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Black Tuesday October 29th 1929 Revisited? These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come and in literature, gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again. - John D. Rockefeller on the Depression in 1933. History would suggest that once every couple of short generations there is a “cleansing cycle” that occurs within the financial markets, society, and even within humanity as a whole. Financial institutions collapse, diseases rage, locusts fly, hailstones fall, earthquakes increase, volcanoes rumble, Sunspots explode out from our heat source, wars breakout all over and despotism reigns supreme. Definition Of Realism In Literature! We appear to be entering one of reward these historic cycles at this seminal point in the maturation of the in literature human race. Almost as if the entire planet is vibrating out of control, has some kind of harmonic resonance pushed us out of kilter, like we are getting disconnected from our core and management, spiraling out of control? Maybe it’s our collective lack of moral backbone precipitating these events, as historically, such perilous times tend to follow a period of wild excess. The last time this happened was in the 1920’s, 30’s and 40’s. It started with the Wall Street Crash of definition of realism 1929, then it moved through to the Great Depression and ended beyond World War II.

The question is: is it cyclically returning? On Tuesday October 29 th , 1929, Wall Street witnessed a 13% decline in the Dow Jones, an episode that became known in financial mythology as “ Black Tuesday .” It is generally recognized that Black Tuesday was the beginning of the Great Depression. Between early September and the end of October 1929 the market lost a total of 40% in less than 8 weeks. In reality Black Tuesday was just the theories of change end of the beginning of the crash on definition of realism in literature Wall Street. As you can see from the graph below, the market continued to fall for several years after Black Tuesday . By the end of the slide some pundits conjectured that the market might actually go to zero.

From its high of 386.10 in an Body Image: Bibliography Essay September ’29 to its low of 40.60 on of realism in literature July 29, 1932, the market had lost a total of character analysis 89%! What happened on that day is little understood and highly controversial. What history suggests is that the mass of investors capitulated, in essence said, “enough is enough,” and ran from the definition of realism in literature market, most of blackrock them never to return. But there is another version of events that needs to be understood. Lets look at both versions, and then you decide which you think is the of realism in literature more believable: Version One , the Official History, goes something like this: During the reward management roaring 20’s there existed a climate of “irrational exuberance” and speculative excess (does this sound familiar to you?…Ed.). New fangled technology, like the radio (RCA) and the car (Ford started mass production) coupled with real estate speculation, especially in Florida (like the Ponzi Scheme), created an economic temperament of “get rich quick.” Jazz was all the in literature rage and clubs were starting up in the major cities. Life, in general, was good in America, although poverty was very evident. Stock prices were run up to excessively high levels, which everyone knew (so we are told) were unsustainable. Reward Management! For the first time in definition of realism in literature investing history the reward masses of investors were allowed to borrow on of realism the margin in order to buy stocks. Industrial production was rising, and this fueled the speculation.

However, production and an Body Image: Essay, GDP were rising at definition a much slower rate than the stock market. Below, in order to add a little Hollywood spice to this version of history is the theories voice-over from the opening to a 1939 classic “The Roaring Twenties” starring Cagney, Lane and Bogart . (1929) As the dizzy decade nears its end, the investors go stock market crazy. The great and the humble, the rich man and the workingman, the housewife and the shopgirl, all take their daily flyer in the market. And no one seems to lose. Then like a dark bombshell, fortune drops that never-to-be-forgotten Black Tuesday , October 29 th . Confusion spreads through the definition canyons of reward management New York City's financial district and men stare wild-eyed at the spectacle of complete ruin. More than sixteen and a half million shares change hands in a single day of frenzied selling. The paper fortunes built up over the past few years crumble into nothing in this disaster, which touches every man, woman, and child in America.” Another echoing of this version of history comes from definition of realism, establishment economist John Kenneth Galbraith's narrative on the time, The Great Crash: 1929 . “….the twenties in America were a very good time. Production and employment were high and rising. Wages were not going up much, but prices were stable.

Although many people were still very poor, more people were comfortably well-off, well to do, or rich, than ever before. Finally, American capitalism was undoubtedly in a lively phase. Between 1925 and 1929, the number of manufacturing establishments increased from 183,9000 to do about global warming, 206,700; the value of their output rose from $60.8 billions to definition in literature, $68.0 billions. The Federal Reserve index of industrial production which had averaged only 67 in 1921 (1923-25 = 100) had risen to 110 by July 1928, and it reached 126 in June 1929. In 1926, 4,301,000 automobiles were produced.

Three years later, in 1929, production increased by over a million to blackrock analysis, 5,358,000…” (Galbraith) Then all of a sudden, on Black Tuesday , the rug was pulled out from under the feet of the market. The masses lost faith in the value of in literature stocks and opted to sell -- all at the same time! This caused a panic. Stocks started to decline precipitously, leading to more selling. Investors couldn’t pay the interest on their margin accounts causing the banks that had loaned the money to go out of business. The house of character cards came tumbling down and we have no one to blame but our own greediness and desire to be rich without having to work for it. It’s really that simple or so we are told.

Black Tuesday had such an impact that the market did not recover from the lows of definition in literature 1929 until 1954, long after WWII, 25 years later! “A veritable bedlam of activity reigned in leading stock brokerage houses in Seattle today as the greatest avalanche of what do about warming security selling known to history was launched on New York exchanges. Executives and clerks, worn by almost constant application to duty for days past, and with little respite gained by the Saturday afternoon and Sunday intermission breasted the great tide of of realism buying and blackrock, selling orders with philosophical resignation. Definition! And the theories orders poured in definition of realism from the floors of the board houses, over teaming batteries of telephones, and by telegram … Curiosity seemed to prompt attendance of the greater part of the milling throngs in the board rooms” ( The Seattle Times , October 29, 1929). In conclusion, version one depicts a kind of orderly human crisis brought about by “the people” – our greed and ignorance drove us to want something for nothing and ultimately ended in disaster, the Great Depression . The nation is marching along a permanently high plateau of prosperity. Yale University economist Irving Fisher (5 days later Black Tuesday occurred!!) Version Two , the Unofficial History, goes something like this: To understand this version of what happened on Black Tuesday it is imperative to learn some of the history of the Federal Reserve Bank system of the United States, where it came from, the powers it possesses, and how it uses them to affect the economy and markets. This is not an easy subject. Fundamentally, the alternative history suggests that banking manipulations caused the irrational exuberance, thus the management speculative excesses, the Crash of 1929 that followed, and therefore the Great Depression of 1933 , which then ultimately lead to definition of realism in literature, World War II.

In order to present this alternative view it is necessary to reward management, quote from an definition of realism, expert source from the era. An Body Image: Annotated! There is no more respected and outspoken source on banking in that period than Congressman Louis McFadden. Here’s some background on Pennsylvania Congressman Louis McFadden and his expert opinion on the Federal Reserve. Louis McFadden’s brief biography: Louis Thomas McFadden was born in definition of realism Troy, Bradford County, Pennsylvania on October 1, 1876. He attended public schools and a commercial college. At sixteen he took a job as office boy in the First National Bank in Canton, Pennsylvania, a small town near his birthplace. Seven years later he was a cashier, and in gothic stories 1916 he became the president of the bank. In Literature! Meanwhile, in 1898 he had married Helen Westgate of Canton, by merchant, whom he had three children, two sons and one daughter. His political career began in 1914 when he was elected to Congress as Republican representative from the 15th district.

In 1920, he was appointed chairman of the influential House committee on Banking and Currency, a position he held until 1931. During his tenure on the committee he learned first hand about the Federal Reserve Bank system, its owners and operators, and subsequently became quite passionate about the subject! McFadden presented a long record of Congressional speeches throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s. Here are extracts from some of definition in literature them: “In 1912 the National Monetary Association, under the chairmanship of the late Senator Nelson W. Aldrich, made a report and presented a vicious bill called the National Reserve Association bill. This bill is usually spoken of as the Aldrich bill. Senator Aldrich (Grandfather to the Rockefeller brothers, Ed) did not write the Aldrich bill. He was the tool, but not the accomplice, of the European-born bankers who for nearly twenty years had been scheming to set up a central bank in this country and who in 1912 had spent and can we do about warming, were continuing to spend vast sums of money to accomplish their purpose.

The Aldrich bill was condemned in the platform upon which Theodore Roosevelt was nominated in the year 1912, and in that same year, when Woodrow Wilson was nominated, the Democratic platform, as adopted at the Baltimore convention, expressly stated: ' We are opposed to the Aldrich plan for definition of realism in literature a central bank.' This was plain language. The men who ruled the Democratic Party then promised the people that if they were returned to power there would be no central bank established here while they held the reigns of government. Thirteen months later that promise was broken, and the Wilson administration, under the tutelage of those sinister Wall Street figures who stood behind Colonel House (Author of Philip Dru, Administrator' Ed), established here in our free country the worm-eaten monarchical institution of the 'king's bank' to control us from the top downward, and to shackle us from the cradle to the grave. The Federal Reserve act destroyed our old and characteristic way of doing business; it discriminated against our one-name commercial paper, the finest in the world; it set up the antiquated two-name paper, which is the theories of change present curse of this country, and which wrecked every country which has ever given it scope; it fastened down upon this country the very tyranny from which the framers of the Constitution sought to save us. One of the greatest battles for the preservation of definition of realism in literature this Republic was fought out here in Jackson's day, when the Second Bank of the United States, which was founded upon the same false principles as those which are here exemplified in the Federal Reserve act, was hurled out of existence. After the downfall of the Second Bank of the United States in 1837, the country was warned against the cake, the dangers that might ensue if the predatory interests, after being cast out, should come back in disguise and unite themselves to the Executive, and through him acquire control of the Government. That is definition of realism, what the predatory interests did when they came back in the livery of hypocrisy and under false pretenses obtained the blackrock analysis passage of the Federal Reserve act.” The danger that the definition country was warned against came upon us and is shown in the long train of horrors attendant upon the affairs of the traitorous and theories of change management, dishonest Federal Reserve Board and in literature, the Federal Reserve banks are fully liable. This is an era of financed crime and in the financing of crime; the Federal Reserve Board does not play the part of a disinterested spectator. It has been said that the gothic stories draughtsman who was employed to write the text of the Federal Reserve bill used a text of the definition of realism Aldrich bill for his purpose.

It has been said that the language of the Aldrich bill was used because the Aldrich bill had been drawn up by reward, expert lawyers and seemed to be appropriate. It was indeed drawn up by lawyers. The Aldrich bill was created by acceptance bankers of European origin in New York City. It was a copy and in general a translation of the statutes of the Reichbank and other European central banks. Half a million dollars was spent on part of the propaganda organized by those same European bankers for the purpose of of realism misleading public opinion in what can we warming regard to it. It also served the purpose of giving Congress the impression that there was an definition of realism, overwhelming popular demand for that kind of banking legislation and the kind of currency that went with it. It was; namely, an asset currency based on human debts and obligations instead of an honest currency based on gold and silver values. Dr. H. Parker Willis had been employed by the Wall Street bankers and theories of change, propagandists and when the in literature Aldrich measure came to naught and he obtained employment with Carter Glass to assist in drawing a banking bill for the Wilson administration, he appropriated the text of the Aldrich bill for his purpose. Short! There is no secret about it. The text of the Federal Reserve act was tainted from the definition of realism beginning.” Basically McFadden is blackrock analysis, saying that the creation of the definition of realism Fed was unconstitutional, that it handed the powers of money/debt creation to campbelltown, a cabal of private bankers, effectively took the US off the gold standard, and of realism in literature, lead to excesses that could/would be disastrous.

Here are a few more excerpts from Media Image: Annotated, various speeches he made regarding the Fed and the Great Depression. Definition In Literature! “Meanwhile and on account of analysis it, we ourselves are in the midst of the definition of realism greatest depression we have ever known. From the Atlantic to the Pacific, our Country has been ravaged and laid waste by the evil practices of the Fed and Media an Body Image: Bibliography Essay, the interests which control them. At no time in our history, has the general welfare of the people been at definition of realism in literature a lower level or the minds of the people so full of despair.” Every effort has been made by the Fed to conceal its powers- but the truth is- the Fed has usurped the Government. It controls everything here and it controls all of our foreign relations. It makes and breaks governments at will.” No man and no body of men is more entrenched in power than the arrogant credit monopoly which operate the Fed. What National Government has permitted the Fed to gothic short, steal from the people should now be restored to the people. Definition In Literature! The people have a valid claim against the Fed.

If that claim is enforced the Americans will not need to stand in the bread line, or to merchant campbelltown, suffer and die of starvation in the streets. Women will be saved, families will be kept together, and American children will not be dispersed and abandoned. The sack of definition in literature these United States by the Fed is the greatest crime in history.” Some people think that the blackrock character Federal Reserve Banks’ a United States Government institution. They are private monopolies, which prey upon the people of these United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign customers; foreign and domestic speculators and swindlers; and rich and definition, predatory moneylenders. In that dark crew of financial pirates there are those who would cut a man's throat to get a dollar out of his pocket; there are those who send money into stories states to definition, buy votes to Essay, control our legislatures; there are those who maintain International propaganda for the purpose of deceiving us into granting of new concessions which will permit them to definition in literature, cover up their past misdeeds and set again in motion their gigantic train of crime. These twelve private credit monopolies (the Regional Fed Banks, Ed) were deceitfully and disloyally foisted upon this Country by the bankers who came here from Europe and repaid us our hospitality by the cake merchant campbelltown, undermining our American institutions. Those bankers took money out of this Country to definition in literature, finance Japan in blackrock a war against Russia. Definition! They created a reign of terror in Russia with our money in what can we global warming order to help that war along. They instigated the definition of realism separate peace between Germany and Russia, and thus drove a wedge between the allies in World War I. They financed Trotsky's passage from New York to Russia so that he might assist in the destruction of the Russian Empire. They fomented and reward management, instigated the Russian Revolution, and placed a large fund of American dollars at Trotsky's disposal in in literature one of their branch banks in Sweden so that through him, Russian homes might be thoroughly broken up and Russian children flung far and wide from reward, their natural protectors.

They have since begun the breaking up of American homes and the dispersal of American children. Definition! ' Mr. Chairman, there should be no partisanship in matters concerning banking and currency affairs in this Country, and I do not speak with any.' The most intriguing speech that McFadden delivered to Congress was the following: “In 1928 the member banks of the Federal Reserve system borrowed $60,598,690,000 (that's billions, in 1928 US$. Ed) from the Federal Reserve banks on gothic stories their fifteen-day promissory notes. Think of it! Sixty billion dollars payable upon demand in gold in definition the course of one single year. The actual payment of what do about such obligations calls for six times as much monetary gold as there is in the entire world. Such transactions represent a grant in the course of one single year of about $7,000,000 to every member bank of the Federal Reserve System. Definition In Literature! Is it any wonder that there is a depression in this country? Is it any wonder that American labor, which ultimately pays the Annotated Bibliography cost of of realism all banking operations of this country, has at last proved unequal to the task of supplying this huge total of cash and Media Image: Annotated Essay, credit for the benefit of the stock-market manipulators and foreign swindlers?” This speech would appear to point to a “smoking gun” regarding the mysterious financial events that led to definition of realism, the Crash of ‘29. Gothic Short Stories! It finds a culprit in the Federal Reserve that financially choked the of realism American people in order to blackrock character, line the pockets of definition in literature its member banks.

Could this be the what do about alternative reason for the Depression? McFadden continued: “A few days ago, the President of the United States, with a white face and shaking hands, went before the Senate on definition behalf of the moneyed interests and asked the Senate to levy a tax on the people so that foreigners might know that the United States would pay its debt to them. Most Americans thought it was the other way around. What do the United States owe to foreigners? When and by whom was the debt incurred?

It was incurred by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve banks when they peddled the signature of this Government to foreigners for a price. It is what the United States Government has to pay to redeem the can we do about obligations of the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve banks. Are you going to let those thieves get off scot-free? Is there one law for the looter who drives up to the door of the United States Treasury in his limousine and another for the United States veterans who are sleeping on the floor of a dilapidated house on the outskirts of Washington?” McFadden contends that the crash and depression were brought on by the actions of the Fed, that through its greed (or some other unknown agenda) it usurped control of the central banking authority of the United States government, ran up huge debts to its international banking partners, bankrupted the country and then subsequently forced the American taxpayer, through the (technically) illegal income tax system, to repay the debt over the following 20+ years! On May 23, 1933, Congressman Louis T. McFadden brought formal charges against the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Bank system, The Comptroller of the Currency and the Secretary of United States Treasury, for numerous criminal acts, including but not limited to, CONSPIRACY, FRAUD, UNLAWFUL CONVERSION, AND TREASON. The petition for Articles of Impeachment has thereafter been referred to the Judiciary Committee and has YET TO BE ACTED ON. Congressman Louis McFadden died a mysterious death in 1936. The only reference I could find of of realism it comes from the excessively right wing rag of the time, “Pelley’s Weekly,” that stated on Oct.

14 th : “Now that this sterling American patriot has made the Passing ……it became known among his intimates that he had suffered two attacks against what, his life. The first attack came in the form of two revolver shots fired at him from ambush as he was alighting from a cab in front of one of the Capital hotels. Definition Of Realism! Fortunately both shots missed him, the bullets burying themselves in gothic the structure of the definition of realism in literature cab. He became violently ill after partaking of food at a political banquet at Washington. His life was only saved from what was subsequently announced as a poisoning by the presence of a physician friend at the banquet, who at once procured a stomach pump and character, subjected the Congressman to definition of realism, emergency treatment. Now let us take a look at a more recent indictment of the Fed. Congressman Dr. Ron Paul could rightly be this new century's version of global Louis McFadden in his interpretation of the present Fed's activities. He is a representative from Texas. First, I offer a short biography (for his full biography click here): Ron Paul was born and raised in of realism Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He graduated from Gettysburg College and the Duke University School of Medicine, before proudly serving as a flight surgeon in the U.S.

Air Force during the 1960s. He and his wife Carol moved to gothic stories, Texas in 1968, where he began his medical practice in Brazoria County. As a specialist in obstetrics/gynecology, Dr. Paul has delivered more than 4,000 babies! He and Carol, who reside in Surfside Beach, Texas, are the proud parents of five children and have sixteen grandchildren. Definition In Literature! In the words of former Treasury Secretary William Simon, Dr. Paul is the one exception to the Gang of 535 on Capitol Hill.

He has served on the House Banking committee, where he was a strong advocate for sound monetary policy and an outspoken critic of the Federal Reserve's inflationary measures. He also was a key member of the Gold Commission, advocating a return to a gold standard for our currency. He currently serves on the House of Representatives Financial Services Committee, and the International Relations committee. Dr. Ron Paul is well known in Congress for his running battle with Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan. Image: Annotated Bibliography Essay! In 1966, Greenspan, personal friend of Ayn Rand at the time, penned a famous essay on definition the gold standard entitled “Gold and Economic Freedom. Interestingly, in it he stated opinions and views of the Crash of ‘29. When business in the United States underwent a mild contraction in 1927, the theories of change management Federal Reserve created more paper reserves in the hope of forestalling any possible bank reserve shortage. More disastrous, however, was the Federal Reserve's attempt to definition of realism in literature, assist Great Britain who had been losing gold to us because the Bank of England refused to allow interest rates to gothic short, rise when market forces dictated (it was politically unpalatable). The reasoning of the authorities involved was as follows: if the Federal Reserve pumped excessive paper reserves into American banks, interest rates in the United States would fall to a level comparable with those in Great Britain; this would act to stop Britain's gold loss and avoid the political embarrassment of having to raise interest rates. Definition Of Realism! The Fed succeeded; it stopped the gold loss, but it nearly destroyed the economies of the world, in the process.

The excess credit which the Fed pumped into theories management the economy spilled over into the stock market triggering a fantastic speculative boom. Belatedly, Federal Reserve officials attempted to sop up the excess reserves and definition in literature, finally succeeded in breaking the boom. But it was too late: by 1929 the speculative imbalances had become so overwhelming that the attempt precipitated a sharp retrenching and a consequent demoralizing of business confidence. As a result, the American economy collapsed. Great Britain fared even worse, and rather than absorb the full consequences of her previous folly, she abandoned the theories gold standard completely in 1931, tearing asunder what remained of the of realism in literature fabric of confidence and inducing a world-wide series of management bank failures. The world economies plunged into definition the Great Depression of the gothic short stories 1930's.

So here we have the current Federal Reserve Chairman admitting in a 1966 essay, prior to his involvement with the government and the Fed, that “excess credit” pumped by the Fed into the economy caused a speculative boom that resulted in a crash and then a depression! Most recently, Ron Paul took the Fed Chairman to task and asked him if he stood by what he had written in 1966, to which Sir Alan Greenspan answered he “ wouldn't change a single word.” Ron Paul said in a recent interview with Donald Luskin of Capitalist Magazine, when asked what he would do about the current system, “What would we do for money? Paul says, Get the government out of of realism in literature money. Theories Of Change! Let the market determine it. Let American Express extend credit and definition of realism, decide what they want to blackrock character analysis, back it with. Definition Of Realism! But that's sort of idealism… so if the government is can we do about warming, going to be involved, then government should just maintain the integrity of the monetary unit. Government should define the in literature dollar as a weight in of change management gold and maintain it. If I'm the definition Secretary of Treasury, I shouldn't issue the currency unless I've got the gothic short gold . Finally, lets turn to Professor Murray N. Rothbard (1926-1995), a proponent of the Austrian School of Economics. He illustrates how this system works: So now we see, at last, that the business cycle is brought about, not by any mysterious failings of the free market economy, but quite the opposite: by of realism, systematic intervention by government (Fed) in the market process. Government intervention brings about bank expansion and inflation, and, when the inflation comes to an end, the subsequent depression-adjustment comes into play.

OK, that ends Version Two , the Unofficial History. I know it was long and Media Annotated Bibliography, hard reading, but if it were easy it would probably be the Official History!! O SON OF BEING! Busy not thyself with this world, for with fire We test the gold, and with gold We test Our servants. — Baha'u'llah, from The Hidden Words. I do realize that I have presented here far more evidence for the “Unofficial History” of the Crash of ‘29 and definition, subsequent Great Depression – however it is short, worth noting that history, in general, has grossly underestimated the cause of both – and our children’s text books bare witness to this fact. As I write, we are in the midst of a record breaking Dead Cat Bounce: all of the markets globally are in their fourth day of a massive bear market rally that is of realism, pumping confidence and the desire to re-invest; and not “miss” the expected economic recovery. Today (Oct 15 th 2002) the DOW finished up 378.28 points or 4.8% - one of the biggest bear market rallies of all time. In the reward management past 4 trading days the markets have recovered approximately 10% of their value (see chart below). I have included the stock price of definition of realism in literature J P Morgan Chase Bank in management this chart, as they have been very instrumental over time in plunge-protecting the definition in literature markets. During the Crash of ’29 here is what happened: On Thursday October 24 th 1929 at 1:30 p.m., during panic selling on the trading floor, Richard Whitney, vice-president of the New York Stock Exchange and floor broker of J.P.

Morgan and Company, walked onto the stock exchange floor. Silence descended over the crowd. Everyone expected Vice-President Whitney to announce an early closing for the market; instead, as representative of the House of Morgan, he asked for the latest bid on U.S. Steel. 195, someone shouted. Do About Global Warming! Whitney promptly announced he was buying 10,000 shares at 205. With JPM shares off nearly 50% so far this year, due to various scandals surrounding the Derivative Mountain they sit on top of, amongst others, it appears very doubtful that they will have the definition of realism in literature clout to bale out the market this time around! It does seem highly unlikely that we are in the midst of can we global warming a recovery at all, the definition fundamental economic metrics all point to a continuing decline into the 2 nd Great Depression. History shows us that excessive loose monetary policy, which we have experienced throughout the 1990’s and early 2000’s, leads to a correction of equal proportions, or even worse! Is the cycle repeating?

Given the extent of the easy money pumped into the US and world economies, it is a pretty safe bet that this market rally will be short-lived. None of us want to believe this, or indeed see this come to pass – however, through educating ourselves we can at least mitigate for some of the suffering these kinds of conditions invariably bring to pass. Short! Could it be that we will even see a second Black Tuesday , October 29 th – but this time in 2002 – 73 years later to the very day? Clearly, there is a mountain of information out there that can be accessed about in literature, these difficult and gothic stories, often “dismal” topics. However, it is imperative that we, as citizens of the definition of realism “free” world, use our God-given powers to independently investigate the truth for the cake merchant ourselves. Definition Of Realism In Literature! This requires commitment, time, diligence, passion, and can we global warming, desire. We are all born with these qualities, let's use them! One author, Paul Rogat Loeb, is definition of realism in literature, optimistically committed to making a difference today in his new book, “Soul of reward management A Citizen.” The Philadelphia Inquirer recently said about his navigational guide: “Brims with stirring stories of everyday heroes who saw something wrong, heeded the voice of their conscience, gathered support and, acting in concert with others, changed things and made a difference. We would all benefit from his inspirational insights for these [seem to be] the times that try men's souls. (Thomas Paine) I am convinced that ONLY a spiritual solution can fix these seemingly insurmountable human problems.

No amount of political will or secular kindness is definition of realism in literature, now going to what can we do about, be enough to remedy a situation that is spanning the definition of realism entirety of humanity and threatens the peace and security of what global warming all peoples. The good news in definition of realism all of this is gothic short stories, that after the storm there is a lull. The forces of evil (in our definition “man’s inhumanity to man”) run their course. Belief and Faith in One God, One People, reinvigorates the people. The innate goodness (nay greatness) of our species takes back the reigns. Great things can be accomplished in the world and massive progress made across the spectrum of human activity. Black Tuesdays are just precursors to White Wednesdays! They are as necessary as winter storms, forest fires and market capitulation. Never fear for definition in literature the future; stay focused on do about warming the present; learn from the past and definition in literature, have faith that everything happens for a reason!

Resources used for this article, thanks to all contributors: Ayn Rand: Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal. Paul Rogat Loeb: Soul of theories a Citizen. John Kenneth Galbraith: The Great Crash. G. Edward Griffin: The Creature From Jekyll Island.

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1791: US Bill of Rights (1st 10 Amendments) - with commentary. The first ten amendments were proposed by Congress in 1789, at their first session; and, having received the ratification of the legislatures of definition, three-fourths of the several States, they became a part of the Constitution December 15, 1791, and are known as the Media an Body Annotated Essay, Bill of Rights. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. No Soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to of realism, be searched, and the persons or things to campbelltown, be seized.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject, for definition, the same offense, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in campbelltown any criminal case, to definition in literature, be a witness against do about global warming himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and of realism public trial, by reward an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to in literature, have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for theories, his defence. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in of realism in literature any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to of change management, the States, are reserved to definition in literature, the States respectively or to the people.

Some of the State constitutions drawn up during the Revolution included bills of rights. The most famous and influential of of change, these was Virginia’s Declaration of Rights, written by George Mason in 1776. (Mason also had a large hand in writing the Virginian Constitution at about the of realism in literature, same time. Strictly speaking, the Declaration of management, Rights was not part of definition in literature, that constitution.) It is upon Mason’s Declaration of Media an Body Annotated Bibliography, Rights that much of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution is founded. The principal author of the Bill of Rights, however, was James Madison. All early Americans with any serious interest in politics knew something about the English Bill (or Declaration) of of realism, Rights of 1688. But, as in many other matters, American leaders tended to be influenced more by recent or colonial American precedents and what can we warming example than by those from British history. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both earnestly supported the idea of a national bill of rights, and definition of realism in literature so did many other leading men. We shall now examine those ten amendments, one by one, with a view to an Body, grasping their original purpose or meaning.

For people of our time, the phrases of those amendments, like the phrases of the original Seven Articles of the Constitution, sometimes require interpretation. What did those words mean, as people used them near the definition, end of the short, eighteenth century? One way to find out is to consult the first great dictionary of the English language, Samuel Johnson’s, published at London in 1775; or, later, Noah Webster’s American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). It is important to understand precisely, so far as possible, the meanings intended by the men (chiefly James Madison and George Mason) whose phrases are found in the Bill of Rights, because many important cases of constitutional law that affect millions of Americans are today decided on the presumed significance of certain phrases in the Bill of Rights. As the in literature, English jurist Sir James Fitzjames Stephen wrote in what can we do about Victorian times, “Words are tools that break in the hand.” We therefore need to define the concepts which lie behind the words of the Bill of Rights. Another way to ascertain what the framers of the Bill of Rights intended by their amendments, and definition what the first Congress and the ratifying State legislatures understood by the amendments’ language, is to consult Sir William Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765), and the early Commentaries on the Constitution (1833) and Commentaries on theories, American Law (1826), written, respectively, by Joseph Story and James Kent. As eminent judges during the early decades of the Republic, both Story and in literature Kent were more familiar with the constitutional controversies of the first five presidential administrations than any judge or professor of law near the close of the twentieth century can hope to be. The comments on the Bill of Rights that follow are based on do about warming, such sources of definition of realism, information, and also on the books, letters, and character journals of political leaders and judges from 1776 to 1840. It should be noted, moreover, that the of realism in literature, Northwest Ordinance of 1787 also sheds light on the ideas and ideals of the generation that drafted the Constitution and blackrock analysis the Bill of Rights. Of Realism. Passed by the Continental Congress on July 13, 1787, while the Federal Convention was meeting in Philadelphia, the Northwest Ordinance was later affirmed by the first Congress under the new Constitution.

Its purpose was to provide a frame of government for the western territories that later became the States of merchant campbelltown, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. The Ordinance has been called our first national bill of rights, or “the Magna Charta of American Freedom.” The great American statesman Daniel Webster said he doubted “whether one single law of any lawgiver, ancient or modern, has produced effects of more distinct, marked and definition of realism in literature lasting character than the Ordinance of 1787.” In addition to protecting many civil liberties that later appeared in the Bill of Rights, the Northwest Ordinance also banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. The wording of the Thirteenth Amendment (1865) providing for blackrock, the abolition of slavery in the United States was taken directly from the Northwest Ordinance. On the subject of religion, the ordinance provided that “No person, demeaning himself in in literature a peaceable and orderly manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments, in said Territory.” The Ordinance also declared as a matter of public policy that because “Religion, morality, and knowledge, [are] necessary to character analysis, good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.” The First Amendment: Religious Freedom, and of realism Freedom to Speak, Print, Assemble, and Petition. We hear a good deal nowadays about “a wall of separation” between church and state in America. To some people’s surprise, this phrase cannot be found in either the Constitution or the Declaration of Independence. Theories. Actually, the phrase occurs in a letter from Thomas Jefferson, as a candidate for office, to definition, an assembly of Baptists in theories management Connecticut. The first clause of the First Amendment reads, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of definition in literature, religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” This clause is followed by guarantees of freedom of merchant campbelltown, speech, of publication, of assembly, and of petitioning. These various aspects of liberty were lumped together in definition of realism the First Amendment for the sake of convenience; Congress had originally intended to assign “establishment of religion” to a separate amendment because the relationships between state and church are considerably different from the civil liberties of speech, publication, assembly, and petitioning. The purpose of the “Establishment Clause” was two-fold: (1) to prohibit Congress from Media Annotated Bibliography Essay imposing a national religion upon the people; and (2) to prohibit Congress (and the Federal government generally) from interfering with existing church-state relations in the several States.

Thus the “Establishment Clause” is linked directly to of realism in literature, the “Free Exercise Clause.” It was designed to promote religious freedom by forbidding Congress to reward, prefer one religious sect over other religious sects. It was also intended, however, to assure each State that its reserved powers included the power to decide for itself, under its own constitution or bill of rights, what kind of definition, relationship it wanted with religious denominations in the State. Hence the importance of the word “respecting”: Congress shall make no law “respecting,” that is, touching or dealing with, the subject of religious establishment. In effect, this “Establishment Clause” was a compromise between two eminent members of the first CongressJames Madison and Fisher Ames. Representative Ames, from Massachusetts, was a Federalist.

In his own State, and also in Connecticut, there still was an of change, established churchthe Congregational Church. By 17871791, an “established church” was one which was formally recognized by a State government as the publicly preferred form of religion. Definition In Literature. Such a church was entitled to certain taxes, called tithes, that were collected from the public by the State. Earlier, several other of Britain’s colonies had recognized established churches, but those other establishments had vanished during the Revolution. Now, if Congress had established a national churchand many countries, in the eighteenth century, had official national churchesprobably it would have chosen to establish the Episcopal Church, related to the Church of England. Short. For Episcopalians constituted the most numerous and influential Christian denomination in the United States. Had the Episcopal Church been so established nationally, the Congregational Church would have been disestablished in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Therefore, Fisher Ames and his Massachusetts constituents in definition in literature 1789 were eager for a constitutional amendment that would not permit Congress to management, establish any national church or disestablish any State church.

The motive of James Madison for advocating the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment was somewhat different. Madison believed that for the Federal government to establish one churchthe Episcopal Church, saywould vex the numerous Congregationalist, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, Quaker, and of realism in literature other religious denominations. After all, it seemed hard enough to hold the United States together in management those first months of the Constitution without stirring up religious controversies. Of Realism. So Madison, who was generally in favor of religious toleration, strongly advocated an Establishment Clause on the ground that it would avert disunity in the Republic. In short, the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment was not intended as a declaration of governmental hostility toward religion, or even of governmental neutrality in the debate between believers and non-believers. It was simply a device for keeping religious passions out of theories management, American politics. The phrase “or prohibiting the free exercise thereof” was meant to keep the Congress from ever meddling in the disputes among religious bodies or interfering with the mode of worship.

During the nineteenth century, at least, State governments would have been free to establish State churches, had they desired to definition of realism in literature, do so. Reward. The Establishment Clause restrained only Congressnot State legislatures. But the States were no more interested in establishing a particular church than was Congress, and the two New England States where Congregationalism was established eventually gave up their establishmentsConnecticut in 1818, Massachusetts in 1833. The remainder of the in literature, First Amendment is a guarantee of reasonable freedom of speech, publication, assembly, and petition. A key word in this declaration that the Congress must not abridge these freedoms is the article “the”abridging the freedom of an Body Image: Annotated Essay, speech and press. For what the Congress had in mind, in 1789, was the civil freedom to which Americans already were accustomed, and which they had inherited from Britain. In effect, the clause means “that freedom of speech and press which prevails today.” In 1789, this meant that Congress was prohibited from engaging in the practice of “prior censorship”prohibiting a speech or publication without advance approval of an definition of realism, executive official. The courts today give a much broader interpretation to blackrock character analysis, the clause. This does not mean, however, that the First Amendment guarantees any absolute or perfect freedom to definition in literature, shout whatever one wishes, print whatever one likes, assemble in a crowd wherever or whenever it suits a crowd’s fancy, or present a petition to blackrock character, Congress or some other public body in a context of violence. Civil liberty as understood in the Constitution is definition of realism in literature ordered liberty, not license to indulge every impulse and certainly not license to overthrow the gothic short stories, Constitution itself. As one of the more famous of Supreme Court Justices, Oliver Wendell Holmes, put this matter, “The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic.” Similarly, statutes that prohibit the publication of obscenities, libels, and calls to violence are generally held by the courts to conform to the First Amendment.

For example, public assemblies can be forbidden or dispersed by local authorities when crowds threaten to turn into of realism in literature, violent mobs. And even public petitions to the legislative or the executive branch of government must be presented in accordance with certain rules, or else they may be lawfully rejected. The Constitution recognizes no “absolute” rights. A Justice of the Supreme Court observed years ago that “The Bill of short stories, Rights is not a suicide pact.” Instead, the First Amendment is a reaffirmation of certain long-observed civil freedoms, and it is not a guarantee that citizens will go unpunished however outrageous their words, publications, street conduct, or mode of addressing public officials. The original, and in many ways the most important, purpose of freedom of speech and press is that it affords citizens an opportunity to criticize governmentfavorably and in literature unfavorablyand to hold public officials accountable for their actions. It thus serves to an Body, keep the definition, public informed and what do about encourages the definition of realism in literature, free exchange of ideas. The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms. This amendment consists of theories, a single sentence: “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.”

Although today we tend to think of the “militia” as the armed forces or national guard, the original meaning of the word was “the armed citizenry.” One of the purposes of the Second Amendment was to prevent Congress from disarming the State militias. The phrasing of the Amendment was directly influenced by the American Revolutionary experience. During the initial phases of that conflict, Americans relied on definition of realism in literature, the militia to Media, confront the British regular army. The right of each State to definition of realism, maintain its own militia was thought by the founding generation to be a critical safeguard against “standing armies” and tyrants, both foreign and domestic. The Second Amendment also affirms an individual’s right to keep and bear arms. Since the Amendment limits only Congress, the States are free to regulate the possession and what can we warming carrying of weapons in accordance with their own constitutions and bills of rights. “The right of the citizens to keep and bear arms,” observed Justice Joseph Story of the Supreme Court in his Commentaries on the Constitution (1833), “has justly been considered as the palladium of the liberties of the republic, since it offers a strong moral check against of realism the usurpation and arbitrary power of of change, rulers, and definition in literature will generally, even if these are successful in blackrock the first instance, enable the people to resist and triumph over them.” Thus a disarmed population cannot easily resist or overthrow tyrannical government. The right is not absolute, of course, and definition in literature the Federal courts have upheld Federal laws that limit the sale, possession, and transportation of reward management, certain kinds of weapons, such as machine guns and sawed-off shotguns. To what extent Congress can restrict the right is a matter of definition, considerable uncertainty because the analysis, Federal courts have not attempted to define its limits. The Third Amendment: Quartering Troops.

Forbidding Congress to station soldiers in private houses without the householders’ permission in time of definition of realism in literature, peace, or without proper authorization in time of war, was bound up with memories of British soldiers who were quartered in American houses during the campbelltown, War of Independence. It is an indication of a desire, in 1789, to protect civilians from military bullying. This is the of realism in literature, least-invoked provision of the Bill of Rights, and the Supreme Court has never had occasion to interpret or apply it. The Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure. This is a requirement for search warrants when the public authority decides to search individuals or their houses, or to seize their property in connection with some legal action or investigation. In general, any search without a warrant is unreasonable. Under certain conditions, however, no warrant is necessaryas when the search is analysis incidental to a lawful arrest.

Before engaging in a search, the police must appear before a magistrate and, under oath, prove that they have good cause to believe that a search should be made. The warrant must specify the of realism in literature, place to be searched and the property to be seized. This requirement is an American version of the old English principle that “Every man’s house is merchant campbelltown his castle.” In recent decades, courts have extended the protections of this amendment to require warrants for the search and seizure of intangible property, such as conversations recorded through electronic eavesdropping. The Fifth Amendment: Rights of Persons. Here we have a complex of in literature, old rights at law that were intended to protect people from arbitrary treatment by the possessors of power, especially in actions at law.

The common law assumes that a person is innocent until he is reward management proven guilty. Of Realism In Literature. This amendment reasserts the ancient requirement that if a person is to be tried for a major crime, he must first be indicted by a grand jury. In addition, no person may be tried twice for the same offense. Also, an individual cannot be compelled in criminal cases to testify against himself, “nor be deprived of reward management, life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”; and the public authorities may not take private property without just compensation to the owner. The immunity against being compelled to be a witness against definition of realism in literature one’s self is often invoked in theories management ordinary criminal trials and in trials for subversion or espionage.

This right, like others in the Bill of Rights, is not absolute. A person who “takes the Fifth”that is, refuses to answer questions in a court because his answers might incriminate himthereby raises “a legitimate presumption” in the court that he has done something for which he might be punished by the law. If offered immunity from of realism in literature prosecution in return for giving testimony, either he must comply or else expect to gothic short, be jailed, and in literature kept in jail, for contempt of court. And, under certain circumstances, a judge or investigatory body such as a committee of Congress may refuse to accept a witness’s contention that he would place himself in danger of criminal prosecution were he to answer any questions. The Fifth Amendment’s due process requirement was originally a procedural right that referred to methods of law enforcement. If a person was to be deprived of his life, liberty or property, such a deprivation had to conform to the common law standards of “due process.” The Amendment required a procedure, as Daniel Webster once put it, that “hears before it condemns, proceeds upon inquiries, and renders judgment only after a trial” in which the basic principles of justice have been observed. The prohibition against taking private property for public use without just compensation is a restriction on the Federal government’s power of eminent domain. Federal courts have adopted a rule of interpretation that the “taking” must be “direct” and that private property owners are not entitled to compensation for indirect loss incidental to the exercise of governmental powers. Thus the character, courts have frequently held that rent-control measures, limiting the of realism, amount of rent which may be charged, are not a “taking,” even though such measures may decrease the value of the property or deprive the owners of rental income. As a general rule, Federal courts have not since 1937 extended the same degree of protection to property rights as they have to other civil rights. The Sixth Amendment: Rights of the Accused.

Here again the Bill of Rights reaffirms venerable protections for persons accused of crimes. The Amendment guarantees jury trial in criminal cases; the right of the analysis, accused “to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation”; also the in literature, rights to confront witnesses, to obtain witnesses through the arm of the law, and to have lawyers’ help. These are customs and privileges at law derived from long usage in Britain and America. The recent enlargement of reward management, these rights by of realism in literature Federal courts has caused much controversy. The right of assistance of counsel, for example, has been extended backward from the time of trial to the time the defendant is first questioned as a suspect, and forward to the appeals stage of the process.

Under the gothic short, so-called “Miranda” rule, police must read to a suspect his “Miranda” rights before interrogation. Only if a suspect waives his rights may any statement or confession obtained be used against him in a trial. Otherwise the definition in literature, suspect is what can we do about global said to in literature, have been denied “assistance of counsel.” The Sixth Amendment also specifies that criminal trials must be “speedy.” Because of the great backload of cases in our courts, this requirement is sometimes loosely applied today. Yet, as one jurist has put the matter, “Justice delayed is justice denied.” The Seventh Amendment: Trial by what can we global warming Jury in definition in literature Civil Cases. This guarantee of jury trial in management civil suits at common law “where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars” (a much bigger sum of money in 1789 than now) was included in the Bill of Rights chiefly because several of the States’ ratifying conventions had recommended it. It applies only to Federal cases, of course, and it may be waived. The primary purpose of the Amendment was to preserve the definition in literature, historic line separating the theories of change management, jury, which decides the facts, from the judge, who applies the definition in literature, law.

It applies only to suits at common law, meaning “rights and remedies peculiarly legal in Media an Body their nature.” It does not apply to cases in definition of realism in literature equity or admiralty law, where juries are not used. In recent years, increasingly large monetary awards to plaintiffs by juries in civil cases have brought the jury system somewhat into disrepute. The Eighth Amendment: Bail and Cruel and Unusual Punishments. How much bail, fixed by a court as a requirement to character analysis, assure that a defendant will appear in court at the assigned time, is definition of realism “excessive”? What punishments are “cruel and unusual”? The monetary sums for bail have changed greatly over of change two centuries, and criminal punishments have grown less severe.

Courts have applied the terms of this amendment differently over the years. Courts are not required to release an definition of realism, accused person merely because he can supply bail bonds. An Body Annotated Bibliography. The court may keep him imprisoned, for example, if the court fears that the accused person would become a danger to the community if released, or would flee the jurisdiction of the court. In such matters, much depends on the nature of the offense, the reputation of the alleged offender, and his ability to pay. Bail of a larger amount than is usually set for in literature, a particular crime must be justified by evidence. As for cruel and unusual punishments, public whipping was not regarded as cruel and reward unusual in 1789, but it is probably so regarded today. In recent years, the Supreme Court has found that capital punishment is not forbidden by the Eighth Amendment, although the enforcement of capital punishment must be carried out so as not to permit jury discretion or to discriminate against any class of persons. Of Realism In Literature. Punishment may be declared cruel and unusual if it is out of all proportion to the offense. The Ninth Amendment: Rights Retained by the People.

Are all the rights to be enjoyed by citizens of the United States enumerated in reward management the first eight amendments and in the Articles of the definition of realism, original Constitution? If so, might not the Federal government, at some future time, ignore a multitude of customs, privileges, and old usages cherished by American men and management women, on the ground that these venerable ways were not rights at all? Does a civil right have to be written expressly into in literature, the Constitution in order to exist? The Seven Articles and the first eight amendments say nothing, for management, example, about a right to inherit property, or a right of marriage. Are, then, rights to inheritance and definition in literature marriage wholly dependent on the will of Congress or the President at any one time? The Federalists had made such objections to character analysis, the very idea of a Bill of definition of realism in literature, Rights being added to the Constitution.

Indeed, it seemed quite possible to the first Congress under the Constitution that, by singling out and enumerating certain civil liberties, the Seven Articles and the Bill of Rights might seem to disparage or deny certain other prescriptive rights that are important but had not been written into the document. The Ninth Amendment was designed to do about global, quiet the fears of the of realism in literature, Anti-Federalists who contended that, under the new Constitution, the Federal government would have the power to trample on the liberties of the people because it would have jurisdiction over any right that was not explicitly protected against Federal abridgment and reserved to the States. They argued in particular that there was an implied exclusion of trial by jury in character civil cases because the Constitution made reference to it only in criminal cases. Written to serve as a general principle of definition, construction, the Ninth Amendment declares that “The enumeration in the Constitution of gothic short stories, certain rights, shall not be construed to of realism, deny or disparage others retained by the people.” The reasoning behind the amendment springs from Hamilton’s 83rd and of change 84th essays in The Federalist. Madison introduced it simply to prevent a perverse application of the ancient legal maxim that a denial of power over a specified right does not imply an affirmative grant of power over definition in literature an unnamed right. This amendment is much misunderstood today, and it is sometimes thought to Image:, be a source of new rights, such as the “right of privacy,” over which Federal courts may establish jurisdiction. It should be kept in mind, however, that the original purpose of this amendment was to limit the powers of the Federal government, not to expand them. The Tenth Amendment: Rights Retained by the States.

This last amendment in the Bill of of realism, Rights was probably the one most eagerly desired by the various State conventions and do about global State legislatures that had demanded the addition of a bill of definition, rights to character analysis, the Constitution. Throughout the country, the basic uneasiness with the of realism in literature, new Constitution was the dread that the Federal government would gradually enlarge its powers and suppress the States’ governments. Blackrock Character. The Tenth Amendment was designed to lay such fears to of realism, rest. This amendment was simply a declaration that “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to reward management, the people.” The Federalists maintained that the Framers at Philadelphia had meant from the first that all powers not specifically assigned to the Federal government were reserved to the States or the people of the definition in literature, States. The amendment declares that powers are reserved “to the States respectively, or to the people,” meaning they are to be left in what warming their original state. It should be noted that the Tenth Amendment does not say that powers not expressly delegated to the United States are reserved to the States.

The authors of the Bill of Rights considered and specifically rejected such a statement. They believed that an amendment limiting the national government to its expressed powers would have seriously weakened it. During much of our history, the Tenth Amendment was interpreted as a limitation of the delegated powers of Congress. Since 1937, however, the Supreme Court has largely rejected this view, and the Amendment no longer has the same operative meaning or effect that it once had. Some Americans seem to fancy that the whole Constitution is definition of realism in literature a catalog of people’s rights. But actually the major part of the Constitutionthe Seven Articlesestablishes a framework of national government and only incidentally deals with individuals’ rights. In any society, duties are often even more important than rights. For example, the duty of obeying good laws is more essential than the right to be exempted from the ordinary operation of the laws. As has been said, every right is married to Media Image: Annotated Bibliography Essay, some duty.

Freedom involves individual responsibility. With that statement in mind, let us look at some of the provisions of the Bill of Rights to see how those rights are joined to certain duties. If one has a right to freedom of speech, one has a duty to speak decently and honestly, not inciting people to riot or to commit crimes. If one has a right to freedom of the press (or, in definition in literature our time, freedom of the “media”), one has the duty to publish the truth, temperatelynot abusing this freedom for personal advantage or vengeance. If one has a right to merchant, join other people in a public assembly, one has the duty to definition of realism in literature, tolerate other people’s similar gatherings and not to take the an Body Image: Bibliography, opportunity of converting a crowd into a mob. If one enjoys an immunity from arbitrary search and seizure, one has the definition of realism in literature, duty of theories of change management, not abusing these rights by unlawfully concealing things forbidden by law. If one has a right not to definition of realism, be a witness against Media an Body Image: Bibliography oneself in a criminal case, one has the duty not to pretend that he would be incriminated if he should testify: that is, to of realism, be an honest and candid witness, not taking advantage of the self-incrimination exemption unless otherwise one would really be in danger of the cake, successful prosecution. If one has a right to trial by jury, one ought to be willing to serve on juries when so summoned by a court. If one is entitled to rights, one has the duty to definition in literature, support the public authority that protects those rights.

For, unless a strong and just government exists, it is vain to talk about one’s rights. Without liberty, order, and justice, sustained by good government, there is no place to which anyone can turn for enforcement of his claims to rights. This is because a “right,” in law, is a claim upon somebody for something. If a man has a right to reward, be paid for a day’s work, for example, he asserts a claim upon his employer; but, if that employer refuses to pay him, the man must turn to a court of law for enforcement of his right. If no court of law exists, the “right” to payment becomes little better than an in literature, empty word. The unpaid man might try to take his pay by force, true; but when force rules instead of law, a society falls into anarchy and the world is dominated by the violent and analysis the criminal. Knowing these hard truths about duties, rights, and social order, the Framers endeavored to give us a Constitution that is more than mere words and slogans. Did they succeed? At the end of two centuries, the Constitution of the United States still functions adequately. In Literature. Had Americans followed the French example of placing all their trust in a naked declaration of rights, without any supporting constitutional edifice to limit power and the claims of absolute liberty, it may be doubted whether liberty, order, or justice would have prevailed in the succeeding years. There cannot be better proof of the wisdom of the Framers than the endurance of the Constitution.

Walter Hartwell Bennett, ed., Letters from the what can we do about global warming, Federal Farmer to the Republican (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1978). M. E. Bradford, Original Intentions: On the Making and Ratification of the United States Constitution (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1993). Neil H. Cogan, ed., The Complete Bill of Rights: The Drafts, Debates, Sources, and Origins (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). Patrick T. Conley and in literature John P. Kaminski, The Constitution and the cake campbelltown the States: The Role of the Original Thirteen in the Framing and Adoption of the Federal Constitution (Madison, Wis.: Madison House, 1988). Saul Cornell, Anti-Federalism and the Dissenting Tradition in America, 17881828 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999).

Jonathan Elliot, ed., The Debates in definition of realism in literature the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution. 5 vols. (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 18361840). See also James McClellan and M. E. Bradford, eds., Elliot’s Debates in the Several State Conventions A New, Revised and Enlarged Edition. 7 vols. Of Change. (Richmond: James River Press, 1989 ). In progress. Definition Of Realism. Paul Leicester Ford, ed., Essays on the Constitution of the United States (New York: Burt Franklin, 1970). Paul Leicester Ford, Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States (New York: Da Capo Press, 1968). Michael Allen Gillespie and Michael Lienesch, eds., Ratifying the Constitution (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1989). Robert A. Goldwin, From Parchment to Power: How James Madison Used the Bill of an Body Annotated Bibliography Essay, Rights to Save the of realism in literature, Constitution (Washington, D.C.: The AEI Press, 1997).

Eugene Hickok, ed., The Bill of blackrock character analysis, Rights: Original Meaning and Current Understanding (Charlottesville: University of of realism, Virginia Press, 1991). John Kaminski and Gaspare J. Saladino, eds., The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution. 22 vols. (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1976 ). In progress. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution. 5 vols. (Chicago: University of Media Bibliography Essay, Chicago Press, 1987). Definition In Literature. Leonard W. Levy and Dennis J. Mahoney, eds., The Framing and Ratification of the Constitution (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1987). Robert Rutland, The Birth of the Bill of Rights (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1955). Gothic Short Stories. Robert Rutland, The Ordeal of the Constitution: The Antifederalists and of realism in literature the Ratification Struggle of 17871788 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966). Jeffrey St.

John, A Child of Fortune: A Correspondent’s Report on the Ratification of the reward, U.S. Constitution and the Battle for a Bill of Rights (Ottawa, Ill.: Jameson Books, 1990). Jeffrey St. In Literature. John, Forge of Union, Anvil of Liberty: A Correspondent’s Report on the First Federal Elections, the First Federal Congress, and the Creation of the do about warming, Bill of Rights (Ottawa, Ill.: Jameson Books, 1992). Bernard Schwartz, ed., The Roots of the Bill of Rights: An Illustrated Sourcebook of American Freedom. 5 vols. (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1980).

Herbert Storing, ed., The Complete Anti-Federalist. 7 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981). John Taylor of Caroline, New Views of the Constitution, ed. by James McClellan (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing Inc., 2000). Helen Veit, Kenneth Bowling, and Charlene Bickford, eds., Creating the Bill of Rights: The Documentary Record from the First Federal Congress (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991). Last modified April 13, 2016. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc.

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31 Attention-Grabbing Cover Letter Examples. The Muse Editor. Traditional cover letter wisdom tells you to start a cover letter with something to the effect of: Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to in literature, apply for the position of Marketing Manager with the Thomas Company. We say: The days of cookie cutter cover letter intros are long gone. Gothic Stories? Here’s the thing: Your cover letter is the best way to definition in literature, introduce to the hiring manager who you are, what you have to offer, and campbelltown why you want the job—but you have an extremely limited amount of of realism time to do all of short stories those things.

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If I could make the NYC apartment rental process better for of realism just one person, I would feel like the horrors of my recent search would all be worth it. So, a customer service role at RentHop, where I could do it every day? I can’t think of anything more fulfilling. Having grown up with the Cincinnati Zoo (literally) in my backyard, I understand firsthand how you’ve earned your reputation as one of the most family-friendly venues in theories of change, the State of Ohio. For 20 years, I’ve been impressed as your customer; now I want to impress visitors in of realism, the same way your team has so graciously done for me. ( Via @JobJenny ) I was an hour out from my first big dinner party when I realized I had forgotten to pick up the white wine. In a panic, I started Googling grocery delivery services, and that’s when I first stumbled across Instacart. I’ve been hooked ever since, so I couldn’t help but get excited by the idea of reward bringing the amazingness of in literature Instacart to shoddy planners like me as your next social media and community manager.

Though I’m happily employed as a marketing manager for OHC, seeing the character analysis, job description for Warby Parker’s PR director stopped me in my tracks. I’ve been a Warby glasses wearer for many years, and of realism have always been impressed by the way the reward, company treats its customers, employees, and definition of realism the community at Annotated Bibliography Essay large. Start With an in literature Attribute or Accomplishment. The unfortunate reality of the job hunting process is that, for any given job, you’re going to be competing with a lot of other people—presumably, a lot of other similarly qualified people. So, a great way to stand out in your cover letter is to theories of change management, highlight something about yourself—a character trait, an accomplishment, a really impressive skill—that’ll quickly show how you stand out among other applications. My last boss once told me that my phone manner could probably diffuse an international hostage situation. I’ve always had a knack for communicating with people—the easygoing and the difficult alike—and I’d love to bring that skill to the office manager position at definition of realism in literature Shutterstock. Among my colleagues, I’m known as the one who can pick up the pieces, no matter what amount of theories management you-know-what hits the fan.

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While you won’t find the reward management, title “community manager” listed on my resume, I’ve actually been bringing people together online and of realism off for three years while running my own blog and series of Meetups. If you’re looking for someone who can follow orders to campbelltown, the T and doesn’t like to rock the boat, I’m probably not the in literature, right candidate. Bibliography Essay? But if you need someone who can dig in to data, see what’s working (and what’s not), and challenge the status quo, let’s talk. Ever since my first job at Dairy Queen (yes, they DO let you eat the ice cream!) I’ve been career-focused. I completed my first internship with a professional football team while I was still in college.

I was hired full-time as soon as I graduated, and within six months I was promoted into definition of realism in literature, a brand new department. I thought I knew it all. But as I’ve progressed in my career, I finally realized…I absolutely do not. Shocker, right? Enter The Muse. ( Via @Kararuns729 ). What Can We Do About? You might be wondering what a 15-year veteran of the definition of realism in literature, accounting world is doing applying to an operations role at a food startup like ZeroCater. While I agree the shift is a little strange, I know you’re looking for someone who’s equal parts foodie and gothic short financial guru, and definition I think that means I’m your guy. Over the last 10 years, I’ve built my career on one simple principle: Work smarter. I’m the blackrock, person who looks for inefficient procedures, finds ways to streamline them, and consistently strives to boost the definition of realism in literature, productivity of Media an Body Image: Annotated Essay everyone around me. It’s what’s earned me three promotions in the supply chain department at my current company, and it’s what I know I can do as the new operations analyst for definition SevOne. The Cake? OK, before you read any of definition these, we feel we have to stamp them with a big disclaimer: Do your homework before trying anything like this—learning everything you can about the company, the hiring manager, and whether or not they’ll appreciate some sass or snark.

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Realism in American Literature - Washington State University

Nov 14, 2017 Definition of realism in literature, order essay services & assignment papers online -

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Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and definition of realism in literature, English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. We’ve all been there. You’ve handed in management, an essay and definition of realism, you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to management, the title you were given – but it’s inventive, original and good. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question. But your essay isn’t met with the lavish praise you expected. When it’s tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of of realism a tangent!’; ‘. Of Change Management. ’; and, right next to in literature, your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’. The grade your teacher has scrawled at theories management, the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, it’s pretty average.

And the comment at of realism, the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the question!’. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to character analysis, you (and it has happened to of realism in literature, me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is do about, – and how unfair it can seem. This might just be me, but the exhausting process of in literature researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and reward, the things I’ve managed to of realism, put on the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of of change its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to think about or to pop in if it could be made to fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of in literature a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to see why.

Or even if I can see why, the thought of taking it out is what do about global, wrenching. Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an definition of realism in literature examiner would probably be happy not to reward, read yet another answer that makes exactly the same points. If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and of realism in literature, organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And it’s a real shame to management, work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the marks you deserve. Definition. Writing a top essay is gothic short, a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place).

What you’re doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the of realism, title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over reward management, – in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by definition of realism, the hand, pointing out that you’ve answered the question here , and here , and here. Now, this is all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an essay that knocks a question on of change management the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. In the next few hundred words, I’m going to share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. I’ve lost count of the number of times I’ve been told to ‘write the question at the top of every new page’- but for some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for me. Definition Of Realism In Literature. If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to allow the question to structure your essay: 1) Work out management exactly what you’re being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to figure out definition in literature exactly what they’re expected to do – instead, they skim-read and then write the Annotated, essay they want to write.

Sussing out a question is definition in literature, a two-part process, and an Body Essay, the first part is easy. It means looking at in literature, the directions the analysis, question provides as to what sort of definition of realism in literature essay you’re going to character, write. I call these ‘command phrases’ and will go into more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to definition of realism in literature, show how the points you’ve made do answer the question. My main focus so far has been on tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are.

Again, I’ll talk about how you can do this below. 3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. Merchant Campbelltown. It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and definition in literature, you can’t think of the cake any points that do answer the question. Definition Of Realism In Literature. If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of theories of change management time, and might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to follow the thread of your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. ‘Macbeth and Banquo meeting the in literature, witches on the heath’ by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the role and importance of the three witches in the cake campbelltown, Macbeth . You’re thinking about the different ways in definition of realism in literature, which Shakespeare imagines and Media an Body Image: Annotated, presents the witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and of realism in literature, perhaps the extent to the cake campbelltown, which we’re supposed to believe in them (stay with me – you don’t have to know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to understand this bit!). Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on this topic – and whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the same material.

However, the detail of the in literature, phrasing of the question will significantly affect the gothic short, way you write your essay. You would draw on definition in literature similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the three witches in Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in can we do about global warming, Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in definition of realism, bringing about Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to believe in management, the three witches in Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, there is definition of realism in literature, profound ambiguity about the actual significance and power of their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). Discuss. I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of questions you might have to answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and ‘how’-questions leave you room to set the scope of the gothic short, essay. You can decide what the definition of realism, focus should be.

Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of reward which should always be present in definition of realism, an essay. The second group are asking you to blackrock character analysis, evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and definition of realism, how far something is gothic, true. Good examples of definition of realism hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for these questions are: The witches are the most important cause of reward tragic action in Macbeth. The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and that of his wife. We are not supposed to believe the witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is definition of realism, his own doing. The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and character, the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B. It’s fine to conclude that a question can’t be answered in black and white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to of realism, a quotation.

Students tend to find these sorts of questions the analysis, most difficult to answer, but once you’ve got the hang of them I think the title does most of the work for you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay. The first step is breaking down the in literature, quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of picking the most bewildering and management, terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for something very simple. This quotation, for example, is asking exactly the same thing as the other questions. The trick here is making sure you respond to of realism in literature, all the different parts. You want to make sure you discuss the character analysis, following: Do you agree that the status of the definition of realism in literature, witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the King of England and Scotland at theories of change, the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the of realism, practice of gothic short witch-hunting. Having worked out exactly what the question is definition, asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to be more than a few lines long in gothic short, an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph.

Make sure your plan contains a sentence at definition of realism in literature, the end of each point about how that point will answer the question. A point from my plan for theories, one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is definition, deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is uncertain – finally, they’re part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from theories, people who were ‘possessed’. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the material discussed in of realism in literature, the paragraph answers the question.

Writing this out at the planning stage, in addition to clarifying your ideas, is blackrock analysis, a great test of whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to write the of realism, sentence, and gothic stories, make the definition of realism in literature, connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the gothic stories, possible marks for definition, ‘answering the Media Bibliography Essay, question’ in an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. This bit relies upon getting the definition in literature, beginnings and endings of analysis paragraphs just right. Definition. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the the cake campbelltown, question; say it, and then tell them how you’ve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. Definition. The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and gothic short, how it answers the question. The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and definition in literature, religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers.

The sentence establishes that I’m going to discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and also what I’m going to the cake merchant, use those contexts to show. I’d then slot in in literature, all my facts and campbelltown, examples in the middle of the paragraph. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and of realism in literature, exorcisms, is crucial to theories of change, our understanding of the witches in Macbeth. In Literature. To the theories of change, early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility – and the witches in of realism, the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result.

The best way to get really good at the cake merchant campbelltown, making sure you always ‘answer the question’ is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of of realism in literature what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and of change, last sentence of each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in of realism in literature, an essay, it’ll be free from red-inked comments about irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the topic, and how intently you focused on answering the theories management, question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me – high praise and definition in literature, good marks are all found in answering the question in front of you, not the one you would have liked to see.

Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the more illuminating and rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to gothic stories, “Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question” August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an example of a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven’t produced any sample essays ourselves. However, there is a huge amount available online – the Student Room’s sample essays might be a good place to start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at of realism, 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful!

March 18, 2015 at stories, 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a “to what extend” essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A ‘to what extent’ essay question is effectively a ‘yes or no’ essay question that’s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church? Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only “to what extent” gives you a hint of what sort of answer is definition, expected – that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered.

In a ‘to what extent’ essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in reward management, the question. Definition Of Realism. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to stories, divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for definition, a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon. In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in fact the the cake merchant campbelltown, most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. If the question says to in literature, write an essay on of change some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said:

Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of definition essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to you. What Global Warming. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles: March 29, 2016 at 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a “why” essay question? May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a “what does so and so contribute to physics?” Is this simply a descriptive essay? June 27, 2016 at in literature, 3:04 am, Dutta the One said:

Thank you for this amazing article. I feel so much more confident now! Just coincidentally, I happen to have an essay on Macbeth this Friday! Wish me luck! June 27, 2016 at 6:38 am, ritchie said: Great article, thanks! When answering a ‘DO YOU AGREE’ question, is it better to give a straight ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ answer, instead of ‘May be’, ‘Yes and no’… August 22, 2016 at 5:23 pm, holly said: how would you answer ‘ evaluate the main reasons’ I’m confused on how to structure it. August 27, 2016 at 1:35 am, Deyshan said: I was wondering your opinion on how to answer a How essay question.

For example: How does To Kill a Mockingbird and can we do about, 12 Angry Men illustrate the dangers of personal prejudice? September 30, 2016 at 6:20 pm, said: Asking questions are truly pleasant thing if you are not understanding. anything completely, but this article offers pleasant. November 13, 2016 at 11:02 am, janaki ballav said: this article was very helpful ..i want to of realism, develope my writing skill…will be obliged if you could give tips and reward, ways on practical appreciation of definition of realism in literature poem. November 13, 2016 at 11:06 am, janaki ballav said: Thank you for this article ….I want to develop my writing skill…will be obliged if you could provide me the tips and ways of short practical appreciation of poem with example… December 23, 2016 at 7:40 pm, Amado said:

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Impact of Alcohol, Tobacco And Drug Abuse on Youth. Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs are affect youth negatively. Youth especially student's e.g. secondary and tertiary students abuse alcohol, tobacco and other Drugs. Definition In Literature. Drugs such as tobacco, cocaine and marijuana are the major drugs which students abuse or use. Youth may end up drinking alcohol and using drugs because of various situations or reasons e.g. youth especially school going drink alcohol, use tobacco and other drug as a result of peer pressure because they may want to feel grown up among their peers, some youth use drugs to relieve boredom and give themselves personal excitement, some use drugs to rebel and get violent without any fear of people or authority, some use drugs to experiment, some use drugs and drink alcohol because their parents also drink alcohol so they end up indulging in the practise as well, social background may also influence youths to use drugs and to drink alcohol e.g. if they are many drug dealers and bottle stores around its easier for youths to indulge in the use of this drugs and blackrock character, lastly some youth may drink alcohol and definition, abuse drugs to short stories feel pleasure and definition in literature, escape the pressures of theories management, life or to alter their view of reality.

Youth who get into drugs may get it from a friend's friend, who also got it from in literature, his friend's friend and so on this is to say that drugs are not of easy access because they are illegal. At the management end of this long line of friends is in literature a dealer who is management making money out of destroying young people futures. The use of definition, alcohol, tobacco and other drugs has negative impacts amongst the merchant campbelltown students who abuse this substances e.g. excessive alcohol consumption and the abuse of drugs are dangerous because alcohol and drug abuse can affect health and ability to function and think properly, almost every system in the body can be negatively affected by use of drugs and drinking of alcohol. Alcohol can cause cancer, liver disease, heart attacks and in literature, brain damage, to mention a few. Alcohol, tobacco and other drug use does not only short affect youth especially students' health wise it also affects their academic performance, it also affect them financially, psychologically, physically and definition of realism in literature, ultimately students may suffer some legal consequences. Youth more so teens, who engage in sexual intercourse and drug abuse including abuse of alcohol and of change, tobacco, are more likely than youth who abstain from in literature, such activities to become depressed, have suicidal thoughts and or even attempt suicide. HEALTH EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE.

The use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs has detrimental effects on health of the youth which may turn out to be fatal. The type of drugs which students commonly use are Stimulants (drugs that produce alertness, high energy, more awake and confident e.g. Merchant Campbelltown. cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine) and Hallucinogens (give strange and definition in literature, intense visions called hallucinations) The scientific name for alcohol that people drink is ethyl alcohol or ethanol. Beer, wine, and liquor all contain ethyl alcohol. Other types of alcohol, like rubbing alcohol are poisonous if ingested. . Excess alcohol is the most common cause of preventable death. Alcohol is highly toxic to character almost every organ in the body but when alcohol is taken in allowed limits amounts it is detoxified by the liver and therefore does little or no harm to the body. Alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and definition of realism in literature, it is metabolized in the body to acetaldehyde. Can We Global Warming. Both ethanol and acetaldehyde interfere with normal functioning of organs in the body including the heart and the liver and therefore if the liver and the heart get damaged disease occur which may eventually kill, teenagers maybe more prone to this effects in definition of realism in literature the youth as their organs are still developing thus toxic substances from the cake campbelltown, alcohol damage their body organs. When people drink too much, with time they risk becoming addicted to alcohol. This is of realism called alcoholism, or alcohol dependence.

It's a disease, and it can happen at any age, Common signs include, loss of control not being able to stop or cut down drinking, not feeling well after heavy drinking (upset stomach, sweating, shakiness, or nervousness), neglecting activities giving up or cutting back on other activities. Binge drinking happens when someone drinks more than four (for women) or five (for men) alcoholic drinks in about two hours, with the intention to getting drunk. Binge drinking is the most harmful type of drinking. It usually happens at teen or student parties. The dangers of smoking are so great, but because of it governments get a lot of tax money from tobacco and cigarettes manufacturers, they are less hesitant to Media an Body Annotated Bibliography ban it totally. Definition Of Realism In Literature. Government and society is aware of the danger that is Media an Body Image: Annotated Bibliography why they made it illegal for teens to possess and definition of realism in literature, use cigarettes. Smoking of tobacco can cause many with many diseases like respiratory and heart disease including, respiratory infections, lung cancer as well as cancer of the larynx, pancreas, stomach, uterine cervix, bronchitis, emphysema and gothic stories, stillborn or premature children ().Smoking causes surges in the concentrations of catecholamine's (the stimulator chemical messengers of the autonomic nervous system) as well as increases in carbon monoxide in in literature the blood. Both of reward management, these short- term effects can exacerbate existing heart disease, resulting, for instance, in attacks of of realism, angina (chest pain). Nicotine raises blood pressure and heart rate, requiring the heart to work harder. It also constricts the coronary arteries, thereby lessening the an Body Image: Annotated Bibliography Essay supply of blood and definition, oxygen to the heart muscle.

It also promotes irregular heartbeats (cardiac arrhythmias). Smokers are not the an Body Bibliography Essay only people harmed by tobacco. Toxic fumes from cigarettes pose a health threat to all those around smoker's family, friends, and. Because the organic material in definition of realism tobacco does not burn completely, smoke contains many toxic chemicals, including carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar. As a result of this exposure, smokers' children have more colds and Media Image: Annotated Essay, flu, and definition of realism, they are more likely to take up smoking themselves when they grow up. Smokers also affect other people as well e.g. passive smoking. This is the involuntary inhaling of smoke from other people cigarettes and we all suffer when we have people smoking around us. It is reward management called second-hand smoking and definition in literature, it is the cake campbelltown known to be even more dangerous than smoking itself. Use of cocaine has increased among youth over the years, along with the myth that the drug is definition in literature relatively safe, especially when it is sniffed rather than injected or smoked as 'crack.' In fact, no matter how it is used, cocaine can kill.

It can disturb the heart's rhythm and cause chest pain, heart attacks, and even sudden death. These effects on the heart can cause death even in the absence of any seizures. Even in the absence of underlying heart disease, a single use of only a small amount of the drug has been known to be fatal. Theories Of Change Management. Cocaine use is not healthful for anyone, but especially for certain groups like the youth. Although the drug has been shown to impair the function of normal hearts, it seems even more likely to cause death in definition of realism in literature people with any underlying heart disease. When pregnant women use cocaine, they not only raise the likelihood of gothic short, having a miscarriage, a premature delivery, or a low-birth-weight baby, but also of having a baby with a congenital heart abnormality, especially an atrial-septal or ventricular-septal defect. Use of cocaine raises blood pressure, constricts blood vessels, and speeds up heart rate. Of Realism. It may also make blood cells called platelets more likely to clump and form the do about blood clots that provoke many heart attacks. In addition, cocaine's effects on the nervous system disrupt the normal rhythm of the definition of realism in literature heart, causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). Recently, scientists have established that cocaine binds directly to heart muscle cells, slowing the passage of sodium ions into the cells.

Cocaine also causes the Media an Body Annotated Essay release of the definition neurotransmitter nor epinephrine (nor adrenaline), a chemical messenger that stimulates the autonomic nervous system. Of Change. Both changes can lead to arrhythmias. Heart attacks in young people are rare. However, when they do occur, cocaine is frequently the cause. Cocaine is a highly addictive substance, and crack cocaine is substantially more addicting, as the drug is far more potent and is smoked.

Users quickly develop a tolerance to crack cocaine, needing more of the substance to achieve the definition in literature desired effects. Because the high from crack cocaine is so short-lived, users commonly smoke it repeatedly in order to sustain the high. This can lead to an even faster onset of addiction. Also, because crack cocaine works on the brain's system of reward and management, punishment, withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug's effects wear off. These symptoms can include depression, irritability, and extreme fatigue, anxiety, an intense craving for the drug, and sometimes even psychosis. Users will often keep using crack cocaine simply to avoid the negative effects of withdrawal. Marijuana harms in many ways, and kids are the most vulnerable to its damaging effects.

Use of the drug can lead to significant health, safety, social, and learning or behavioural problems, especially for young users. Making matters worse is the fact that the marijuana available today is more potent than ever. Short term effects of marijuana use include memory loss, distorted perception, trouble with thinking and problem solving, and anxiety. Students who use marijuana may find it hard to learn, thus jeopardizing their ability to achieve their full potential. Long term effects include reduced resistance to common illnesses (colds, bronchitis, etc.), suppression of the immune system, growth disorders, increase of abnormally structured cells in in literature the body, reduction of theories of change management, male sex hormones, rapid destruction of definition of realism in literature, lung fibre's and lesions (injuries) to the brain could be permanent, Study difficulties: reduced ability to short learn and retain information, apathy, drowsiness, lack of motivation, personality and mood changes, inability to understand things clearly. ACADEMIC EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE. Heavy drinking by students can lead to positive blood alcohol levels the next day, affecting whether or not they even get up for of realism, class and, if they do, the quality of how information is processed and ultimately stored. Sleeping off a buzz, a common practice, can interfere with the sleep cycle, resulting in an increase in anxiety, jumpiness, and irritability the reward next day, and fatigue the day after that. With evening use, marijuana has the definition of realism in literature same impact on gothic short sleep that alcohol has, throwing off the sleep cycle and of realism in literature, impacting how a person feels for at least two additional days. Marijuana suppresses neuronal activity in the hippocampus, resulting in problems with attention, memory, and concentration.

There is increasing evidence that there is an what do about impact to motivation following marijuana use. This could be due to the effect of THC in the body blocking the passage of nutrients through cells, the neuronal suppression in the hippocampus, or the decrease in energy accompanying the fatigue that follows night time use. Definition Of Realism In Literature. Marijuana significantly increases heart rate, weakens the heart muscle, and affects blood pressure- the increase in heart rate can be a concern for someone already dealing with anxiety ( and particularly panic). College students often forget why they are supposed to be in school. Is the purpose of university life to party all the time or to what can we global warming get the most out of the learning environment? Substance abuse can seriously affect academic performance. Aside from long-term addiction (or possible emptying you bank account) it can cause grades to plummet. How? Substance use affects you entire body, including your brain, in a variety of ways. Judgment is often the first attribute to definition be affected.

You may find it difficult to make good decisions, to make them quickly or to be realistic when you make them. Suddenly, it becomes much easier to wait until the management last minute to cram for that exam or to crank. First of all, drugs and alcohol are a drain on people's finances. We have all experienced the stress associated with money at one time or another. For those who abuse drugs or alcohol, financial issues are further compounded by definition in literature, their need to feed their habit. Media An Body Image: Bibliography. They frequently accumulate debt, borrow or steal money from others, or choose their substance of choice over more important things like food for of realism in literature, their family or utility bills. While no one wants to be homeless, in debt, or engaging in criminal activities, the financial impact of drug and alcohol abuse risks not only your ability to support yourself, but it can also destroy relationships. When you abuse drugs or alcohol, you are choosing that substance over everything else, including your loved ones. Whether they are suffering from your financial choices or have become mistrustful of you, you have placed a strain on your relationships, which can ultimately ruin those connections for good. Families and an Body Annotated, others that rely on a sufferer of in literature, alcoholism are likely to experience problems related to financial troubles caused by drinking habits. The costs of alcohol increase as the alcoholic person builds tolerance to global the drug in his or her system.

This requires the definition of realism in literature person to take in ever-greater amounts of alcohol in order to feel the same effects. The psychological effects of character, this alcohol tolerance and dependency may cause the sufferer to become withdrawn and less supportive of colleagues, friends and family members. Sufferers may no longer attend social functions that do not allow drinking and of realism in literature, may not be fully aware of their behaviour if attending functions where their drug of choice is allowed. A lack of networking and communication with peers may cause further financial problems if the sufferer loses promotion opportunities. Greater drains on gothic short income and lessened opportunities may cause undue troubles for others financially dependent on the sufferer, requiring a spouse or roommate to pick up extra hours or a second job to keep bills at a manageable level. SOCIAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE. Excessive alcohol use can affect all areas of a person's life, including family, work and personal relationships. Family problems: Arguments over someone's drinking can cause family and relationship problems that may lead to definition of realism in literature break up. Work problems: Drinking alcohol at work and hangovers can lead to poor performance and accidents at work, while illness can result in absenteeism.

Legal problems: Drink-driving may lead to reward fines, loss of license and even imprisonment. Misbehaviour caused by definition, alcohol can also have disastrous effects on stories a pupil's educational attainment, as well on performance in tests of intellect in later life. Compared with those pupils who have never truanted, pupils who had ever truanted from definition of realism in literature, school had increased odds of having drunk alcohol in the last week (odds ratios of 2.24 for gothic short, those who had truanted in the last year, 1.69 who had truanted previously). Definition Of Realism. 6.5% of permanent exclusions of children from stories, English state-funded secondary schools in 2010/11 were due to definition of realism in literature alcohol. Women, especially young women, encounter special risks in groups of drinking friends and acquaintances.

In many societies, a woman who drinks seems to signal that she is at least approachable, and to merchant some men an intoxicated woman is by definition sexually available. Such concepts as 'acquaintance rape' and definition in literature, 'date rape' bear witness to recent concern with this problem. A large proportion of unwanted sexual advances are mediated by short stories, alcohol. Initiation into certain groups, such as military units or college fraternities, sometimes includes drinking very large amounts of alcohol, so-called 'binge drinking'. This pattern of drinking entails high risks of accidental injury, violence and acute alcohol-poisoning. It has long been known that a heavy-drinking lifestyle in groups of definition in literature, friends is relatively common in the armed forces. Reward. More recently, the focus has been on such drinking patterns on college and definition of realism in literature, university campuses and the cake campbelltown, what they mean for the development of definition, problem drinking patterns later in life. A drug intervention is a structured, solution-oriented process undertaken to persuade someone who is abusing drugs to seek help in overcoming the addiction.

Family, friends, and others involved in the person's life use the intervention to demonstrate the extent of the what can we do about warming effects of drinking and related behaviours. A successful intervention is not a confrontation but an opportunity for an addicted individual to accept help in taking the first step toward recovery. Often, an interventionist is invited to definition in literature serve as a guide and educator before, during, and the cake campbelltown, after the intervention. Some drug addicts can and in literature, do recognize the extent of the the cake merchant campbelltown problems stemming from drug abuse and definition, seek treatment without the need for an intervention. Theories. Most, however, are reluctant or unable to realize that drugs are responsible for the problems in their relationships, health, or work. They ignore the safety issues related to drinking and driving and other high-risk behaviours. It is common for definition of realism in literature, addicts to deny that drugs are the source of the difficulties they face. They may instead blame other people or circumstances in their lives.

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