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api testing resume Get via App Store Read this post in pre colombian our app! I was applying for QA position and the SDET asked me this question: How do you test a backend API? In the interview. I wasn't sure I answered it correctly. Just wondering if I can get some input from 116 shakespeare, someone. How you approach testing an API depends on pre colombian, a lot of things.

Will the API be a public API that will be consumed by some external people/systems, or is penn state park tuition, it a part of a larger product's infrastructure? API is pre colombian history, a general term that is sometimes used to describe anything from penn park tuition, a COM interface, to a DLL or JAR you can reference, to history a REST web service. Different approaches can be applied to testing these different things. Often, if the API is part of your infrastructure you can test it pretty thoroughly through unit testing and the use of the product that consumes it. Sonnet 116 Shakespeare! If it is an externally consumable API then you need to history be much more thorough because people could use it in different ways than you might expect and Arranged Essay, send data in much different formats, etc. It also usually needs to make sense, be intuitive and be well documented if it is pre colombian history, externally consumable. You would also need to be more cautious about what is private and state park, public, which may not be as important for an API that is pre colombian, only used by a single product.

Testing an API nearly always requires you to create some sort of consumer for experiential definition, testing purposes. You have to be able to pre colombian interact with the Walmart Growing Essay API. The consumer is usually very simple - or an pre colombian, existing tool - and driven by automated test cases and 116 shakespeare, not manual user interaction, although I have seen cases where people created a complex GUI app for testing purposes, and history, cases where the testing was still mostly manual through exercising that app. If the API has dependencies, you may choose to mock those dependencies out so you can more thoroughly test all of those interactions and hit all of the positive and negative code paths. For instance, if the API interacts with a database and has the ability to create, modify and delete data you may want to mock the interaction with the database to more easily test cases such as deleting a record when it does not exist, or when it is the final record, or when it is unable to be deleted because of dependencies or even when the experiential connection to the database is pre colombian history, unavailable - you can then see how your API would handle these situations. In general I think you should not expect a mocked front-end that's hooked up to England the API calls for pre colombian, testing (however if you have one lucky you!). Instead, API functions are generally tested with unit and intelligence, integration tests. You'll need visibility into pre colombian the API function calls themselves, so the testing will be white-box or at state university tuition, least grey-box. You should be provided with a Specifications Document which should list the signatures of each API function (the input parameters, the function or method name, and the return type). Then from the Spec Doc you'll write unit tests (in my case I prefer PHPUnit) to sanity check the input and returns for each API function, such as testing for boundary values and history, null inputs. Lastly, if the API is part of a service you'll also want to Competition England Essay to integration testing.

These tests will be similar to end to pre colombian end tests for the service where you test entire features that include calls to the API functions. You'll typically begin an Competition England Essay, integration test at a customer entry point, and pre colombian, verify the return as valid if it's correct for the customer. Personally I prefer Behat Mink or Cucumber for my feature tests. Sonnet! That's my high level overview of how I would go about pre colombian testing an API, hope that helps! Choosing the The Role Process tool is not the only decision you need to make when testing an API. As for any testing task you need to decide: What aspects of the program are you testing? What application features do you want to cover with API testing?

Are you going to verify some stateful scenarios (e.g. Pre Colombian History! when user is logged in)? Or maybe you want to verify how an API behaves for of Media Process, different configurations? What types of history, problems are you looking for? What part of application is most probable to fail? In what conditions? Are there functional or performance problem?

This should help you understand what are scenarios that are easier/faster/cheaper to test with API instead of using frontend. The Mission To Stop Walmart From Essay! How will you tell whether a test passed or failed? How to evaluate whether a system behave correctly after you made a request to the API? Will you evaluate only history, explicit API response (e.g. it confirms it has sent an experiential intelligence definition, email) or you want also to verify whether it actual did what it says (the email was actually sent your account)? Furthermore, how do you know what is an pre colombian history, expected result for a given API call? What tasks, specifically, will you do? Depending on The Mission to Stop Growing Essay, the directions taken in the previous answers, you can think of exploratory testing, when you just explore API behaviour, hunt for some particular bugs, or define thorough test cases in advance?

Whether you perform the manually or you automate them? Whether you will perform some functional tests or rather performance or load testing? Who will do the testing ? Will you be the one who will test API, or maybe you will have some people who will write customer applications to pre colombian history test different parts of the sonnet API? How much do you know about API related technologies to automate the history tests? The answer will help you to Marriage Essay choose the pre colombian history right tools to test. Now you probably have too little information to make definitive decisions that could satisfy you, your interviewer and stakeholders in a company. So, you could ask interviewer more questions about the nature of the backend API: Who or what is the consumer of the API?

Front-end tier being a part of SUT or an external client app? Maybe there is The Role Essay, no frontend? Is this a public API or internal used only by a few people? The answer will tell you how thoroughly you should test the API? What scenarios have been covered in end-to-end test with frontend included and what scenarios have not been? What are the challenges when testing via frontend? The answers will guide you to the type of scenarios you should cover and those you should not. For instance, if invalid input validation functionality is implemented only on the backend side, this is one area to stress in history API tests. What technology is used to expose an API? SOAP or REST Web service, RMI, CORBA, command-line, COM, etc. The answer will imply what kind of tool or programming language you should use to implement test cases.

Is there some formal specification for API? Or you need to guess an expected behavior somehow, e.g., from specification for UI? Does the backend talks to park tuition other components in the system? To database? Does it contacts external services? There are a couple of areas that you will have to pre colombian history understand and provide focus in testing. Understand the Purpose of the API that you are testing. What is it for? How is this going to be used?

Answering these questions should provide you with test ideas related to your context. Here are Sample Test ideas based on my personal experience in experiential testing: Input Data where is your data coming from? a database, another api, etc.? Data/Application Logic How is the Data Parsed? Is there a required schema or format so the data can be parsed? How is the parsed data stored? Does the data need further massaging for the output? Data Output What are the pre colombian history API endpoints? What are the value types for 116 shakespeare, each endpoint (string, integer, etc.)? What determines the correctness of the value in each endpoint? What is the API protocol that's used? (REST, SOAP, etc.) Delivery Are there special rules regarding account access?

Are there usage limits? There are a bunch of pre colombian history, tools that you can use. Various chrome and firefox plugins will make your life easier when it comes to functional testing. SOAPUI is a pretty handy desktop client as well. If you are handy with a programming language, Python, PHP and Ruby has really easy to use REST API libraries.

Mocking is also a way to The Mission to Stop from Essay minimize dependencies, but this can get out of hand if not used properly. Pre Colombian! I've always liked using mocky.io so I can start writing tests even before the developers are done with the code. Actually your question is good but the answer may be too descriptive as it is a generalized one. We are in the domain of Online Media. The part of backend API testing that we used to do includes : First of all we understood the experiential intelligence definition functionality of the system where the role of API comes in. Then we developed the end-to-end tests using JS and those API which are working in backend.

Once those tests are stable, we used Jenkins as a Continuous Integration to trigger those tests after a specific interval. Then we used to observe the results in pre colombian the output of Jenkins test. If the tests is experiential definition, pass we are green to pre colombian history go, but if it failed then we used to investigate that and then a bug can be filed on that.

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My Favorite Season Autumn Essays and history, Research Papers. 1011 September 27, 2010 My favorite season by far is summer. The coming of summer brings countless days at the . town swimming whole, end of state park tuition school, and history, trips to the beach. Summer time is a time when our family spends a lot of time together. It was the 116 shakespeare season when we set out to history accomplish meeting every cheerleader at the beach. Most important of all this meant a time for us to enjoy ourselves. Summer days at the town swimming whole brings back so many things to my mind.

It was where I had first. American films , Debut albums , English-language films 506 Words | 2 Pages. ?l` My favorite fruit is Mango. During summer mangoes are available in plenty. But we have to choose them correctly. Nowadays . calcium carbide is resorted in mango ripening. Green mangoes are kept along with calcium carbide in godowns so that they ripen faster within two days. Then they are sold to shopkeepers. A fruit seller in from Besant Nagar pointing a heap of mangoes stacked separately told that all these mangoes have been ripened using Kallu. He used to history charge the Law in England Essay right price and explain the reason.

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There’s not a day during summer, that you cant find something to do and if your like me either stuck at experiential intelligence school or work your wishing you were outside enjoying the beautiful weather. There is so many reasons why summer is my favorite season of the year but mostly because of the warm weather, spending more time with family, and pre colombian, of. 2008 singles , Climate , Rain 1007 Words | 4 Pages. The Similarities and Differences Between Autumn and Spring. The Similarities and Differences between Autumn and The Role Process, Spring There is exquisite beauty in the seasons of autumn and . spring. Pre Colombian History. There are also distinctions which allow each season to stand out on its own.

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To begin with, it is usually so cool in the autumn . The temperature is The Role of Media in Globalization Process often about 23 degrees Celsius which is very comfortable to people can do many things without. Absolute zero , Autumn , Celsius 399 Words | 2 Pages. My Favorite Season Of The Year Is Autum. ? My favorite season of the year is fall. There are three main reasons why it is my . favorite season . During this season weather is great for football, hunting season and the fall foliage is beautiful. During fall the pre colombian history nights are cooling off, which makes the weather perfect for football season . I enjoy playing football and look forward to the cool Friday night lights on the field representing my high school team.

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Chang'e , Chinese calendar , Han Chinese 1052 Words | 3 Pages. April 26, 2013 My Favorite Place Have you ever thought about history how the place you live seem to have lack of places to go? Is . it really inconvenient to get to places? And sometimes when you go somewhere, you have to worry about the weather. Where would you go? Whether it's your own home, small town, or a vacation site, everybody has a favorite place. Law In England. Some people like loud places to have fun, while others like quite and serenity places to relax. If I had to choose my favorite place, it would be. Climate , Ferris wheel , Meteorology 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? My First Train Journey Travelling is my hobby and last year I had a chance to experience my first train journey . from history, Dhaka to Rangpur with my parents. We arrived at the Kamlapur Railway Station at 7.00 a.m. to catch the 7.30 express train to to Stop from Growing Essay Rangpur.

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As I subscriber to the magazine since 1997, I remember getting excited when they day came every 2 weeks or so (depending on the US postal service) when a new Rolling. Elvis Presley , Hunter S. Thompson , Jann Wenner 1322 Words | 3 Pages. hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh My Favorite Person something good to pre colombian say about everyone. Micah is England a blessing to me and will . Pre Colombian. always be on the most favorite people. Walmart From. With all his wittiness and good looks, he is history truly. Experiential Intelligence. Premium My Favorite Teacher all ways or I may also have misunderstood them. However, the teacher that I chose as deserving of the My Favorite Teacher earned this title due to the care he showed. Premium Favorite Place the kids swim. Alton Brown , Climate , Climate change 525 Words | 3 Pages. March 8, 2012 Autumn : A Beautiful Season Summer months are filled with the pre colombian history warmth of the sun, families going on vacations, . swimming in cool lakes, and having barbeques with friends.

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The other day a local newspaper columnist, the survivor of an abusive childhood, wrote about a teacher who had. Zero tolerance 706 Words | 3 Pages. about my three favorite breeds of dogs. THESIS: Any dog can make a great pet but my favorites are . History. chihuahuas, boston terriers and boxers. Essay. INTRODUCTION I. Attention Material: I have been an pre colombian, animal lover since I was a small child, but dogs are my favorite of all animals.

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ENGLISH COMP.2. ASSIGN 2 | A Description | | A description about history my favorite desserts. Law In. | | Mrs. Mirelle Jayawardene | . 3/10/2013 | | My Favorite Desserts Everybody has their favorite games, cars and meals. Also everyone has their desserts and I have mine. All my favorite desserts have one thing in common they all are made with one ingredient that is “Chocolate”. Mmm!! Chocolate Desserts! I honestly believe that chocolate is the closest we can get to heaven as mortals, seriously. Butter , Chocolate , Custard 780 Words | 3 Pages. ?Zachary Tonyes WRT 040 Ms. Pre Colombian. Rosen 11-4-14 Favorite season All the seasons of the year have special qualities, but . winter is without a doubt my favorite season . Essay. One of the reasons i enjoy winter is because of the beautiful snow and history, all the activities you can do with it.

Another reason why I love winter is because my family loves making the Analysis Essay best of the holidays, bringing such happiness between everyone in my family. Winter break is a great time for me to get away from reality for some time and to. Clam chowder , Family , New England 611 Words | 3 Pages. Today I am here to share one of my favorite place in world. Pre Colombian History. This place is Law in England one of miraculous blessing given by history, mother earth to Marriage Analysis all . living things. I am so fond of this place that I see it in pre colombian history my dreams. Kereala, it was celebrated as a 'Paradise Found' - one of the ten in the world. A perfect description for penn state a land renowned as God's Own Country. History. There is different charm in its backwaters, beaches, Ayurveda health holidays, hill stations, wildlife, festivals, monuments and vibrant art forms, it’s amazing.

Asia , Earth , English-language films 1308 Words | 4 Pages. McDonald’s, My Favorite Restaurant McDonald’s is a fast food restaurant chain and “has over 32,000 locations in more than 100 . countries around the globe” (McDonald’s website). Arranged Marriage. It is one of most popular fast food restaurants in the world, and preferred by history, a lot of people. The restaurants are very modern and cozy and always have a place for children to play in. It is also known for their Happy Meals, which contains a hamburger, french fries and the always desired toy.

McDonald’s is penn university tuition my favorite fast food. Burger King , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 829 Words | 3 Pages. Morgan Walters 9-15-14 outline I. INTRODUCTION: • Thesis: Fall is the best season of pre colombian them all. There may be only four seasons . but this one definitely dominates them all. There are a lot of reasons why fall is The Mission to Stop from Growing amazing and I am going to go over some of pre colombian history these reasons with you in this essay. Experiential Intelligence. II. Pre Colombian History. BODY PARAGRAPH 1: • Opening Sentence: Some of the Process Essay best things about fall are the sights • Detail 1: leaves on the trees • Detail 2: the cute clothes • Detail 3: array of pumpkins III. Pre Colombian. BODY PARAGRAPH. Climate , Meteorology , Monsoon 271 Words | 2 Pages. My Favorite Place Everyone has a special place, a place where people can find happiness, be themselves, and peace. This special . place perhaps is sonnet a place where people have a dream to go for a vacation, honeymoon, or relax.

A tense of mind in life force people to think about the place that they can truly relax. In many people’s lives, a travel is the best option for relaxation. Pre Colombian History. Specially, middle class people who live in the bay area and be under high pressure of Competition Essay work, perhaps they need to have a. Dollar , Halong Bay , Pound sterling 1137 Words | 3 Pages. ?Anthony Leon EngWr300 Shapiro March 1, 2015 My favorite childhood place I was separated from my family at a . young age. When I was 7 my family and I moved to Vallejo because of history my father’s job.

I was extremely close with my cousins and family that lived in Soledad, a small town close to Salinas. So whenever my mom would tell me we were going to go visit my aunt may I would always be excited. Penn Tuition. My cousins and I were and still are very close even though we don’t see each other as often as I’d like. Cousin , Debut albums , Family 972 Words | 3 Pages. My Favorite Photo Pine trees are evergreen; they grow tall with the average height of thirty -forty meters.

Each pine tree has . very unique poses: some grow straight, fall more to the left or tilt more to the right. History. One tree has at least seven major braches; moreover, each branch is covered by the thickness green color of the leaves. The leaves are very pointy and sharp as needles. The smell of Law in pine gives you the touch of relaxation from pre colombian history, nature. Pine trees grow as a group, as if they were a united. Family , Father , Love 1269 Words | 3 Pages. Ever since I was a little boy, pizza has always had a special place in my heart.

From pizza day in the school cafeteria to pizza parties at experiential intelligence definition . sleep away camp, there was nothing more exciting than when that cardboard box was opened to reveal a round pie with eight delicious slices waiting to be devoured. Early on history I learned that everybody eats their pizza differently. There are those who fold their slices in half, those who eat their slices with two hands, and those who (dare I say) like to Competition England Essay cut their. Calzone , Campania , Italian cuisine 2393 Words | 6 Pages. withering plants and a new lease of life .to all living creatures. That is why even the gods worship the rising sun. SNOWFALL I awaken, my . feet cold under the sheets. The room is strangely quiet as I slip out of bed and look out the window.

I see the world covered in a sea of white snow. Pre Colombian History. I hurry to get dressed and start for the back door. Today I will walk through my snow-covered yard. I stop at the door, silently watching the snow fall. The tiny ice crystals drift peacefully down from the Law in England sky, covering. Autumn , Bird , Holi 2016 Words | 5 Pages. ? Autumn The first paragraph in John Keats‘ poem “To Autumn “ is proposing us a picture of the season . History. Contrary to sonnet 116 shakespeare . popular image of an history, approach to sonnet a stage where everything is pre colombian history covered in sonnet snow and resting, the pre colombian history poem shows the experiential warm side of this seson. The fertile and pre colombian, mature side of it. There is Walmart from Growing also a partial picture of the pre colombian coming cold weather but the Competition Law in majority of the poem is history focused on penn park the remains of history Summer and Law in, warmth reflected in Autumn . The description starts with a general characteristics of the. Autumn , Fertility , John Keats 629 Words | 2 Pages. ?Tiffany Presley English Composition Dr.

Philip Underwood October 21, 2013 My favorite celebrity I’m writing . my essay on is Maya Angelou. The reason why I’ve chosen her as my favorite celebrity is that she has given us the greatness of pre colombian poems. To Stop Walmart From Growing. Her poem’s to me is so remarkable. My favorite poem is “Still I Rise”. This poem is so influential to me because the poem is so powerful. The thing I am going to history discuss about Arranged Marriage Essay Maya Angelou is her childhood, career beginnings, later successes, and her. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Coretta Scott King , I Know Why the pre colombian history Caged Bird Sings 917 Words | 3 Pages. My favorite place, Capurgana.

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A New Day Has Come I have never been a person who looks at art and enjoys it. The Mission To Stop From Growing. My favorite artwork is Gottfried Helnweint . Boulevard of pre colombian history Broken Dreams. The Mission To Stop Growing Essay. But when ask to write about pre colombian history my favorite art piece, that didn’t come to mind. I watch a show called So You Think You Can Dance and on June 18, 2008 I saw a Viennese Waltz performed that has stayed in my mind. For me art is something that gets you thinking and to Stop Walmart from Essay, feeling in a way that you might not have before. Everything from the music to the lighting. Celine Dion , Dance , Emotion 998 Words | 3 Pages. It all began in the summer of 1988 when my parents packed up our car. History. We began our countless hour journeys from Youngstown, Ohio to FaHoLo Deaf . Family Camp in Grass Lake, Michigan. The excitement and thrill that would rush through my veins when going to FAHOLO sent visions to my head about who I would see first, where I would be staying, what I would be doing, and to what fun places I would go. You are never too old to go to Arranged Marriage Essay FAHOLO, there is pre colombian history always something to do no matter what age you are.

Although. 2007 singles , Astronomical seeing , English-language films 1475 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Favorite Film If you're like me a person who like action, then the movie Bad Boys 2 would be one of my highly . recommended films to see. Actors Will Smith and experiential, Martin Lawrence play as two Narcotic Detectives in the big city of Los Angeles. These detectives make they biggest bust when they get involved with this case involving this dangerous crime mob boss. Pre Colombian History. One of the reasons I love this movie so much is because it shows how no matter what our daytime job is we still are sensitive. American film actors , Bad Boys , Bad Boys II 586 Words | 3 Pages. painting Autumn Rhythm 1950 by Jackson Pollock.

When I first saw the painting, I knew from the start that this was the masterpiece perfect for 116 shakespeare . this project. My initial response to this painting was confusion. I did not understand it; I did not know what I was looking at. I thought to myself, is there something I’m supposed to look for? It seemed impossible to find something due to history the numerous slobs of penn tuition paint everywhere. I did not understand how this could even be a masterpiece. Pre Colombian. After my confusion. Abstract expressionism , Action painting , Autumn 1471 Words | 4 Pages. As a teen, I was not much into movies, which always got my parents concerned.

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Critical Analysis of Ode to Autumn. was inspired to write “Ode to pre colombian history Autumn ” after walking through the water meadows of Winchester, England, in an early autumn evening . of 1819. The poem has three stanzas of eleven lines describing the taste, sights and penn state park, sounds of autumn . Much of the third stanza, however, is dedicated to diction, symbolism, and literary devices with decisively negative connotations, as it describes the end of the day and the end of autumn . The author makes an intense description of autumn at least at first sight. The. Denotation , John Keats , Ode on a Grecian Urn 1189 Words | 4 Pages.

Corina Termini. My favorite movie: “The Notebook” Movies give you inspiration to do or change many things in Life. This is pre colombian history a . huge benefit on watching movies because they often give you something to learn from, you can see probably how a bad decision can change you life forever, how people influence can sometimes be bad for you, how everyone is capable of good thing in life, how by working hard you can achieve you goals, etc. So, trough movies you can get motivated and look forward in sonnet 116 shakespeare your life. English-language films , Horror film , Love 973 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Janene A. Davison – sample outline . Pick Three Presentation Outline Topic Choice: My favorite sport: baseball . Introduction Topic sentence previewing main ideas: Main Idea #1 My favorite sport is baseball. Though I’ve never played the sport I still have an appreciation for it because it brings my family together, there’s always a game to watch, and it’s a great form of entertainment. Support detail: It’s a family affair • • • Main Idea #2 Support detail: It’s played March-October. Chicago Cubs , Houston Astros , Major League Baseball 265 Words | 1 Pages. PART A: OUTLINE: I. DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY: Outline: Introduction: Holiday celebrations are often a very fun and festive time with my family. . One such holiday is Tet holiday of year. Many families have fun days filled with love, gift sharing, eating, fun times and laughs.

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Autumn , also known as fall, is a season of change. This is the time of year when outdoor temperatures begin to pre colombian drop, days become shorter, nights become longer, but, somehow, we seem to The Role in Globalization Process Essay find more time to spend with our family and friends. Wonderful childhood memories come flooding back to me of scenic trips through the mountains, carving pumpkins, and many fall festivities I was blessed. Autumn , Autumn leaf color , Leaf 598 Words | 2 Pages. In my stay here, in the University of the Philippines, Los Banos, I can say that I have encountered things that I had never met before. Pre Colombian. I met . new friends, new classmates, new teachers, new environment, and so much more that I have to adjust to. One of the things that I just knew from my stay here, in the university, is the study of Human Ecology. Law In England. In this campus, I was given the subject HUME10. I had lots of impression about this subject before the start of classes.

Before, I felt annoyed when I. Emotion , Female , Gender 900 Words | 3 Pages. masterpieces Stylin', while in Livin’ it up in the city Got Chucks on history with Saint Laurent Got kiss myself I’m so pretty I’m too hot (hot damn) Called a . police and a fireman I’m too hot (hot damn) Make a dragon wanna retire man I’m too hot (hot damn) Say my name you know who I am I’m too hot (hot damn) Am I bad 'bout that money Break it down Girls hit your hallelujah (whuoo) Girls hit your hallelujah (whuoo) Girls hit your hallelujah (whuoo) ‘Cause Uptown Funk gon’ give it to you ‘Cause Uptown Funk gon’. 2009 singles , ARIA Charts , Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles 571 Words | 3 Pages. My Favorite Place: The Virgin Islands. ?Rachel Fraser English 1102 Diebert September 12, 2013 My Favorite Place As I walked into the room filled with vivid . Sonnet. colors and sweet smelling perfume, a taste of freshness and pre colombian history, rejuvenation captured my attention. It was as if the world came to a sudden stop and the closest thing to heaven was this room. The Mission From. The lights created an pre colombian history, array of sonnet 116 shakespeare scenes that suddenly became blinding. I closed my big brown eyes for a second, and opened them up again.

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The Seasons of the Year. My Favourite Season . It's a universal truth that every season is . Pre Colombian. beautiful in its own way. 116 Shakespeare. Isn't it wonderful to pre colombian history tramp down the country lanes on a frosty winter day. Everything is white with snow and it crunches under your feet. State Tuition. The rime sparkles on the branches and pre colombian, the icicles like precious diamonds hang from the experiential intelligence roofs of the houses. Pre Colombian. It's a merry time for both children and grownups. They can go skating and skiing, sledging and having a fight with snowballs or making. Autumn , Rain , Season 576 Words | 2 Pages. March 20th 2013, I woke up and directly drove to the Leith Honda dealership to Competition Law in England Essay fix my car. Pre Colombian History. While it was being fixed, I noticed an Infiniti . Growing. dealership.

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Custom Cholera Disease essay paper. Cholera is an acute intestinal disease. The disease is caused when a person consumes food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae (Barua and history Greenough 1). After infection, the result is a painless watery diarrhea that dehydrates a person’s body. Patients with profuse amounts of diarrhea risk death due to dehydration. People who have ingested the bacteria develop serious diarrhea within five days. Severe cases of the disease require immediate medical attention to control body fluids and receive the necessary treatment. Patients are advised to take a lot of Arranged Marriage fluids and oral re-hydration salts so that their bodies can maintain the required levels of body fluids.

Cholera is an uncommon disease in pre colombian history the United States of America and other well developed countries. People who are at high risk are those traveling abroad where the epidemic is very common and people who eat undercooked foods from questionable environments. Cholera germ is transmitted in the stools. It spreads when a person consumes foods and drinks contaminated by human waste of a cholera patient (Barua and Greenough 144). This happens in intelligence the developing countries where there are insufficient water supplies and poor waste disposal services. The disease spreads very fast in pre colombian institutions like schools and prisons if not detected early enough. Doctors and medical professionals advise that immediate treatment and attention is necessary to sonnet avoid loss of pre colombian lives. To contain the epidemic, the people at risk are expected to first understand the modes of transmission to enable them be cautious when executing their daily hygiene practices. In developing countries, the disease causes deaths in Law in England every outbreak making it a serious health concern. Signs and Symptoms.

People who have ingested cholera germs develop diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting. The immediate signs are a loose diarrhea that includes whitish flecks with fishy smell. Diarrhea rate can be massive, meaning that the body can suffer dehydration very fast. When a person is infected by the cholera disease, a development of the following signs and symptoms occur as explained below. Vomiting coupled with nausea which is a symptom for an infection. Vomiting is an aggressive emptying of the tummy due to disturbed normal mechanisms of the stomach. The vomiting is caused by pre colombian varying reasons like stomach infections, general diseases, problems with the central nervous system and unusual ingestion. Vomiting and nausea are also caused by diseases that have no direct involvement with the stomach.

Side effects of medications cause vomiting. Loss of skin elasticity and dry mucous membranes are the direct effects of severe dehydration. Medical attention is extremely required in such conditions. Rapid heart rate is experienced. There are horrible feelings of irregular forceful pounding of the heart. The heart rate irregular beating is caused by the increased force of sonnet 116 shakespeare tightening of the heart muscle. Pre Colombian? Irregular heart beating rates are noted, from the heart pounding very fast and very slow. People need immediate re-hydration to The Mission Walmart from Growing Essay stop these indications from ongoing because these symptoms show that a patient has dehydrated. A dehydrated patient will eventually develop severe infection because of vomiting and diarrhea.

Children, elderly people and a community with poor nutrition have a higher risk of severely dehydration, causing serious effects like acute renal failure, coma and most seriously death (Barua and pre colombian history Greenough 219). The severe dehydration mostly occurs during the state park first four to nine hour after the pre colombian first watery stool and a person risks death if untreated for a period of one day to a few days. The cholera epidemic erupts in developing countries where sanitation is poor and there is a shortage of either medical assistance or medical supplies. The mortality rate can be as high as fifty percent or slightly higher. Causes and Transmission. Cholera is caused by a bacterium known as Vibrio cholerae. The bacterium has a flagellum that aid in movement, and hair like structures known as pili which help the Arranged Analysis Essay bacterium hook up to tissue (Keya and Chatterjee 22). Pre Colombian History? There are many types of the cholera germ that cause cholera symptoms.

Severe cholera symptoms are caused by the O group germs which are O1 and O139. These cholera germs generate toxins. The bacterium uses the hair like structures to embed into human cells. Once the Vibrio cholerae germs are on the human cells, they cause extraction of water and electrolytes mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The extracts are pumped into the intestinal lumen where they are excreted in diarrhea (Keya and Chatterjee 55). That is sonnet why a person who has diarrhea ends up been dehydrated after several diarrheal stools. The bacteria are transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food. Undercooked Sea foods also transmit the bacteria if the source waters of the seafood were exposed to raw sewage. History of cholera.

Cholera has been with human beings for history, various centuries. In India, there were reported cases of cholera like disease in the early 1000 AD. The term cholera was derived from the greak work khole, meaning a sickness from bile and was later renamed to state park colere in French back in the 14th century, and finally renamed in English to history choler (Barua and Greenough 38). The term cholera was a term used in the 17th century to explain a severe gastro intestinal infection involving vomiting and diarrhea (Barua and Marriage Greenough 2). During these early times, there were numerous outbreaks of the cholera epidemic and in the 16th century, some cases were severe that they were noted in history. In the 18th century, England had one notable case where in 1854, an estimated five hundred people died in ten days, all having the symptoms of history cholera.

During this England case, one Dr. Law In? John Snow conducted a classic medical investigation which revealed the main cause of the England epidemic. The infection came from a major source of water used by London inhabitants also known as the Broad street pump (Coleman 33). In response to the deaths, the medical professionals decided to stop the flow of water to the residents and removed the pump handle. History? After this action, it was noted that the deaths and rate of new infections slowed down and stopped (Hamlin 182). The doctor did not ascertain the root cause of the cholera germ. He showed how a possible transmission can occur and how an Law in England outbreak can be contained (Coleman 33). Pre Colombian? The real scientific study of the sonnet cholera epidemic started then. Similar severe outbreaks happened in pre colombian other parts of the world like in the United States of America between the eighteenth and the nineteenth century. There have been seven severe worldwide cholera pandemic outbreaks since the early eighteenth century.

In the 21st century, multiple outbreaks have been noted in Iran, India, Vietnam and The Mission Walmart from Growing Essay numerous African countries. In the last two years, severe outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and Haiti. From Dr. Snow’s studies, provision of safe water and food is the only of stopping the bacterium from being transmitted because the germ is easy transmitted in water and food. Medical response to a person with watery diarrhea starts from measurement of the possible volume of history vomit and stool. The process is done to determine the amount of fluids lost and replacement needs. In cases where severe there is a watery diarrhea and vomiting with signs of experiential dehydration, recent travel to cholera prone environments and pre colombian recent consumption of sea foods, a diagnosis of cholera bacteria is The Mission to Stop Walmart from advised. Laboratory test that include stool gram stain culture, stool PCR and dark field microscopy must be done immediately (Barua and Greenough 229). When all these tests are ongoing, general treatment should be done to the patient like provision of oral re-hydration salts solutions to avoid occurrence of dehydration. Identification of history positive cholera bacteria presence means there is a contaminated water source which should be treated immediately to contain the bacteria.

Preliminary analysis is done by a professional caregiver. The caregiver collects the patient’s medical history and observes the persons diarrhea for distinctive characteristics like rice-water diarrhea, particularly if a cholera disease outbreak has been reported. A medical professional needs a laboratory to identify the cholera germ. The bacterium is coma-shaped and thus distinctively identified. Definitive diagnosis helps to differentiate cholera from other diseases with similar symptoms and other protozoal, bacterial, or viral microorganisms that cause dysentery(Barua and Greenough 232). Most cholera infections are mild, with 75% of infected persons not developing any signs and symptoms. Conversely, the infected persons continue to spread the cholera germ back into the surroundings, risking infecting others with severe cholera disease.

In such persons, the huge amounts of watery diarrhea help wipe out the in Globalization germs, resulting to a reduced infection. However, in pre colombian history such cases, dehydration remains as a deadly threat to the infected persons when untreated, especially among the vulnerable like the elderly and children. The risks of losing life among healthy adults within hours remain a threat. A recovery from a cholera bacteria infection results to a long-term immunity against the same. More Cholera Mysteries. Cholera bacteria have been mysterious and Competition Essay scientists and medical professionals worked tirelessly to understand why the virulence of the germ was diverse in many strains (Coleman 67). A recorded number of pre colombian strains failed to The Mission from Essay indicate illness.

The cholera germ is a toxin that attaches to the tissue and causes dehydration. This toxin was ultimately discovered to be the main factor behind virulence allied to strains that cause acute diarrhea. Rice water stool is an acute state caused by cholera toxin. The appearance is because the entercytes in the almost clear watery stool appear like rice grains. A supportive therapy of oral re-hydration salts is recommended because it has saved millions of lives. Antibiotics are administered in severe conditions to pre colombian reduce period of diarrheal when infected. With proper re-hydration measures, the cholera organism fades out in five to six days and the infected person recovers uneventfully.

Studies conducted by marine scientists in the last decade have showed that open ocean is a favorable environment for the development of a wide range of viruses. Of Media In Globalization Process Essay? The number of pre colombian viral particles examined indicates that not all of the viruses are infectious because most of them are inactivated by sonnet 116 shakespeare ultra violent radiation in the ocean’s photic zone. History? However, a small portion of the viruses escape the radiation and infect several species of organisms (Coleman 67). How Cholera Epidemics Start. Cholera was non existence in human population until the epidemics started. Research has shown that there is no identified human carrier as the Arranged Marriage Analysis Essay origin.

The cholera organisms grow best at temperatures that are above 170 C, and in a broth of pre colombian history sodium chloride, well lower than that of The Mission to Stop Walmart open ocean, although above that of fresh water (Barua and Greenough 107). Pre Colombian? Those conditions are present during spring and are the ecological settings that favor an outbreak. Modern intensive field and laboratory studies have led to a discovery that Vibrio cholerae is harbored in estuaries of zooplankton communities that have many species of intelligence definition copepods that consist of myriad assemblages. Their egg sacks and in gut tracts is the breeding environments of these Organisms, including cholera germ. These discoveries helped scientists have a better description, and understanding of the pre colombian history natural science of the cholera group of microorganisms (Barua and 116 shakespeare Greenough 107). Cholera is easily preventable through cautious hygienic sanitation, treatment of water, before using for drinking and cooking, and, hygienic handling of pre colombian food. The Center for experiential definition, Disease Control and Prevention recommends boiling water and treatment with chlorine before use. Another way is to consume bottled water which is professionally treated. Food that is thoroughly cooked is safe and a person should peel their own raw food to ensure extreme hygiene before consumption. During an outbreak, a person is highly advised to avoid raw foods, ice and ice cream from pre colombian history, street vendors.

Proper sanitation is the first step to 116 shakespeare safeguarding the community from dangerous bacteria. A person should dispose dead bodies away from water sources and carefully washing hands after such disposal. Construction of emergency sanitation amenities at a safe distance from any water supply is recommended. The amenities should have proper hygienic washrooms for the people who use the facilities. Food should be cooked thoroughly with safe water and consumed hot. Pre Colombian? Sea food which has high risks of experiential intelligence having the cholera bacteria should be washed with treated water and cooked thoroughly (Coleman 100). History? Avoiding a mixture of cooked food and raw food is very important. Competition? Exclusion of infected persons from history, preparing food is important. The Mission Growing? People should avoid sharing food together in communal containers because the pre colombian history cholera germ can be easily transmitted from Law in England, one person to history all the others. Foods that are taken raw like fruits and dessert vegetables must always be washed with treated water and peeled by a person who has thoroughly cleaned hands.

There is a vaccine called Dukoral which is park tuition oral. The vaccine is available in history some countries, but the Arranged Center for Disease Control and Prevention does not recommend it because it has incomplete defensive effects. Countries that use the vaccine advise all travelers to use it as a precautions measure. The most vital preventive measure is pre colombian history avoiding uncooked foods and using water from unknown sources. To ensure that the water is safe, a person needs to use treated water and packaged drinks. Ecological Awareness Aimed at Controlling of park Cholera.

Realization that cholera disease is transmitted through contaminated water supply has driven scientists to employ massive technology for microorganisms detection. The importance of technology involvement was because the epidemic has recorded massive deaths worldwide and can infect a large population that depends on a particular water source. An occurrence of a case of history Vibrio cholerae has potential of contaminating the local water source and at times entire coastal regions (Barua and Greenough 107). With the advancement of technology, earth monitoring satellites are employed to simultaneously identify changes in climate patterns. These earth monitoring satellites are also used to monitor land and sea temperature patterns. With collection and Arranged Marriage availability of environmental data, medical professionals are in a position to predict a possible cholera epidemic and pre colombian take preventive measures before the happening and in turn save millions of lives. In developing countries where cholera is common, health experts have taken awareness campaigns closer to in Globalization Essay the people. Pre Colombian? This is done by Arranged Marriage Essay putting up warning billboards near open water bodies and in turn providing alternative water supply from history, a treated source to sonnet discourage unhygienic water usage. Again, local water treatment formulas are supplied to villages, to history enable people treat their own water from home. Since sea food is at high risk of being contaminated, people near large water bodies are continuously being educated about the dangers of undercooked sea foods to ensure that they properly cook their food before consumption.

Other important awareness initiatives being taken are provision of regular water bodies’ contamination checkups. The checkups are funded by the government to help communities use tested water and avoid mass contamination by cholera germs. Cholera bacteria are deadly because they dehydrate the park body. The first treatment is pre colombian history through oral re-hydration therapy. The person who is experiential definition infected should take a lot of drinks. The therapy consists of huge amounts of water mixed with a little sugar and salt.

Mixtures of blend sugar and salt are packaged in pre colombian history sachets and are commercially available (Barua and penn university Greenough 258). Consumption of huge volumes of oral re-hydration salts help flash out the bacteria. Commercial mixtures of re-hydration salts are not available everywhere. In such cases, there are homemade oral re-hydration salt recipes using the available household ingredients. Pre Colombian? In severe cases of Arranged Marriage Analysis Essay cholera infection, huge volumes of fluid replacement are necessary to maintain the body’s fluid content. In such cases, antibiotics are administered to shorten the disease but re-hydration is extremely necessary even when the antibiotics are administered. Food should be given to the patient as soon as the person can eat. The food should be coupled with more drinks to keep the intestines full.

Re-hydration can be used to history prevent and definition treat dehydration. The intake of numerous volumes of drinks into the body does not cure cholera but gives enough allowance until the disease go away by history itself. To Stop From Growing? Research has shown that infections of pre colombian cholera fade away with time if an infected patient takes a lot of fluids to flash out the germ from the body. Medical professional advise against taking anti diarrheal drugs because they interfere with flashing of germs from the intestines. Cholera disease is a deadly disease that is transmitted through water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. The disease is Arranged Marriage not common in developed countries because there is sufficient supply of clean treated water and pre colombian hygienic sanitation systems. In Developing countries, the disease remains a threat because unlike developed countries, they don’t have enough clean and treated water for human consumption.

Other than clean water, there are no proper mechanisms for Competition Law in England, waste disposal and sanitation. The governments of developing countries are unable to provide treated water to all people due to pre colombian history economic constrains. On the other hand, people who are near water bodies like rivers, lakes and oceans use the intelligence definition available water without boiling or treating. The other major reason why cholera epidemic infects masses is that an infected person will be unknowingly spread the pre colombian history germs back into definition, the environment before noticing any signs and symptoms. The main mode of transmission being contaminated water sources, a large population sharing a water source risks being infected unknowingly. A healthy adult will have a mild infection in the first and second day of pre colombian infection and will have spread the 116 shakespeare bacteria to many other people by the time the severe signs and symptoms develop. In developing countries, medical assistance is pre colombian not locally available and people are not well informed of the dangers of such diseases. The unawareness results to mass spread of penn state university park tuition epidemics before medical teams move in to contain an outbreak.

The best simple way of preventing cholera disease from spreading is by using clean treated water and eating thoroughly cooked food. The other recommended action is to pre colombian report diarrhea cases immediately to the nearest medical health center (Hamlin 249). This is to ensure that a possible spread is contained and penn university patients are treated early before a severe infection occurs.