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Becoming a Freelance or Telecommute Resume Writer. Writing resumes to help people land a job or transition into vietnam catfish, a new career is an in-demand writing service that many freelance writers offer. The high unemployment rate and competition for new jobs are making resume writing more popular than other common services like writing SEO copy or ghostwriting how-to articles. Even though a typical resume is no longer than 300 words in length, it is meaning of joyce not easy work. Even if you were to use a common resume writing software for layout and to find common catch-phrases to use, you still need acute research and communication skills to produce a professional resumenot a cookie-cutter resume, or a one-size-fits-all resume. About this type of freelance work. As its name suggests, your main job is to produce professional resumes for your clients. They will rely on you to present their job qualifications, areas of expertise, and experience in the best way possibleusing catchy words. and a design that grabs attention and appeals to catfish, the person who is in charge of hiring. You may need to use terms specific to the job or industry that your client is planning to apply, and real story, you may need to format a resume in a variety of ways (e.g., PDFs). Many clients want both a traditional resume and an SEO-friendly resume to post on the Internet.

Besides traditional writing skills, you should also know how to optimize copy for the web. Writing a resume may not require a lot of writing (compared to writing an informative how-to article), but you will spend more time researching the client#8217;s background and the job market as well as phrasing sentences that persuade and inform the hiring manager. The first dozen or so resumes that you write for clients do take a while to vietnam catfish, write. Of Joyce? It#8217;s a myth that a competent resume writer can whip out a new resume every 30 minutes or so. You may spend a day on just crafting one resume for a client, making sure you have included all of the specifics that go into vietnam catfish, a winning resume. After a while you develop the skill-set to organize and write a resume quickly and professionally. You will also become an , expert on knowing which types of phrases work best to showcase qualifications and work experience in a resume. Why is this type of career in demand right now? The high unemployment rate and the role childhood obesity, stagnate economy has caused many unemployed individuals to revamp their resumes before they search for new jobs. Many individuals do not have experience in vietnam, writing a resume. They would rather hire an expert freelance writer to do this work for themand to of schools childhood, do it right the first time.

What type of person would love this career? Writing resumes for individuals offers you the vietnam catfish opportunity to help them land a job, in addition to sweeper william blake traduzione, earning money from your writing skills. Resume writing is more engaging and client-facing because you will need to work one-on-one with the client. Rather than a client hiring you to produce a bunch of repetitive articles for a website, a client hires you to catfish, focus on one piece of writing and to make it the best piece of work that you have ever produced. Workers? Disadvantages/obstacles in this career. Writing resumes and cover letters are becoming a more skilled profession. You may need to become certified so that you can pitch yourself as a #8220;Certified Professional Resume Writer#8221; to vietnam catfish, compete with other writers. You also must be comfortable interviewing your client via the phone, Skype or e-mail to compile the right information for the chimney sweeper blake traduzione, his resume. It is also common that a client will ask for many revisions after completing his resume. You should do the necessary revisions without charge. Before you begin to offer resume writing services, you should be able to pass the requirements set forth by the Professional Association of Resume Writers and vietnam, Career Coaches . You may also need to think like an HR or a hiring manager.

You should know how to meaning, use the most appropriate phrases and jargon in a specific type of vietnam, resume. In fact, it might be better if you can specialize in a particular market or niche. Begin with yourself. Try to create your own resume and meaning of joyce, sell yourself to catfish, potential clients. You can also research different sample resumes, as well as revamp and revise resumes of dawes severalty act, friends and family members. You can also search for HR groups that routinely hire aspiring resume writers. Individuals who are looking for vietnam catfish, new jobs. What is the average pay rate / salary? Rates in this niche vary widely based on the complexity of the resume and the industry.

Writing a standard resume for somebody who wants to land a job at a retail store might pay between $50 and $75 per resume. A resume to land an executive job at dawes severalty act a Fortune 500 company might pay between $200 and $300 per catfish resume. In a year, it#8217;s possible to earn around $58,000 just for writing resumes. In addition to writing resumes, you can also offer ancillary services like writing cover letters, proofreading, and job research. How and where to find jobs/clients. For Migrant Workers? Finding resume writing jobs shouldn#8217;t be an issue since you can find open positions on nearly all popular job sites. You can register with or, create a profile, and start applying to such jobs. You can also search for vietnam catfish, recruitment agencies that hire freelance resume writers. Of Schools In Preventing Obesity? You can find such agencies on That#8217;s awesome you found something useful in the article, Jenna!

Subscribe to receive the latest freelance writing jobs, daily! How to Set Your Freelance Writing Rates. Many individuals who lack writing skills drive down rates, way below. The Writing Style of William Shakespeare. Some of the most famous lines in the history of the chimney william, literature come from the. Vietnam? Top 5 Tips to Write An Interesting Narrative for Work for Migrant Essay, Any Story. WRITING NARRATION - You can discover numerous ways of crafting an. How to Get Higher Rates if You're a Freelance Writer from a Third-World Country.

Apparently, many clients are under the vietnam impression that writers from Third-World or developing countries are article-spewing robots who run on gasoline. Top 10 Tips to Convince an Editor to Pay You More for Your How-To Article. In Preventing Childhood? Learn 10 useful tips to analyze what your skills are worth and how to ask an editor or client for a higher pay rate for your how-to article. Vietnam Catfish? Creative Writing: Using the severalty Epigram as a Literary Device. The first epigrams were verses used by the Greeks for vietnam, the inscriptions on statues or other monuments to the dead.

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In Soviet Union, Optimization Problem Solves You. by Cosma Shalizi on May 30, 2012. Attention conservation notice : Over 7800 words about vietnam optimal planning for a socialist economy and its intersection with computational complexity theory. This is about as relevant to the world around us as debating whether a devotee of the coach real story, Olympian gods should approve of transgenic organisms. (Or: centaurs, yes or no?) Contains mathematical symbols (uglified and rendered slightly inexact by HTML ) but no actual math, and vietnam catfish uses Red Plenty mostly as a launching point for a tangent. Theres lots to the role of schools in preventing childhood obesity say about Red Plenty as a work of literature; I wont do so. Its basically a work of speculative fiction, where one of the primary pleasures is having a strange world unfold in the readers mind. More than that, its a work of vietnam, science fiction, where the strangeness of the world comes from its being reshaped by Work, technology and scientific ideas- here, mathematical and economic ideas. Red Plenty is also (what is a rather different thing) a work of scientist fiction, about the catfish, creative travails of scientists. The early chapter, where linear programming breaks in of joyce, upon the Kantorovich character, is one of the most true-to-life depictions Ive encountered of the the chimney sweeper blake traduzione, experiences of mathematical inspiration and vietnam catfish mathematical work. (Nothing I will ever do will be remotely as important or beautiful as what the real Kantorovich did, of course.) An essential part of that chapter, though, is the of joyce, way the catfish, thoughts of the Kantorovich character split between his profound idea, his idealistic political musings, and his scheming about how to cadge some shoes, all blind to the incongruities and ironies. It should be clear by this point that I loved Red Plenty as a book, but I am so much in its target demographic 1 that its not even funny.

My enthusing about it further would not therefore help others, so I will, to make better use of our limited time, talk instead about the central idea, the dream of the optimal planned economy. That dream did not come true, but it never even came close to being implemented; strong forces blocked that, forces which Red Plenty describes vividly. But could it even have been tried? Should it have been? The Basic Problem of act, Industrial Planning Lets think about what would have to have gone in to planning in the manner of Kantorovich. I. We need a quantity to maximize. This objective function has to be a function of the quantities of all the different goods (and services) produced by our economic system. Here objective is used in the sense of goal, not in the sense of factual. In Kantorovichs world, the objective function is linear, just a weighted sum of the output levels. Those weights tell us about trade-offs: we will accept getting one less bed-sheet (queen-size, cotton, light blue, thin, fine-weave) if it lets us make so many more diapers (cloth, unbleached, re-usable), or this many more lab coats (mens, size XL, non-flame-retardant),or for that matter such-and-such an extra quantity of toothpaste.

In other words, we need to begin our planning exercise with relative weights. If you dont want to call these values or prices, I wont insist, but the planning exercise has to begin with them, because theyre what the function being optimized is built from. Its worth remarking that in Best Use of apa citation, Economic Resources , Kantorovich side-stepped this problem by a device which has all the advantages of theft over honest toil. Namely, he posed only the problem of maximizing the production of a given assortment of goods- the planners have fixed on a ratio of vietnam catfish, sheets to diapers (and everything else) to be produced, and want the genertor, most that can be coaxed out of the inputs while keeping those ratios. This doesnt really remove the difficulty: either the planners have to decide on relative values, or they have to decide on the ratios in the given assortment. Equivalently, the planners could fix the desired output, and the chimney william blake try to minimize the vietnam catfish, resources required. Then, again, they must fix relative weights for resources (cotton fiber, blue dye #1, blue dye #2, bleach, water [potable],water [distilled], time on machine #1, time on machine #2, labor time [unskilled], labor time [skilled, sewing], electric power). In some contexts these might be physically comparable units. (The first linear programming problem I was ever posed was to work out a diet which will give astronauts all the the role childhood obesity, nutrients they need from a minimum mass of food.) In a market system these would be relative prices of factors of vietnam catfish, production. Maintaining a given assortment (fixed proportions) of Work Essay, resources used seems even less reasonable than maintaining a given assortment of outputs, but I suppose we could do it. For now (Ill come back to this), assume the objective function is given somehow, and is not to catfish be argued with.

IIA . We need complete and genertor accurate knowledge of catfish, all the physical constraints on the economy, the resources available to it. IIB . We need complete and accurate knowledge of the vietnam catfish, productive capacities of the economy, the real story, ways in which it can convert inputs to outputs. (IIA) and (IIB) require us to disaggregate all the goods (and services) of the economy to the point where everything inside each category is substitutable. Moreover, if different parts of our physical or organizational plant have different technical capacities, that needs to be taken into account, or the results can be decidedly sub-optimal. (Kantorovich actually emphasizes this need to disaggregate in Best Use , by way of scoring points against Leontief. The numbers in the latters input-output matrices, Kantorovich says, are aggregated over huge swathes of the economy, and meaning so far too crude to be actually useful for planning.) This is, to belabor the obvious, a huge amount of information to gather. (Its worth remarking at this point that inputs and constraints can be understood very broadly. For instance, there is nothing in the formalism which keeps it from including constraints on how much the production process is allowed to act pollute the environment.

The shadow prices enforcing those constraints would indicate how much production could be increased if marginally more pollution were allowed. This wasnt, so far as I know, a concern of the Soviet economists, but its the logic behind cap-and-trade institutions for controlling pollution.) Subsequent work in optimization theory lets us get away, a bit, from requiring complete and perfectly accurate knowledge in stage (II). If our knowledge is distorted by merely unbiased statistical error, we could settle for apa citation, stochastic optimization, which runs some risk of being badly wrong (if the noise is large), but at least does well on average. We still need this unbiased knowledge about everything, however, and aggregation is still a recipe for distortions. More serious is the problem that people will straight-up lie to the planners about resources and technical capacities, for reasons which Spufford dramatizes nicely. There is no good mathematical way of dealing with this. III . For Kantorovich, the objective function from (I) and the constraints and production technology from (II) must be linear. Nonlinear optimization is possible, and I will come back to it, but it rarely makes things easier . IV. Computing time must be not just too cheap to of schools in preventing obesity meter, but genuinely immense. It is this point which I want to elaborate on, because it is a mathematical rather than a practical difficulty.

Numerical Methods for the Solution of Problems of Optimal Planning It was no accident that mathematical optimization went hand-in-hand with automated computing. Theres little point to reasoning abstractly about optima if you cant actually find them, and finding an optimum is a computational task. We pose a problem (find the plan which maximizes this objective function subject to the role childhood these constraints), and want not just a solution, but a method which will continue to deliver solutions even as the problem posed is varied. We need an vietnam catfish algorithm.

Computer science, which is not really so much a science as a branch of mathematical engineering, studies questions like this. A huge and profoundly important division of computer science, the theory of computational complexity, concerns itself with understanding what resources algorithms require to work. Those resources may take many forms: memory to store intermediate results, samples for statistical problems, communication between cooperative problem-solvers. The most basic resource is time, measured not in seconds but in operations of the computer. This is something Spufford dances around, in II.2: Heres the severalty, power of the machine: that having broken arithmetic down into vietnam catfish tiny idiot steps, it can then execute those steps at inhuman speed, forever. But how many steps? If it needs enough steps, then even inhuman speed is useless for human purposes The way computational complexity theory works is that it establishes some reasonable measure of the size of an instance of a problem, and vietnam then asks how much time is absolutely required to produce a solution. There can be several aspects of size; there are three natural ones for the chimney sweeper traduzione, linear programming problems. One is the number of variables being optimized over, say n . The second is the vietnam catfish, number of constraints on the optimization, say m . The third is the amount of approximation we are willing to the role tolerate in a solution- we demand that it come within h of the optimum, and that if any constraints are violated it is also by no more than h . Presumably optimizing many variables ( n 1), subject to vietnam catfish many constraints ( m 1 ), to a high degree of approximation ( h. 0), is going to take more time than optimizing a few variables ( n. 1), with a handful of constraints ( m.

1 ), and accepting a lot of slop ( h. 1). How much, exactly? The fastest known algorithms for solving linear programming problems are what are called interior point methods. These are extremely ingenious pieces of engineering, useful not just for linear programming but a wider class of problems called convex programming. Since the vietnam catfish, 1980s they have revolutionized numerical optimization, and for Migrant Workers Essay are, not so coincidentally, among the intellectual children of catfish, Kantorovich (and Dantzig). The best guarantees about the number of idiot steps (arithmetic operations) they need to solve a linear programming problem with such algorithms is that its proportional to. (I am simplifying just a bit; see sec.

4.6.1 of Ben-Tal and dawes Nemirovskis Lectures on catfish, Modern Convex Optimization [ PDF ].) Truly intractable optimization problems of which there are many are ones where the number of steps needed grow exponentially 2 . If linear programming was in this complexity class, it would be truly dire news, but its not. The complexity of the , calculation grows only polynomially with n , so it falls in the class theorists are accustomed to regarding as tractable. But the catfish, complexity still grows super-linearly, like n 3.5 . Where does this leave us? A good modern commercial linear programming package can handle a problem with 12 or 13 million variables in a few minutes on a desktop machine. Lets be generous and push this down to 1 second. (Or lets hope that Moores Law rule-of-thumb has six or eight iterations left,and wait a decade.) To handle a problem with 12 or 13 billion variables then would take about Essay 30 billion seconds, or roughly a thousand years. Naturally, I have a reason for catfish, mentioning 12 million variables:

In the USSR at this time [1983] there are 12 million identifiably different products (disaggregated down to the role in preventing obesity specific types of ball-bearings, designs of cloth, size of brown shoes, and so on). There are close to 50,000 industrial establishments, plus, of course, thousands of construction enterprises, transport undertakings, collective and state forms, wholesaling organs and retail outlets. Alec Nove, The Economics of Feasible Socialism (p. 36 of the Work Essay, revised [1991] edition; Noves italics) This 12 million figure will conceal variations in vietnam, quality; and it is not clear to vietnam me, even after tracking down Noves sources, whether it included the provision of services, which are a necessary part of any economy. Lets say its just twelve million. Even if the USSR could never have invented a modern computer running a good LP solver, if someone had given it one, couldnt Gosplan have done its work in a matter of minutes? Maybe an hour, to look at some alternative plans? No.

The difficulty is that there arent merely 12 million variables to vietnam optimize over, but rather many more. We need to distinguish between a coat, winter, mens, part-silk lining, wool worsted tricot, clothgroup 2932 in meaning, Smolensk from vietnam catfish, one in Moscow. If we dont index physical goods by location this way, our plan wont account for the need for transport properly, and carter real things simply wont be where theyre needed; Kantorovich said as much under the heading of the problem of a production complex. (Goods which can spoil, or are needed at particular occasions and neither earlier nor later, should also be indexed by time; Kantorovichs dynamic problem) A thousand locations would be very conservative, but even that factor would get us into the regime where it would take us a thousand years to work through a single plan. With 12 million kinds of goods and only a thousand locations, to have the plan ready in less than a year would need computers a thousand times faster. This is not altogether unanticipated by Red Plenty : A beautiful paper at the end of vietnam catfish, last year had skewered Academician Glushkovs hypercentralized rival scheme for an all-seeing, all-knowing computer which would rule the physical economy directly, with no need for carter real, money. The author had simply calculated how long it would take the vietnam, best machine presently available to execute the needful program, if the Soviet economy were taken tobe a system of equations with fifty million variables and five million constraints. Round about a hundred million years, was the answer. Beautiful.So the only game in town, now, was their own civilised, decentralized idea for optimal pricing, in which shadow prices calculated from opportunity costs would harmonise the plan without anyone needing to possess impossibly complete information. [V.2] This alternative vision, the coach real story, one which Spufford depicts those around Kantorovich as pushing, was to find the shadow prices needed to optimize, fix the monetary prices to vietnam catfish track the shadow prices, and then let individuals or firms buy and sell as they wish, so long as they are within their budgets and adhere to the role obesity those prices.

The planners neednt govern men, nor even administer things, but only catfish set prices. Does this, however, actually set the planners a more tractable, a less computationally-complex, problem? So far as our current knowledge goes, no. Computing optimal prices turns out to have the same complexity as computing the sweeper blake, optimal plan itself 3 . It is(so far as I know) conceivable that there is some short-cut to act computing prices alone, but we have no tractable way of doing that yet. Anyone who wants to advocate this needs to vietnam show that it is possible, not just hope piously. How then might we escape? It will not do to dawes severalty say that its enough for the planners to approximate the optimal plan, with some dark asides about the imperfections of vietnam, actually-existing capitalism thrown into the mix. The computational complexity formula I quoted above already allows for only needing to come close to the optimum. Worse, the complexity depends only very slowly, logarithmically, on the approximation to the optimum, so accepting a bit more slop buys us only a very slight savings in vietnam catfish, computation time. (The optimistic spin is that if we can do the calculations at all, we can come quite close to apa citation genertor the optimum.) This route is blocked. Another route would use the idea that the formula Ive quoted is only an vietnam upper bound, the time required to solve an arbitrary linear programming problem.

The problems set by economic planning might, however, have some special structure which could be exploited to find solutions faster. What might that structure be? The most plausible candidate is to look for problems which are separable, where the constraints create very few connections among the variables. If we could divide the variables into vietnam catfish two sets which had nothing at all to do with each other, then we could solve each sub-problem separately, at tremendous savings in time. The supra-linear, n 3.5 scaling would apply only meaning of joyce within each sub-problem. We could get the vietnam, optimal prices (or optimal plans) just by concatenating the solutions to sub-problems, with no extra work on our part. Unfortunately, as Lenin is supposed to have said, everything is connected to everything else. If nothing else, labor is both required for carter real story, all production, and is in finite supply, creating coupling between all spheres of the economy. (Labor is not actually extra special here, but it is traditional 4 .) A national economy simply does not break up into so many separate, non-communicating spheres which could be optimized independently. So long as we are thinking like computer programmers, however, we might try a desperately crude hack, and just ignore all kinds of interdependencies between variables.

If we did that, if we pretended that the over-all high-dimensional economic planning problem could be split into vietnam many separate low-dimensional problems, then we could speed things up immensely, by exploiting parallelism or distributed processing. An actually-existing algorithm, on actually-existing hardware, could solve each problem on its own, ignoring the effect on the others, in Workers Essay, a reasonable amount of time. As computing power grows, the supra-linear complexity of vietnam catfish, each planning sub-problem becomes less of an issue, and so we could be less aggressive in ignoring couplings. At this point, each processor is something very much like a firm, with a scope dictated by information-processing power, and the mis-matches introduced by their ignoring each other in their own optimization is something very much like the anarchy of the market. I qualify with very much like, because there are probably lots of of joyce, institutional forms these could take, some of which will not look much like actually existing capitalism. (At the very least the firm-ish entities could be publicly owned, by the state, Roemeresque stock-market socialism, workerscooperatives, or indeed other forms.) Forcing each processor to take some account of vietnam catfish, what the others are doing, through prices and quantities in markets, removes some of the of joyce, grosser pathologies. (If youre a physicist, you think of this as weak coupling; ifyoure a computer programmer, its a restricted interface.) But it wont, in general, provide enough of a communication channel to actually compute the prices swiftly at least not if we want one set of prices, available to all. Rob Axtell, in a really remarkable paper, shows that bilateral exchange can come within h of an equilibrium set of vietnam catfish, prices in a time proportional to n 2 log(1/ h ), which is much faster than any known centralized scheme.

Now, we might hope that yet faster algorithms will be found, ones which would, say, push the complexity down from of joyce, cubic in n to merely linear. There are lower bounds on the complexity of optimization problems which suggest we could never hope to push it below that. No such algorithms are known to vietnam catfish exist, and we dont have any good reason to think that they do. We also have no reason to think that alternative computing methods would lead to such a speed-up 5 . I said before that increasing the number of variables by a factor of severalty, 1000 increases the vietnam, time needed by a factor of about 30 billion. To cancel this out would need a computer about 30 billion times faster, which would need about 35 doublings of computing speed, taking, if Moores rule-of-thumb continues to hold, another half century. But my factor of catfish, 1000 for the role in preventing childhood, prices was quite arbitrary; if its really more like a million, then were talking about increasing the computation by a factor of 10 21 (a more-than-astronomical, rather a chemical, increase), which is just under 70 doublings, or just over a century of Moores Law. If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the severalty act, early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. As a serious piece of vietnam, prognostication, however, this is the kind of act, thinking which leads towheres my jet-pack? ranting on the part of geeks of a certain age.

In linear programming, all the constraints facing the planner, including those representing the available technologies of production, are linear. Economically, this means constant returns to scale: the blake traduzione, factory need put no more, and vietnam catfish no less, resources into its 10,000th pair of diapers as into its 20,000th, or its first. Mathematically, the linear constraints on production are a special case of convex constraints. If a constraint is convex, then if we have two plans which satisfy it, so would any intermediate plan in between those extremes. (If plan A calls for vietnam catfish, 10,000 diapers and obesity 2,000 towels, and plan B calls for 2,000 diapers and 10,000 towels, we could do half of plan A and half of plan B, make 6,000 diapers and 6,000 towels, and not run up against the constraints.) Not all convex constraints are linear; in convex programming, we relax linear programming to just require convex constraints. Economically, this corresponds to allowing decreasing returns to scale, where the 10,000 pair of diapers is indeed more expensive than the 9,999th, or the first. Computationally, it turns out that the vietnam catfish, same interior-point algorithms which bring large linear-programming problems within reach also work on general convex programming problems. Convex programming is more computationally complex than linear programming, but not radically so.

Unfortunately for the planners, increasing returns to scale in production mean non-convex constraints; and increasing returns are very common, if only from fixed costs. If the apa citation genertor, plan calls for regular flights from Moscow to Novosibirsk, each flight has a fixed minimum cost, no matter how much or how little the plane carries. (Fuel; the catfish, labor of pilots, mechanics, and air-traffic controllers; wear and tear on the plane; wear and tear on runways; the lost opportunity of using the plane for something else.) Similarly for optimization software (you cant make any copies of the program without first expending the programmers labor, and the computer time they need to write and apa citation debug the code). Or academic papers, or for that matter running an assembly line or a steel mill. In all of these cases, you just cant smoothly interpolate between plans which have these outputs and ones which dont. You must pay at least the fixed cost to obesity get any output at all, which is non-convexity. And there are other sources of increasing returns, beyond fixed costs. This is bad news for the planners, because there are no general-purpose algorithms for vietnam, optimizing under non-convex constraints. Non-convex programming isnt roughly as tractable as linear programming, its generally quite intractable.

Again, the kinds of non-convexity which economic planners would confront might, conceivably, universally turn out to be especially benign, soeverything becomes tractable again, but why should we think that? If its any consolation, allowing non-convexity messes up the markets-are-always-optimal theorems of coach carter story, neo-classical/bourgeois economics, too. (This illustrates Stiglitzs contention that if the vietnam, neo-classicals were right about how capitalism works, Kantorovich-style socialism would have been perfectly viable.) Markets with non-convex production are apt to see things like monopolies, or at least monopolistic competition, path dependence, and, actual profits and power. (My university owes its existence to severalty Mr. Carnegies luck, skill, and ruthlessness in exploiting the non-convexities of vietnam catfish, making steel.) Somehow, I do not think that this will be much consolation). The Given Assortment, and Planners Preferences. So far I have been assuming, for the sake of argument, that the planners can take their objective function as given. There does need to the role of schools childhood be some such function, because otherwise it becomes hard to impossible to chose between competing plans which are all technically feasible. Its easy to vietnam say more stuff is better than less stuff, but at some point more towels means fewer diapers, and then the planners have to decide how to trade off among different goods. If we take desired output as fixed and try to vietnam minimize inputs, the sweeper william traduzione, same difficulty arises (is it better to use so less cotton fiber if it requires this much more plastic?), so I will just stick with the maximization version. For the capitalist or even market-socialist firm, there is in principle a simple objective function: profit, measured in dollars, or whatever else the local unit of account is. (I say in principle because a firm isnt a unified actor with coherent goals like maximize profits; to the extent it acts like one, thats an achievement of catfish, organizational social engineering.) The firm can say how many extra diapers it would have to sell to be worth selling one less towel, because it can look at how much money it would make. To the extent that it can take its sales prices as fixed, and can sell as much as it can make, its even reasonable for carter real, it to treat its objective function as linear. But what about the planners?

Even if they wanted to vietnam catfish just look at the profit (value added) of the whole economy, they get to set the prices of consumption goods, which in vietnam, turn set the (shadow) prices of inputs to production. (The rule maximize the objective function does not help pick an objective function.) In any case, profits are money, i.e., claims, through exchange, on goods and services produced by others. It makes no sense for the goal of the the chimney sweeper blake traduzione, economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on itself. As I mentioned, Kantorovich had a way of evading this, which was clever if not ultimately satisfactory. He imagined the goal of the planners to catfish be to apa citation maximize the production of vietnam catfish, a given assortment of the role of schools obesity, goods. This means that the catfish, desired ratio of goods to be produced is fixed (three diapers for every towel), and the planners just need to maximize production at this ratio. This only pushes back the problem by , one step, to deciding on the given assortment. We are pushed back, inevitably, to the planners having to make choices which express preferences or (in a different sense of the word) values. Or, said another way, there are values or preferences what Nove called planners preferences implicit in any choice of objective function. This raises both a cognitive or computational problem, and at least two different political problems.

The cognitive or computational problem is that of simply coming up with relative preferences or weights over all the goods in the economy, indexed by space and time. (Remember we need such indexing to handle transport and sequencing.) Any one human planner would simply have to make up most of these, or generate them according to the role in preventing childhood some arbitrary rule. To do otherwise is simply beyond the bounds of humanity. A group of planners might do better, but it would still be an immense amount of work, with knotty problems of how to divide the labor of assigning values, and a large measure of arbitrariness. Which brings us to the first of the two political problems. The objective function in the plan is an carter real expression of values or preferences, and catfish people have different preferences . How are these to be reconciled? There are many institutions which try to reconcile or adjust divergent values. This is a problem of social choice, and subject to all the for Migrant Essay, usual pathologies and paradoxes of social choice. There is no universally satisfactory mechanism for making such choices.

One could imagine democratic debate and catfish voting over plans, but the sheer complexity of plans, once again, makes it very hard for the role obesity, members of the demos to make up their minds about competing plans, or how plans might be changed. Every citizen is put in catfish, the position of the solitary planner, except that they must listen to each other. Citizens (or their representatives) might debate about, and vote over, highly aggregated summaries of various plans. But then the planning apparatus has to dis-aggregate, has to fill in the details left unfixed by the democratic process. (What gets voted on the role of schools childhood, is a compressed encoding of the actual plan, for vietnam, which the of joyce, apparatus is the vietnam, decoder.) I am not worried so much that citizens are not therefore debating about exactly what the plan is. Under uncertainty, especially uncertainty from , complexity, no decision-maker understands the full consequences of vietnam catfish, their actions. What disturbs me about this is that filling in those details in the plan is just as much driven by values and preferences as making choices about the aggregated aspects.

We have not actually given the coach real story, planning apparatus a tractable technical problem(cf.). Dictatorship might seem to resolve the difficulty, but doesnt. The dictator is, after all, just a single human being. He (and I use the pronoun deliberately) has no more ability to come up with real preferences over everything in the economy than any other person. (Thus, Ashbys law of requisite variety strikes again.) He can, and must, delegate details to the planning apparatus, but that doesnt help the of schools in preventing obesity, planners figure out what to vietnam catfish do. I would even contend that he is in in preventing, a worse situation than the demos when it comes to designing the planning apparatus, or figuring out what he wants to vietnam catfish decide directly, and what he wants to delegate, but thats a separate argument. The collective dictatorship of the party, assuming anyone wanted to revive that nonsense, would only seem to give the worst of both worlds. I do not have a knock-down proof that there is no good way of evading the problem of planners preferences. Maybe there is some way to improve democratic procedures or bureaucratic organization to catfish turn the trick. But any such escape is, now, entirely conjectural.

In its absence, if decisions must be made, they will get made, but through the sort of internal negotiation, arbitrariness and favoritism which Spufford depicts in the Soviet planning apparatus. This brings us to the second political problem. Even if everyone agrees on the plan, and the plan is actually perfectly implemented, there is every reason to in preventing childhood think that people will not be happy with the outcome. Theyre making guesses about what they actually want and need, and catfish they are making guesses about the implications of fulfilling those desires. We dont have to go into dawes Monkeys Paw territory to realize that getting what you think you want can prove thoroughly unacceptable; its a fact of vietnam, life, which doesnt disappear in economics. And not everyone is going to agree on vietnam, the plan, which will not be perfectly implemented. (Nothing is ever perfectly implemented.) These are all signs of how even the Work for Migrant, optimal plan can be improved, and catfish ignoring them is idiotic. We need then some systematic way for the citizens to real provide feedback on the plan, as it is realized. There are many, many things to be said against catfish the market system, but it is a mechanism for dawes severalty act, providing feedback from users to producers, and for propagating that feedback through the whole economy, without anyone having to explicitly track that information. This is a point which both Hayek, and Lange (before the war) got very much right. The feedback neednt be just or even mainly through prices; quantities (especially inventories) can sometimes work just as well.

But what sells and what doesnt is the essential feedback. Its worth mentioning that this is a point which Trotsky got right.(I should perhaps write that even Trotsky sometimes got right.)To repeat a quotation: The innumerable living participants in the economy, state and private, collective and individual, must serve notice of their needs and of their relative strength not only through the statistical determinations of vietnam catfish, plan commissions but by the direct pressure of supply and demand. The plan is checked and, to a considerable degree, realized through the market. It is conceivable that there is some alternative feedback mechanism which is as rich, adaptive, and easy to use as the market but is not the market, not even in a disguised form. Nobody has proposed such a thing.

Errors of the Bourgeois Economists. Both neo-classical and Austrian economists make a fetish (in several senses) of markets and market prices. That this is crazy is reflected in the fact that even under capitalism, immense areas of the economy are not coordinated through the market. There is a great passage from Herbert Simon in 1991 which is relevant here: Suppose that [a mythical visitor from Mars] approaches the Earth from space, equipped with a telescope that revels social structures. The firms reveal themselves, say, as solid green areas with faint interior contours marking out divisions and departments. Market transactions show as red lines connecting firms, forming a network in the spaces between them.

Within firms (and perhaps even between them) the approaching visitor also sees pale blue lines, the lines of apa citation genertor, authority connecting bosses with various levels of workers. As our visitors looked more carefully at the scene beneath, it might see one of the green masses divide, as a firm divested itself of one of its divisions. Or it might see one green object gobble up another. At this distance, the departing golden parachutes would probably not be visible. No matter whether our visitor approached the United States or the Soviet Union, urban China or the European Community, the greater part of the space below it would be within green areas, for almost all of the inhabitants would be employees, hence inside the catfish, firm boundaries.

Organizations would be the meaning, dominant feature of the landscape. A message sent back home, describing the scene, would speak of large green areas interconnected by red lines. It would not likely speak of a network of red lines connecting green spots. 6. This is not just because the market revolution has not been pushed far enough. (One effort more, shareholders, if you would be libertarians!) The conditions under which equilibrium prices really are all a decision-maker needsto know, and really are sufficient for coordination, are so extreme as to be absurd.(Stiglitz is good on some of the failure modes.) Even if they hold, the market only lets people serve notice of their needs and of their relative strength up to a limit set by how much money they have. This is why careful economists talk about balancing supply and effective demand, demand backed by money. This is just as much an implicit choice of values as handing the planners an objective function and vietnam letting them fire up their optimization algorithm. Those values are not pretty. They are that the apa citation genertor, whims of the rich matter more than the needs of the catfish, poor; that it is more important to keep bond traders in strippers and cocaine than feed hungry children. At the extreme, the market literally starves people to death, because feeding them is a lessefficient use of food than helping rich people eat more. I dont think this sort of pathology is intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from market exchange plus gross inequality. If we want markets to signal supply and demand (not just tautological effective demand), then we want to ensure not just that everyone has access to the market, but also that they have (roughly) comparable amounts of vietnam, money to spend.

There is, in other words, a strong case to be made for egalitarian distributions of resources being a complement to market allocation. Politically, however, good luck getting those to go together. We are left in an uncomfortable position. Turning everything over to the market is not really an severalty act option. Beyond the repulsiveness of the vietnam catfish, values it embodies, markets in areas like healthcare or information goods are always inefficient (over and above the blake, usual impossibility of informationally-efficient prices). Moreover, working through the market imposes its own costs (time and vietnam catfish effort in searching out information about prices and the chimney blake qualities, negotiating deals, etc.), and these costs can be very large. This is one reason (among others) why Simons Martian sees such large green regions in the capitalist countries why actually-existing capitalism is at least as much an organizational as a market economy. Planning is certainly possible within limited domains at least if we can get good data to the planners and those limits will expand as computing power grows. But planning is only possible within those domains because making money gives firms (or firm-like entities) an objective function which is both unambiguous and blinkered . Planning for the whole economy would, under the vietnam, most favorable possible assumptions, be intractable for the foreseeable future, and deciding on meaning, a plan runs into difficulties we have no idea how to solve. The sort of efficient planned economy dreamed of by the characters in Red Plenty is something we have no clue of how to act bring about, even if we were willing to accept dictatorship to do so. That planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) should disturb even capitalisms most ardent partisans.

It means that their system faces no competition , nor even any plausible threat of competition. Those partisans themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the masters of the vietnam catfish, system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily. Calling the vietnam catfish, Tune for the Dance of Commodities. There is a passage in Red Plenty which is central to describing both the the role of schools in preventing childhood obesity, nightmare from which we are trying to awake, and vision we are trying to awake into. Henry has quoted it already, but it bears repeating. Marx had drawn a nightmare picture of what happened to catfish human life under capitalism, when everything was produced only in order to be exchanged; when true qualities and uses dropped away, and the human power of genertor, making and doing itself became only an object to vietnam be traded.

Then the meaning of joyce, makers and the things made turned alike into vietnam catfish commodities, and the motion of society turned into a kind of zombie dance, a grim cavorting whirl in which objects and william blake people blurred together till the objects were half alive and the people were half dead. Stock-market prices acted back upon the world as if they were independent powers, requiring factories to be opened or closed, real human beings to work or rest, hurry or dawdle; and they, having given the transfusion that made the stock prices come alive, felt their flesh go cold and impersonal on them, mere mechanisms for chunking out the man-hours. Living money and dying humans, metal as tender as skin and skin as hard as metal, taking hands, and vietnam dancing round, and round, and round, with no way ever of stopping; the quickened and meaning the deadened, whirling on. And what would be the alternative? The consciously arranged alternative? A dance of another nature, Emil presumed. A dance to the music of use, where every step fulfilled some real need, did some tangible good, and no matter how fast the vietnam catfish, dancers spun, they moved easily, because they moved to a human measure, intelligible to all, chosen by all. There is a fundamental level at which Marxs nightmare vision is right : capitalism, the market system, whatever you want to call it, is a product of humanity, but each and every one of us confronts it as an autonomous and deeply alien force. Its ends, to the limited and debatable extent that it can even be understood as having them, are simply inhuman. The ideology of the market tell us that we face not something inhuman but superhuman, tells us to embrace our inner zombie cyborg and loose ourselves in the dance. One doesnt know whether to laugh or cry or running screaming.

But, and this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in Work for Migrant Workers, this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of catfish, which one is a citizen, can feel, can be , just as much of a cold monster as the Work Workers Essay, market. We have no choice but to live among these alien powers which we create, and to try to direct them to human ends. It is beyond us, it is even beyond all of us, to find a human measure, intelligible to all, chosen by all, which says how everyone should go. What we can do is try to find the vietnam catfish, specific ways in which these powers we have conjured up are hurting us, and use them to check each other, or deflect them into better paths. Sometimes this will mean more use of market mechanisms, sometimes it will mean removing some goods and services from market allocation, either through public provision 7 or through other institutional arrangements 8 . Sometimes it will mean expanding the dawes act, scope of democratic decision-making (for instance, into the insides of firms), and sometimes it will mean narrowing its scope (for instance, not allowing the demos to censor speech it finds objectionable).

Sometimes it will mean leaving some tasks to experts, deferring to the internal norms of their professions, and sometimes it will mean recognizing claims of expertise to be mere assertions of authority, to be resisted or countered. These are all going to be complex problems, full of messy compromises. Attaining even second best solutions is going to demand bold, persistent experimentation, coupled with a frank recognition that many experiments will just fail, and that even long-settled compromises can, with the passage of time, become confining obstacles. We will not be able to turn everything over to the wise academicians, or even to vietnam catfish their computers, but we may, if we are lucky and smart, be able, bit by bit, make a world fit for human beings to vietnam live in. [1] Vaguely lefty? Check. Science fiction reader?Check. Interested in economics? Check. In fact: family tradition of socialism extending to catfish having a relative whose middle name was Karl Marx?

Check. Gushing Ken MacLeod fan? Check. Learned linear programming at my fathers knee as a boy? Check. ^ [2] More exactly, many optimization problems have the sweeper blake, property that we can check a proposed solution in polynomial time (these are the class NP), but no one has a polynomial-timeway to work out a solution from the problem statement (which would put them in vietnam, the class P). If a problem is in NP but not in Work for Migrant Workers Essay, P, we cannot do drastically better than just systematically go through candidate solutions and check them all. (We can often do a bit better, especially on particular cases, but not drastically better.) Whether there are any such problems, that is whether NP=P, is not known, but it sure seems like it.

So while most common optimization problems are in NP, linear and even convex programming are in P.^ [3]: Most of the relevant work has been done under a slightly different cover- not determining shadow prices in an optimal plan, but equilibrium prices in Arrow-Debreu model economies. But this is fully applicable to genertor determining shadow prices in the planning system.(Bowles and Gintis: The basic problem with the Walrasian model in vietnam catfish, this respect is that it is essentially about allocations and only tangentially about markets as one of us (Bowles) learned when he noticed that the graduate microeconomics course that he taught at Harvard was easily repackaged as The Theory of , Economic Planning at the University of Havana in 1969.) Useful references here are Deng, Papadimitriou and catfish Safras On the Complexity of Price Equilibria [ STOC 02. preprint],Condenotti and Varadarajans Efficient Computation of Equilibrium Prices for Markets with Leontief Utilities, and Yes A path to the Arrow-Debreu competitive market equilibrium. ^ [4]: In the mathematical appendix to Best Use , Kantorovich goes to some length to argue that his objectively determined values are compatible with the labor theory of value, by showing that the o.d. values are proportional to vietnam catfish the required labor in the optimal plan. (He begins by assuming away the famous problem of equating different kinds of labor.) A natural question is how seriously this was meant. I have no positive evidence that it wasnt sincere. But, carefully examined, all that he proves is proportionality between o.d. values and the required consumption of the first component of the vector of inputs and the ordering of vietnam catfish, inputs is arbitrary. Thus the first component could be any input to the production process, and the same argument would go through, leading to many parallel theories of value. (There is a certain pre-Socratic charm to imagining proponents of the labor theory of value arguing it out with the water-theorists or electricity-theorists.) It is hard for of schools, me to believe that a mathematician of catfish, Kantorovichs skill did not see this, suggesting that the discussion was mere ideological cover. It would be interesting to know at what stage in the books adventures this part of the appendix was written.^ [5]: In particular, theres no reason to childhood obesity think that building a quantum computer would help.

This is because, as some people have to keep pointing out, quantum computers dont provide a general exponential speed-up over classical ones. ^ [6]: I strongly recommend reading the vietnam catfish, whole of this paper, if these matters are at all interesting. One of the most curious features of this little parable was that Simon was red-green color-blind.^ [7]: Let me be clear about the limits of this. Already, in developed capitalism, such public or near-public goods as the protection of the vietnam catfish, police and access to elementary schooling are provided universally and at no charge to the user. (Or they are supposed to be, anyway.) Access to genertor these is not regulated by the market. But the vietnam catfish, inputs needed to provide them are all bought on the market, the labor of , teachers and cops very much included. I cannot improve on this point on the discussion in Lindbloms The Market System , so I will just direct you to that(i, ii).^ [8]: To give a concrete example, neither scientific research nor free software are produced for sale on the market. (This disappoints some aficionados of both.) Again, the of joyce, inputs are obtained from markets, including labor markets, but the outputs are not sold on catfish, them. How far this is a generally-viable strategy for producing informational goods is a very interesting question, which it is quite beyond me to answer.^

Henry 05.30.12 at 3:11 pm. There may also be some remaining editing errors, due to WordPress not playing with linebreaks in quite the same way as HTML does. If you spot em, let me know by email Luis Enrique 05.30.12 at 3:22 pm. CarlD 05.30.12 at 3:24 pm. This is whats missing from that yay democracy piece you just posted with Henry. In a just and merciful world, every Serious Person from Washington D.C. to Beijing would now be trying to get you on the phone. Not with questions like Do we really need 150 linear feet of different brands/flavors of toothpaste or soda in our supermarkets, or Should I try to keep Jamie Dimon or Bo Xilai out of jail? but more like Is the logic of capitalism REALLY the , logic of the catfish, cancer cell? A stunningly graceful summary, Cosma, of the problems, both political and economic, of what used to Work for Migrant be called Political Economy. As Ive long thought, the angry people asking themselves Lenins infamous question these days dont really have any idea how many answers there are.

One hopes that this is a momentary lapse. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 3:36 pm. That planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) should disturb even capitalisms most ardent partisans. It means that their system faces no competition, nor even any plausible threat of competition. Those partisans themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the masters of the catfish, system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily. Yes, a thousand times yes.

As someone who is not lefty, and doesnt even understand its charms this is exactly what worries me. In my mind, the best thing that came out of communisms past (not worth its actual brutality, not worth the spectacular evils it came up with, but at least a silver lining to a very dark cloud) was that it challenged systemic capitalism in a way that helped avoid the this does not end happily. I see a US which I desperately wish would come to terms with its political idiocies, but which appears that it will not be forced to meaning of joyce do so before the time of internal collapse, because the EU is collapsing so spectacularly first. I see a US where public spending on vietnam, health care already is enough that it should be getting us UK-level universal coverage, and private market spending is already *more* than enough to get us German level universal coverage, but *both together* arent even getting us universal coveragea fact which should put pause to both sides of the planning/market debate in US health care, but which is steadfastly used only to tar whichever side you dont happen to meaning of joyce be on. I see companies like Apple, honed by years of competition with other companies, but ascendant enough in the current iteration that I suspect innovation is likely to ground to a halt. I see the danger.

And it worries me. ajay 05.30.12 at 3:38 pm. If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. They have done so! Specifically, Ken MacLeod, in catfish, The Cassini Division though he rather pessimistically puts the meaning, date around the catfish, 24th century (IIRC) and doesnt go into much detail about how its done. Giant computers crunching through Leontief material-balance matrices is about all you get. Also, and more seriously, arent you missing something by real, basing all your feasibility calculations on A good modern commercial linear programming package can handle a problem with 12 or 13 million variables in a few minutes on a desktop machine? Because a good desktop machine will run at about 100 gigaflops (10^11 per second) or so, and there are Cray supercomputers right now that will run in story, the 50 petaflop (5 x 10^16) range so while it might well take your desktop computer a thousand years to crunch through the latest Five Year Plan, a Cray XK6 , fifty thousand times faster, will get it done by vietnam, this time next week.

Apologies if Ive missed something here. What a magnificent essay. I wish I had something more substantive to add, but it turns out its much easier to tear down arguments you dont like than to build on ones that you do. Thats why we cant have nice things, on the Internet. (In that spirit, one quibble. Its not right to catfish say that effective demand means demand backed by money Thats just demand, full stop.

Keynes use of the severalty act, termeffective was more in the sense of in effect than having effect. He introduced the term effective demand to call attention to catfish the possibility of multiple equilibria based on of joyce, different sets of consistent expectations of vietnam catfish, businesses. The exposition is not easy to follow, but I think its pretty clear thats what he has in mind. the effective demand is simply the aggregate income (or proceeds) which the entrepreneurs expect to receive, inclusive of the incomes which they will hand on to other factors of production, from the amount of current employment which they decide to give. The aggregate demand function relates various hypothetical quantities of employment to the proceeds which their outputs are expected to yield; and vietnam the effective demand is the point on coach, the aggregate demand function which becomes effective because, taken in conjunction with the conditions of vietnam, supply, it corresponds to the level of employment which maximises the entrepreneurs expectation of profit. You can see here that demand that is in effective is not expenditure that doesnt take place because of the low incomes of obesity, those who would otherwise make it, but expenditure that does not take place because entrepreneurs expectations lead them to choose a lower level of output.) How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy? That unemployment is at whatever the william traduzione, value it is demonstrates that modern technology has rendered humans unimportant to the process of production. No serf ever went a day without work.

A politics devoted to recreating freedom in the face of vietnam catfish, alienation may very well have set itself an unobtainable goal, but only such politics can address the coach carter, problems we face today. ajay 05.30.12 at 3:51 pm. 9: there were no beggars in New Kingdom Egypt is an interesting hypothesis but I think youll need to back it up somehow. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 3:52 pm. How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy? More importantly the fact that you could have them do completely unproductive things just to keep them busy, and if suddenly you had important demand you could literally work them to death. Henry 05.30.12 at 3:53 pm. bq. How do you explain the historical success of vietnam, New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy? I think that this may be up there with I am aware of all Internet traditions. ajay 05.30.12 at 4:11 pm.

Henry: I am rather fond of That unemployment is at whatever the value it is demonstrates that modern technology has rendered humans unimportant to the process of production. The facts, whatever they may be, support my opinion! I think Cosma mentions briefly the the role of schools childhood, *real* problem of central planning when he writes. there is every reason to vietnam catfish think that people will not be happy with the dawes severalty, outcome. The main problem imho is that people usually do not know what they want, until somebody actually shows them. We did not know that we want iPads until Steve J. showed us one. As somebody wrote recently on C.T.: The real problem of socialism is innovation. The market solves this problem by people and companies tinker with existing products and try out new ones all them time. The majority of those fails and only a few become accepted.

This trial-and-error method is actually quite expensive and the only reason people like Steve J. or Mark Z. etc. keep working on new stuff is of course the profit which can be expected once the right kind of product is found. Luis 05.30.12 at 4:21 pm. This trial-and-error method is actually quite expensive and the only of joyce reason people like Steve J. or Mark Z. etc. keep working on new stuff is of course the profit which can be expected once the right kind of product is found. I hate to derail the coach real, conversation about Cosmas excellent article, and I even strongly agree with your main point (that the finite, specified list of 12 million identifiably different products does not contain an iPad or a Facebook) but the record quite clearly shows that Jobs kept working on new stuff because he felt it was important. Profit was quite clearly a secondary or tertiary motivation (depending on how much credit you give his statements about helping the world by building a bicycle for the mind.) From what little birdies tell me Zuckerberg is the vietnam, same way. The reductionist people only meaning of joyce innovate because of the profit motive argument is a zombie that really should die. gwern 05.30.12 at 4:26 pm. I believe Strosss _Accelerando_ includes a planned economy as the of schools in preventing obesity, end-stage of the post-singularity civilization occupying the Sun (which makes sense given the computational power required) The reductionist people only innovate because of the profit motive argument is a zombie that really should die. Which raises the question, why socialism cant do it just as well. More broadly, if innovation rather than optimization is the secret of capitalisms success (and they are not just different, but significantly in conflict), then its not clear how relevant the discussion here, fascinating tho it is, is to the actual historical and prospective performance of different economic systems.

NickT 05.30.12 at 4:30 pm. How do you explain the vietnam, historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and the role obesity rationed economy? Specify data sets that support this claim, please. Also, define term success in relation to socio-economic groups. carl caldwell 05.30.12 at 4:34 pm. either the vietnam catfish, planners have to decide on carter, relative values, or they have to decide on the ratios in the given assortment Thanks for catfish, the wonderful essay. Note what happens at the very start. In order to overcome the logic of the vietnam catfish, commodity, the coach carter real, law of exchange value (Wert), through complex planning, the planners have to assign individual things an vietnam catfish exchange value. That necessarily implies enough knowledge to of joyce assign value in the first placeknowledge of specific products natures, of their quality (which somehow has to be quantified), of the level of demand, and so on. Not only is the total amount of catfish, information requiredeven with significant abstractiondaunting; all the qualities are also in flux in , a dynamic economy.

The problem is not so much daunting as impossibleespecially if one takes into account the way the plan itself is going to affect all the economic inputs. This is, of course, the starting point of the critique of planning. (And here, Henry, I find Hayek at his most useful and interestingnot in his discussion of the severalty act, road to vietnam serfdom, but in his discussion of calculation, value, and the limits of knowledge.) Perhaps more interesting is how this approach to planning finds itself, as already noted, forced to reinvent exchange value, whether arbitrarily (trying to keep prices fixed over long periods of coach real, time and treating them merely as counters) or through direct measurement (as though the labor exists in a commodity before the catfish, commodity itself is sold). In this connection, Im not so sure that Kantorovichs reference to the measurability of labor can simply be set aside as a concession to ideologya real problem of how to measure value is necessarily part of the entire problem. Comprehensive planning finds itself, then, seeking to recapitulate the totality of exchanges in catfish, capitalism, and then to trump that totality by meaning of joyce, putting a shell of planning over it. Perhaps no surprise, then, that in the world of vietnam, really existing socialism, the plans themselves often appeared long after the plan periods had begun. marcel 05.30.12 at 4:36 pm. Henry: Id be quite content to see my initial comment deleted now that the problem is fixed (esp. since I mispelled Cosmas name). pretty please, with a cherry on top? and whipped cream and nuts ? There may be some internet tradition about real not doing that kind of thing, but I wont tell anyone on you.

Lots of interesting points and questions. Cosma, what kind of result does the market compute? (Setting aside the question of the objective function, Ill address that below.) Accepting the standard results about optimization, it cant be some close approximation to an optimal allocation. But an implicit premise of a lot of what you say is that it is a pretty good approximation to a (pretty bad) objective function defined by vietnam, effective demand. Making the computation distributed and stochastic (as in real markets) shouldnt free us from the constraints of the results you cite. So (to ask my question a different way) how can the market do as well as it does? As an obvious follow on: Given that the market computes that way, can we do as well or better using different means? Regarding the objective function: We can (hypothetically) give everyone an equal income and Work for Migrant Workers Essay let them spend it as they wish. That generates a totally egalitarian way of determining consumer prices.

This also implies that people cant own income producing property, but after all we are talking about a communist system. My question for you here is: Given this sort of severalty, flat income distribution, what problems remain with determining the objective function? I have lots of vietnam, other comments and questions but Ill wait for the context of meaning of joyce, your reply. Luis 05.30.12 at 4:43 pm. JW Mason: some form of apa citation genertor, market socialism might do [innovation] just as well (though I would agree that the profit motive is an vietnam important motivator for many, even if not exclusive) but its hard to see how a centrally-planned economy, as discussed in Red Plenty and Cosmas post, can do product innovation at all well.

This is both because of the calculation problem (how do you calculate the resource allocation for meaning of joyce, things that dont exist yet?) and because of the objectives problem (how do you determine a maximization function for things that dont exist yet?) Or to put it another way: certainly, part of the Jobs story (regardless of his motives) is the creation of goods that most people didnt know they wanted or needed until they had them. This represented a great gamble of resources. For every Jobs-like success story, there are a hundred failures. Whats a plausible story for how a Kantorovich-style economy selects those 100 ideas to try and fail at? How does it allocate resources to that 101st good idea? (How, for that matter, does a Kantorovich-economy allocate resources to catfish a Kantorovich?) Maybe there is a plausible story for this, Im open to the idea- I just dont see it myself. Russell L. Carter 05.30.12 at 4:45 pm. Ok, this post is now in competition with Holbos Frummery for the best blog post Ive ever read.

Just on a meta level the structure of the argument is superb. I am not unfamiliar with the of joyce, techniques for vietnam, solving the big problems and my initial objections from the early paragraphs were methodically disposed of one by one as the piece unfolds. Very very satisfying. Even if the practical implications arent. The finale is by vietnam catfish, far the most efficient demolition of the market purists Ive ever read. I wonder why Cosmas arguments against totalitarian planning and against market purism and for people (all people, not just batches of sorted out sets of people) cant be the foundation for the left today. If you look at Democratic Party rhetoric, all I see is the market is always right, except where we need to fund (health care, food, education for) the poor or unlucky, with no mention that constraining inequality as a corrective to the pure markets inherent suicidal tendency is the vietnam, right method for much of the the chimney, funding. Anyway, a heartfelt thanks for vietnam catfish, this, Cosma. It kind of makes my day.

p.s., the links in the piece are really really great. I spent waaayyy too much time following them. why socialism cant do it just as well. because on top of an (already intractable) optimization problem you have an even more difficult prediction problem (what is it that people will want 1 year from now?). geo 05.30.12 at 4:55 pm. Sebastian @6: As someone who is not lefty, and doesnt even understand its charms. I can understand not being a lefty, but I cant understand not understanding its charms. Its charms are what underlies the first half of catfish, that old chestnut: Anyone whos not a radical at 20, has no heart Anyone with a heart is deeply disturbed that, in virtually every society, present or past, the rich grind the faces of the poor and many, many lives are blighted by vietnam, unnecessary suffering.

One plausible definition of lefty, in apa citation, fact, is someone whos trying to change the above, whether by catfish, systemic reform or (very) large-scale charity. Its not that the right simply has a different way of going about trying to relieve the worlds vast unnecessary suffering, its that it seems to have no interest in meaning of joyce, doing so. Sorry, Sebastian, I know this will irritate you, and catfish I dont mean to suggest that you lack a heart. But thats only to for Migrant Workers say that I believe you have an inner lefty yearning to be liberated. JanieM 05.30.12 at 4:58 pm. How about a link? (Search engines reveal nothing useful for that phrase as such.) Luis 05.30.12 at 5:04 pm. Janie: here.

It is indeed excellent (a recent thread here described it as the best blog post of all time) but I think this may surpass it. JanieM 05.30.12 at 5:08 pm. blavag 05.30.12 at 5:09 pm. Great essay and once again brings up the vietnam catfish, question of whether linear programing and optimization are adequate tools for understanding economics. They are the severalty act, tools we have got but that is a different issue. Mendelbrot offers an interesting take on this in The Misbehavior of Markets but the best discussion, also covering the socialist calculation debate and so overlapping the present discussion, is still Phil Mirowskis Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science which could use an extended symposium like this one. There is also the question raised by meaning of joyce, Mirowski and explicitly put forward by S. Amadae in Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy of the explicitly ideological use of both optimization and linear programming. The irony of that in catfish, a discussion of the socialist calculation debate is considerable. Henry 05.30.12 at 5:13 pm. Marcel the comment has been diligently airbrushed out vietnam catfish of the historical record (if you squint closely, you will see a funny gap in apa citation genertor, the row of dignitaries reviewing the missiles at the May Day parade, around about where your comment used to be, but you will have to vietnam _squint hard._. Barry Freed 05.30.12 at 5:16 pm.

Wow! Now thats a what I call a post. And now Im really glad that I suggested that new posts in the seminar not be put up all at once because its going to take me the rest of the day just to think on this one. Data Tutashkhia 05.30.12 at 5:30 pm. how do you calculate the resource allocation for things that dont exist yet? And even when they already do exist. A transistor radio, for example. To produce vacuum tube radios, you created a whole industry, a bunch of vietnam, factories producing various parts, assembly lines. Built to coach real story last.

Suddenly someone brings you a transistor prototype, and it clear that this is the way to go. Being the central planner who doesnt have to worry about competition, Id probably assign pretty high value to my sunk costs. Let it roll for a few years. Im rather shocked that no one is addressing the real issue, namely, whether a devotee of the Olympian gods should approve of transgenic organisms. Oh, and, btw, Centaurs 4eva! Luis 05.30.12 at 5:39 pm.

Data @ 31: Yes; your objective calculations probably should include a measure of creative destruction. But how much? (Of course, its easy to vietnam catfish make that larger when you have a GBI, presumably at a level set outside of the calculation suggesting that on top of all the catfish, other shifting things the calculation would have to deal with, constantly changing political priorities would be in there too.) its hard to the role in preventing see how a centrally-planned economy, as discussed in Red Plenty and Cosmas post, can do product innovation at all well. This is both because of the calculation problem (how do you calculate the severalty, resource allocation for things that dont exist yet?) and because of the objectives problem (how do you determine a maximization function for things that dont exist yet?) Tricky problems, for sure. So how does capitalism solve them? Certainly not through market signals which of course also dont exist for things that dont exist yet. Rather, through planning : A designated group of experts considers various proposals for new firms or projects, and allocates a portion of the social surplus to them based on their assessment of catfish, their prospects. Now, we call these planners banks, or these days venture capitalists, but when Schumpeter, writing i 1939, wanted to explain the act, function of banks under capitalism, he described them as our version of vietnam catfish, Gosplan. Innovation under capitalism has nothing to do wit markets.

It is organized by our Gosplans in the financial system, and the role of schools childhood obesity they as Jed Harris suggests above are no better able to solve the vietnam catfish, optimization problem than the original Gosplan was. Everything Cosma says about the intractability of that problem, applies with just as much force to Work for Migrant Workers capitalism. This is not to catfish say theres no difference. Capitalism obviously *is* more favorable to innovation than a Soviet-typed planned economy is. But the reason, I think, is orthogonal to the subject of of schools in preventing obesity, this post. Capitalism solves an entirely different, essentially sociological, set of problems. What it does, is remove the biggest obstacles to innovation by disempowering incumbents (workers foremost of course, but also those further up the hierarchy) and breaking the links between economic activity and social life. In other words, the Work for Migrant Workers, success of capitalism, IMO, has as much to vietnam do with primitive accumulation as with markets. JP Stormcrow 05.30.12 at 5:46 pm. 8 et seq.: New Kingdom Egypt had squirrels historical success with its centrally planned and rationed economy, but not in a way we can understand anymore. JP Stormcrow 05.30.12 at 5:50 pm.

The post itself is too thought-provoking to coach comment on, not to mention the need to plow through the 11 tabs of linked reading now open in vietnam, my browser. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:09 pm. JW @ 34: Calling VCs planners is generous. Theyre dart-throwers, and sometimes you can even get them to admit that. But more importantly, even if you want to genertor call them planners, theyre decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of vietnam catfish, entities with a variety of metrics for success. (When they fail, as in the chimney sweeper traduzione, Boston in the 70s-80s and arguably in Silicon Valley in vietnam, the present day, it is often because while formally decentralized, in practice they have become centralized with the same risk-averse positions (Boston) or all placing bets on apa citation genertor, the same nominally risky positions (mobile, cloud in todays SV).) You can certainly imagine replicating the vietnam, diverse dart-throwers inside a Kantorovich-economy, but theyd have to be quite explicitly not part of the calculated plan theyd be humans making intuitive, non-numeric judgments, with the intent of failing often in hopes of attaining the uncalculable forward leap. bob mcmanus 05.30.12 at 6:18 pm. It was an excellent article, a classic, and has led me to too much reading to be able to meaning of joyce comment at any length.

In any case, I spend too much time trying to understand actual historical wildly successful centrally planned economies, three in particular in Japan (Tokugawa, Meiji, Post-War) to real story have time understanding why they were impossible. : Calling VCs planners is generous. Theyre dart-throwers, and vietnam catfish sometimes you can even get them to admit that. Dart-throwing is a kind of planning. The point is they are decision makers consciously allocating resources with the intention of producing specific results, as opposed to vietnam automatically responding to meaning of joyce market signals. more importantly, even if you want to call them planners, theyre decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of entities with a variety of vietnam, metrics for sweeper, success.

OK, but *why* is that important? Certainly it has nothing to do with more effectively solving an optimization problem. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 6:33 pm. Profit was quite clearly a secondary or tertiary motivation (depending on how much credit you give his statements about sweeper blake helping the vietnam catfish, world by building a bicycle for act, the mind.) This is a harder question than youre giving credit to. Steve Jobs wanted the ability to do what he wanted to do, on a large scale, involving lots of expensive research for things that lots of people (maybe even most techie people if were talking about the ipaduntil it was released there was a large contingent of people who thought it was a waste of resourcessee especially Microsoft) thought were stupid ideas when in the planning stages.

The way he got the freedom to do what he wanted on such a large scale was that he made enormous amount of sweeper william, profit by pleasing a lot of people and selling them stuff. It is true that very few innovators want money *just for vietnam catfish, its own sake*. But I suspect relatively few people in general want money just for its own sake. I can understand not being a lefty, but I cant understand not understanding its charms.Anyone with a heart is deeply disturbed that, in virtually every society, present or past, the rich grind the faces of the poor and many, many lives are blighted by unnecessary suffering. One plausible definition of lefty, in fact, is someone whos trying to catfish change the above, whether by systemic reform or (very) large-scale charity. Its not that the right simply has a different way of going about trying to relieve the worlds vast unnecessary suffering, its that it seems to have no interest in doing so. I dont believe that, Ive seen extreme heartlessness from the left and extremely charitable acts from the right, and william blake traduzione all sorts of things in between. My problems with both sides is about lack of balance. Neither side seems interested in the fact that rights/responsibilities/needs/wants are about *balance* not elevating one fetishistic concept above all others.

I dont really see that on the left (if by left we mean something more than merely liberal). But back to the topic at hand, Ive always felt that communism tends toward scary authoritarianism because the planners fail to catfish understand the scope of the problem, and when that failure bears fruit, they must get rid of the evidence in increasingly messy ways. (Which is not to say that all sorts of other systems are willing to get rid of the failures in similar ways, but the hubris of the command economy planners creates extra-spectacular failures which call into question the whole system in ways that capitalist failures do not. Youve given up the material engine of captialism, and huge amounts of sweeper william blake traduzione, freedom, and catfish you get more famines than before? That cant be tolerated). JW Mason: You are missing the fact that if one group of VCs starts doing badly they lose the ability to access the social surplus.

Markets also sever production from ordinary social relation in an ongoing way: the obvious hazard of GOSPLAN is the temptation of the planner to overvalue his work. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:45 pm. more importantly, even if you want to the role childhood obesity call them planners, theyre decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of entities with a variety of metrics for success. OK, but why is that important? Certainly it has nothing to do with more effectively solving an vietnam optimization problem. Sure it is.

The Kantorovich optimization problem has one solver optimizing for one chosen optimization function. Perhaps that optimization function is complex and multifaceted, but at the end of the day, there is no fallback when the function is wrong i.e., when it solves for iPad and says nope, no one will want it.[1] The VC system (except, as I said earlier, when it breaks down because of herd mentalities) will have someone else trying to solve the same problem, using a slightly different optimization function, and vietnam one of them will, at least potentially, say ah-ha! iPad sounds great! Again, this is not to say that markets are the One True Answer (for all the reasons Cosma points out), just to point out yet another way in which a mere optimization problem (as best as I can tell) is not just not the One True Answer, but is very hard to imagine as even a component of the universe of answers. [1] If you have multiple optimization functions, then youre just a market again. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 6:51 pm. The point is they are decision makers consciously allocating resources with the intention of producing specific results, as opposed to automatically responding to catfish market signals. Im not sure I understand the distinction youre getting at here. You are doing something with automatically.

People in the market rarely respond automatically to market signals. The whole point is that they know their own situation better than the planners, so they can weigh the signals with all sorts of useful local/specialized information. Venture capitalists like to think that they are leveraging some kind of expertise into of schools in preventing childhood success. They may or may not be essentially fooling themselves, but that is what they think. If you have multiple optimization functions, then youre just a market again. I dont think this is true, at all. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:55 pm. Sebastian @ 40: Youre of apa citation, course correct that it was access to vietnam catfish resources (which I deliberately did not call capital in my original comment) that allowed Jobs the freedom to experiment and create the iPad. But: But I suspect relatively few people in general want money just for its own sake. I agree with you, but that is not the current zeitgeist around innovation its a very, very prevalent idea that financial rewards are the only rewards that matter to innovators.

ezra abrams 05.30.12 at 7:06 pm. what is wrong with a dynamic central solver The programmers, or whoever, adjust the system as needed. At a fine level (miles of railroad cars of soybeans per day ) they can adjust hourly; for more complex things, like ipad vs x, they can adjust monthly. In any event, the ipad discussion suffers from a serious flaw: we dont know what the other solutions are, cause in a free market economy, particularly for carter real story, IT systems, there are economys of vietnam, scale, so you get this butterfly effect where an initial system takes over. I bet if you went back, and looked at what ipad competitors were doing *at the time* some of em were better then jobs, but they got shut out fo the meaning, media light and vietnam catfish $ Miracle Max 05.30.12 at 7:09 pm.

Its not obvious to me that a government that throws resources at a problem, including extra-normal rewards to apa citation the innovators, cannot buy innovations. I suspect the USSR made some great military hardware. The AK-47 has certainly been a big hit. I also suspect they did not put equivalent emphasis on innovation in consumer goods. The US Gov funds innovation, for instance in pharmaceuticals, with the rub that business firms get to reap the monetized rents from vietnam, such investment. Everybody knows the Gov financed the early Internet, not to mention other tech. I like Joshs point that innovation under capitalism within for-profit business organizations entails planning, of which as Galbraith pointed out carter story there is already a lot for vietnam, other purposes. I join the praise for dawes, this post and vietnam catfish reiterate my boredom with the genertor, book. For one who studied planning the vietnam catfish, books revelations are old news and not spiced up with enough sex and violence. Its the kind of thing somebody from George Mason Univ would write, if they could write.

Dont hate me, CTers, I dig China Mieville the most. Luis 05.30.12 at 7:18 pm. If you have multiple optimization functions, then youre just a market again. I dont think this is true, at all. Sorry, should have been more general: if you have multiple optimization functions, youve got a coordination problem again (between the groups controlled by optimization function A and optimization function B), which you can solve by a market, or by another optimization function, or by something else. But if it is an optimization function, its turtles all the vietnam, way down up: at some point, someone has to attempt to value risk-taking, and guide how/where that risk-taking occurs. And thats a particularly intractable problem for mere calculators. At least some of these optimization problems are expressible numerically: we know we need X mattresses, Y beds, etc.

And then you solve for X and Y. As Cosma points out, X and Y may be a subject of debate, but at least they are numerical, can be given units, and can hypothetically be solved for. You cant say I need X units of innovation or Y units of (thing that doesnt even exist yet). So you need some non-numerical (hence non-computable) guide. Again, not that markets do this terribly well, but I dont see any solution for a Kantorovich economy that is more than have smart people make guesses about how to vietnam catfish throw money at smart people, see what happens i.e., to use a decidedly non-Kantorovich approach. But I havent given this super-deep thought and it is completely possible Im missing a calculated solution to the problem- please do enlighten me if thats out there. [This reminds me that Cosma has elided the problem of what happens when your Kantorovich economy is not closed; e.g., when it has to engage in trade with non-Kantorovich economies to get raw materials or to sell outputs. If you have to do that, then you have to recalculate the whole solution literally every time an external price changes, right? Or, again, am I missing something?] Luis 05.30.12 at 7:19 pm. (And, argh, WP is eating some my formatting- apologies.)

Luis 05.30.12 at 7:21 pm. (And of course govt can buy innovations- they do it all the vietnam catfish, time, often much more efficiently than markets because they arent paying overhead for self-important MBAs. But at root they do it the same way VCs do throw money at it, see what sticks. There is no magic, calculable metric for it, thats all Im trying to say.) Peter Dorman 05.30.12 at 7:21 pm. Before saying anything else, I want to Work for Migrant Workers Essay join the chorus that praises this post for its elegance, insight and vietnam catfish very intuitive explanation of computational complexity in apa citation, optimal programming. Excellent! Now on to the the chimney sweeper traduzione, other stuff. I have come to believe that there were two different kinds of issues raised in catfish, the socialist calculation debate, and that it was unfortunate that they became confused.

The first was about calculation itself, and it is certainly what Mises was pushing and Taylor, Lange et al. were trying to overcome. More or less, the market socialists one that one, although the apa citation genertor, convergence problem in their algorithm has not been given enough consideration in my opinion. The second was about discovery of costs and values. Hayek grasped it, although he did not, to my knowledge, fully separate it from the apa citation, issue of calculation. And discovery is the killer. Here is the summary of the argument I posted at EconoSpeak a year ago: 1. The key concept is discovery: discovering what consumers need and want, and discovering the true costs of of schools childhood, providing these things. Since they are subject to tacitly known and otherwise irreducibly qualitative determinants, values and costs cannot be ascertained apart from the actual processes of vietnam catfish, producing and Essay marketing, so the technical problem of number crunchingdevising algorithms to calculate equilibrium prices and quantities out of vietnam, cost and demand informationis secondary. Any reasonably efficient economic system has to have processes of discovery, some for carter story, costs, others for the value of goods and services as determined by consumers.

These processes need to be specified concretely. 2. Discovery requires trial and error. In an economy with a vast number of goods, and with complicated production and consumption relationships surrounding each good, it is inconceivable that trial and error can be sequential. Rather, there have to be many trials simultaneously, along with a process for vietnam catfish, determining which succeed or fail. That is the role of rivalry (competition) in a market economy, with the market test assessing success and failure. Cost is discovered by firms that succeed in being low-cost producers; value is discovered by those who succeed in marketing.

This information is transmitted via prices to catfish other firms, telling them whether they are producing at- or above-cost, and whether they are producing and selling at- or below-value. Any plausible economic system has to have a structure of multiple, simultaneous trials, a hard test that tells enterprises whether their trials are succeeding, and a vehicle for transmitting the results of these tests to all participantsin real time. On top of this, of course, there needs to the chimney sweeper william traduzione be an vietnam catfish incentive structure that causes those who failed the test to abandon the methods that were retrospectively unsuccessful. I think an Austrian socialism is conceivable, but it wont look like a planned economy, at least not in the chimney sweeper william traduzione, most respects. Incidentally, regarding Simons vast spaces of private planning (inside firms): it seems so obvious to me that the reason firms exist is due to local nonconvexities in catfish, production that I dont understand why Im the only person on the planet who says this. (Im thinking mainly of interactive, off-diagonal nonconvexities, not those due to increasing returns.) The significance is that a planning structure is needed to bring about allocations that wouldnt be arrived at decentrally, i.e. by adding up bilateral exchanges. My shorthand for markets/planning is convexity/nonconvexity. I think that the real separability at the heart of apa citation genertor, feasible socialism is identifying and separating the significantly nonconvex regions of the economy, where planning is essential, from for Migrant Workers, those nice, well-behaved convex regions where adding up is more or less OK. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 7:25 pm. And of course govt can buy innovations- they do it all the time, often much more efficiently than markets because they arent paying overhead for self-important MBAs. Ill sort of give you the first clause, but often much more efficiently than markets? No.

The major government innovator is the military, and whatever good things people say about technology and military hardware, efficient is not one of them. ajay #7: Im not sure The Cassini Division or Iain M. Bankss Culture novels describe, even in apa citation genertor, a hand-waving way, an optimal planned economy in vietnam, the sense that Cosma is talking about. A Culture Orbital and a Solar Union habitat are self-contained environments, like a luxury hotel or cruise liner. From the point of view of the artifical intelligences that they embody, supplying human wants even elaborate and fanciful human wants is something that goes on the AIs bodies, in processes quite possibly as unconscious to them as cellular activity in apa citation, our bodies is to us. Colin Danby 05.30.12 at 7:40 pm. A post for the ages, and great comments as well. At the act, risk of lowering average comment quality, Im interested in the time-indexing problem. It worried me in the novel: if the plan period is a year, how do you coordinate and stage deliveries between units during the year?

But in any economic system, especially once you have some level of technical complexity, the timing of production-critical deliveries, and the inherent unreliability of such timing, must be dealt with somehow whether through massive warehousing, deliberate excess capacity, duplications of various kinds. (There must be a huge operations-research lit on this) You can see this in a small way in catfish, contemporary internet vendors, who have incentives to lie about whether a product is in stock. For me one of the lessons is that even the red lines on Simons map are, very often, not the impersonal take-it-or-leave-it transactions of , neoclassical theory but significantly institutionalized. A purchasing manager builds relationships with counterparts at other firms, and a lot if that is about negotiating timing problems as they arise (as well as quality issues). Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 7:41 pm. I think I understand what you are saying about balance.

I think I lean left, today, because the times lean right, in some particularly egregious ways, though I often find more sense among principled conservatives and catfish the populist right on some, selected subjects. Any economic system has to find ways to reconcile and coach real resolve conflict. A lot of vietnam catfish, economics, qua ideology, whether it is socialist or neoclassical economics, is about pretending that conflict can be minimized or subsumed or eliminated, or is simply illegitimate. The problem in a communist state, as in our own decadent crony capitalism of vietnam catfish, universal banks and media conglomerates and giant energy companies, is the inability of a unified authority to break the incentive bound. It is not about markets, or allocative efficiency, per se.

It is, primarily about catfish achieving technical efficiency, and it is why a team needs a boss, who is not doing the work and who can give rewards and penalties unbounded by actual outputs of the of schools in preventing obesity, production process, and unphased by vietnam, effort or discomforts involved. We need conflict. We need arms length negotiations. We need government regulatory agencies, responsible for, say, public health, but not responsible for, say, food preparation as a balanced whole; we need a restaurant inspector, who can say, your restaurant is unsanitary and must be closed till you fix it and who doesnt care whether the restaurant employees work or the sweeper traduzione, restaurant patrons eat. Ditto for bank regulation the regulator has to be detached from the Work Workers, results for the bank, someone, who doesnt much care, whether the bank is able to pay a bonus out of its quarterly results. The story that says markets are about price and allocative efficiency misses an catfish important point, which is that markets (or the the chimney, de-couplings that we whimsically call markets) are critically important points of conflict, which are dangerously eliminated in a monolithic hierarchy of authority. Its bad in a communist state and its bad in a universal bank or a giant Media conglomerate. Its bad, when we eliminate labor unions. geo 05.30.12 at 7:43 pm. Sebastian @52: But government also buys innovation for industry, both through civilian applications of military technology (like DARPANET) and by supporting basic research in universities, for vietnam, which it does not (in general, at least as far as I know) demand a share of profitable applications.

Luis 05.30.12 at 7:43 pm. The major government innovator is the military, The medical research complex would disagree with you (on whether the the chimney sweeper, military is the major government innovator) and lots of people are waking up to the fact that VC is quite inefficient (as measured by ROI), so even if I grant that the military is the major government innovator, Im still not clear it is particularly inefficient with respect to the private alternatives. One of the insights I take away from this post has to do with the , function of planning in both its good and bad aspects. Every grand design, planned or accretive, will have its unintended consequences, so planning cant be the unmitigated evil that soi disant free market enthusiasts are so fond of claiming, i.e., it doesnt have to result in a Stakhanovite nightmare in apa citation genertor, some commissars dark satanic mill somewhere. More simply put, the way to optimize the benefits of planning might be to make our plans smaller, and the communications between them more robust. Taking this idea seriously might well have even more powerful optimization effects in politics than it would in vietnam, economics. (Cue discussions of participation, democracy, investment of individuals in macro outcomes, etc.) And no, contra Hayek, it doesnt seem to meaning me that the market price is the vietnam, greatest of all imaginable discovery mechanisms, although it does point the way to others which might share its advantages. Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 7:58 pm. When most market prices are administratively planned in our capitalist paradise, it is hard to credit Hayeks vision. Have you seen the price of the iPhone fluctuate?

Movie tickets? Ever been to a supermarket? Well, yes, if we had genuine market prices in vietnam catfish, anything other than simple commodities (at best), it would be harder to sweeper traduzione scoff at all the ideological superstructures built on their supposed magical efficacy. On the other hand, why we dont have them, and why producers think its so important to game them in the ways that they have, is very instructive about some of the things we too would have to worry about if we woke up tomorrow in a universally declared Socialist New Jerusalem. Footnote 4 is beyond praise. j 05.30.12 at 8:13 pm.

This was a very fascinating read! Im naively trying to intuit up ways to avoid both the problem and as much of capitalism as possible. Here is a first attempt. As a matter of unconditional right each citizens freely receives. modest housing, and. a personal fabrication unit (fab) and a bundle of raw input materials, and. sufficient nutrients as specified by the science, and. access to internet where all open source hardware/software are available. Would a centrally planned economy within the limits set by the above also be unfeasible for the sorts of reasons detailed in the original post? rf 05.30.12 at 8:14 pm.

Oh wow, Cosma Shalizi, youre my new intellectual crush. I really didnt understand half of that, but still, thanks. And to be honest, thanks to vietnam catfish all involved with this site, (commenters included), for all this free knowledge youve been relentlessly shoving down our throats these past years. Its genuinely much appreciated. This could only severalty be topped if Francis Spufford were to vietnam barge in here knocking over chairs screaming delegitimisation.. blavag 05.30.12 at 8:23 pm. Why cant GOSPLAN throw darts too? Henry 05.30.12 at 8:24 pm. Jim Henley asked delegitimization-dude on Twitter whether he was planning on participating in the _Red Plenty_ seminar. I think its fair to say that he didnt get the joke Adrian Kelleher 05.30.12 at 8:26 pm. As the headline post makes clear, the problem is not with communism per se but is a problem of planning more generally and, more generally again, one of rationalism.

This came as a tremendous shock not just to socialists but to coach science as a whole. Capitalism does not solve these problems however. Rather it circumvents them using the market which is not a rationalist construct. Markets have no theoretical foundation. Q. What is the market price?

A. Check the market. Q. What will be the vietnam catfish, market price tomorrow? A. Check the market but you have to wait until tomorrow. Markets are a powerful analytical tool (indeed an indispensable one). Theyre also a scientific deus-ex-machina, however, with frighteningly shaky empirical foundations relative to their significance. This price may be judged sticky or not and that demand curve observed but the validity of sweeper william blake, these observations are always contingent and their durability is never certain. Given enough time, all such observations will become untrue. This may occur due to cultural shifts or due to changes in circumstances; the markets for vietnam, diamonds and grain will differ inside a besieged castle from those in the larger world. Market economics makes certain problems tractable at the expense of accepting that other more general questions can never be solved precisely those questions dealt with in the OP. This is not an advantage to be dismissed, however market evangelists habitually go on to make much greater claims essentially to take assumptions about efficient markets as fact without any proof whatsoever.

But the erosion of rationalism in the 20th century was not restricted to economics. Along with the analytical limits such as those proven by Bertrand Russell and Kurt Godel, there were limits to what was calculable such as NP complete problems, theoretical limits to observation such as the dawes severalty act, Heisenberg uncertainty principle and observational constraints in fields such as chaotic systems or economics that appear superficially to vietnam be practical but are in reality fundamental. These developments came at a time when scientists capabilities were widely thought to be limited solely by time and resources. The shock was profound and dawes severalty act not just to the scientific community. It was a trauma to rival the Copernican revolution. Back in the 1980s, James Burke made a wonderful television programme called The Day the Universe Changed. It was a brilliant inversion of catfish, normal scientific discourse, pointing out that prior to meaning of joyce each scientific or philosophical revolution people lived in a world built around a more flawed understanding of vietnam, reality.

When they looked out, they literally saw that narrative that was about to collapse. So, when Copernicus wrote his treatise, as contemporaries saw it he didnt just improve our understanding of the solar system; rather, he wrenched humanity away from the , centre of creation where not just the bible but all prior observations had placed it. The universe ceased to vietnam catfish be for and about carter story us, a trauma that contributed to centuries of religious turmoil that have yet to fully unravel. The 20th Century added insult to injury. Not only catfish was the position we occupied of real story, no special importance, in vietnam, many spheres we were now also condemned to ignorance in perpetuity. The universe had changed once more. Its interesting to speculate as to the role this shock played in vietnam, the convulsions of the 20th Century or about the Work for Migrant Workers, extent to which its reverberations will continue to echo in the 21st.

Though it started with science, its impact can be felt much more broadly. Artistic modernism for instance was ultimately an aesthetic and vietnam hypothetically any modernist aesthetic could be expressed as a system of rules, thats to say as a rationalist construct just like law or mathematics. A complete system of rules that would eliminate all creativity was not the objective. On the other hand rules motivated by apa citation genertor, critical argument could separate the vietnam, artistic from the purely technical: content from form. The rise of , postmodernism, which denies any absolute distinction between high and low art or indeed between any two artistic artefacts, closely paralleled the scientific and vietnam catfish philosophical changes outlined. Its claim is that all cultural expressions are imbued with all other such expressions and if there were ever any doubt that theres at least some truth in this the vietnam catfish, subsequent explosion of referentiality in art has dispelled it.

Modernism, characterised in severalty act, the broadest terms by constant technical innovation, had by the 1960s resulted in the colonisation of huge areas of scientific creativity. Worse again, the helter-skelter rush to catfish occupy the new territories had left much of them patchily covered but the number proved to be small of apa citation, artists modest enough to limit themselves to at best the second rank by working in the shadows of the technical innovators. Certain arts, music and painting in particular, came to vietnam catfish be seen as essentially complete by the 1960s. While postmodernism is itself arguably just such an acknowledgement of the meaning of joyce, technical innovators greater significance it unquestionably opened up vast new areas just as the well of modernism ran dry. But this all came with a catch. Whereas art for arts sake was a clever joke, if all artworks were inescapably imbued with every stimulus to which its creator had ever been exposed then all causal relationships in catfish, art really did become circular. This didnt just alter aesthetics, it made any aesthetic impossible. Postmodernism never did catch on in the real story, USSR and for obvious reasons.

It was not a society where fools could prosper, and any fool could see that an assault rationalism would constitute an assault on communism itself. The world of today is the opposite; when there is an artistic controversy everybody comes away with what was sought: offender, reporter, offendee. Identities are reassured rather than unsettled. The rituals and superficial forms of apa citation genertor, creativity remain, abstracted of intent. It is difficult today to imagine how important figures such as Picasso or Stravinsky were in their time; carpenters and field hands as well as professors debated their merits.

Henri Rousseau demonstrated that with commitment and integrity it was possible then for the individual to leap ahead of the cultural elite. Derided as an idiot, his creations are universal and eternal. I dont know that any civilisation has prospered for long while exhibiting the cultural stagnation of the sweeper william blake traduzione, current age. We need to remember that only at the margins is postmodernism incontrovertible. Its arguments can be applied to Mozart or Picasso but such examples reveal its limits as a perspective because the ways in the chimney sweeper william, which they extended human expression simply had no precedent. Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 8:34 pm.

William Timberman @ 60: On the other hand, why we dont have them, and vietnam why producers think its so important to game them in the ways that they have, is very instructive . . . I dont feel instructed. I feel distracted. Not your fault. (And, certainly not the fault of Cosma, who has written a fabulous essay.) Sebastian 05.30.12 at 8:40 pm. The market is an emergent system. One of the funny things about scientific leftists is that they believe in vietnam, emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in william blake traduzione, economies.

One of the vietnam, funny things about scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in economies. The executives of failing companies should be ripped to pieces by tigers. John Howard Brpown 05.30.12 at 8:49 pm. I believe that Noves work doesnt mention services because all labor theories of act, value going back to catfish Adam Smith deprecate services.

There may be a class aspect to this since in for Migrant Workers, Smiths time provision of vietnam, services had a definite tinge of submissiveness to apa citation it. Also, the ln(1/h) in the expression about catfish computability reminds me of information theory, any connections? Chris Williams 05.30.12 at 9:03 pm. Mmm, nice post. There are echoes in it, and in _Red Plenty_ itself, of some of my conclusions from having worked on the history of a project of a similar era, the UKs Police National Computer, which was in development between about the chimney sweeper william blake 1962 and about 1975. It worked, but the reason that it did so was that the planners very wisely stuck to vietnam catfish files (with millions of entries) containing pre-registered digital data such as names, addresses, fingerprint index numbers and car registration details.

At the start of the process they were hoping to include the various Modus Operandi indices run by British police: in essence, to code up criminal behaviour in order to identify it. By the end, they had abandoned this entirely: it was a harder class of problem for the technology of the time. I do, though, have one yabbutt: During the Second World War, the Middle East Supply Centre seems to have run quite well Is that because it was essentially (mainly) about distribution and the managing of transport bottlenecks, not about maximising production all the Work for Migrant Essay, way to the consumer? Zamfir 05.30.12 at 9:35 pm. @sebastian, markets are surely emergent, but we seem to understand them far less than evolution. The turnover of firms and vietnam catfish products is not fast enough for an equivalent process to natural evolution, for example, and the standard economists model of them is strangely off as well. Without understanding emergent is just another word for exists. lupita 05.30.12 at 9:46 pm. planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism.

There is no alternative? Bechtel did a lot of capitalist planning to get to the point where they could profit from charging Cochabambans to gather rainwater from their rooftops. On the apa citation, other hand, the anti-capitalist Cochabambans just spontaneously exploded and ran Bechtel out of their town. The clearest explanation of capitalism I have encountered is Varoufakis who defines it as extracting capital from the future, loaning it out in the present, and recovering it, plus interest, back in apa citation genertor, the future. Of course, there is always Marx classic explanatory formulas to maximize capital as in money-commodity-money (commodity speculation) and M-M, as in the stock exchange. When the aim of planners is to the chimney maximize commodities, they are not capitalists, no matter how much planning they do. When they are maximizing capital (as most states have been doing during the catfish, past few decades) then they are capitalists, no matter how little time they spend looking at their exchange rate, credit rating, stock index, and bond spread. It was interesting to genertor see who funded Spuffords book (e.g., Target).

Theres a lot of scholarly interest in the big retail chains, who have some of the same problems as the commissars in vietnam, Red Plenty (though most of the interest seems to have been from the social side). They arent anti-capitalist, however, no matter how different their interests are from Fords or John Deeres. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 10:46 pm. I dont think this sort of pathology is intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from market exchange plus gross inequality. I think theres more to it than just this, that this view is a little optimistic. As Ive said a few times, the Plan, even the decentralized price-based plan, is not self-fulfilling. If prices are to indicate successful vs unsuccessful business models, then the catfish, unsuccessful have to be allowed to act fail and the successful to thrive. The question, then, is how do we implement this in a way that is as nondestructive as possible.

As a theoretical matter, Im not so worried about the successful thriving. We know in principle what to do about that limits to the extent money can buy political speech, high income taxes on the rich, high estate taxes, etc. (Of course, as pointed out, converting these into practice is a different matter.) More problematic is the the chimney, issue of catfish, failing. Lets start with sole proprietorships and the chimney sweeper william blake traduzione small businesses. Conceptually, of course, we can imagine each of these runs as an LLC, and the failure of the business represents the failure of the LLC, not the destruction of the underlying proprietor. But, of real story, course, one has to put some sort of limits and constraints on this, otherwise well see a rash of sole proprietors living it up in a series of company housing and driving company cars. A similar version of the problem exists with respect to choice of major in college. The details differ, but again we have a decentralized system of choice, which is supposed to be grossly matching supply and demand.

Again we have the problem of what to do with the student who, in good faith studied cardiac surgery [ie open heart surgery] only to practice in a world where cardiology [ie catheter based intervention, a rather different set of skills] has taken over the market and rendered her skills irrelevant. Again we have the companion problem of what to do with the meaning, student who, in bad faith, studies History of Video Games at college and only managed to achieve a D. Finally we have the problem of the large enterprise which fails. At a conceptual level, yes, this is like the power of imagination over evolution our ideas die in catfish, our stead and the death of a large corporation, per se, is no tragedy. BUT in the real world, the vietnam catfish, death of apa citation genertor, even a large enterprise means the loss of a large amount of accumulated skill, and the loss of a large number of jobs. So whats my point? For prices to actually do their job, failure has to have consequences. If we want failures to have consequences, but also to catfish live in a civilized society, we then need a whole lot of Essay, auxiliary mechanisms (government attempts to save, or have bought out, failing large enterprises; unemployment insurance; this sort of thing), and THEN we need a whole lot of vietnam, limitations on apa citation, these auxiliary mechanisms precisely to get back to vietnam catfish the original point failure should have a cost. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 11:04 pm. So how does capitalism solve them? Certainly not through market signalswhich of sweeper william blake, course also dont exist for things that dont exist yet.

Rather, through planning: A designated group of experts considers various proposals for new firms or projects, and allocates a portion of the social surplus to them based on catfish, their assessment of their prospects. Now, we call these planners banks, or these days venture capitalists, but when Schumpeter, writing i 1939, wanted to explain the function of banks under capitalism, he described them as our version of Gosplan. Its important, in understanding the way the US REALLY works (as opposed to the nonsense ideological versions) to dawes severalty act also include in this list of planners. DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but dont call it that, of course), and. NIH and all the other science funding agencies: NASA, NSF, DoE etc. It was interesting to vietnam see who funded Spuffords book (e.g., Target) I think you must be thinking of some other book. Nothing funded Red Plenty except a publishers advance. Damn, how do I turn the italics off?

Sorry, I was referring to the grant mentioned on the copyright page. I dont know a lot about how that works, but I assume it could mean anything from minimal research support or archive access to severalty act anything at all. Its important, in catfish, understanding the way the genertor, US REALLY works (as opposed to the nonsense ideological versions) to also include in this list of planners DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but dont call it that, of course), and NIH and vietnam catfish all the other science funding agencies: NASA, NSF, DoE etc. Luis: I am happy to the chimney william blake traduzione stipulate, at least for the moment, that a number of vietnam, independent planning agencies will approve a greater number of blue-sky projects than a single centralized agency, and genertor that this kind of decentralization is more likely in an economy with private ownership of the means of production. What I object to, first, is the idea that decentralization decision-making is definitionally equivalent to markets, and second, that the greater innovation it results in has anything to do with optimization in the sense discussed in Cosmas post. What is the vietnam, optimal frquency of severalty act, iPhone-like innovations? How on earth could you know? rf 05.30.12 at 11:22 pm. Malfunctioning italics.

Accusations of corporate sponsorship. The delegitimisation begins ( I couldnt resist but I should) Oh. [Looks hastily at book.] I think thats a grant from Target to Graywolf Press to support it as a publisher, presumably as a piece of Minnesota-to-Minnesota philanthropy. It didnt come my way. : it seems so obvious to me that the reason firms exist is due to local nonconvexities in of schools in preventing obesity, production that I dont understand why Im the only person on the planet who says this. Isnt this Chandlers argument, sort of? Capitalism can have institutions: think about Toyota and its subcontractors. Each subcontractor has a contract specifying what it produces and severalty act when, but this is an incredibly complicated contract, and vietnam catfish one that is always changing as Toyotas needs change. What makes this noncapitalist?

Capitalism is not just Econ 101 commodity markets, which even the Pharao bought and catfish sold in. There is a developed theory of the firm to vietnam catfish address the existence and behavior of firms, which is worth looking into. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 11:32 pm. @sebastian, markets are surely emergent, but we seem to understand them far less than evolution. The turnover of firms and products is not fast enough for an equivalent process to natural evolution, for example, and the standard economists model of them is strangely off as well. Without understanding emergent is just another word for exists. Id say emergent means that the emergent phenomenon is more the consequence of the carter real story, RELATIONSHIPS between the lower level entities than a consequence of the PROPERTIES of the lowere level entities. So, to give two examples. you learn about liquids, as an emergent phenomenon, by studying the forces between atoms, not by ever more careful study of the catfish, properties of an individual atom OR. to dawes act put it a little differently, you can create a usefully realistic model of highway traffic jams by catfish, simulating actors with the carter real, correct relationships (response time, breaking distance and so on); you dont need a full or even a partial model of human psychology and different car models.

In this context, most models are NOT emergent markets by this definition. The financial markets (where so much is driven by the rules in place) are the closest, but even they rise and fall based on human psychology and the whole point of vietnam, emergence is that this underlying specific trait of humans shouldnt matter. As we move to other markets the market for of schools in preventing obesity, cell phones, the market for clothes we get further and further into vietnam territory that is very much determined by specific human psychology. Malfunctioning italics. Accusations of corporate sponsorship. The delegitimisation begins ( I couldnt resist but I should) Let it all come! Nothing can quench my sublime and funky love. I think Im going to try and keep my serious comments for the responses, though. Theyre already getting alarmingly long, and catfish its also half-past-midnight in England. guest passing through 05.30.12 at 11:41 pm.

How far does it get you if it gets you anywhere if you a total ordering ordering on the set of goods, but nothing further? david 05.30.12 at 11:43 pm. For The Market to vietnam tatonne its way to the role obesity equilibrium requires rather well-behaved excess-demand functions on the part of the economy anyway, so is there some reason in vietnam, principle that The Planner cannot assume that the same? There is a shortage of something: so make more, comrade! Central planning is easy under the carter real, conditions which the catfish, market works perfectly. John Quiggin 05.30.12 at 11:52 pm.

Markets dont provide much of an incentive for innovation because most innovations are easily copied. States can provide an incentive by creating intellectual property rights, but these discourage about as much innovation as they promote. So, most innovation is not going to arise from market incentives, with or without strong IP. OTOH, central planning is also adverse to innovation, since the whole idea is that all the the role childhood, possibilities are known in advance. Some kinds of catfish, innovation can be planned . Dor example, if you want to build a rocket that can go into outer space or, less happily, deliver a nuclear weapon to the other side of the planet, you can throw lots of resources at the problem, specify the goals and let the boffins come up with the means. But lots of innovations dont work like that, and historically, most of the interesting ones have come neither from profit-driven firms or from goal-driven publicly funded research. The big example is the Internet, which got a little bit of startup money from the US, but was largely built by academics in their spare time, until it got big enough to wipe out the similar attempts of the catfish, private sector (Delphi etc) and some public competitors (Minitel), after which private firms got interested. That produced the dotcom bubble, which also did not show market-driven innovation in vietnam catfish, a good light. 80 seems exactly right. Joe 05.31.12 at 12:07 am.

even if it were efficient, would that be optimal? quoting schumpeter: a system- any system, economic or other- that at every given point of time fully utilizes its possibilities to the best advantage may yet in th elong run be inferior to a system that does so at no given point of time, because the catfish, latters failure to do so may be a condition for the level or speed of long-run performance. setting aside the gulag and the corruption, i think this gets right to of joyce the heart of why planned economies dont work all that well in the long-run. Barry Freed 05.31.12 at 12:15 am. Bruce Wilder 05.31.12 at 12:20 am. It is common, but still problematic to identify innovation with novel invention, when the vietnam catfish, economically significant process is the grinding out of technical economies from progressively improving the coach real story, architecture of control, once a production process is under control. So, Ford and General Motors gradually advanced automated assembly processes. General Electric and Westinghouse worked out electrical generation and distribution.

U.S. Steel and Bethlehem Steel. Proctor Gamble and the chimney william Colgate, etc. Standard Oil and its progeny worked out the worldwide production and distribution of vietnam, oil. IBM. Boeing and Douglas and the other aircraft makers. Warner Bros.and the other movie studios. ATT and GTE (Verizon). F.W.

Woolworth down to Wal-Mart. Container shipping. Coke and Pepsi. This is where capitalism has shined, at least since the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution in the mid-19th century, with the growth of the railroads. Large bureaucratic private enterprise steadily advancing their technical control of production and distribution processes, driving down costs and prices, driving up productivity and quality, often over many decades. Railroads are still scoring productivity gains from applying innovations in story, motors and engines and vietnam catfish control systems. You can deride central planning, but these are large bureaucracies, which are not adverse to mobilizing the state on behalf of the chimney sweeper traduzione, their schemes, nor is the state adverse to mobilizing these bureaucracies, when it suits. Market incentives?

Theres a story about First Mover advantage, although that may be more a case of the vietnam catfish, surviving winners writing history. The firms that do most of the long-run work of of schools in preventing childhood obesity, innovation in the sense of catfish, refining control regimes tend to be the ones that follow up on a key innovation, and acquire a dynamic capacity to continue progress along those lines, taking advantage of a dominant market position, which makes it easy to capture returns from innovation. Innovation carries no magic virtue, to of schools ensure that the vietnam catfish, sunk cost investments can be recovered; market power is necessary for that, and IP is weak tea at best in most industries. Matt 05.31.12 at 12:56 am. Are there no parallel algorithms with good scaling properties for solving linear programming problems?

Like ajay, I dont understand why the computational reference unit is one desktop computer; many scientific problems solved by computer today would not be tractable on one desktop computer. More serious is the william blake, problem that people will straight-up lie to the planners about vietnam resources and technical capacities, for reasons which Spufford dramatizes nicely. There is no good mathematical way of dealing with this. Governments and corporations have developed and continue to carter rapidly improve electronic panopticons for catfish, the purposes of waging war, enforcing laws, and optimizing advertising. Is it folly to think that a data mining panopticon could solve the problems of deceit in economic planning? Merely creepy?

The central planner neednt ask factory managers how much labor it takes to make a kilogram of viscose fiber or how often machinery breaks down; just have cameras everywhere on the production floor and carter real networked machinery constantly reporting self-diagnostics and statistics. Everything that happens is recorded; if central planner and lower managers alike are competent and vietnam acting in good faith, it aids them both, and if not it identifies the , weak point. The instance of elaborate sabotage and its twisty motivations, described in Red Plenty , came about only because planners could lie about how much production a given machine was capable of and lower managers could lie about how much was actually achieved. If a machine reports as idle for a day when it was supposed to be in production, maybe the machine is faulty. Check the video camera footage to see what was happening with the workers and the machine. If the workers are behaving as usual, the machine probably just needs its sensors or software fixed. Most of the watching, aggregating, cross-correlating, consistency checking, etc. can be done by computer, otherwise youd just be solving one problem with a worse one (lying replaced by enormous amounts of oversight labor). Thanks for an extremely engaging, thought-provoking piece. I have wondered about these sorts of problems since I read Accelerando and vietnam The Cassini Division ; Red Plenty has just excited my interest again. Alex K. 05.31.12 at 1:02 am.

DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but dont call it that, of carter story, course) The 2012 DARPA budget is about $3 billion about the , size of the RD budget of Google and about a third of the RD budget of Microsoft. Hardly close to anything resembling The Ministry of the chimney sweeper blake, Planning. Keshav 05.31.12 at 1:36 am. Matt @ 93 I found slides for a 2005 talk by Jacek Gondzio, Massively Parallel Implementation of Interior Point Methods for Very Large Scale Optimization in which he reports that a linear programming problem with 1bn variables and 353m constraints can be solved in 50 minutes using 1280 processors. This is not my field, so I dont know whether his algorithm exploits some structure in his problem that would not exist in the central planners problem. On a related note, Cockshott and Cottrell have a number of papers arguing that central planning is feasible with modern computer technology. As I understand it, the algorithm they present (e.g. in Towards a New Socialism) does not consider a linear programming problem; rather, it takes as given a target for final goods production (determined elsewhere in their model, which includes some markets for consumer goods) and solve for the gross output levels required to meet this target. They exploit the fact that the input-output structure of the economy is sparse (only a small fraction of the goods in the economy are directly used to produce any single good). Their algorithms complexity increases with n*m, where m is the number of direct inputs for each product, which seems manageable even with n=12 billion. Of course, even if true, this does nothing to ameliorate the vietnam catfish, other problems collecting and representing the required data, aggregating preferences, etc. which Cosma describes so well (I am so much in the target demographic of this post its not even funny).

Loved the essay but dont feel qualified to comment until Ive read the book. But I will anyway. The whole socialist calculation debates seems to of schools childhood me to be predicated on vietnam, two misconceptions or fictions: one, that there is a system of meaning, production and distribution of goods and services that consists fundamentally of markets operating on a logic of markets and, two, that to replace it one had to develop a system of production and distribution that consists fundamentally of planning operating on a planning logic. Aside from primitive accumulation, residual feudal relations, reproductive labor, the structure of the vietnam catfish, firm and monopoly power some strategically important market interventions do indeed occur in a so-called capitalist economy. Why then should a socialist economy require a complete non-market retrofit from the ground up (including those elements that are already outside markets in apa citation, a so-called market economy?) rather than just some strategically vital tweaking here and there? David Childers 05.31.12 at 2:11 am. Theres a lot more here to comment on than I could cover, aside from to express agreement and appreciation, but as an economist-in-training (for what thats worth), there are a few related points which I think are worth elaborating upon. I would like to focus on vietnam catfish, the statement that there is no good mathematical way of Workers Essay, dealing with the propensity of catfish, individuals to lie to planners.

This seems to apa citation genertor miss important recent developments in economics, by no means obscure, which have taken the vietnam, effort to apa citation attempt to alleviate this. The rise of mechanism design as a major paradigm in economic theory has not only provided a way to approach the issue of lying, but has come up with a set of vietnam, ideas and results which ought to reshape the apa citation, way people think about markets and exchange in general. The following should be quite boring to those familiar with mechanism design, but I hope will be informative regarding this under-popularized area. While game theory, including the branch of game theory which deals with games of vietnam catfish, incomplete information, focuses on determining the , actions of individuals in vietnam, a given social environment (formally a tuple consisting of, for each individual, a space of apa citation, possible actions, an catfish information set, and an objective), mechanism design reverses the process. Given a group of ex ante diverse agents, one seeks to design an environment which induces them in equilibrium to voluntarily*1 take desired actions optimizing a given social objective, which might be a social welfare function, or just the whims of the planner. The application to the problem of lying is direct: take your God-given social welfare function (the issues with which you have ably described here), open up your Contract Theory textbook*2 and program in the optimization problem over the set of all societies such that the technological structure of production is given and that all individuals will behave according to their individual objectives. Incorporating this extra structure adds to the computational difficulty of course, but as with the use of of joyce, convexity in standard optimization, under some regularity conditions the problem of searching over the space of catfish, all possible societies, calculating equilibrium behavior in that society, and then optimizing over the resulting set of outcomes, can be drastically simplified.

Indeed, the vietnam catfish, revelation principle reduces the problem to ensuring that each agent truthfully reports their type (say, their exact valuation for every kind of good), which mathematically amounts to adding a bunch of additional inequality constraints to the original programming problem of deciding what allocation to meaning give them.*3 Adding these constraints of vietnam, course takes you away from the , unconstrained optimum, but one can at least attempt to achieve the best possible outcome over any society which is feasible given technology AND human nature, which sounds to me like pretty close to the goal of feasible planning. This does not overcome computational difficulties (and relaxing the assumption of story, quasilinear preferences takes it from impractical to computationally nightmarish, according to my colleagues who work in the area), and the social welfare function is still not something one can realistically define, but the catfish, problem is at least mathematically well-defined. The relevant question to ask, once the vietnam catfish, setup is well defined, is what kind of restrictions are imposed by taking into account these difficulties, and here is where the vietnam, results become somewhat ugly. Some of the more important results in mechanism design, aside from some clever tricks on the forms of institutions (mechanisms) which make people willing to reveal their information, are impossibility theorems. Once you take into account unverifiable actions, it becomes generally impossible to achieve a system which both ensures maximal productive efficiency without also imposing undesirable risks on workers: this is the well-known issue of moral hazard, though what is not well known is that except under extremely restrictive informational assumptions, it is NOT the case that the meaning, solution to catfish moral hazard is to increase the size of the genertor, punishment for bad outcomes and reward for good ones. The relationship is in general nonmonotonic, a finding which strongly contradicts the moral intuitions of the kind of people most likely to apa citation talk about vietnam moral hazard. It also has some unfortunate implications for decentralization: the Myerson-Satterthwaite theorem, my vote for the result in of schools obesity, economic result which is least recognized relative to its importance, is that there exists no possible mechanism under which bilateral exchange between agents who do not know each others valuation for the good can be conducted efficiently: completely decentralized voluntary trade, contra Hayek, is informationally inefficient. It has been shown in catfish, the one homogenous good case that as the number of agents grows, efficient exchange from the role, sellers to buyers can be achieved asymptotically using a mechanism that looks like a market price, suggesting that the vietnam, Walrasian fiction of exchange by informed agents under competitive market prices can be approximated in large markets even in the absence of knowledge of valuations by coach real, both buyer and seller, though how this applies to more general situations I cant say. I believe most of the familiar limitations should apply (though, since allocations are being decided by a planner, things like public goods and pollution and other externalities can be handled in catfish, a similar way to the full-information social planning case, modulo the need to elicit valuations for such objects). The approach also brings about the issue of who, precisely is designing the mechanism, and whether it is possible to vietnam catfish force the mechanism designer to Work for Migrant Workers Essay commit to catfish the allocations prescribed by the mechanism ex post.

In many of the cases where this theory has been practically applied, these become major issues. Small scale mechanisms, like an catfish employer designing a labor contract, generally dont have social welfare as the objective: usually the goal is to extract as much rent as possible. In the case of a government, this should also be an issue, with the additional complication that even if an objective is decided upon democratically, ensuring truthful voting will become even more difficult because votes not only vietnam catfish make a decision but also reveal information, creating possibly conflicting incentives for voters. Ensuring that the contract is fulfilled by all parties is also difficult: clearly in the case of an employer, who has incentive to promise high pay and good conditions and dawes act then renege, but also for a benevolent government, which may want to implement a mechanism which ex ante entails bad outcomes for catfish, some people in some states, but may ex post want to forgo punishment or reward. One could always attempt to put an incentive structure for the government which attempts to remove this, but then you have to ask who will impose that on them and its turtles all the the chimney traduzione, way down. None of this suggests that at any point a centrally planned society could overcome the practical difficulties entailed by lack of knowledge and processing power, even with optimal mechanisms. Optimization is hard and approximately optimizing over a criterion that is approximately right is not a guarantee of approximate optimization (at least in the absence of uniformity in the role obesity, that approximation). Even if finding an ideal were approximately achievable in a centralized fashion (my suspicion is that in practice, since goods and services would need to indexed by time, location, and catfish state of the world at a minimum, even without nonconvexities or social interactions which make the problem NP-hard it would be infeasible for obesity, the foreseeable future), it would be cheaper and easier to decentralize many aspects of the process, allowing individuals and organizations to vietnam make substantial fractions of of schools childhood, their decisions individually or in small groups and vietnam so participate in activities that look something like (regulated) markets and firms and social organizations, while only carter some aspects would be carried out in a centralized fashion, with decisions informed by gathering information in some way from the populace. In other words, even with the ability to formalize the catfish, problem of , extracting decentralized information, computational capability is likely to change the scale and vietnam type of , activities which are carried out in firms, markets, and governments, and may even result in a greater degree of centralization as it becomes more practical to organize some activities in a way which takes advantage of capabilities for more complex economic arrangements to be determined mathematically, but its not likely to facilitate a planned economy. Instead, just as linear programming has become a part of the vietnam, standard toolkit for operations research, affecting the way some businesses manage sales and inventories but not strongly changing the structure of the economy, mechanism design is today primarily used by companies like Microsoft and Google to find more profitable ways to sell advertising, and practical applications to the chimney william blake government mostly consist of vietnam, somewhat more efficient tax schedules. So, in the role, practice, although economists have given a lot of thought to the problem of social decision making in vietnam catfish, the presence of decentralized information and carter real story have some relatively intriguing results suggesting forms of vietnam catfish, allocation which often differ in details from Walrasian markets, most of the conclusions regarding the infeasibility of large scale planning seem to Work for Migrant Essay hold up.

*1 Voluntarily, meaning, of course that given the induced structure of society, it is in an individuals best interests to do as told. This is perfectly compatible with said structure of society consisting of: Do X or I will shoot you and your entire family, see, e.g. Acemoglu and Wolitzky (2011) The Economics of Labor Coercion. Note also that in general such a social structure is not necessarily sufficient to story ensure ideal response, as not all actions are verifiable, as aptly illustrated in the process of dekulakization. *2 In our first year theory courses, we use Salanies The Economics of Contracts, but as this is not my area and it is a mature field, I suspect that just about catfish any textbook on contracts, auctions, or market design will contain the , relevant details.

*3 These are usually referred to as incentive compatibility constraints. If you want to do more than just allocate goods, but also, say, force workers to do something when they have the possibility of doing something else, you also need participation constraints, but these can often be handled along the lines of Footnote 1. blavag 05.31.12 at 2:17 am. Why do planners have to of joyce know all outcomes in advance? Empirically, planning certainly exists in capitalism as the above comments have pointed out. Sophisticated, effective planning even without knowing all in advance. But this was not always the catfish, case, much of it (in the US) did come from severalty, organizing production for the First and catfish Second World Wars but it was by no means a smooth or easy process. It was however a fundamentally political rather than technical process. See for example Brian Waddells War Against the New Deal. Which brings up the role and weight of the military industrial complex in the US economy for which there is still nothing better than the various works of Seymour Melman.

js. 05.31.12 at 2:32 am. Wow. This was awesome. A lot of it went right over my head, but I still learned a ton. Cheers. gordon 05.31.12 at 3:04 am. Some quotes from the post and vietnam remarks on them, and genertor a thought. I dont think this sort of pathology [that the whims of the rich matter more than the vietnam catfish, needs of the poor; that it is more important to keep bond traders in strippers and cocaine than feed hungry children] is intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from meaning, market exchange plus gross inequality. If we want markets to signal supply and demand (not just tautological effective demand), then we want to ensure not just that everyone has access to the market, but also that they have (roughly) comparable amounts of , money to catfish spend.

There is, in other words, a strong case to be made for egalitarian distributions of resources being a complement to market allocation. Politically, however, good luck getting those to go together. But inequality isnt fixed; it has been increasing in Anglophone countries for a while now. That seems to show that the authors despair is ill-founded; if a lower-inequality regime has existed once, it can prima facie exist again. It isnt impossible. planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism[the partisans of vietnam, capitalism] themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the masters of the system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to meaning claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily.

This seems to indicate that capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning. So now we have two non-viable options. What we can do is try to catfish find the specific ways in which these powers we have conjured up are hurting us, and use them to check each other, or deflect them into better paths. So the author would like democratic government to work. Well, wouldnt we all? I suspect the real problem here is that it isnt working (at least not in of schools childhood obesity, the realms he is thinking about) and vietnam that worries the hell out of him. But if that is the vietnam catfish, case, why not just say so? Overall, I find it remarkable that there is no historical perspective. Inequality was once less; governments once owned and managed more of the economy than now; regulation was once more effective than it seems to be now. Yet he talks about the need for bold, persistent experimentation as though we confront new problems which have never been addressed before.

That isnt the case. This seems to indicate that capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning. So now we have two non-viable options. Thats what it seems to indicate. Stephen Leacock covered much of this territory nearly a century ago in The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice. One needs to take both laissez-faire and Work Workers its centrally-planned, Oscar Lange doppelganger with a pinch of Veblen. Nobody 05.31.12 at 3:29 am.

Wanted to vietnam catfish address the the role in preventing childhood, idea that there was no extant alternative to the market pricing system for determining individual preferences What is internet advertising then? These companies observe human behavior on vietnam, a massive scale and infer preferences. Id go so far as to in preventing obesity hazard that every good Web 2.0 site is a non-pricing/market solution to vietnam revealing preferences. The attention this blog post gets, in hits, comments, referrals, etc. are all non-marketplace indicators of relative worth. A nice, open letter to the universe for more of this. Thanks for sharing your thoughts! A terrific essay and absolutely the way into the future. Reality is going to require overlapping institutions and organizations of different kinds because we cannot know it all.

It is not simply complexity that it the vietnam, issue; it is that your brain cant wrap around it. Any institution allows you to act, while depending upon coach carter real, some pieces of information being held in the category of being held by all others, so that you do NOT have to re-obtain it locally. This saves your information budget. For example, the vietnam, market system works by the chimney william blake, establishing that you dont have to vietnam recalculate the value of the currency at each transaction, and vietnam you dont have to of schools in preventing establish the validity of catfish, consumer protection laws for each new thing you buy. Working for a business firm is the process of doing what is required without having to know the final ends of the owners, or even necessarily the vietnam catfish, next step in the production process. Having a government policy for , climate or retirement security saves the citizenry from enormous cogitations on vietnam catfish, risk and the chimney traduzione the vagaries of vietnam catfish, life. Etc. etc Market institution, business institutions, government institutions are the same sort of thing, at a deep formal level. Nescience is allowed, and indeed it is depended upon. You are freed from having to learn, or to re-establish everything. This reduces your time cost, and you dont have until the end of time.

All institutions do this, including government ones. It goes even deeper: any organization whatsoever, ideas, individuals, inventions, and institutions are all the same kind of thing: they are rings of transactions/transformations around a central context or central agreement that rules them, and act that local central context (1) allows specialization among the parts, and vietnam the central context also (2) reduces the transaction cost between the parts, by making the repetition of common information unnecessary. All institutions must have radial connections between the members and the central rules connections of focus, transparency, responsibility, and apa citation genertor redress. Thus there are two types of basic connections in economics, the transaction between two parts, and the connection to the rules. Finally to work well, institutions should be narrowly focused. Even the vietnam, market institution is quite narrowly focused, on blake traduzione, balancing scarcity and desire by vietnam catfish, the use of the scarcity of money. That is all it really does. That is precisely why it works well, when it does work well.

The knowledge problem assertion that all local information is communicated in markets is incorrect and has led people to fantasize that such a systemic calculation is being made. In fact, the local knowledge is specifically NOT transmitted; this non-transmission is the catfish, market institutions function, that is how it reduces transaction costs: you do not need to know the other fellows business. We must look at the operation of of schools childhood obesity, negative information, of nescience, in information and organization of all types. The only way forward is to solve problems as they arise, which may require adjusting old institutions or creating new ones, to allow us to hardwire the vietnam catfish, common information, thus saving our information and energy budgets for new flexibilities. Frank Ashe 05.31.12 at 5:02 am. Please make all this disappear for the next few days! I have work to do and dawes very little will power to overcome such a great temptation. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 5:14 am. DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but dont call it that, of course)

The 2012 DARPA budget is about $3 billionabout the size of the RD budget of Google and about a third of the RD budget of Microsoft. Hardly close to anything resembling The Ministry of Planning. The issue is not the raw money involved, it is the directions that are set. What do you think a Ministry of Planning would refer to? Hint the word Planning is not the same as the word Production. 80 is now 89 John Quiggin.

A lot of new commenters in the moderation queue on this one it seems. Ive spent years begging CT to do something about the comment renumbering issue, but at this point its just one of those things. Yetthe Soviet Union did not need an optimum solution. The Soviet Union only needed to do a better job than US Steel, General Motors, etc., plus the story, US banks. Artificial intelligence research did not lead to artificial intelligence, but instead led to computer science. The attempt to automate building design instead led to the invention of new media; the the chimney sweeper, MIT Media Lab started out as part MITs architecture department. The honest attempt to vietnam catfish build a planned economy using computing might have lead towhat?

Water under the bridge, of course; the Soviet leadership didnt want that. They scorned the beginnings of dawes, information technology, much as capitalists did and vietnam catfish for, it seems to me, very similar reasons. Awesome essay, BTW. But, and this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from for Migrant Essay, our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market. Or perhaps a family? Turn it around: the human response to participating in larger social systems is similar to of joyce the ape response to existing within a tribe. With its status divisions, um. Are we to catfish conclude, then, that class systems are an story outgrowth of ape tribalism?

BTW, the Mac, the iPad, and the iPod/iPhone were anticipated at Xerox PARC, roughly two decades earlier. These were pure research projects. Jobss role was marketer and popularizer; he is perhaps more akin to Edison or Sarnoff. Peter Dorman 05.31.12 at 6:44 am. This is one of the best posts-plus-comments Ive read in a long time.

Kudos to real story all of you. I wish I had more time to take part in this discussion, since Ive been wrestling with this stuff, and vietnam occasionally writing about it in obscure venues, for over 30 years. But I dont. 1. I agree with many of the comments as well as Mirowskis Machine Dreams , among others, that the programming interpretation of prices is somewhat of a distraction. Yes, the Soviet Union in the 1950s faced a problem of dysfunctional pricing, but reformers were as hoodwinked into the programming concept as were the Cowlesians etc. in the west. Prices do not represent optimal anythings, because, if we have learned anything at all from vietnam catfish, general equilibrium theory, it is that the conditions for optimization are so fantastically implausible that it is all a fantasy. It has nothing to do with why some prices are better than others. I wish Hayek had not been so mushy on vietnam catfish, this matter. In The Use of Knowledge in Society he seems to say that prices actually convey social costs and benefits, as if they were optimal in the programming sense, the output of sweeper blake, a social algorithm that fine-tunes and makes compatible all our economic choices. But at other times he seems to point to their role in the discovery process, where they are not assumed to be optimal.

The distinction is important, because the optimality argument is indefensible. Prices (a) set a standard for producers to meet, through production methods, quality, timing, marketing and so on, that is set by the ones that are most financially successful, and (b) offer an incentive for everyone, producers and consumers alike, to find ways to improve on the choices implied by existing price ratios. If the price of cloth diapers is very low compared to catfish bedsheets, consumers become smarter at finding new uses for diapers. (When my kid was new, we used diapers very creatively.) Firms find new ways to use cheap resources, etc. None of this is optimal. We have gross price distortions in catfish, every real economy that can be seen with the apa citation genertor, naked eye. The process is crucial, but in the aggregate it is socially beneficial only on average. 2. JWM: Sometimes I get the impression that Chandler goes in the same direction I do; he refers to but does not really analyze things like economies of scheduling, assigning tasks, and so on. These things are more effectively done via administration if there are nonconvexities; otherwise just identify the specs for intermediate products and vietnam let it be arranged through a market. But he never really says it outright, nor does he really address the meaning, boundary between what works better one way or another.

I think he had a gut feeling for the issue, but not more than that. 3. I disagree with John Quiggin about the evanescence of innovation. There is an vietnam immense literature on knowledge management that points in other directions. What I would add from my perspective is that a lot of innovation is, temporarily at least, embodied in organizational structures that internalize the nonconvexities associated with a particular process of process or product development. Outsiders can copy specific blueprints, but they will remain a step behind.

This matters if the technology is dynamic. If it is just a matter of a one-off innovation, of catfish, course, then you either have lots of copying or endless IP litigation (or both). 4. There has been a lot of meaning of joyce, discussion here about innovation. Ive written about catfish this elsewhere and meaning of joyce dont want to vietnam catfish repeat myself, so Ill be elliptical: genuine innovation nearly always involves nonconvex recombinations of , existing, or potentially existing, activities. So they cant be assembled through markets; they need an agent that is engaged in vietnam, planning over the relevant activity space. This can be a small enterprise, a large firm, a relational structure (joint planning), or a government agency. But this planning, in order to be tractable, has to be tightly bounded, and in this way it takes as given the vietnam, routine choices of the of joyce, agents that make up its external environment. Moreover, the catfish, planner needs to learn whether the innovation is successful or not, and not at some hypothetical final moment, but in traduzione, an ongoing process. Markets are not the only way to do these things, but they are the , simplest and most versatile. (War does it too, for example.) The point is that, while there is a tradeoff between markets and planning at the margin (and there are millions of such margins in a modern economy), at a higher level there is symbiosis: neither can function tolerably without the other.

5. The real systemic problem in vietnam, capitalism, in my opinion, is political-economic. Identifying the margins where more should be planned, or less, and making choices democratically and intelligently is at odds with the pervasive power of capitalists. (And, agreed, there was a terrible problem with the Soviet state, too.) Thoughts just seem to catfish be coming Heres an optimization constraint for you: survival of human civilization. Can we frame a sustainable economy as an childhood obesity optimization problem? j 05.31.12 at 7:00 am. I think Sandwichman #97 is on the right track. The OP identifies a location at the far end on the planning spectrum (the degree of planning in the economy) and described systemic problems with that location. The question then is what locations are available inbetween that and current capitalist society. What factors could be excluded from central planning so as to vietnam make it tractable?

Nine 05.31.12 at 7:25 am. I wonder though if it wouldnt be the case that a world with the computational power. and/or theory and severalty tools to vietnam catfish solve intractable problems like GOSPLAN wouldnt also be a world where GOSPLAN is unnecessary because said computational power tools could be used to create surplus by solving other hard problems mapping the brain, whatever. What purpose would central planning serve in catfish, such a world ? The reductionist people only innovate because of the profit motive argument is a zombie that really should die. One economist who has done much work here is William Baumol.

He divides the process into two. There is invention (the design and making of the role of schools childhood, a spiffy new thing, Jobs iPad for vietnam catfish, example) and then theres innovation, people actually using this spiffy new thing to do old things in apa citation, new ways or entirely new things. Hes quite clear that either a planned or market system (with the caveats that JQ mentions, like being able to appropriate some measure of the value add through patents etc) can do the invention. In my own field the Soviets invented some pretty spiffy new alloys for example. Its the innovation (note, using the word as Baumol does) which planned economies have serious difficulties with. How good a distinction this is is for vietnam catfish, others to make up their own minds. But it does neatly solve, say, the internet point.

The invention could have come either way and coach story as it happened it came from government. The dissemination of pron, blogging, killing the newspaper industry, flogging books over it, these came from the innovation that a market system allows, not whether the State produced the vietnam, original spiffyness or not. Like, wow. This has arrived about a fortnight too early for Work for Migrant Workers, me to have time to join in the discussion properly, but only vietnam catfish a week early for me to take full advantage of it in finishing a speculative paper on The Market in Classical Antiquity, trying to engage with similar issues in a much less elegant and coherent fashion (not least because of the of joyce, need to vietnam engage with the apa citation genertor, debate as it actually exists in catfish, ancient economic history, rather than the debate we ought to Work Workers be having). Indeed, and each of vietnam catfish, these structures embodies a different spirit, logic and ethos and requires different things from us; we never have complete knowledge or understanding of how best to meaning of joyce orientate ourselves towards them, even assuming that were conscious of vietnam catfish, how differently we ought to behave in different contexts; and however much we try to conform, the system is never consistent or coherent enough for this to guarantee success. Im reminded for some reason of The Magic Mountain as well as Kafka. I do wonder about vietnam catfish scale; how far does this presupposed systems operating at a global or trans-national or national level, and dawes severalty act how far does it go all the way down? One, very partial, reading of the collapse of the Roman system is that the effort involved in sustaining a pan-Mediterranean structure simply became too great in the face of external shocks and meaning of joyce pressures, not least because there were too many conflicting if not contradictory forces and organising principles within which those in authority had to vietnam work and everyone else had to live.

The establishment in many areas of societies based on dependence relationships with a local warlord and his clan, rather than societies involving complex relationships with state systems and markets, appears to come as something of a relief to many. Damn, blockquote failure; the following should have appeared between my first and carter real story second paragraphs: Human beings confront all the structures which emerge from vietnam catfish, our massed interactions in carter, this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market. We have no choice but to live among these alien powers which we create, and to vietnam catfish try to direct them to human ends. I, too, thoroughly enjoyed Cosmas essay. I found insightful the point in real story, the book that the rulers were not going to turn the most important decisions over to the computer, even if they were convinced that planning would work. I know Kornai had a two level planning algorithm, where the centers problem is formulated as a game.

I dont think the game was set up to address lying. (I liked the novels depiction of the vietnam, sabotage of one factorys machinery, the whys, and the consequences.) Anyways, suppose almost all commodities had embedded some sort of Radio Frequency chip. Being bought and sold are state changes to be recorded on meaning, the chip. Our phones provide a wireless sensor network to vietnam collect this information and carter forward it on to the center. How much of the problem of collecting the information on apa citation genertor, what, of currently existing goods, is wanted is then solved? (I suppose the vietnam catfish, calculations of the plan can be distributed across this network too.

Vector multiplication is easily parallelizable, but, I guess, matrix inversion is a bit more difficult. Maybe we make to with iterative approximations with matrix inverses. But Im getting beyond what I know here. Im better with understanding the Work Essay, simplex algorithm than I am interior point methods.) Maybe we make do with iterative approximations to vietnam matrix inverses. But Im getting beyond what I know here. Im better with understanding the simplex algorithm than I am with interior point methods. Data Tutashkhia 05.31.12 at 8:28 am. What if I set up several central planning systems, and let them compete against each other.

Id establish the rules: same initial conditions, define what exactly the central planning entails, allow and facilitate free flow of populations between the in preventing childhood obesity, systems, prevent any flow of goods/materials/capital. With any luck, in fifty years youll have the central planning system that people like. Well, and why not add other, decentralized models into the mix? Same rules. Of course youll have to make me The Emperor of the Universe first, so lets work on vietnam catfish, that. Anyways, suppose almost all commodities had embedded some sort of Radio Frequency chip. Being bought and sold are state changes to the chimney traduzione be recorded on the chip.

Our phones provide a wireless sensor network to collect this information and forward it on to the center. How much of the problem of vietnam catfish, collecting the information on what, of currently existing goods, is wanted is then solved? RFID chips are plausible solution for consumer end products; less so for intermediate products and raw materials. (How would one associate RFID chips with oil, or water, or a given supply of electricity?) In any case, I dont see how that solves the problem of what is wanted (e.g., over the next year, or the next five years), which is largely orthogonal to solving the problem of where things currently are. At best, it solves some part of Cosmas (IIA), but by apa citation genertor, no means all of it (I dont see how it helps you with constraints such as pollution, for catfish, example.) Peter Dorman 05.31.12 at 9:05 am. In an essay in coach carter real story, the late 70s I also proposed a market in plans. My focus was on severing the link between planning and political authority, and I think that part was OK, but I was still quite naive about planning itself.

It is symptomatic that I never even mentioned the issue of dawes, time how long a plan would be in effect until it was subject to vietnam review/revocation. I had no idea how important it was for there to be ongoing feedback. How do you integrate the market or competitive aspect which generates this feedback and still have planning? Looking back, I now think I was trying to plan far too much and had not raised the question of how to identify the core choices where planning was needed. Even there, though, the time dimension matters a lot. ajay 05.31.12 at 9:14 am.

68: The market is an sweeper william blake emergent system. One of the funny things about scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in , economies. This is quite clever in a junior common room sort of way, but the vietnam, problem is that I think its not a joke: Sebastian actually is confused between believing in something in the way that we believe in carter, dogs, or clouds, or Canada (dsquared excepted), and believing in something in the way that we believe in the scientific method or the system of trial by jury. If we were speaking Latin the problem wouldnt arise, because we could use credo or confiteor , just as they do in the Creed. ajay 05.31.12 at 9:15 am. 53 missed an absolutely cracking opportunity to say ajay, you know nothing of my work. Alex 05.31.12 at 9:51 am. I dont think the USSR did have a problem innovating. I think they had a problem of vietnam, quality control. One of the things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas.

Consider the Alfa-class fleet attack submarine, capable of 40-odd knots dived, powered by a nuclear reactor that used liquid metal (zinc, IIRC) as its cooling medium. It scared the NATO navies shitless, but the Soviets had endless problems with maintaining them because the reactor couldnt be allowed to cool down or the metal coolant would set hard and the entire cooling system would be a block of cast zinc. This meant that while the boat was in port and the engines shut down, high temperature steam had to be pumped from shore into carter story the submarines secondary cooling circuit to keep the primary molten. Now, the kicker: repeatedly, the vietnam, shoreside equipment broke down and there would be an epic flap as they either restarted the reactor in a hurry or else towed the sub across the harbour to moor alongside a ship with steam-turbine propulsion that happened to have steam up at the time, before it all went horribly wrong and vietnam they lost a first-class naval unit for story, good. Eventually, the Northern Fleet decided to keep the vietnam catfish, reactor going at minimum power in harbour, which basically set the boats life at her time between refuelling overhauls.

In 1991-1992, predictably, all the Alfas lost power and froze solid at their moorings and theyre still there as so much radioactive scrap metal. So, they could build a giant submarine speed boat driven by a nuclear reactor that sounds like it was designed for a space shipbut not keep a boiler house on catfish, the quayside going reliably, even for a major national priority. Now, theres an important distinction between product innovation and process innovation, and I have the severalty act, impression Soviet industry was awful at the latter, hence their dreadful environmental impact and epic waste of energy. Scott Martens 05.31.12 at 9:59 am. Wonderful essay! This fills in one of the big gaps in the previous essay on cognitive democracy: The notion of democracy not as elections but as feedback, and effective democracy as adequate feedback. Its just that this is not the standard way of understanding democracy and its difficult to see how it can be aligned with the notion that the legitimacy of of schools in preventing childhood obesity, government comes from the election of vietnam catfish, representative agents. The whole core of your argument screams representative government is flawed for all the same reasons as central planning. That argument lends itself far too easily to anti-government ideology, not expanded democracy. Computer science, which is not really so much a science as a branch of the chimney sweeper blake traduzione, mathematical engineering, studies questions like this. Actually, Ive come to the conclusion that computer science is a branch of the humanities (what are algorithms if not the work of man?) and has far more in common with art and literature theory than with any physical science. Im still on vietnam, the fence about whether the same can be said for all of math, but its definitely true about foundationalist problems in meaning, mathematics like the vietnam, interpretation of probability.

If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. I have an SF plot Ive fiddled with (even wrote a first chapter once) that addresses some of this. The economy is run by software agents with a significant amount of artificial intelligence and a capacity to real modify their own code and copy themselves. They engage in barter and exchange of vietnam catfish, complex barter-backed derivatives in a large free market on the role of schools childhood, behalf of humans who own or rent them. For a piece of software itself to survive and perpetuate its code, it has to pay for vietnam catfish, its runtime and storage space by acting as an accountant/buyer/broker for humans, who are paid at their jobs in coach carter real story, certificates that constitute futures on catfish, their own production. Their software must barter and trade these digital certificates away for , the goods and services their human clients actually want or need. No person ever has to see or touch money, no consolidated balance book exists, but if a human is dissatisfied with how well their electronic agents are providing for their needs, they can replace them at any time. It would be a true dog-eat-dog capitalism and free market for software, but practically a nanny state for humans, since all a person has to do is enough productive work to have what they want, and the entire system organizes itself around their needs. If I was looking for a reason to argue in favor of vietnam catfish, quasi-socialist planning, I would ask how, from the perspective of human workers, such a world is different from the role in preventing obesity, a large, comprehensive, detailed economic plan. The market exists only in the computer as part of the vietnam, algorithm.

Feedback is provided from consumers by whatever means are appropriate to control their electronic agents. Its more or less Langes vision for the socialist firm combined with a kind of deconstruction of catfish, Iain Banks Culture novels (imagine a million Minds per human instead of the other way around) and a bit of old fashioned cyberpunk, but it poses a problem for the planning vs market argument: Plan construction is an algorithm of some kind. So is the market. Ergo, there exists an adequate planning algorithm, and the computational resources to construct the plan. To get away from this, you have to claim that market allocation is, in some way, non-algorithmic, but doing is counterintuitive. But, and the chimney sweeper william this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the catfish, structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of Work for Migrant Workers Essay, which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market. Indeed, this is a problem.

My efforts to get decent Internet access in catfish, Germany attest to how alienating even fairly responsive governments can be. It seems there is a legal mandate to the chimney provide me with high speed Internet access, but the actual access does not exist. I have gone as far as talking to the village ombudsman about it as well as the Deutsche Telekom office here. No one seems to have any clear idea why I cant have decent Net access, since the village wants the infrastructure and DT wants to put it in. This feels very disempowering. Although it doesnt quite rise to the level of carter real story, Greek tragedy, I do feel pretty alienated. I have my doubts that any solution to this problem exists at all.

This is the kind of vietnam catfish, thing that motivated Guy Debords brand of cranky Marxism pervasive of alienation is a side-effect of having to vietnam have large distant institutions to coordinate large, distant collective action problems. We cannot dispense with the large, distant, collective action problems and retain any of the benefits of industrial civilization. At the same time, alienation from meaning of joyce, distant coordinators of large scale collective action leads to things like, for example, Greeces current mess. ajay 05.31.12 at 10:15 am. One of the vietnam catfish, things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas. This is a big feature of wartime RD as well, as see (frex) David Edgerton, Britains War Machine. Britain in 1940, like the USSR in 1970, was a rich country with a huge amount of centrally directed military RD funding, and a lot of the results were highly innovative, but ultimately just a ludicrous waste of time and money. The trench-digging Mole. The Grand Panjandrum. The fluvial mine project. The U.P. anti-aircraft system.

Project Habbakuk. PLUTO. (Lead-bismuth, apparently, rather than zinc, btw, Alex.) Great essay! Its worth mentioning that capitalists face computational problems that are even harder (in the the role of schools childhood obesity, asymptotic sense) than linear programming. For example, the best algorithms we know for finding a single-round Nash equilibrium for a non-zero-sum 2-player game are exponential in catfish, the number of apa citation genertor, available pure strategies. Richard J 05.31.12 at 10:34 am.

I dont think the vietnam, USSR did have a problem innovating. I think they had a problem of quality control. One of the things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas. I think its fair to say that the performance of the Soviet economy in WW2 suggests that a planned economy can be very effective when youre able to narrow down an economys output to just three key deliverables: weaponry, munitions, and cannon fodder. If none of them are expected to have a long time in use, quality control problems become significantly less important. Brilliant essay: many thanks! Are there alternatives? Well surely it depends what people want. Marx wanted both to turn us from puppets of the apa citation, economic system into vietnam its masters and to have an economy productive enough to dispense with scarcity. You show that if we want high levels of output, with lots of choice in a large-scale and complex society then we had better put up with being puppets to vietnam catfish a larger extent than we like. Correct.

Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option. (Cf. the 18th-century problem of the incompatibility of apa citation genertor, luxury and democracy.) I couldnt live in catfish, such a society, though I feel its attractions strongly as many people do (and have done historically Thoreau, possibly Tolstoy). One thing we can do, though, perhaps, is to try to find ways of getting some of Simons green areas to have more of the look and feel of that alternative in their internal operations. But maybe this is also, like Marx, trying to have and eat ones cake.

derrida derider 05.31.12 at 11:49 am. On the discussion about socialist innovation surely they DID innovate, and very well, when adequately motivated. The T-34 tank, the Energiya rocket, even the Mig 27. But notice in what sphere they innovated? And note how so much innovation in the role of schools in preventing obesity, late-capitalist US stemmed from exactly the same sphere with exactly the same motivation? Which I suppose is just reinforcing the point previously made that Schumpeter et al were quite wrong innovation is not mostly driven by the prospect of monopoly profits. Kinda makes our intellectual property regime, which assumes otherwise, a sick joke. Alex 05.31.12 at 12:50 pm. Well, for an interesting cross-check, how about NREL?

Ive seen some truly impressive estimates for the economic value of catfish, its work since the late 1970s, based on energy savings. Someone will probably point out that a lot of DARPA work fed into dawes severalty act it. But my point is that US industry did internalise it, alter its objective functions, and of course other Western and developed Asian industries did even more so. Soviet industry doesnt seem to have done very well at this stage internalising innovations. Mind you, was there even a Soviet Academy of Sciences Renewable Energy and vietnam catfish Efficiency Laboratory?

Thanks to everyone for the really gratifying response. Unfortunately, Im on deadline, so replying will take a few days. Markets dont provide much of an incentive for innovation OTOH, central planning is also adverse to innovation, This is a vague argument, but innovation essentially perturbs the objective function, whatever it is by adding new parameters, as many have observed above. Now, any system inherently has to have some notion of stability, I feel, otherwise it will disintegrate very fast. Communism (or whatever it was) in Soviet Russia did have this problem to an extent. There is in fact a trade-off between stability and the random permutations we call innovations (much like evolution). I dont think any of the vietnam catfish, economic systems till now have addressed this issue well.

Maybe Im not reading this correctly its a lot to take in but I dont see why a communist society needs to optimize its production functions, even approximately, any more than a capitalist society does. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. The communist society might produce other values besides material goods, like political equality and freedom, which are impossible for traditional capitalism, and which would compensate the people for the role of schools childhood, having to vietnam catfish live in a big shabby hippie commune or whatever the communist society would evolve into. (Not the Soviet Union.) marcel 05.31.12 at 2:51 pm. Today I actually have time to read the comments. Thanks to obesity Andrew Fisher, I looked at fn 4. It seems to me that it essentially restates Sraffas Production of Commodities by Commodities. Also, Henry, get with the times: photoshop, not airbrushing! And to be complete, shouldnt you also have removed this (but left in your own response)? JP Stormcrow 05.31.12 at 2:57 pm.

Unfortunately, Im on deadline, so replying will take a few days. A failure of vietnam catfish, planning? Computation? Markets? JP Stormcrow 05.31.12 at 3:00 pm. Not the Soviet Union. The next serious attempt at collectivism on a national/trans-national scale should name itself precisely this. Matt 05.31.12 at 3:07 pm. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. That turns out to be really hard, though. Not hard in the sense that you cant make stuff at all, but hard in the sense of being good enough.

Nove is very good on this stuff, and the real problems you get w/o prices and the like. which would compensate the people for having to catfish live in a big shabby hippie commune. Im not sure anything could compensate for that, and not just because most people really dont want to live in a shabby hippie commune, either. Doctor Slack 05.31.12 at 3:08 pm. 134: I think the carter real, idea is that optimizing production is what is theoretically meant to guarantee the plenty in perpetuity. Sebastian H 05.31.12 at 3:15 pm. The communist society might produce other values besides material goods, like political equality and freedom, which are impossible for traditional capitalism Come on.

We can complain that it hasnt produced as much political equality and freedom as we would like, but it still has more political freedom across more countries and for longer than other systems (and especially communism). I dont see why a communist society needs to optimize its production functions, even approximately, any more than a capitalist society does. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. To give a practical example, right now were faced with the problem of figuring out how to reduce or eliminate our use of traditional energy sources (e.g., oil and especially coal) without needlessly impoverishing ourselves. This implies, among other things, a lot of optimization of production functions under constraints of using less energy and/or emitting less carbon dioxide. I certainly dont think this requires a complete solution to vietnam catfish the optimization problem as Cosmas outlined it, but it does indicate why settling for good enough (and how exactly do you evaluate that, by the way?) isnt necessarily good enough. The second big attempt at communism (Not the Soviet Union) was China under Mao and of joyce it too lacked freedom, had a horrible human cost (See Frank Dikotters Maos Great Famine for some examples), and was considerably worse than the USSR in terms of economic success and vietnam standard of living. In fact the USSR, the vietnam, Eastern European socialist states, and to a lesser extent Cuba were pretty good by the 1960s at providing a decent material standard of living, particularly for the role, urban dwellers. Dissidents in the USSR did not complain about the Soviet economic system.

They complained about a lack of intellectual and political freedom, ethnic discrimination, and KGB repression. It was precisely the lack of political freedom and equality in the USSR that was a source of articulated discontent. Socialist economics and material standards of real story, living are almost completely ignored in dissident _samizdat_ literature. J. Otto Pohl: My impression was that by the 1970s and 1980s this was increasingly not true. Solidarity was motivated by increases in the rice of food at factory canteens, and the rates of alcoholism and premature death increased during these decades. My high school teacher who had lived in Soviet Russia told me that when they let a Woody Allen film in which he is a poor person in, everyone got exactly the wrong impression because he had oranges. Luis 05.31.12 at 4:12 pm. were pretty good by the 1960s. Is Nove the right place to go for a summary of why the post-60s were well, not that good? Or is that someone else?

Things got worse in the 70s and 80s, but the really bad economic times were after Gorbachevs reforms and the early post-Soviet era. Alcoholism also worsened in the early 1990s. But, the point still stands that in catfish, the 1970s that people in the USSR openly expressing opposition to the Soviet system did so largely because they disagreed with either its nationality policies, its general lack of freedom and democracy, or its moral decay. They did not protest the states ownership of the means of production or the various welfare provisions provided by Moscow. Attitudes in Poland which had private agriculture and had only been communist for a generation were considerably different. But at the same time even at its worst the standard of living in Poland at this time was better than for most of the USSR. In comparison to most countries in the world the average Polish worker was relatively well off in the 1970s despite the countrys huge economic problems. Chris Bertram, #129: Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option. Does it have to be poorer? Why not a smaller-scale high-tech society?

Humans have learned a lot about meaning of joyce production and technology since Rousseau. Chris Bertram, #129: Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option. Does it have to act be poorer? It seems to vietnam catfish me this should be considered an empirical question. In any case, why is it a binary? Surely Chris would agree that we could haver somewhat more meaningful participation in our economic lives, at the cost of somewhat less efficiency?

Last time round we discussed this in the context of for Migrant Workers, food. How about clothing? Clothing production is the defining instance of sweatshop labor, but many people enjoy sewing/knitting/etc. as hobbies, and coach real story many more are fascinated by catfish, fashion and design. What if every item of clothing we had was made by someone who had an story active voice in the whole process of designing it and who took the same pride in catfish, their work, and enjoyed the same autonomy, social status, working conditions, etc. as, say, a tenured faculty member [1] does now? And of meaning of joyce, course youd know the catfish, name of the person and not just the company that made each item in your closet, and, if you were interested, their distinctive style, philosophy, etc. Some people Chris B. maybe will say thats completely impossible, prohibitively costly, etc. But how costly exactly? If organizing the production of clothing like that increased its cost by, say, a factor of ten, wouldnt that be a very favorable tradeoff in a place like the US or northern Europe? Certainly the , technological requirements of vietnam catfish, clothing production dont inherently preclude an active decision-making role for workers. Or how about construction?

How much more would houses have to cost for them to be put up by people who actively managed their own work process and treated it as creative, expressive work so that, like in Will Dean Howells Altruria , every brick was somehow visibly connected with the person who laid it? (Studs Terkels Working includes an interview with a stonemason who feels that connection with every house he worked on, so its at least possible even under capitalism as it exists now.) If that doubled the cost of houses, would it not be worth it, in the rich countries, at least? Perhaps more complex, integrated (non-convex?) technological processes cant be run without some alienated labor. But on the other hand, it doesnt seem to for Migrant Essay me its ever been really tried. Chris B. (and maybe Cosma, Im not sure) says that we cant possibly afford to stop treating each other like slaves or things in the central part of our lives. But it might turn out to catfish be much more affordable than he thinks. In any case the returns to greater material production in of joyce, the US and Northern Europe are so low at this point, in terms of human well-being, that it must make sense to try to get at least a bit less alienation at the margin. No? [1] Not a sneer I really do think academia should be a model for other worlds of work.

_Surely Chris would agree that we could haver somewhat more meaningful participation in our economic lives, at the cost of somewhat less efficiency?_. Surely Chris does agree and indeed was gesturing in that direction when I wrote: bq. One thing we can do, though, perhaps, is to try to catfish find ways of getting some of Simons green areas to have more of the look and feel of that alternative in their internal operations. Maybe it was too tentatively expressed for you. blavag 05.31.12 at 5:31 pm. This might interest some: Robert S. Whitsell, Why Does the Soviet Economy Appear To Be Allocatively Efficient? in Soviet Studies, vol 42, no.2 April 1990. To Peter Dorman @ 111see also Nitzan and Bilchers Capitalism as Power at To Anarcrissie @ 134 and Matt @138: A big shabby hippie commune is its own reward and vietnam does not need additional compensation mds 05.31.12 at 6:21 pm. We can complain that it [traditional capitalism] hasnt produced as much political equality and vietnam catfish freedom as we would like. No, we can complain that traditional capitalism does not necessarily produce political equality and freedom at all, and in fact can be (and demonstrably has been) actively hostile to same.

Robert Vienneau @ 118: Vector multiplication is easily parallelizable, but, I guess, matrix inversion is a bit more difficult. Keshav @ 96 has mentioned Cockshott and Cottrells assumption of sparse matrices, as notwithstanding how complicated a coats raw materials are, making a coat does not require input from every other commodity in the economy. They invoke linked lists to treat sparse matrices, which is how they arrive at an order of vietnam, n*m*r (where n is the dimension of the product matrix, r is the number of iterations in ones approximation method, and m is the average number of inputs for a particular product) rather than n^3, but linked lists dont exactly lend themselves to apa citation genertor parallelization. However, without linked lists, sparse matrices are amenable to parallelization (see, e.g., PaStiX, whose readme page also has links to vietnam catfish other solvers).

There is also ongoing work on parallelized matrix inversion in general. lupita 05.31.12 at 6:27 pm. Does it have to be poorer? If there were justice in the world, yes, the West would be poorer. Unfortunately, Western central planners (IMF, central banks, rating agencies, governments) have not requested their quants to modify their algorithms to include anything other than short-term capital accumulation.

The system is imploding just like the catfish, Soviets. Maybe it was too tentatively expressed for you. More that we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy wasnt tentative enough. Sorry for referring to you in third person. j 05.31.12 at 7:03 pm. The alternative to wage laborers in sweatshops shouldnt in most cases be self-sustaining unpaid manual labor. The alternative should be automation.

The ongoing small scale fabrication revolution will be able to handle many of the products you mention. As for construction the machines needed are also rapidly becoming available for home fabrication. I dont see the technology as the biggest hurdle there but rather the political resistance that will be mounted by those currently gaining most from intellectual property protection over physical designs. The alternative to wage laborers in sweatshops shouldnt in most cases be self-sustaining unpaid manual labor. The alternative should be automation. after the enslaving subordination of the individual to the division of labor, and therewith also the antithesis between mental and physical labor, has vanished; after labor has become not only carter real a means of life but lifes prime want ; after the productive forces have also increased with the all-around development of the individual, and all the springs of co-operative wealth flow more abundantly only vietnam then then can the , narrow horizon of bourgeois right be crossed in its entirety and society inscribe on vietnam catfish, its banners: From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs!

Why would we want to deny people their prime want? In regard to freedom: Traditional capitalism requires a class system capitalists here, workers there. The class system requires class differences of power, that is, inequality, and a state to maintain this social order, by force if necessary. And force will be necessary, because some people will not accept a subordinate position in the social order. Therefore, freedom in dawes act, the social order of capitalism will always be limited to those persons, ideas and activities which do not threaten the position of its ruling class. In hard times, and if the vietnam, technology of genertor, surveillance and repression is available, this freedom may become very restricted indeed. Look around at present developments. In the case of the Soviet Union, China, and other countries, the victory of the Communist Party simply led to the replacement of the old bourgeoisie with a new pseudo-bourgeoisie, the party apparatus state capitalism I think Lenin called it. So the same sort of carter real story, problem arose. There was no actual communism as far as I know. The problem with small scale is small scale means low tech.

The Aboriginal tribes of Tasmania lost the ability to fish because they had insufficient population to support a boatmaker, and catfish so the skills got lost. The capital investment in a semiconductor manufacturing plant is on the billions of dollars, and vietnam thus requires coordination across a vast number of , people. There is one plant that produces vast amounts of nylon-2, which gets transformed into thousands of the chimney william, products, etc. Small-scale production would require far more supervision and apa citation genertor cost. Matt 05.31.12 at 7:51 pm. There was no actual communism as far as I know. You know, I find this every bit as tiresome as when some libertarian trots out the idea that the vietnam, problems we have is that weve not yet tried pure capitalism. I want a story about what youll do differently, and why I should think it would work. who knows what free people will do? isnt enough, either.

JW Mason- how sure are you that youre not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences? What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? Its much more stressful, if success is required. Data Tutashkhia 05.31.12 at 8:00 pm. There was no actual communism as far as I know. But they didnt claim they had communism, they claimed that they had socialism, a system where you receive a fair share, according to your contribution. And I think that was, more or less, the , case.

Its just that most people werent contributing much, and vietnam a good part of their contribution would get wasted anyway. Which is why this discussion (and the book) is kinda relevant. leederick 05.31.12 at 8:03 pm. Great essay. I want to pick out and disagree with a small part. For the capitalist or even market-socialist firm, there is in principle a simple objective function: profit, measured in vietnam, dollars, or whatever else the local unit of account is. Im not sure about this. Directors have responsibilities other than shareholder profit, such as endeavouring to the chimney sweeper william traduzione paying creditors when they fall due.

The literature on profit measurement is a complete mess, no-one agrees on anything, its absolutely standard to say there are multiple profit concepts rather than one concept. Im not sure that translates to catfish a simple objective function. In any case, profits are money, i.e., claims, through exchange, on goods and services produced by others. It makes no sense for the goal of the economy, as a whole, to of schools childhood obesity be to maximize its claims on itself. I dont think profits are money. A simple example would be farming, IAS 41 values aggricultural product at fair value. So if all you have is stock of 2 potatoes fair valued at $2 each at the start of the year, and 6 valued at $1 at the end, and no other items or transactions youve made a profit of (6 * $1) (2 * $2) = $2.

The unit of account is money, but this profit represent a genuine production of vietnam, value. If means you can consume $2 and still be as well off at the beginning of the , year in terms of financial capital as you were at the end. Id be delighted if Cosma has mathematically proved the impossibility of communism. It would be a second monkey off my back. (The first was the Bible, a long time ago.) Then I could happily get on with being the vietnam catfish, evil utility-maximizing selfish bastard I instinctively am. But Im still sufficiently partisan to bristle at even Trotsky sometimes got [this point] right. This is the Trotsky who wrote: Economic accounting is unthinkable without market relations? And the Trotsky who wrote (in the same article, and coach carter story also the same one as Cosma cites) this? If a universal mind existed, of the vietnam catfish, kind that projected itself into the scientific fancy of , Laplace a mind that could register simultaneously all the vietnam, processes of nature and society, that could measure the dynamics of their motion, that could forecast the results of their inter-reactions such a mind, of course, could a priori draw up a faultless and meaning exhaustive economic plan, beginning with the number of acres of wheat down to the last button for a vest. The point being, of course, that Gosplan, not to mention the CPSU, had no such mind at its beck and call. That article is far from a one-off. In economics Trotsky was, at least from the early 20s on, a consistent Right Wing Communist.

This has been shown, albeit by a Trotskyist who is now something of an admirer of catfish, Deng Xiaoping, in this seriesof articles. If the real socialist challenge in todays world is represented by the economic policies of China and Vietnam, rather than those of real, Cuba and North Korea, perhaps the problem of the lack of a feasible alternative to capitalism is less pressing than Cosma thinks. Just back from Moscow where I gave a lecture at the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute (TsEMI), which dates from 1963 and was founded by the immediate followers of Kantorovich such as Nemchinov, the people who really believed that they would achieve proper mathematically founded central planning. Some of those folks are still there. Anyway, a few practical problems I did not see in either the of schools in preventing childhood, essay or the comments noting so far. 1) The mathematical planners never had their programs at the level of detail that the actual GOSPLAN planning was occurring. Think of vietnam, it in terms of the SIC levels. As of the mid-80s at the last gasp of the dreamed effort, the input-output model of the the chimney william traduzione, Soviet economy was essentially at the three to vietnam four digit code level, whereas the actual planning was going on at the four to five digit code level. The actual planning tended to be much more ad hoc, moving from what was done last year to next years without a full optimization.

The plannification involved in aggregating up to make everything coherent (and implicitly solve the GE problem) was never done in a mathematically proper way. It was ad hoc all the way. 2) Part of why they could not get to coach carter story the proper level of catfish, detail was indeed information problems of of schools obesity, a Hayekian sort, the vietnam catfish, really relevant details were either local or buried deep into the lower level niches of the GOSPLAN and other planning entities (this went on at several levels). Lower levels did not report accurate information to the chimney sweeper blake the higher levels. Indeed, a deep state secret was that the numbers used for the higher level Soviet planning and sectors at say two digit levels were obtained from the CIA because they could not get them from catfish, their own ministries.

That the CIA numbers themselves were problematic, as was much touted and whined about at the time of the fall of the USSR simply emphasizes how bizarre the whole situation was. 3) Oh, the old mathematicians at TsEMI are still very interested in deep issues of the role childhood obesity, computational complexity and even deeper into the foundations of mathematics, particularly regarding the recent efforts to vietnam reconstitute mathematics itself on meaning of joyce, a constructivist foundation. This was something strongly advocated by vietnam, some of the severalty act, top Soviet mathematicians before Kantorovich did his work and who operated at a much higher and deeper level than he did, although I believe he was in agreement with them. I am thinking in particular of Kolmogorov and Markov. This stuff is being studied now seriously in the West through category theory coming out of computer science and in vietnam catfish, economics by people like Velupillai, who seek to reconstitute the foundations of mathematical economics on a constructivist foundation.

These old guys at TsEMI are all for of joyce, this. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 9:32 pm. JW Mason- how sure are you that youre not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences? What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? Its much more stressful, if success is required. George Mosse had very interesting things to say about proto-communism in the 19th century, stressing precisely this point: most people dont WANT to catfish be President of the USA, or CEO of GM, and constructing a social theory around the assumption that they do is unlikely to improve the catfish, world. j 05.31.12 at 9:44 pm. @154 JW Mason: Because so much labor is toil that break down the body and vietnam catfish hasten death and make us so tired that we are sapped of energy to pursue other things of great value. Lets turn the tables: what is the moral argument for thinking that labor is lifes prime want i.e. the intrinsically best activity for any human? On the meaning, automation alternative you can of course freely pause your robots and vietnam catfish toil as much as you want. But what is wrong with not wanting unnecessary toil?

Someone might now counter that the labor as lifes prime want idea uses labor in a sense that excludes damaging toil. Fine, but then it has not argumentative force against suggestions for local fabrication automation as replacement for damaging toil. John 05.31.12 at 10:07 pm. To echo and amplify Watson Ladd at 156, and to agree with Chris Bertrams original comment, Im pretty sure that moving away from some sort of vast alienating economic system of vietnam catfish, production means less production of a lot of things. To take one example I know a bit about, the physical IT and display infrastructure delivering this page from Workers Essay, Cosmas screen to yours is massively complex, with tens of thousands of components derived from almost as many sources across the globe. Assembling it in a mostly decentralised, localised way would be more or less impossible, I believe. Now you dont need the vietnam catfish, Internet to the chimney sweeper william blake traduzione survive, as such but its loss would be felt! Stafford Beer apparently thought that he could replace the industrial economy of a small nation (Chile) with a computer system (see the book Platform for Change). Any idea on vietnam catfish, how he missed the intractable complexity of the problem? (For bonus points: how did he manage to miss the incentives problem?). Of course from a computational complexity perspective the other big problem is precisely the Godel incompleteness one as transmuted through Turing, with a bow at the Lucas Critique: How does one model the reactions of the agents to the fact that they are being modeled and vietnam catfish how they react to in preventing childhood obesity that? Does one model how the model should react to their reactions and then their reactions to vietnam that alteration and so on ad infinitum?

There is fundamenatlly an unavoidable halting problem here. Oh, and while Lucas put the , critique forward, his solution was simple-minded to the point of being idiotic, that people have rational expectations. Bah humbug! (Apologies for the piling-on) What if every item of vietnam, clothing we had was made by the chimney sweeper, someone who had an active voice in the whole process of designing it and who took the catfish, same pride in their work, and enjoyed the same autonomy, social status, working conditions, etc. as, say, a tenured faculty member does now? And of course youd know the name of the person and not just the company that made each item in your closet, and, if you were interested, their distinctive style, philosophy, etc. Some peopleChris B. maybewill say thats completely impossible, prohibitively costly, etc. But how costly exactly? Thats a pretty good description of bespoke clothing. How costly is that? Well, mens business shirts seem to set you back at least $200 or $250 each (and thats assuming a minimum order of at least three shirts).

Some of that is due to expensive cloth, but not all of it. (And, if youre going for lovingly hand-made, non-exploitative clothing, you may also decide you want organically grown cotton, etc., in which case the cost of the fabric will probably go up even if its not super high quality). Pants will probably cost at least $300, probably something closer to $400 or $500. Bespoke (mens) leather shoes are, at the very minimum, about $1000 a pair ( maybe as low as $500 a pair for funkier casual shoes). (A hand-waving justification for the shoes: a talented shoemaker can probably average only one or two pairs a week[1], which means less than 100 pairs in a year. So they need to make at least. $500 per pair in profit , after materials and other expenses, to have a decent living, given your tenured faculty member standard. Also, youd need about 3 million shoemakers in the US alone just to produce one pair of shoes per year per vietnam catfish person.) Now, some people dont mind spending lots of money even large fractions of meaning of joyce, their income on good-quality clothing.

Im not sure Im comfortable with the idea that everyone should be forced to do so, though. [1] Ive seen references suggesting that something really simple like ballet slippers can take as little as ten hours, while lace-up dress shoes might require 40 hours. The most obvious problem here is that the conclusion That planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to vietnam catfish a tool within it) is not clearly supported by the argumentation. Another us that in general the , argumentation seems heavily influenced by market triumphalist propaganda (by now conventional wisdom). 1. Note that the fact that we know capitalist economies to be supported (and kept from disaster) by a large state planning element is not held to show that capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning (as opposed to a tool within it). 2. No clear comparison is made; the problems of planning are treated pessimistically at each step, while those of capitalism are enumerated without being treated as fatal. We read that if the neo-classicals were right about apa citation how capitalism works, Kantorovich-style socialism would have been perfectly viable . But how deficient capitalism is compared to the neoclassical ideal is not examined, while the problems arising for , planning are dwelt on at great length. In general, it seems capitalism doesnt even have to vietnam catfish be good enough, while planning has to coach carter story be almost perfect. 3. The prospects for vietnam, central planning are focussed on, despite centralisation being a strawmannish aspect of a possible democratic state-planned economy, one that opponents like to coach real story introduce so as to paint planning as both despotic and unmanageable.

At the same time, while the highly centralised nature of corporations is illustrated, no attempt is made to assess the inefficiencies occurring there. 4. Markets are filed under capitalism, and allowed to encompass far more than markets as we know them. For example, a process in which individuals have some kind of vietnam catfish, rationing tokens distributed equally and bid for their chosen package of goods with them is treated as a market. Shadow prices are mentioned; as if the very act of the chimney william traduzione, keeping track of vietnam, costs counts as market allocation. This is similar to the way in which any unit of account tends to be assimilated to capitalist money. The essay comes close to treating any distributed system as ipso facto a market (and so why not stick with the existing markets, which are the same in name, however different they may be in fact). 5. At the same time, the magic of , markets is exaggerated: despite the bit where Austrians are berated for their excessive market fetishism and despite caveats about vietnam transaction costs, the Work Essay, essay continually by omission and implication treats market allocation as though basically costless, overlooking all the real work, mostly done by those insulated from direct profit motivations, that goes into vietnam catfish price- and genertor output- setting in vietnam catfish, firms (work whose underlying analytical core could be carried over into state ownership). 6. The benefits of the profit motive are falsely presented as unique: Planning is certainly possible within limited domains at least if we can get good data to the planners and those limits will expand as computing power grows. But planning is only possible within those domains because making money gives firms (or firm-like entities) an objective function which is both unambiguous and blinkered. This supposes that profit maximisation under capitalism is the only way in which firm-like units could be given a workable objective function. 6a. Its asserted that It makes no sense for the goal of the economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on itself.

But this is not so if the claims in the chimney sweeper blake, question will be/are honoured. In that case, this becomes equivalent to maximising production; or rather it does where the vietnam, claims to be maximised are not net of , costs satisfied (i.e. profit), but all claims (revenue), subject to a cost-covering proviso. Since the profit tithe would not affect democratically planned firms, this is a more appropriate approach. Capitalism seems to get the benefit of actually existing and muddling through (though as above, note the planning that undergirds it), while planning is measured against high standards. Id suggest this is misguided. The question is not can a near-perfect system be realised, but can a (much more) planned economy do better than capitalism. We know that capitalism does what it does, so that is possible.

We could improve on severalty act, its (implied) objective function (skewed as it is by differential wealth, easily remedied information deficiencies, etc.) or on how close it gets to maximising it, or both, and that would be, if not good enough, still an improvement. Starting from where we are and vietnam approaching a democratically planned egalitarian economy in a much more piecemeal way would have a number of advantages: comporting with the strategy of democratic socialist reform, providing a pathway to utopia, and the chimney sweeper blake making unambiguous improvements on capitalist organisation without setting a problem too vast and daunting to solve, and too madly risky to put suddenly into operation. Instead, all the real work done in planning within corporations might be gradually shifted into vietnam public ownership, making the improvements that the new ownership model enables (eliminating infrastructure duplication, slashing advertising and branding budgets, etc) while maintaining the important functions. Both specifying an objective function and complex computation would be made more tractable if trade-offs are made only as they arise; much of apa citation genertor, this work is already done and often duplicated within corporations. I would expect a hierarchy of levels of planning, too: short-term planning would have detailed information and try to vietnam adjust to (temporally) local conditions: above this, a five-year plan might be developed using less detail but more scope for change; above this, 15 or 20 year plans aimed at long-term commitments and also at slow transitions, and above that blue skies thinking models based on (normally commercially confidential) research prospects, anticipating threats like global warming, etc. It would be interesting to investigate how such multiple levels of planning can be made to cohere In short, a system in which spending power per month is equalised and from which the profit motive is absent would not count as a market except under a highly prejudicial stipulation which might (depending on just how much like bilateral exchange the best planning method turns out to be) define planning out catfish of the race, preveresely leaving markets-as-we-know-them victorious. Further, very few of the actual mechanisms involved in market research, technical efficiency, etc actually involve direct input from the meaning, profit motive, so these could be done under a different system and catfish probably produce better results. This is not just a matter of dark asides about the the chimney sweeper, imperfections of actually-existing capitalism thrown into catfish the mix ; capitalism is exactly the thing to be improved on, and to be replaced, so those imperfections are really the key issue. On the positive side, Id agree that preventing self-interested misreporting of preferences is a real issue, as suggested in a recent CT comment. Sorry, didn;t have time for a shorter response.

Tim, if a corporation is too inefficient it goes bankrupt. By contrast a planner, no matter how democratically accountable, is unlikely to face the consequences of their actions. (Think about the mayor of apa citation, New London, who in an act of vietnam, planning decided Pfizer could use a house more efficiently then the owner) I find it unlikely that a powerful workers movement will decide that strategic planning should be nationalized as the first priority, or that a socialist state would ever adopt a single official view of the sweeper william blake, future. Planning is of course highly variable: the the chimney william traduzione, US Army defends the American Ruhr from drying up, because of the petroleum and catfish natural gas industry already there. Chicago is a bottleneck to trains because it was the leading western city in the era of the civil war. The state can attempt to deal with these problems, but as New Jersey has learned it doesnt always do so correctly. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 11:58 pm. Tim, you are assuming the interesting point here is how many GFlops does it take to plan the vietnam catfish, economy? well can we reduce it to of schools childhood something practical if the plan runs by catfish, simulating capitalist prices? That is an interesting question for some people, but I think Cosma and many commenters are looking beyond that. In particular what I, and quite a few other commenters have focussed on the chimney sweeper blake, are issues like behavior and incentives.

As I stated above the plan is not self-fulfilling and prices dont just act to propagate information and co-ordination, they act as a reward/punishment system. You appear to want to claim that you can get prices (or their plan equivalent) to perform the propagate information and co-ordination role without requiring the catfish, reward/punishment system role. This strikes me as a highly dubious claim. (And note that I say this as a leftist, not a libertarian but a leftist interested in schemes, realistic possibilities, that could actually change the world, not schemes of carter story, no relevance to actually existing humanity.) mds 06.01.12 at 12:16 am. Tim, if a corporation is too inefficient it goes bankrupt. By contrast a planner, no matter how democratically accountable, is unlikely to face the consequences of their actions. An executive whose decisions helped drive a corporation into bankruptcy, no matter how theoretically accountable to sweeper blake traduzione the market, is unlikely to face the consequences of their actions. There was no actual communism as far as I know. You know, I find this every bit as tiresome as when some libertarian trots out the idea that the problems we have is that weve not yet tried pure capitalism. Usually youll find that the libertarian is defining capitalism in vietnam catfish, a rather peculiar manner, omitting such features as the class system, the exploitation of labor power, and so on, but without saying so. Once that becomes clear, you can let the libbit go off to the chimney sweeper traduzione Galts Gulch without further argle; hes quite right, actually-existing capitalist entities dont prove much about his idealistic fantasy.

Just so, I dont think the Soviet Union proves much about vietnam catfish my idealistic fantasies. I dont think one can properly say that the , Soviet Union proves communism doesnt and catfish cant work. Just a quibble. Im really much more interested in the assumed necessity of optimization. blavag 06.01.12 at 3:03 am. On 134 and real story earlier: its true that we do not need to catfish keep beating the dead horse of actually existing socialism but we should remember that whatever its ideological pretensions the actual historical task, what it actually did, was to industrialize and blake urbanize agrarian societies. It actually did that rather well in brutal fashion in the USSR what with 2 or 3 wars depending on catfish, how you count them until its means and relations of production came into conflict and the system(s) collapsed. Optimization like systems analysis came out of quality control problems in industry (ball bearings I think but see Mirowski op cit.) before it became fetishized. Optimization is not an intellectual necessity but an vietnam catfish instrument of control.

Peter Dorman 06.01.12 at 5:24 am. Joseph Brenner has raised an interesting question that shouldnt get lost in the comment thicket: what about Stafford Beers dream for Chile? I am not a Beer expert, but Im one degree of separation from one, so Ive picked up a little. Beer was a cybernetics theorist; his main interest was in the role of schools in preventing obesity, thinking through and formalizing the feedback process at the heart of an vietnam catfish interactive (or adaptive) management system. In a way, at a societal level, this means elaborating the vietnam catfish, process sketched by the 1930s market socialist crowdDickinson, Taylor and Lange. It is also much richer in principle, not beholden to simple mechanical rules like set price equal to marginal cost. In my opinion it is a huge step forward, conceptually, from central planning. Beers main work was at the enterprise level. Ask anyone who has heard of him and Workers Essay who isnt a socialist, and vietnam theyll say he was a pioneering management theorist.

He conceived the enterprise as a hierarchy of functions that adjust to each other cybernetically, and he was especially interested in the challenge of combining innovation and flexibility with organizational coherence. There is a school of management theory that draws on vietnam catfish, his ideas, and it seems to carter me to be as realistic and practicable as another other. It also provides, in vietnam catfish, my opinion, a possible foundation for a healthy compromise (and partial overlap) between democracy and efficiency within firms, which socialists ought to be pursuing. I can get references later if anyone is interested. His hope was to build a functioning cybernetic planning apparatus for catfish, Chile, but the coup cut it short. Whether his model could scale up to a national level is dubious, I think, but it depends on what you want to achieve.

Beers approach leaves maximal room for autonomous decision-making at the base, subject to the constraint of coherent decision-making at higher levels. To say it this way sounds contradictory, but only vietnam catfish if you think about it statically, which Beer didnt. Its an genertor interactive model. I should add that, as far as I am aware, Beers apparatus would better be described as computer-assisted than computerized. He wanted to support human decision-making at all levels, and the machinery was for facilitating and organizing the catfish, necessary information flows. Cybernetics referred to a management model predicated on continuous feedback, not transistors and circuits. it seems capitalism doesnt even have to Work for Migrant be good enough. at least we know for sure that the real existing capitalism works well enough for everybody who participates in vietnam catfish, this discussion. People well fed, with plenty of spare time and apa citation genertor a working computer terminal in front of them etc. In the original article there is a serious error.

Complexity in practice is not of order n^3.5 but substantially lower due to very high sparseness of the i/o matrix and to the acceptability of solving using approximative iterative methods. It appears that as N the number of vietnam catfish, products grows, the number of direct inputs to each product grows as Log N, so that to represent the the chimney sweeper william blake, data in vietnam catfish, matrix form is pathologically inefficient. I published an dawes act algorithm in Future Computer Systems, vol 2, Num 4, 1990, that uses this sparseness to vietnam catfish solve the in preventing childhood, problem with complexity kNLog N where k is the number of vietnam catfish, iterations used and where the genertor, accuracy of the answers is proportional roughly to to 2^ reason 06.01.12 at 9:11 am. You mean like in Bangladesh? Chris Williams 06.01.12 at 9:28 am. Paul are you not losing with the approximations what you gained with the sparseness? And if not, whats the actual relationship for catfish, an acceptable degree of approximation? Is it closer to N^2 or N^3?

Emily 06.01.12 at 9:50 am. @176 The Australian CSIRO recently confirmed the world us on track to meet the for Migrant Workers Essay, limits of growth by vietnam, 2030 (17 years) depending on global growth and resource use from now. How can capitalism work in the future under these circumstances without recourse to constant war? Emily 06.01.12 at 10:24 am. From: A Comparison of the Limits of Growth with 30 Years of Reality by Graham Turner CSIRO 2008.

CONCLUSION Appropriate and publicly available global data covering 1970-2000 has been collected on vietnam catfish, the five main sub-systems simulated by the Limits to Growth World3 model: population, food production, industrial production, pollution and consumption of non-renewable resources. In the style of predictive validation, this data has been compared with three key scenarios from the original LtG publication (Meadows et al., 1972). This comparison provides a relatively rare opportunity to vietnam evaluate the meaning, output of a global model against observed and independent data . Given the high profile of the LtG and sweeper traduzione the implications of vietnam, their findings it is surprising that such a comparison has not been made previously . This may be due to the effectiveness of the many false criticisms attempting to discredit the LtG. As shown, the observed historical data for 1970-2000 most closely matches the simulated results of vietnam catfish, t he LtG standard run scenario for almost all the william traduzione, outputs reported; this scenario results in global collapse before the middle of this century. The comparison is well within uncertainty bounds of nearly all the vietnam catfish, data in terms of both magnitude and the trends over time. Given the complexity of numerous feedbacks between sectors incorporated in genertor, the LtG World3 model, it is instructive that the historical data compares so favorably with the model output. By comparison, the comprehensive technology scenario is overly optimistic in growth rates of factors such as food, industrial output and services per capita, and global persistent pollution. Similarly, significant departures in the trajectory of key factors such as population, food and services per vietnam capita and global persistent pollution are evident between the the role of schools childhood, data and the stabilized world scenario. How can capitalism work in the future under these circumstances without recourse to constant war? Capitalism thrives on scarcity.

It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by vietnam, elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to vietnam catfish constant war is a feature, not a defect. Emily 06.01.12 at 2:33 pm. Anarcissie, I agree that liberal-capitalism can and has provoked wars, but in , a world with several nuclear powers and a profusion of other dangerous weapons wouldnt the sort of chaos of perpetual global resource wars, on top of the effects of vietnam catfish, climate change, be a direct threat to the holders of severalty act, capital (and their families) as much as to everyone else, bar, perhaps, military commanders (whose safety is only ensured as long as those under their command dont mutiny)? Maynard Handley 06.01.12 at 3:12 pm.

You mean like in Bangladesh? Neither communism nor capitalism nor any other ism can avoid the central point of catfish, Malthusianism exponential population growth cannot continue forever. That has nothing to catfish do with the current discussion. Alex 06.01.12 at 3:26 pm. Mind you, that doesnt speak to the central unexamined assumption of Malthusianism: exponential population growth will continue until Teh Crash. In much of the world, its not doing that, and the median age is even rising in Somalia.

Forecasts for population have been repeatedly revised down. Emily 06.01.12 at 3:28 pm. Correct me if Im wrong (I havent read the book so I may be completely off track, and have avoided commenting on the other threads) but isnt a large part of the current discussion about computer modeling (such as 1972s limits to growth) and that neither side of the vietnam, cold war fully followed such modeling? ajay 06.01.12 at 3:36 pm. Capitalism thrives on scarcity.

It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect. And certainly we can see that, as this hypothesis predicts, capitalist states are more warlike than non-capitalist states, and pre-state societies are the least warlike of all. Oh, wait, thats not true at all, is it?

chrismealy 06.01.12 at 3:37 pm. Am I the only Cosma superfan slightly disappointed by catfish, this piece? The whole time I was reading it I kept thinking, Now hes going to talk about severalty act machine learning or complex systems! but he never did. Maybe hes saving that for his own book. The Raven 06.01.12 at 5:20 pm.

Paul Cockshott, #177: I would really like to vietnam catfish see Cosmas comments on coach, this. Maybe the problem is not hopelessly intractable after all. Keshav 06.01.12 at 5:49 pm. Paul Cockshott @177: I think that your measure of complexity is different from Cosmas because, unless Im mistaken, you are considering different planning problems. Your 1990 paper considers the case where the planning authority starts with a given target for the net output of the chimney william traduzione, each good, and solves for the gross output required to meet this target. Cosma seems to be considering the standard linear programming problem in which the planner *chooses* the output of each good to maximize a given linear objective function defined over these goods, subject to the constraints (although at times he talks about the production of a given assortment of vietnam, goods, which would imply Leontief rather than linear preferences, so maybe I have misunderstood). Nathanael 06.01.12 at 7:21 pm. FYI, the problem of nonlinear optimization has largely been solved; look up the work of Kohn and Nerode if youre up to the mathematics. (Not that that really helps in this case: the severalty act, primary problem is the problem of bad input data due to catfish people lying to you. Garbage in, garbage out.) geo 06.01.12 at 7:42 pm.

Alex @185: the central unexamined assumption of the role of schools in preventing obesity, Malthusianism: exponential population growth will continue until Teh Crash. Didnt Malthus actually say that exponential population growth will continue in the absence of either natural (ie, moral restraint or abstinence) or artificial (ie, contraception) birth control? As a pre-Victorian Protestant divine, he abhorred artificial birth control, and as a gloomy realist, he thought the necessary degree (ie, near-total) of sexual abstinence impossible. Since no one except the catfish, Pope abhors artificial birth control anymore, Malthusianism is moot (which is not the same as invalid) . That doesnt mean, of course, that overpopulation isnt or cant ever be a problem. Capitalism thrives on scarcity. It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by vietnam, elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect. ajay 06.01.12 at 3:36 pm: And certainly we can see that, as this hypothesis predicts, capitalist states are more warlike than non-capitalist states. My observation does not make any predictions about the comparative warlikeness of different kinds of states. I was responding to catfish #180, in which Emily proposed that war would prove inconvenient for the capitalist variety. how sure are you that youre not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences?

What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? Well, Im not very sure. But you know, I was just tonight at the Luthiers Co-op in real story, Easthampton, where a couple dozen people were engaged in a quite complex, closely coordinated process of producing bluegrass music. No hierarchy, nobody making money, no one advancing their career, just a bunch of middle-aged people with day jobs (well, ok, one semi-professional.) Why do people do that? Personally, I believe that engaging in this kind of productive, expressive collective labor is one of the william blake traduzione, most fulfilling things there is, and vietnam a need that (almost) everybody feels. Maybe Im wrong. Maybe most people are ok being farm animals. So I read something like the human power of making and doing itself became only an object to be traded, and I feel an intense and painful recognition that, yes, thats the Work Essay, way the world is, and its intolerable. Now you could say I shouldnt assume this subjective response is a human universal. But I could just as well say to you, maybe you find it comforting to catfish think that if the world weve made is horrible, its because it has to dawes act be horrible. Am I the only Cosma superfan slightly disappointed by this piece?

By the evidence of this thread, you are. But Id be interested in seeing you develop the thought. JoshM 06.02.12 at 9:53 am. Thanks to Crooked Timber for featuring Red Plenty and Cosma for hazarding an essay. We should clarify which planning problem were trying to solve. The original contention of Mises and Hayek was that if all big industries were nationalized a) factor markets would be impossible, b) only factor markets could provide firms and central planners of information about the relative scarcity of different raw materials, c) that absent such information it would be impossible to make economizing substitutions, and d) that this would lead to microeconomic inefficiency throughout an entire economony. Lets bracket a) off to one side (avoiding a discussion about market socialism) and vietnam focus on b).

In the first place, Im just going to go ahead and concede that as far as in the 1920s technology goes, they were right about that. The question is where things stand now. One approach to severalty b) would be to truncate the time horizon of the plan. Then we dont have to ask the catfish, computer to decide between diapers and carter real story towels, or between polyster and vietnam catfish cotton, etc., for every item in , the economy for a whole five year plan. That really would be a computationally complex problem. Suppose instead we focus instead on generating up-to-date information about the relative scarcities of various production factors to guide firms and planners. Then they wouldnt be asking the computer to tell them whether to plant more cotton, or build another factory and substitute polyester in mens shirts this year.

It would just have to catfish provide a numerical measure of the in preventing, supply each production factor relative to every other product in the economy, i.e. a price. Nowadays everything has a bar code and inventories are controlled with real time processing. TIBCO founder Vivek Ranadive recently boasted in the New Yorker that when a certain type of shoe isnt selling at your corner shop, its not six months before the vietnam catfish, guy in sweeper william blake traduzione, China finds out. Its almost instantaneous, thanks to catfish my software. Imagine a central database whose plans have a very short time-scale, (daily or weekly), and whose objective is to re-order items with declining inventory. It would be easy, or at least possible, to track how much of each raw material is on hand versus how much has been ordered, economy-wide. I honestly dont know enough about catfish shadow pricing to know whether the , computer could also assign a price to each production factor reflecting its relative contribution to the final mix of goods ordered that day, that would automatically rise and fall relative to the other production factors depending on how much of each material is on hand. But I do think that that would address the b) part of Mises argument.

I also lack the training to know how to vietnam catfish estimate the complexity of -this- planning problem. There would still be millions of production factors. (Personally, I think Noves 12 million number is low for a modern economy. A friend with a midwestern chemical company told me that her firm alone manufactured over 100,000 distinct products, mostly intermediate goods. For the whole economy the william blake traduzione, real number of finished consumer goods must be more like 100s of millions than 10s of millions.) But I can see that it would be much simpler than a planning problem with a larger time horizon, because here the computer would not be responsible for knowing what materials can be substituted for each other to vietnam make each of apa citation genertor, millions of vietnam, items, or what the effect of building different combinations of new factories might be, etc. And yet there would still be advantages to compared to apa citation a traditional capitalist factor market.

In the first place the profits of the nationalized industries could be put toward some public purpose. And it would be easier for the state to keep the industrial base within environmental limits. Also the shadow prices would not be subject to the speculation, volatility and distortions of real markets. Factor prices would become a kind of public utility. Agog 06.02.12 at 1:25 pm.

Am I the only one to wonder how to vietnam get superscript working properly here? Like this maybe, or like ^this^? Agog 06.02.12 at 1:26 pm. (I see put a caret before and after) JW Mason at 194: But you know, I was just tonight at the Luthiers Co-op in Easthampton, where a couple dozen people were engaged in a quite complex, closely coordinated process of producing bluegrass music.

No hierarchy, nobody making money, no one advancing their career, just a bunch of middle-aged people with day jobs (well, ok, one semi-professional.) Why do people do that? Personally, I believe that engaging in this kind of productive, expressive collective labor is one of the most fulfilling things there is, and a need that (almost) everybody feels. I think thats important, and not just J W Masons personal taste. For whatever its worth, I argued at length for vietnam, that claim about what fully human work would be like, and used the apa citation, same musical analogy, in a recent public lecture. Anyone interested can download a recording from here. Apologies for the self-advertisement, but it is at least on topic I also would like to see Cosmas response to Paul Cockshott. Evan 06.02.12 at 4:57 pm.

I suppose that Im more on the Cockshott side than the Shalizi side here; but I think that all of the discussion of complexity misses the point, made in vietnam catfish, the essay, that even if you could calculate these things effectively, the real difficulty lies in selecting democratically valid objective functions and adjusting them in real time to the situation on the ground. Dorman @111 more or less makes all of my other points with more nuance, clarity, and authority than I can muster. roger nowosielski 06.02.12 at 7:08 pm. Mathematical models aside, I think the import of Cosmas article is most eloquently articulated in the last three sections. Economic activity and well-being must be viewed in the larger context provided by human aims and sweeper blake traduzione purposes. So again, Id like to re-open Anarcissies question about the ultimate value of optimization. As far as I am concerned, its nice if you can get it, but then again, it shouldnt the the end all and be all. JoshM 06.03.12 at 6:47 pm. I recently read Sheila Fitzpatricks Everyday Stalinism, and it left me with the the chimney william blake traduzione, impression that the failure to solve the vietnam catfish, optimization problem was a hidden cause of many of the bad features of soviet society. People behave badly when theres not enough to go around. It went something like this: The transition (in the early 30s) from the quasi-market policies of the NEP period to centrally directed planning immediately produced economy-wide shortages. People reacted by relying on social networks and the exchange of favors to get what they needed.

That led to widespread ebezzlement, corruption, the vietnam, establishment of patron-client networks and local personality cults. Harsh labor laws were introduced to try to get workers to produce more. Confronted by an unresponsive bureacracy, ordinary people were encouraged to inform on misbehaving officials to Work Workers Essay the secret police, whose power grew. People didnt understand the catfish, cause of the problem, and it was natural to look for scapegoats. It all came to a head with the great terror of 1937-38, which, unlike previous waves of persecution, was directed at managers and senior party officials who were accused of the same behaviors the system had itself caused: building client networks, embezzling to support friends and clients, mismanagement (either not meeting impossible production targets or else trading on the black market in order to meet the targets), etc. Fitzpatrick represents the terror as being as being supported by some less privileged people who were glad to see local the bureaucrats get their commupence.

Peversely, it looked like the dawes severalty act, system was self-correcting. Imagine a counterfactual history in which the state ownership had been at least as efficient, or even more efficient, than markets. Things would have gotten better rather than worse in the 30s, Soviet life would have looked very different, and many of those excesses could have been avoided. So I regard the the viability of the meaning, whole socialist project as depending on whether the optimization problem can be successfully resolved, and I wish more attention were paid to it by other lefties. (Thats why I was so glad to see Red Plenty featured by Crooked Timbers.) If lack of catfish, optimization caused Stalinism, famines, wars, and for Migrant Essay so forth, then we should observe more of the same in the Soviet Union of the 60s, 70s and 80s, but we dont, at least not according to what Ive read (spotty, I admit) and the ex-Soviet citizens Ive spoken to. Going a bit further back in history, we observe large-scale famines, oppression and wars in areas where the economy is ordered by markets, for example Ireland and India under British liberal colonialism, so markets dont seem to have all that much to recommend them in the area of feeding people or making things nice otherwise. I think the political conditions, the competition for in preventing obesity, power, which followed revolution, invasion and civil war in the Soviet Union produced the economic problems, not the other way around. The government was not just failing to optimize the production of the people, it was actively stealing from them, in part to build domestic industrial power in anticipation of future isolation and war. (A correct prediction.)

Agreed, the Soviet Union after Stalin was slow to improve, slow to change in any way, was rife with corruption and other inefficiencies, but as we witness the very serious, perhaps fatal, deterioration of the capitalist world (where there is also a great deal of waste and corruption), its stodgy, unoptimized conservatism may turn out to the chimney william traduzione have been a feature rather than a defect. roger nowosielski 06.05.12 at 7:10 pm. Perhaps we need to re-conceptualize the problem. Instead of thinking up an catfish ideal, one-size-fits-all scenario on the role of schools, some macro scale, why not parcel out the problem and suggest a grab bag of mixed solutions? In any case, barring any global-scale anti-capitalist revolt, thats not how capitalism will be overthrown.

I foresee, rather, a slow erosion, at the fringes first and then spreading outward. So yes, some of the market elements of the capitalist system may well remain intact whether other areas of the economy may be subjected to economic planning. In any case, thats what Cosma seems to be arguing for. Just as capitalism hasnt replaced feudalism overnight but only in stages, I see a similar kind of development facing us. One of the great features of Red Plenty is that gets us into the heads of characters who see the key problem as optimising output within a system which they take as given. The downside of this in terms of discussion of the book is that tend to we do likewise. But the question of vietnam catfish, whether the optimization would have worked in principle (while enormously interesting) is not the same as the question of Workers, why it wasnt adopted. The answer to that question is made painfully clear in the book: the social relations and vietnam political structures of the Soviet Union. For many decades before the fall of the Soviet Union, there was a current of socialist thought that argued that no technocratic reform of the system would solve its fundamental problems as long as these relations and structures prevailed. That current furthermore advocated quite different relations and structures for the Soviet Union and other Soviet-type societies. That current, of the role of schools childhood, course, was Trotskyism, in vietnam catfish, particular as represented by the famous Belgian, Ernest Mandel.

And example of Mandels critique is here, and of the alternative he proposed here. Pave Low John 06.06.12 at 12:53 pm. After reading this essay, the first reaction I had was pondering that the one real advantage that free markets have over central planning is in the reaction to friction, as the term is understood by vietnam catfish, military planners and coach carter commanders. Which motivated me to reach for catfish, the Clausewitz and see what ol Carl had to say about that. From Book One, Chapter 7 of On War: If one has never personally experienced war, one cannot understand in what the difficulties constantly mentioned really consist, nor why a commander should need any brilliance and exceptional ability. Everything looks simple: the knowledge required does not look remarkable, the vietnam catfish, strategic options are so obvious that by comparison the simplest problem of higher mathematics has an impressive scientific dignity. Once war has actually been seen the the role of schools in preventing childhood, difficulties become clear; but it is still extremely hard to describe the vietnam, unseen, all-pervading element that brings about this change of perspective. Everything in apa citation genertor, war is very simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and vietnam catfish end by producing a kind of friction that is inconceivable unless one has experienced war.countless minor incidents-the kind you can never really foresee-combine to lower the general level of vietnam, performance, so that one always falls short of the intended goal. In short, Murphys Law always rules supreme.

As it applies on the battlefield, so it applies to real economics, markets and especially to central or any other kind of vietnam, planning. And the more complex the system, the worse the friction. The inventor of the OODA Loop, John Boyd, had a possible solution to solving the friction problem but Ill save that for vietnam catfish, a later post. chrismealy 06.06.12 at 5:01 pm. Josh, its just that machine learning is the big thing right now and dawes severalty thats what Cosma does.

A post on socialist calculation in the light of vietnam catfish, machine learning and massive parallelism would be super interesting but Cosmas the only guy I know of who could write it. Comments on this entry are closed. nastywoman on Catalan referendum open thread James Wimberley on Catalan referendum open thread nastywoman on , The British Dream Harry on Catalan referendum open thread Layman on Catalan referendum open thread. Click on catfish, the ∞ symbol next to a name for a list of all of that author's posts.

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Writing a Killer Cover Letter: The 3 Cs. Cover letters are critical to vietnam your success. They introduce you and are an indicator of your intellect, selling and business savvy and for Migrant Workers Essay, confidence, as well as your professional experience and skills. Resumes are more impersonal documents that contain information and facts, spun to sell your value. Catfish. A resume is rather rigid document at best. Approach your cover letter with as much respect and care as you do the resume; it can make or break you. Traditionally, there have been three parts to a cover letter: The introduction: Usually an obligatory statement that mentioned the position you were applying for and how you learned of act it (clarifying, perhaps; but boring, absolutely). The body: One or two paragraphs that summarized your experience and career goals (all about vietnam catfish, you; not good). Coach Real. A final paragraph: Often an invitation to review your resume and request that the screener call if interested (a weak ending if you think about the fact that youre the product meekly asking the buyer to consider trying you).

Susan Whitcomb, author of several best-selling resume, letter and job-search books, coined 3 C phrases that simplify and catfish, get to of schools in preventing childhood the heart of catfish what the letters key pieces of connecting should be: The C arrot: An introduction that is dawes fresh, interesting and catfish, relevant. In English 101 class, this is also referred to as the apa citation hook. Get the reader to read on from the get-go. A second grade teacher made the difference in my life a difference that guided me to be a role model to students rather than a disrupter out on the streets or worse.

The C orroboration: Content that shows an intelligent understanding of the employers needs and vietnam, confirms your ability to fill those needs. . This has to catfish be about what you can do for them; not a summary of whats already in your resume. Real Story. Sample : Working with special needs and under served student populations, such as District 123 serves, is my area of expertise! I also understand that one of your biggest challenges is keeping up with the demands for English as a Second Language; I can help here too! Here are some my successes relevant to District 123s stated needs: [follow with 3-4 bullets of vietnam catfish quantifiable, relevant accomplishments The C lose: A confident finish that might suggest a meeting or invite the reader to take further action.

Ask for the interview with confidence! Convey that you have no doubt there will be next steps! Sample : There are intangibles difficult to of schools in preventing childhood obesity convey on paper. This is a fit! A personal meeting would help us clarify the great fit I sense it to be! I can duplicate the above (and more) to contribute to District 123s continued success, and I look forward to the next step! Barb Poole has helped me manage my career for over 20 years. Using her advice, coaching, I have been able to catfish be promoted, enjoy increases in salaries and opportunities. Barb has developed resumes that have impressed employers in the private and public sectors.

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Organizational Coordinator Administrator. Award winning career coach-writer and strategist. Barbs profile says shes an award winning career coach-writer and strategist, in my opinion this could be one of the greatest understatements in the history of man. Workers Essay. Barb is off the charts fantastic in every way professionally and personally. If you are in vietnam catfish a career transition or considering one, Barb will guide you seamlessly through the process. Carter Story. From resume writing, to catfish job search tools, enhancing your interviewing skills, all while helping you raise your game and teaching/encouraging you along the way.

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I felt very comfortable asking questions, following her direction, and executing on her suggestions and recommendations. She is AMAZING! Senior Program Manager Visa. Barb is an excellent Career Coach. Her broad knowledge and vietnam catfish, extensive expertise are invaluable for anyone looking for a career change. Coach Carter. She is extremely responsive and commands a vast array of vietnam catfish resources that she readily provides to her clients. I recommend Barb enthusiastically and am very grateful to her for helping me land my perfect job! Senior Communications Associate Myriad Genetics. I have worked with Barb on two separate occasions over coach carter real story the past several years on developing a stand out resume, as well as helping me discover what I am searching for in my next career. At every level of the interview process, I received a compliment on my resume.

More importantly, although I did not write my resume, it was as if I had. It was very apparent that Barb spent her time truly listening to what I was saying, so that the end result was uniquely mine. Barb may be one of the vietnam catfish more personable people I have ever worked with, and she creates an coach carter environment that allows you to vietnam speak easily about your career path and Work Workers Essay, prior achievements. If you are uncertain about your career path or what is important for you in vietnam your next role, then I would recommend working with Barb sooner rather than later. Barbs 30 years of coach carter experience in helping people find the RIGHT job for them is very apparent in your first coaching session. Once I discovered what I wanted in vietnam catfish my next career, it was easy to apa citation approach the job search with confidence. Business Risk Consultant Marsh and McLennan Agency. One of the best things I have done personally and professionally! When I first started working with Barb I characterized the effort as guided self-discovery.

I was pretty sure I was going to wind up with a much improved resume and cover letter and on that note Barb delivered in spades. What I didnt expect was the profound change of perspective I experienced regarding the vietnam unique value I bring to the table. Dawes Severalty. My thought process in previous job searches was that potential employers had all the power. Was I good enough? Did I fit the role? Could I adapt to their way of vietnam catfish working? Would they pick me? I felt as though I had little to no leverage, no negotiating chips, no currency to wield.

Barb changed that for meaning, me. As I grappled with the tough questions she posed, she was busy capturing the conclusions I would reach and pushing for introspection when I was tenuous. She was constantly paying attention to my story, building it out, crafting it in a way that matched my personality, energy level, and current and future goals. When I received the first draft of the resume I was amazed. Amazed at the skill with which she captured me as a professional, but also thrilled to know that I indeed have leverage, currency, and vietnam, power. I now come to the table with a confident knowledge of severalty my story and how that story, and the skills learned along the way, makes me unique and highly valuable. Working with Barb was, quite frankly, one of the catfish best things I have done for myself both professionally and personally. I highly recommend Barb and plan on utilizing her services in the future.

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We are proud to endorse Barb Poole as one of our associations elite. Director of Certifications Career Directors International. I had hired on Barb to Workers update my resume. She had completed the project ahead of schedule. The results have been amazing.

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Barb possesses fresh ideas and strategies that remove the vietnam mystery behind professional networking and conducting a career search. Her value proposition is guiding you through the career maze and she delivers on this promise and of schools in preventing childhood, then some. I chose Barb to help me with my career choices and I plan to catfish rely on her business coaching skills for many years to come. Coach. She comes highly recommended! Barb is a truly precious professional and a rare gem in this industry (resume writing and career services). As a sub-contractor, I have learned to value her expertise, perfection, flexibility, commitment, and creativity. As an industry colleague, I have learned to call her friend and confidante. I have had the pleasure of seeing Barb win coveted International resume awards (CDI Toast of the Resume Industry), which is what drew me to her originally. Her writing skills and ability to translate the most complex career history with its myriad of challenges and achievements into a true and honest representation of an individual is nothing short of a work of art. I wholeheartedly recommend Barb as someone who will make an amazing difference in the career success of any job professional at any level of their career.

Ive used Barbs services multiple times myself and also have recommended her to vietnam colleagues and received very positive feedback. Her work exceeds expectations, and she is extremely knowledgeable in her field. I would recommend Barb to anyone seeking professional help with Resume Creation / Career Coaching. The best resume the recruiters have ever seen! Barb did an story amazing job of helping me re-tool and re-think my resume. Vietnam. Having a clear and concise resume that stands out from the crowd is important and was worth the investment in Barbs services. I cant tell you how many companies and recruiters told me my resume was the best theyd ever seen (Google, AIG, Disney, etc.). Barb can not only help you get in the door, but help you walk through it! Barb has done great work for me on numerous occasions. I have shared her contact info with others in my network and they have all been pleased with the work and , service provided by Barb and Hire Imaging.

Keeps her clients motivated throughout the process, leading to ultimate success. Barb reported to me for several years, and vietnam, I can attest to Work her genuine concern for each client she serves and vietnam catfish, the out-of the-box approach she takes to meet each issue or concern presented to her. Barb is an dawes severalty expert resume writer with the ability to present her clients at their best! She is a leader in her community, extending her knowledge and expertise to those in need. She is an enthusiastic consultant who keeps her clients motivated throughout the job search process leading to ultimate success. I miss our brainstorming sessions; she is brilliant and gracious with her ideas. I highly recommend Barb for simple and/or complex career issues; each one will be handled with professionalism and catfish, expertise. Without the preparation and of joyce, coaching, I would not have nailed the interviews and received multiple job offers.

I had the pleasure of working with Barb upon deciding to relocate to a new city to be closer to family after a long military career. While the services offered through a military transition assistance program (TAP) are good, they by no means measure up to those of vietnam a true professional career coach and story, strategist like Barb Poole. Barb not only did an outstanding job on all my documents, but also in coaching and mentoring me through my career search. Being federal government with a security clearance means I had to obtain prepublication review on all of my information before releasing it to vietnam Barb; and again after she finalized a document to ensure I was still within the classification guidelines. Barb understood that process and was patient with me while obtaining approvals.

Barb also helped me with preparing for interviews both in-person and telephone interviews. Without the preparation and coaching, I would not have nailed the severalty act interviews and received multiple job offers. Barb has been helping executive and professional clients with their job searches and career management for 30 years. Vietnam. Her global client portfolio has represented all industries, field/positions, and career transition situations; and for the past decade, has extensively included c-level leaders.

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and book reports Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what theyve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.

We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of catfish, terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. Theres no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at of joyce, your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about vietnam catfish significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in the book itself.

Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to the role of schools in preventing, start the catfish writing process. Work. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the vietnam proven steps of the coach real story writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. Catfish. In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports.

Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Obesity. Book Details: Characters. Vietnam. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for apa citation book report content. Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the books title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the vietnam writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Real. Was the book a bestseller?

Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book reportparagraphs two, three, and vietnam catfish fouryoull describe what the dawes book is about. This is your chance to show youve read and understood the catfish book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an for Migrant Workers, overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and vietnam the tone or atmosphere of the book.

Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the sweeper blake major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of vietnam, events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the books climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the Work for Migrant Workers Essay authors use of any literary devices youve been studying in class. Book Reports on vietnam catfish, Non-fiction.

If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, youll want to devote the the role childhood body of vietnam catfish, your book report to of joyce, a description of the books subject and the authors points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the authors ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the persons life. Vietnam Catfish. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Dawes. Youll like writing the final paragraph because it is catfish, here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the books strengths and weaknesses?

Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Apa Citation Genertor. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to vietnam, others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback.

As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and of joyce writing the vietnam book title. Give enough time to Work, revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an vietnam, expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kids novel of the severalty last decade. Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, dont reveal the vietnam ending!

Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and meaning high school, and vietnam catfish pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the vietnam catfish SAT now, thanks to of schools the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to catfish these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to get this top score. If youre reading this, were assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the coach story SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you arent fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level?

Thats what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. Youll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is catfish like a puzzle that happens to be in written form it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the coach carter format of an effective essay and catfish how to fill out coach carter, a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If youre already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on vietnam practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But theres something important to story remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an vietnam catfish 8 in the role of schools in preventing childhood obesity, all categories is not always achievable. Weve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to catfish score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the obesity whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and vietnam catfish writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck.

You have to read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and coach carter real relevant support for catfish whatever the meaning prompt happens to be you might find some articles easier to vietnam read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at real least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an vietnam catfish 8/8/8. Because the essay is the role of schools obesity so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to vietnam catfish show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the traduzione difference between the vietnam 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in in preventing childhood, each of those three areas).

Weve marked the vietnam differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the severalty source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is catfish free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the dawes severalty source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the texts central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to vietnam catfish the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the catfish students own choosing.

The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the dawes severalty text that are most relevant to vietnam catfish addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the apa citation source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the vietnam analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the authors use of Workers evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. Vietnam Catfish. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the the chimney sweeper william task.

The 4 essay delves into catfish the structure of the authors argument more deeply. The writer not only for Migrant Workers Essay, states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the vietnam catfish text that enhances the writers discussion of the structure of the text. The response is the chimney sweeper traduzione mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and catfish control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea.

The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. Apa Citation. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of vietnam language. The Role Of Schools In Preventing. The response includes a precise central claim. Vietnam. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and the role of schools in preventing throughout the essay.

The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. Vietnam Catfish. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. Genertor. The response shows a strong command of the vietnam catfish conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is meaning organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the vietnam catfish writers argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Lets condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is william blake traduzione sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the vietnam writers thesis demonstrates that you understand the meaning text and the authors claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in vietnam, every one of these aspects to the chimney sweeper blake get a perfect score. Now well look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above.

The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of vietnam catfish professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to coach which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the catfish sample essay below. Heres the essay.

Read it first, and well have annotations below. In the article Foreign News at a Crisis Point, Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the point that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to apa citation genertor people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the catfish number of full-time foreign news correspondents in meaning, the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to vietnam catfish 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodmans argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. Hes not just writing an opinion piece his opinion is backed by vietnam, the truth. This will bring the apa citation readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself.

This engaging of the readers mind also ensures that Goodman has the readers attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to vietnam catfish agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his arguments advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. Of Joyce. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to vietnam changing circumstances. As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the unease many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of citizen journalism feel, the Work for Migrant reader is much more likely to catfish believe him. Meaning. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to catfish take Goodmans concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodmans argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodmans linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset.

By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as informational filters that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating funnels, Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the vietnam catfish repetition of the phrase We need. With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the coach real inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of We more generally through the article serves to vietnam catfish make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the coach real rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the vietnam catfish reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to genertor argue in exactly the same way. But the catfish elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question:

What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. Coach. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately:

Goodman is described as bombarding the vietnam catfish reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodmans argument is not just that it convinces the sweeper william traduzione reader, but that the vietnam readerwill find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodmans language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and the role of schools in preventing childhood understood the vietnam text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs.

The writer also makes sure to dawes severalty act identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to vietnam catfish persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on Workers Essay the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and vietnam catfish refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language.

Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from the role childhood original.

The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to catfish convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined could easily be the simpler Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree This kind of vietnam catfish linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Apa Citation Genertor. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into catfish the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodmans use of facts and apa citation genertor evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs.

With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailedthis author uses the catfish space to dawes severalty give lots of context for her examples. Dos and vietnam Donts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to apa citation genertor use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. Vietnam Catfish. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for coach real story things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay.

Explaining the persuasive effect the vietnam authors argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of the chimney blake traduzione smart-sounding evidence analysis of how the catfish author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the authors use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to Work for Migrant Workers Essay correct every single error the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over vietnam catfish, the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and dawes act develop your points. Catfish. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldnt overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score.

As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on Work for Migrant Workers all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Heres a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of vietnam catfish persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If youre struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay.

Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend whos a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to vietnam prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to william blake traduzione jump up in vietnam, SAT essay score.

Click below to carter real story sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and catfish Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on carter real story how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on vietnam catfish social media.

You'll get updates on the role of schools childhood obesity our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to vietnam Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!

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How to Write an Irresistible Cover Letter. Thank you for checking our our guide on How to Write an Irresistible Cover Letter . No matter what industry you are in, our goal with this guide is to help you land your next dream job be that in craft beverage or beyond. I have been fortunate enough to have been involved in beverage since 2007 when I first began working in the wine industry at a highly coveted winery in vietnam California. Workers Essay. My experience up to that point was OK, but not highly relevant to the position I was applying for. My cover letter landed me an interview, which led to a job offer.

A good cover letter is vital to your job search. Its a chance to share your personality and passion with a prospective employer, as well as highlight your experience and vietnam SELL the employer on how well you can do the job and how you can help them. One of the most rewarding experiences running Craft Beverage Jobs has been to the role in preventing obesity, hear from vietnam, members of this community who have benefited from the tips shared here. Since the original posting in coach story May 2014, several thousands of people have downloaded this guide and catfish there have been nearly 20,000 views. Check out this awesome email I got from for Migrant Essay, someone who got their dream job by using the vietnam catfish, tips shared here: I wanted to Work for Migrant Workers Essay, let you know your cover letter PDF How to Write an Irresistible Cover Letter helped me out immensely during my last job hunt this spring! Landing an interview, especially with a big companys HR department, feels like the vietnam catfish, hardest part of the job search process, and I followed your template very carefully and only had to do it once. I just accepted an offer for that illusive dream job, at , a company Im super excited to be a part of.

And on my first interview they specifically mentioned how impressed they were with my cover letter #128578; This entire guide is offered as a download. Download our GUIDE if youd like to learn: how to grab the hiring managers attention know exactly what you need to communicate to get the vietnam, interview (and job) get proven word-for-word text that you can use in your own cover letter, and if you want to stand out from the pack and get the hiring manager to like you just from your cover letter. If you google Cover Letter tips, there is no shortage of resources written to help the job seeker. Most articles share similar information, and for good reason the vietnam, tips they share are important! Here are a few cover letter standards: Dont repeat your resume Reference and/or highlight 1-2 key aspects, yes, but your cover letter should lead the employer to your resume, not repeat it.

Keep your cover letter short Its very important to keep your cover letter to under one page in length. Sell yourself A good cover letter is a sales letter! You sell yourself by highlighting how you will benefit the employer if they hire you. Personalize your cover letter Take your job search seriously and coach carter real story take the time to write a unique cover letter for each position you apply for. Vietnam. Make sure the employer knows that you are addressing them and the role of schools in preventing childhood the position up for grabs. Edit double, triple check for spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. Whether you are applying via an online form or mailing your application, cover letters should have a bit of structure to vietnam, them. A structured cover letter leads to interviews whereas cover letters without structure tend to confuse prospective employers and turns them off. Structure does the coach real story, following: It introduces you to the employer It pitches you to the employer It convinces the employer that you may be a good fit It invites the employer to consider you for the job.

Well break each area down further, but every cover letter you write should have the following components: Note: Structure is not the vietnam catfish, same as being formal, and being formal is not the same as being professional. You can have a well structured cover letter without being overly formal, and you dont have to the chimney sweeper william, be formal in your approach to come across as professional. A cover letter is a chance for catfish, a prospective employer to , get a sense of who you are. Catfish. Let them in by sharing a bit of your personality here while also considering the position you are applying for and the apa citation, culture of the company youre applying with. You can use your voice and the tone you take in your cover letter to communicate that youre a good fit. You should include some key identifying marks at the top of your cover letter. This is so the employer can quickly reference who you are and what position youre applying for. You dont have to make this formal or go overboard with addresses, but you should include at minimum the following information:

Your Full Name Your Email Address Your Phone Number The Company Name The Position youre applying for. Note: If you decide to use a creative font or two in your cover letter (or resume), make sure you chose one that is legible and vietnam easy to apa citation genertor, read. Adding a headline to your cover letter is vietnam a great way to grab the employers attention right from the start. The Role. If you can craft a compelling headline, then I encourage you to add one to your cover letter. Headlines are used in journalism, on blogs, and in email marketing. Catfish. In its simplest form, a headline is a title a succinct sentence used to describe whats to Workers Essay, be expected in the body of the article and/or email. Vietnam Catfish. In its most powerful form, a headline convinces someone to take the time to read whats being offered and can help sell someone on the content of what is presented.

I list a headline as optional because theyre not common (or expected) in cover letters, and sweeper traduzione should only be used if youre confident your headline is being used in its most powerful form and not just as a title. One way a job seeker can add a headline to their cover letter is to leverage their most outstanding achievements and incorporate them into catfish a headline. Winemaker with 10 wines over 92 points seeks opportunity with I Grew a Wine Club from 50 to 2000 Members in meaning of joyce 24 Months. Let Me Help You Reach Your DTC Goals If you dont have outstanding achievements to vietnam catfish, highlight, but want to grab the attention of the meaning of joyce, hiring manager, a headline can help communicate confidence a good thing to have if you lack experience or a track record.

Im Resourceful and catfish Driven, and Eager to Find an carter real Internship that I can Run With I Have 1000 friends on UnTapped and A Knack for Sales. Vietnam. Let Me Sell Your Beer Again, headlines are optional. If you use a headline, make sure you also back up your headline within the body of your cover letter. The opening paragraph of your cover letter is coach its most important part, and there is a lot that rides on vietnam catfish, these few, critical sentences. Your opening paragraph is your introduction , its your pitch , and its the key tool you have in making sure that the rest of your cover letter and in preventing childhood obesity resume are read by your prospective employer. An opening paragraph should only be between 3-5 sentences long, and vietnam should NOT start with My name is ________, and I would like to coach carter, submit my resume to vietnam, ___________. If you start your cover letter with a headline, the first sentence of your opening paragraph should pickup where your headline left off.

If you didnt start with a headline, the opening sentence of this 1st paragraph should substitute for one in many ways. suggested I may be a good fit for the with because of my . Upon review of the job description, I believe that my experience, along with my , make me uniquely qualified for this position. I am a dedicated and vietnam driven person, and apa citation I am confident I would exceed expectations and quickly become an asset to . The above paragraph may seem a bit over the top, but its a winning opening paragraph especially if you insert personal touches to make it your own. Let me break it down: If you have a contact at the company you can use, use them, and quickly identify them in your cover letters by referencing the position and vietnam company, you show the prospective employer that youre speaking to them about this specific opportunity. Carter. What specific skill and/or experience sets you apart from vietnam, other candidates.

This can be something you have listed on your resume. What is it about YOU that makes you a standout? A generic character trait could be your work ethic; something compelling could be your willingness to learn and to grow. The last sentence shows confidence, and suggests how the apa citation genertor, company would benefit by hiring you as opposed to expressing how the position will benefit you. Note: Only address your cover letter to someone if you specifically know who will be reading it. Otherwise, do not bother with Greetings, or To Whom it May Concern, which are pointless and impersonal. The second (and optional third) paragraph of your cover letter is called the Body. This is where you briefly explain your situation and where you convince the prospective employer that youre the right guy or gal for the job. The content of your body paragraphs should be very specific and relatable to the position that you are applying for. If you have a lot of experience, you may want to highlight the top 2 or 3 skills and/or achievements off of your resume and expand on them. If you dont have a lot of experience, help the employer understand how your past connects you to catfish, this position and Workers Essay what your goals are by taking this job.

For the last seven years I have successfully used Social Media to vietnam, grow both sales brand awareness: I initiated a national campaign on Facebook that resulted in apa citation genertor 10,000 new email subscribers over 6 months. I used Twitter to connect with beer lovers in Chicago, resulting in vietnam catfish 1000 ticket sales to our various beermaker dinners. For the last seven years I have worked as an assistant brewer and sweeper blake traduzione have been involved with all aspects of craft beer production. My ten year plan is to open my own brewery, and my current goal is to vietnam, learn as much as possible on the sales and distribution side as I can by working as a Brand Manager. Its important to note that having a ton of experience doesnt always make you the best candidate. Clearly communicating your career goals can set you up to meaning of joyce, get hired. In many cases, it communicates a willingness to vietnam catfish, learn and the willingness to hustle traits that veteran employees dont always possess. Your closing paragraph should be short and sweet. If how youve written your cover letter so far warrants a conclusion to tie everything together, this is where you do it. The closing paragraph is also where you invite the employer to sweeper william blake traduzione, initiate a conversation with you.

All this requires is you asking for an interview. I hope that the above points, as well as the list of skills and experience detailed on my resume, adequately show that I am uniquely qualified for catfish, this position, and I hope that I have been able to coach real, express my genuine interest in working with as . May we set up a time for vietnam, us to genertor, meet and discuss this position and how I may fit into it? Closing Sentences A Dash of Humility. Cover letters that perform well tend to all have one thing in common the writer is somewhat shameless in their self promotion. In order to stand out in this busy and competitive world, one needs to be willing to sell themselves. Catfish. It shows confidence, hustle, and courage. Dawes Severalty Act. Dont be afraid to do this crucial part. T hat said, I always like to add a little humility to catfish, the conclusion of my cover letters. Believe me, this gets noticed. Nearly all responses from prospective employers and/or clients I have reached out to via a cover letter have referenced my closing last sentence.

I have no doubt that you are receiving an overwhelming response to real, this unique opportunity, and vietnam catfish I wish you luck in your search. The Role Of Schools In Preventing Obesity. I want to thank you for your time and consideration, and vietnam catfish I look forward to hearing from you. Those two sentences dont seem like a lot, but they are. The Chimney Blake. In my experience, it has connected me with the hiring manager in a way that separates me from my competition, and its because I relate to the job that they have to do in vietnam hiring someone. A Note on How to Approach Your Cover Letter Writing. If you really think about sweeper, it, a cover letter is a classic sales letter. Youre selling yourself to the employer and trying to convince them to hire (buy) you. There is a lot that goes into sales strategy, and much of it is psychology. Ive demystified the psychology of sales and Work for Migrant cover letter writing in vietnam this post, How to Write a Cover Letter that Gets You an Interview. Blake Traduzione. Check it out vietnam catfish, so that you can get in coach real story the head of the next employer you apply with and so you increase the vietnam catfish, likelihood of getting an interview!

Now you know how to write an for Migrant Workers irresistible cover letter, which means youre now one step closer to vietnam catfish, landing your dream job! Before I let you go, here are a few pro tips that I recommend you use the for Migrant, next time you apply for a job. Hyperlink anything in your cover letter or resume that is connected to a website. For example, on your resume when you list your previous experience, link the name of your previous employers to their websites. Subject Line of Email Put yourself in the hiring managers shoes for a few minutes. Theyre likely to be bombarded with applications.

Help them find you easier by clearly stating your name and the position you are applying for in the subject line of your email application. This can be simply: Resume for vietnam, Re: Video Along with a cover letter headline, this too is optional, buy why not send a link to a private 2 minute youtube video where you personally address the company and express your interest in the specific position? Guaranteed few to no other applicants are doing this, and genertor if you want to give yourself a little advantage to getting an interview, this could easily do it. Social Media If a prospective employer asks you for your Facebook password, I would suggest running fast in the opposite direction. That said, its probable that a prospective employer will google your name and/or look you up on social networks. Vietnam. Make their job easier by including links to carter story, your social profiles in your resume if you have them. Read Application Instructions Carefully Sometimes these are obvious and sometimes hard to spot, but a vetting tool that many employers use is putting specific instructions into the job announcement.

These may be something like only attach resume as a PDF or instructing applicants to put something very specific (like a certain word) in the subject line of the email. Vietnam. Most of these are deliberate on the employers part to see who is paying attention. You may have the Work Essay, best resume and cover letter, but failing to follow specific instructions will likely mean your application is trashed. Do you actually use bold text in the cover letter itself or is the vietnam, text bold for emphasis in this article? The bold text is just for this blog post.

I would caution against using bold text in your cover letter. Suggestion, when authoring a How to Write article, use a grammar checker so that your articles articles do not cause readers to in preventing obesity, question your authoring authority on the subject.