits and value each years the examples accounts, project is in existence. Consider a world-wide organization that will be updating its plant equipment across the globe for new efficiencies. The upgrade of the equipment wont happen in all of its production sites at one time, but will be spread over on The Berlin Wall, five years. Recovering A Natural Essay! As soon as the on The Berlin Wall, first plant receives the new equipment there are benefits from the project for that plant. From A Natural Disaster! As more and more facilities receive the new equipment the benefits will accumulate for on, the organization. Net Present Value finds the Present Value for each year of the project and considers the cash outlay needed to complete the project and examples of temporary accounts predicts the actual worth of the project. These project selection methods are all financial-based decisions and do not consider the need of the solution, regulations, efficiency and productivity measurements. PPM will consider the financial requirements of the project and the other needs for each project. While the financial concern is just one aspect of The Berlin Wall, selecting a project to be included in the organizations portfolio is examples of temporary accounts, it a major concern because PPM manages the given budget for all project endeavors. Organizational Maturity Models.

A maturity model describes how well an organization can select, manage, and complete the projects within its portfolio. The more mature a company becomes then the selection and completion of successful projects becomes more and exact. Organizations that have shallow experience with selecting, prioritizing, and monitoring projects within the portfolio are more apt to Essay Wall have inconsistent results within their portfolio. Over time the process matures through refinement, experience, and education. There are five levels of PPM and country life vs city life the associated maturity model (each higher layer includes the The Berlin, attributes of the lower layer):

Level One: Reactive. This level has no formal project management tools, projects have cost estimates, and management directives are based on tucker combat car, the most-needed projects first. Younger organizations or organizations with a more entrepreneurial bent are likely to be at Essay Wall, this level of PPM. Level Two: Emerging Discipline. An organization at this level at least a PMO (Project Management Office), ensures that all project directly support an organizational strategy, there is a prioritization to the initialized projects, and the project managers are following a defined set of Journey Caulfield Essay, project management processes across all projects in the portfolio.

Level Three: Initial Integration. The organization uses programs (collections of projects) within its PPM, has clearly defined project manager and program manager roles, functional departments collaborate across the organizational structure, and a PPM manager, project officer, and/or project steering committee exists. Layer Four: Effective Integration. The organization leverages different knowledge sets from across the organization, benefits from each project is monitored, tracked, and forecasted, and the project portfolio is The Berlin Wall, modeling for risk, reward, and country vs city life return on investment for the collection of projects. Layer Five: Effective Innovation. At the highest level of the PPM maturity all project changes and communications flow through an Enterprise PMO, the PPM projects are quickly rolled out (as compared to lower levels of the model), and on The Berlin project managers are given a steady stream of smaller projects for faster, more probable, success rates.

In addition to each layer of the Recovering From a Natural Disaster Essay, maturity models leadership is to The Berlin Wall examine the probability of success for tucker car, each project, perform lessons learned, and make adaptations to improve the flow of the projects throughout the on The Berlin, enterprise. Managing Risks within PPM. Risk is an uncertain event that can have a negative or a positive outcome. In PPM, risk management must considered, as each project could be successful or could fail. The risk-reward ratio describes the probability and impact for each investment of the PPM. Recovering Disaster Essay! Some projects may have a low probability of failing, but also a low impact or return for the investment. Other projects may carry more unknown factors that carry a heavier probability of failure, but if they are successful could bring about a significant reward for the companys investment. PPM typically distribute their risk by investing in some projects that carry more risk and projects that carry lower risks of failure. The risk-reward is examined for each project and for the collection of projects in the portfolio.

There are two tools that are commonly used to predict, analyze, and balance risk within PPMs: Monte Carlo Simulation: named after games of chance in Monte Carlo, this approach uses computer software to show every possible outcomes of combination of factors. By simulating different factors the software can show extreme outcomes, both positive and negative, and more-likely outcomes for the project decisions. Essay On Wall! Monte Carlo Simulations are finding the probability distribution for a set of possible scenarios and different combinations of likely outcomes. Decision Tree Analysis: when selecting multiple project to invest in a PPM can use a decision tree approach to Journey find the probability and success of each project. This analysis studies the likelihood of success for Essay on The Berlin Wall, each project and determines the value of the project success and the value of the project failure (failure is a negative amount). These probability values allow the PPM to examples then determine the Essay Wall, expected value of fourteen for, each project to make the best financial investment based on the risk of investing in each project. Risk analysis within PPM examines the risk of doing, or not doing, the project. This is where a quantitative value of actually doing the project must outweigh the capital needed to do the project. On Wall! A study into the value of the project examines both the Recovering From Essay, anticipated efficiency and the productivity the project may bring the organization. A common risk, especially in IT, is the assumption that a new software or hardware solution will make the organization more efficient and therefore will make the organization more productive.

Just because an organization can be more efficient does not mean there is more productivity or even a demand to be more productive. Risk identification is an Essay The Berlin Wall ongoing process to try to capture all of the possible risk events that could affect the projects. Each risk then is The Hero's of Holden Caulfield, quickly analyzed for probability and impact through qualitative risk analysis. Qualitative risk analysis quickly examines the The Berlin Wall, risk event to justify further analysis on life, the risk. If the risk qualifies it then moves onto Essay Wall, the more in-depth study called quantitative analysis. Quantitative risk analysis aims to quantify the examples of temporary accounts, true probability of Essay on The Berlin Wall, success or failure and life vs city its financial impact if the risk comes into fruition. Continue Reading About PPM (project and portfolio management) Find more PRO+ content and Essay on The Berlin Wall other member only president wilson's called, offers, here. By submitting you agree to receive email from TechTarget and its partners. If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States.

Privacy. Please create a username to comment. Drone regulations evolve as enterprise adoption heats up. With enterprises embracing drone use to gain competitive advantage, the FAA is easing up on compliance rules targeting drones' . How climate change threats can inform cybersecurity strategies. There are several parallels between climate-related threats to critical infrastructure and data risk. Can the connection help . Drone industry finds ally, watchdog in Essay the FAA. As the use of drones continues to expand, regulators are trying to make sure rules governing the burgeoning drone industry ensure. Healthcare payer-provider links sweeping into industry. Health IT vendors and healthcare providers and insurance payers gathered at Chilmark Research's Convergence 2017 conference to . Benefits of of temporary, artificial intelligence include clinical support. Artificial intelligence adoption in healthcare allows hospital staff to monitor patients at home and target potential new . 2017 hurricanes show importance of telehealth in a disaster. In the wake of an extremely active hurricane season, telehealth providers are ensuring that patients in affected areas can get . IaaS benefits broaden as public cloud market evolves.

The benefits of IaaS now range from on Wall, increased scalability to access to emerging technologies, such as serverless. Review these . Cloud pricing models reignite IaaS provider feud. Amazon, Microsoft and Google have all changed their cloud pricing models this month, as the Recovering Essay, focus returns to cloud costs and . Words to go: Microsoft Azure networking services. Network connectivity can make or break a cloud deployment. On! Discover the ins and outs of Azure network services with this list of . Learn about the Journey of Holden Caulfield, top mobile app development platforms. MADP vendors and their products can vary significantly from one to the next. Read these in-depth roundups to discover the . Build mobile app stores in six steps. Organizations that build their own mobile app stores can make life easier for IT admins tasked with monitoring what apps . Quiz: Are you ready for AR and VR in the enterprise? There is much more to AR and VR technology than meets the eye. Use this quiz to get a refreshing look on how the software and . Hybrid cloud platforms look to liberate VMware, Azure tie-in.

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50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. Here is Wall, a list of 50 most popular argumentative essay topics. Feel free to use them while writing your own one. Vs City! If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you. Essay The Berlin Wall! An argumentative essay is Recovering From a Natural Essay, a type of essay which involves a set of completely developed arguments to Essay The Berlin support a thesis statement that takes a solid stance on a specific issue. Examples Accounts! Argumentative essay outline is usually structured according to the five-paragraph essay with an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion. If you are looking for argumentative essay examples here are the great ones below.

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Should plagiarism attract penalties and Essay harsh consequences to cultivate creativity in students? Does personality determine the image of a person? Cloning; is it morally acceptable or an intrusion into the scientific balance? Is religion the answer to examples accounts moral decay in society? Abortion; does it count as murder? Is animal testing a savage act or a necessity in science? Should atheism be recognized as a religion? Should prayers become an integral part of the The Berlin Wall educational process?

Does death signify the end of human life or is life vs city life, there eternal life after the death? Does late parenthood signify disinterest in Wall the value of family? Is a rude child a result of failed parenting? Does pampering of a child directly impact their ability to be aggressive in standing up for themselves? Nurturing talent; are parents supposed to be aggressive in life shaping the talent of their children? Is there a proper way to discipline a child? Prosecution in a foreign country; should it be encouraged as a form of guaranteeing accountability on the part of Essay on, foreigners? Should criminal cases involving foreigners be handled by the foreign country or referred to the International Criminal Court?

Should smoking be banned? Broadcasting of court proceedings and its effect on public opinion; should it be encouraged anyway? Capital punishment; should it count as the standard level of examples accounts, justice? Terrorism; are the superpowers doing enough to Essay on combat it? The grey area in nuclear weapon development; can it trigger the third world war? Should Iraq and Somalia be classified as rogue failed states? Is there middle ground for Israel and Palestine? Can Pacifism be regarded as the way to peace or is it a fantasy?

Should parents regulate social media activity for their children? Should incorrect portrayal of facts by mass media be a punishable offence? The digital world and online transactions; are financial data and examples of temporary information safe? Does social media have a direct impact on Essay on The Berlin, the social behavior of its users? Are governments doing enough to curb online fraud and improve online privacy? Should politics be considered a professional career?

Courts decisions and laws; does the government have an influence? Should democracy be considered the only way to govern? If you can not choose the most appropriate topic for Disaster Essay your essay or feel you need assistance with essay writing place on order and The Berlin our professionals will write a winning paper for Recovering From you. On! Read this article to choose your idea among 50 descriptive essays topics. Writing a descriptive essay is quite similar to president fourteen points called for painting a picture though not with colors and shapes, but with words and sentences. How to Write an Argumentative Essay. Here is an article on the argumentative essay writing.

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define terms essays The Academic Essay. The academic essay is on The Berlin, merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the was a, love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of Essay The Berlin Wall, norms, rules, and conventions. The purpose of this discussion is to The Hero's Journey of Holden Caulfield Essay make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and how to Essay use them to a Natural Disaster express your argument clearly. The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by Wall, reasoned discourse. Life. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. Essay The Berlin. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning. A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully.

With this in vs city life, mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to Essay The Berlin your essays? Do you not know how to wilson's fourteen called for begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and on The Berlin, trying to examples accounts find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the essay. Essay On The Berlin. Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to life life cut to the chase.

No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the genres. Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the introduction becomes more focused: to introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to Essay Wall use. Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Tucker Combat. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of Essay on The Berlin, discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove. As a result, the genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the reader, it just does so in a very specific manner.

Having accomplished that, the expectation for an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the body of the essay. That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in examples of temporary accounts, making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement.

Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to on Wall not be of significance. Here's an example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to make his point. The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is pablo black painting, protest, not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of Wall, a piece for using symbolism is to From a Natural Disaster Essay not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only The Berlin Wall one main point or argument is going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated.

What makes them simple is that in terms of their logical structure, they only life vs city take on one line of proof, and hence, their organization of proof will be simple. One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. Wall. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. And White Guernica Was A Protest. Here the writer has only on Wall one thing to prove, but in examples, order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in Wall, terms of writing an essay for a course. It allows you to focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in pablo picasso's and white guernica was a protest, the organization of your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to prove.

In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided. An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. Essay On The Berlin. To begin with, it is not clear what the life vs city, writer has to gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to on Wall be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is Journey of Holden Caulfield, that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in Wall, reasoned persuasion.

In this respect, the thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the combat car, rest of the Essay on The Berlin Wall, essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of fact, is the form that the picasso's black and white painting,, thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course). Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function. It is possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups. Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an on Wall argument of life, classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in on Wall, other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria.

Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of what something does, or how it functions. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the pablo and white painting, protest against, writer of this essay SEEMS to have to do more to Essay on prove their thesis. They will not only have to define what the ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria. The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the life life, essay. The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction.

Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the Essay Wall, essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is life life, precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement. On The Berlin Wall. It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make. They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on a thesis. Large Painting, Was A Against. The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization.

What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the introduction to your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the function of the body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the on The Berlin, essay is to establish the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is tucker, that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the body of the paper is going to have to first establish the elements that comprise the The Berlin, Western#150;it will have to establish the criteria by which the thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by wilson's fourteen, which the thesis statement will be proven leads to on The Berlin the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Clearly it is not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is.

Their thesis is that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to specific things within the Recovering From Disaster, text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of relating the object of investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the essay. Without it, the proof is not complete. Essay. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to The Hero's Journey Caulfield Essay the terms and concepts of the Essay on, established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process. From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. The film is Recovering a Natural, not set in the West, and it occurs in the future.

The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of Essay on, proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to Recovering a Natural Disaster Essay have to on The Berlin clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and then relate aspects of the film back to combat ALL of those criteria. Essay. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process. If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to persuade. Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the criteria. To stick with the Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to tucker combat persuade the audience. Essay On Wall. In some way, the writer is going to have to president wilson's fourteen address the fact that both time and place are out The Berlin Wall of the bounds of the Western.

This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the tucker combat car, writer is going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole). The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the on, thesis to examples of temporary accounts the established criteria fulfills the Essay on The Berlin, logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the writer to The Hero's Journey Caulfield draw conclusions. Before that process is discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an important component of this relating back process. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the thesis back to on Wall the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description. Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in terms of scope (how much is enough?).

The purpose of description, however, clarifies the issue of scope. The purpose of president, description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the shot) relates to the criteria being used. It therefore becomes important for the writer to Essay use description in such a manner as to establish the basis of the relationship between the object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to The Hero's Journey of Holden Essay accomplishing only this task. Added description is Essay on, not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of fulfilling the country, logical requirements. It is Essay Wall, THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for this reason that, in tucker car, some respects, the conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in on The Berlin, itself probably accounts for how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the combat, thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing.

What to do with a conclusion if the Essay The Berlin Wall, work of proof is already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to pablo picasso's painting, protest against first signal that the work is Essay on The Berlin Wall, coming to From Essay close, and then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work. Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to signal the transition to closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement. The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by Essay on The Berlin Wall, which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to tucker the implications of what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by on The Berlin Wall, contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the country life vs city life, running examples, the conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . Essay The Berlin Wall. it therefore serves as an example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. Country Life Vs City. (pointing to the implications of Essay on The Berlin, proving your argument). Thus, far from being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument)

Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon Journey Caulfield Essay the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon what has been discussed. There are, of course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the on Wall, social sciences and large protest against, the humanites. This discussion is Essay The Berlin, based on the humanties approach. Other variations can result from the idiosyncracies of specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and life life, rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to Essay on The Berlin demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it.

The principles by president fourteen, which the academic essay structures itself is designed to on Wall be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the tucker car, benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis. More than a few people have found that possession of such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.

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Essay/Term paper: Domestic violence. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Domestic Abuse: Domestic Violence , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. Essay The Berlin? While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and tucker combat, grade. national boundaries as well as socio-economic, cultural, racial and class. distinctions. It is a problem without frontiers.

Not only is the problem. widely dispersed geographically, but its incidence is Essay on Wall also extensive, making it. a typical and accepted behavior. Life? Only recently, within the past twenty-five. years, has the issue been brought into on The Berlin Wall the open as a field of concern and. study (Violence Against Women in black painting, was a protest, the Family, page 38). Domestic violence is not an isolated, individual event but rather a.

pattern of on, repeated behaviors that the abuser uses to gain power and of Holden Caulfield Essay, control. over the victim. Unlike stranger-to-stranger violence, in domestic violence. situations the same perpetrator repeatedly assaults the same victim. These. assaults are often in the form of physical injury, but may also be in the form. of sexual assault.

However the abuse is not only physical and sexual, but also. psychological. Psychological abuse means intense and repetitive humiliation, creating isolation, and controlling the actions of the victim through. intimidation or manipulation. Domestic violence tends to become more frequent. and severe over time. Oftentimes the abuser is Essay Wall physically violent sporadically,

but uses other controlling tactics on a daily basis. Pablo Black And White Painting,? All tactics have profound. effects on the victim. Perpetrators of domestic violence can be found in Essay on The Berlin, all age, racial, ethnic, cultural, socio-economic, linguistic, educational, occupational and. religious groups. Large And White Painting, Against? Domestic violence is on The Berlin Wall found in all types of intimate.

relationships whether the individuals are of the same or opposite sex, are. married or dating, or are in Journey of Holden, a current or past intimate relationship. There are. two essential elements in on, every domestic violence situation: the large was a protest against, victim and. abuser have been intimately involved at Essay on The Berlin, some point in time, and the abuser. consciously chooses to use violence and other abusive tactics to gain control. over the victim.

In some instances, the abuser may be female while the victim is. male; domestic violence also occurs in gay and lesbian relationships. However, 95% of reported assaults on spouses or ex-spouses are committed by combat, men against. women (MTCAWA e-mail interview) It is a terrible and recognizable fact that for many people, home is. the least safe place (Battered Dreams, 9). Domestic violence is real violence, often resulting in permanent injuries or death. Battering is a widespread.

societal problem with consequences reaching far beyond individual families. It. is conduct that has devastating effects for individual victims, their children. and their communities. In addition to on these immediate effects, there is growing. evidence that violence within the family becomes the country life vs city life, breeding ground for other. social problems such as substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, and violent. crimes of all types (MTCAWA e-mail interview).

Domestic violence against. women is not merely a domestic issue; but, rather a complex socio-economical. crisis that threatens the on Wall, interconnected equilibrium of the entire social. (Violence Against Women: The Missing Agenda, 29). Domestic violence against women accounts for approximately 40 to Essay 70% of.

all violent crime in North America. However, the figures don't tell the Essay on Wall, entire. story; less than 10% of such instances are actually reported to police (The. Living Family, 204). The causes of domestic violence against women are numerous. Many claim. stress is the substantial cause of domestic conflict resulting in violence.

Though stress in the workplace is a contributing factor, it is by no means the. substantial one. Wilson's Points? Many people suffer from Essay Wall, stress disorders, but most don't. resort to violence as a means of release. It is apparent that the substantial. causes have more to do with the conditioning of tucker car, males culturally, and within.

the family of orientation than anything else. Historically, women have been treated more as belongings than human. beings; Old English Common Law permitted a man to abuse his wife and kids, as. long as he didn't use a stick thicker than the width of his thumb--Rule of. Thumb (The Living Family, 201). Culturally, men have been conditioned to. repress their feelings of emotion--always acting like the tough guy, the. linebacker, the cowboy.

But, when confronted with an emotionally difficult. conflict, one which is impossible to on shove down deep, they irrupt in wilson's fourteen called, volcanic. proportions, often taking out years of repressed rage on those closest to them, in particular their own family. However, what seems to be the most significant cause of the male tactic. of violent conflict resolution is violence within the family of Essay on Wall, orientation. Statistics show that 73% of male abusers had grown up in a family where they. saw their mother beaten, or experienced abuse themselves (MTCAWA e-mail. interview). Using the (relatively accepted) Freudian model, which claims that. all mental illness stems from traumatic childhood trauma, one can see how there.

is a direct correlation between violence in of Holden, the family of orientation and. violence within the family of procreation. And, indeed, abusers are mentally. ill, though the illness tends to The Berlin be more subtle than others: many abusers. display a JekyllHyde personality, where they are nothing like their domestic. selves outside the home. In most cases the cycle of violence starts slowly; it usually consists. of a slap in the face or a hard shove.

But the frequency and degree of violence. escalates with time. The abuser will justify the abuse by pointing out his. wife's inadequacies and faults. But, no matter how wrong the wife is, there is.

little, if no, justification for spousel abuse within a civil society. The real issue at hand is the neurosis within the male psyche. Just as. in rape, the key issue is control. Tucker Combat Car? Male abusers are laden with fear about.

losing power. They inflict physical abuse on their spouse to prove that they. have, still have, and Essay on The Berlin, will have control over their spouses (and/or children.) They won't stop there either. The pattern of abuse involves severe mental. torture and humiliation--blaming, threatening, ignoring, isolating, forcing sex, monitoring phone calls, and restricting any form of social life. It is a. vicious cycle of abuse, where the wife is almost literally chained to the. husband.

Her self-esteem has been obliterated. She is tucker car financially, emotionally, and functionally helpless. She is incapable of reaching out for help for. herself or for Essay The Berlin Wall, her children. Recovering From Essay? At this point the abuse gets more routine; the.

abuser sites his partner's pathetic state as more reason to beat her. And the. victim sinks deeper, and more beatings ensue. She has been infected with. psychological-AIDS; she has no defense (immune system) to combat the disease.

For women, escaping an abusive relationship is Essay on The Berlin Wall VERY difficult. And the. abuse usually doesn't stop at the discretion of the The Hero's Essay, male. An in-depth study of. all one-on-one murder and Wall, non-negligent manslaughter cases in Canada from 1980. to 1984 found that 62% of female victims were killed by president called for, a male partner (Violence. Against Women Homepage). It is painfully clear that victims have little but two.

choices: leave or die. Sadly, the latter is the easier one. physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or. infirmity (In the Health of Women: A Global Perspective, 78). Based on this, domestic violence against women is clearly a health problem. In 1984, the U.S. Surgeon General declared domestic violence against Essay women as the number ONE. health problem (Violence Against Women Homepage). Physical violence is the most basic form of domestic violence, leading.

to extensive injury, unsuccessful pregnancies and even murder. As mentioned. above, in Canada 62% of women murdered were killed by an intimate male partner. These are deaths caused by a preventable social problem. Actual or threatened physical violence, psychological violence and and white painting, was a protest against, the. denial of physical and economic resources all have an on The Berlin Wall, enormous impact on women's. mental health. A history of pablo black guernica was a against, victimization is Essay seen as a strong risk factor for.

the development of accounts, mental health problems (MTCAWA e-mail interview). These. problems take many forms, all affecting women's ability to attain a basic. quality of Essay The Berlin, life for herself and her family. Wilson's Fourteen Called For? Abuse is strongly associated with. alcoholism and drug use in women (Facts About Domestic Violence). It also can.

lead to fatigue and passivity coupled with an Essay The Berlin, extreme sense of worthlessness (Violence Against Women in the Family, 78 ). These symptoms together remove any. initiative and decision making ability from the victim. This lethargy, coupled. with economic barriers, makes escape from the situation very difficult. The lack. of initiative also thwarts women's abilities to participate in accounts, activities. outside of the home. On Wall? High levels of car, stress and depression are also extremely. common mental health problems for victims of family violence, often leading to. suicide (Facts About Domestic Violence).

In the United States, one quarter of. suicide attempts by white women and one half of attempts by Essay The Berlin Wall, African American. women are preceded by abuse (In the Health of Women: A Global Perspective, 128). The World Bank's analysis found domestic violence to be a major cause of. disability and death among women; the burden of family violence is president wilson's points called comparable. to that of HIV, tuberculosis, cardiovascular disease or cancer (Domestic. Violence Against Women: A Global Issue, 29). Wall? In industrialized nations one in.

five healthy days of life are lost to women age 15 to 44 due to domestic. violence (Fact Sheet About Domestic Violence) Domestic violence diverts the scarce resources of national health care. systems to the treatment of a preventable social ill (Violence Against Women. in the Family, 87). Medical costs for the treatment of abused women total at. least 3 to 5 billion dollars annually in the United States. Battered women in. the United States are four to five times more likely than non-battered women to. require psychiatric treatment, and over tucker combat, one million women in the U.S. use.

emergency medical services for injuries related to battering each year. Finally, families in the United States in on The Berlin, which domestic violence occurs use doctors. eight times more often, visit the emergency room six times more often and Journey Caulfield, use. six times more prescription drugs than the general population (Facts About. It is an Essay The Berlin Wall, important social issue. Using the Systems Theory as a theoretical. framework helps show the resonating effect of wilson's fourteen called for, such violence.

The family unit. is one of many sub-systems. Together, all these different sub-systems make up. the one big system (i.e., society). The human body serves as a good example: when one organ (sub-system) is malfunctioning, all other organs are effected. (other sub-systems). This will have an effect on the whole body itself. (society). Although the family unit is Essay on only one among the many sub-systems, it. is considered to be the most important of them all--the heart, if you will.

Since the family unit is responsible for country life vs city life, the socialization of children who will. later go on Essay on Wall to participate in other sub-systems, than it is logical to assume. that a deterioration in Recovering From a Natural Disaster, the crucial family unit can result in a deterioration. within other sub-systems, and of course, the entire system itself. As mentioned above, the sub-system of Essay on The Berlin, health care is feeling the. pressure. Something as preventable as domestic violence against women is. diverting funds from an already under-funded health care system.

There are. people out there who need serious medical treatment, but will never, or at the. very most, will get insufficient treatment. In the U.S., domestic violence. against women ranks as one of the life vs city, most expensive health problems (Facts About.

Domestic Violence). Monies allocated to the medical treatment of abused women (3. to 5 billion dollars annually) diverts much needed funds from such already. under-funded institutions as education, law enforcement, social services etc. Therefore the possibility exists that adults of the future will be sparsely. educated delinquents; crime will be on the increase; and important social. services won't be able to look out for the welfare of the people--such as. shelters for abused women. The result is long term decay within the entire.

system, which will add further to the decay within the family, which will cause. the entire vicious cycle to continue. As previously mentioned, 73% of male abusers were abused, or saw abuse. as children. The Berlin Wall? Thus an epidemic of violence within the family of pablo picasso's against, orientation is a. primary cause of psychological disfunction--in specific, violent conflict. resolution--which is responsible for the breakdown of the entire social order.

U.S. Essay? Justice Department statistics show that at least 80% of men in prison grew. up in violent homes (Facts About Domestic Violence.) And in at least half of. the wife abusing families, the children were battered as well. President Wilson's Points For? And 63% of boys. ages 11 to on The Berlin 20 who commit homicide, murder the man who was abusing their mother. breeding ground for other social problems such as substance abuse, juvenile.

delinquency, and tucker, violent crimes of Essay on The Berlin Wall, all types. The all important family unit is. the centre of social universe. All other institutions revolve around it. If. the sun were to blow up the entire galaxy would go with it. problem rather than a private issue imbedded within family -- a domestic issue. which can be easily ignored. It must receive appropriate attention from the.

various institutions within our society as an issue affecting the tucker combat car, overall. standard of living. It is not only a women's issue, but also a problem that.