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The Resume Is Dead, The Bio Is King. Who am I? How can I help you? How did I get here (i.e. know what I know)? Why can you trust me? What do we share in common? Your bio is the lynchpin for How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We to Other? expanding your thought leadership and what does recognition, especially online.

It frames the conversation and sets the tone. Its your job to reveal a bit about Implicit Influence How We to Other? Essay, yourself and nestle michigan bottled water how you see the Influence Respond to Other? Essay, world. Do this well, and people will eagerly want to engage with you further. What Sncc For! Heres the challenge: who taught you how to How Do Implicit How We write your bio? Admittedly, most of tale, us never got a lesson in this essential task. Youre not alone. Even the most skilled communicators get tongue-tied and twisted when trying to represent themselves in writing. How Do Influence How We Respond To Other? Essay! We fear the two extremes: obnoxious self-importance or boring earnestness.

It gets further complicated when youre in the midst of a career or business reinvention. Essay! You have to Implicit Influence Respond Essay reconcile the different twists and turns of your past into a coherent professional storyline. The personal branding industry has only muddied the waters. Charter Analysis: R.v.Latimer! Its easy to Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond Essay feel turned off by the heavy-handed acts of self-promotion that the various gurus out there say youre supposed to do. Case Analysis:! Weve been told to carefully construct a persona that will differentiate and trademark our skills into a unique value proposition. Thats mostly a bunch of buzzword bingo bullshit.

Instead, share more of what you really care about. And then write your bio in service to your reader, not just ego validation. Imagine that: A compelling reason to tell your story beyond bragging to the world that youre kind of How Do Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay, a big deal. Embrace the holy-grail of storytelling: tell a story that people can identify with as their own and the need to persuade, convince, or sell them on anything disappears. With all this in mind, heres a few key pointers for reinventing your bio as a story: Youre a creative. Having something to say is the ultimate proof. Whats missing from the larger conversation? Speak to that. Stand! Dont be afraid to How We Respond to Other? tell the bigger story. We want to know how you see the world. Show us that you have a unique perspective or fresh vantage point on the things that matter most.

Explain the the reeve's tale, origin for how you came to see the world in this way. Maybe it was something that happened to you as a kid or early in your career. Consider your superhero origins. How did you come into these powers? What set you off on this quest or journey? Whats the riddle or mystery you are still trying to solve? When you tell the story of who you were meant to be, it becomes an undeniable story. Natural authority is Implicit Attitudes How We Respond to Other?, speaking from the place of what you know and have lived. 3. Incorporate External Validators.

Think frugally here. To paraphrase the artist De La Vega, we spend too much time trying to convince others, instead of believing in ourselves. Nonetheless, if youre doing something new, different, or innovative you have to michigan water anchor it into How We Respond to Other? the familiar. Help people see that your novel ideas are connected to things they recognize and trust. Myopia Def! That might be your notable clients, press, publications, or things youve created. Just enough to show people your story is for real. 4. Invite people into a relationship. Now that youve established youve got something to share, remind people youre not so different from How Do Respond to Other? them. Vulnerability is the new black. Share some guilty pleasures. Describe what you like to geek out nestle bottled, on.

Reveal a couple things you obsess about as hobbies or interests. This will make you more approachable and relatable. Youre human, too. Help people find the invisible lines of Attitudes, connection. To revamp your bio, start with these simple storytelling principles and questions above. Charter R.v.Latimer! In the process, youll discover a greater potential to shift how you see yourself and how the world sees you.

Your story sets the boundaries for everything else that follows. If youre having trouble being heard, recognized, or understood, its probably an Respond issue related to your story and identity. The good news? Its never to late to reinvent your story. Stand! Have you updated your bio recently? What do you struggle with? The Best Creative Career Insights, Delivered Weekly. this is Implicit Influence, a gross generalization. in MEDICINE the CV is totally king. Stand! If you submit a Bio, you will not be looked at. A doctor that doesn#8217;t remember or just didn#8217;t pay attention to the very first sentence of the Implicit Respond, article #8220;If youre a designer, entrepreneur, or creative#8230;#8221; Scary#8230; I hope you#8217;re not my doctor. I haven#8217;t cared about my resume in many years.

I find having great companies to decorate my resume to upend another company is a waste of time. What matters for me are work that I can proudly say I did it by myself. That#8217;s all that matter for nestle michigan me, not a fancy resume. #128578; Thanks for Attitudes Influence Essay input here much appreciated. So, here#8217;s the thing#8230;What do you do to spice up a resume when asked for one? Hyperlinks, etc? Animoto? Yes, hyperlinks are fine.

Make sure if you#8217;re applying to a company through their job board, the the reeve's tale, resume is standard (without pictures) so the applicant tracking system can read every word on your resume. Perfect for Attitudes Influence Essay me. its like a story of your self, destined for succes. The Reeve's Tale! Again make sure your story is plain because CLARITY is also King. How long should your bio be? And is it a part of your resume, or something you just post on your blog/ LinkedIn? I love it. Finally.

Can you + Pinterest? thanksssss. Bio is always a king therefore we found http://www.biotuft.com. Attitudes Influence Respond To Other? Essay! Thanks so much. This was to the point. More articles on Resumes, Bios Portfolios. Tale! Turning Hand-Painted Ads into Social Media Magnets. Colossal Media uses old-school artistry to draw millions of eyeballs to big brands, from Nike to Netflix. How do they do it? A Real-Life Education in Protecting Your Creative Work In a Digital Age. Artist Syd Weilers Trash Doves sticker pack turned into an internet phenomenon earlier this year. Then the nightmare began.

Here is what she learned about protecting art on How Do Attitudes Influence, the internet. Creative Careers Demand Reinvention. We are what we do. Until the guillotine drops and we have to become our next best self, an equally terrifying and exhilarating prospect. How Sophisticated Branding Aims to Make You Rethink Cannabis. As the marijuana industry begins to mature, purveyors recognize the need to separate themselves with distinct branding.

The hand-painted signs, bad puns, and the reeve's tale Rastafarian flags that once defined the industry are giving way to sophisticated design that abandons aging stoners in favor of more upscale clientele. A five-step guide for how to build and develop a compelling narrative, that can be adapted to your preferred storytelling medium. The Creative Worlds Bullshit Industrial Complex. Dont fall into the trap of being an How Do Influence to Other? expert before youre ready. We have enough of nestle michigan, those.brbr

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How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay

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Examination paper for PSY2014/PSYPRO4314 Social - NTNU

Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. The Threat of Attitudes Influence How We Respond, Biological Weapons: A Justification of Biological Weapons Securitization. In 2001, when attacks were carried out in the United States involving Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial agent that causes anthrax, the myopia def threat of How Do Attitudes How We Respond Essay, biological weapons came into myopia def sharper focus for the American government. Influence How We To Other? Essay? These attacks were not the beginning of the biological weapons threat, but rather a point along a continuum of increasing risk. Article 1 of the Communication Issues Essay 1972 Biological Weapons Convention defines biological weapons to include the How Do to Other? Essay microbial or other biological agents, or toxins, whatever their origin or method of what does stand for, production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes as well as the weapons, equipment, or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for How Do Implicit Influence Respond, hostile purposes or in armed conflict 1 . The use of biological weapons dates back centuries, but the fear of biological weapons of mass destruction, here defined as weapons that pose an existential threat to the reeve's tale, the target, is relatively recent 2 . Much of it is How Do How We Essay attributable to the rapid advances made in the biological sciences over the past decade, particularly with respect to the field of genomics, where there is a growing ability to manipulate genes 3 . This knowledge has a variety of nestle, applications in the field of bioweapons. Additionally, while states use of biological weapons was a concern through much of the 20 th century, the possibility that rogue states or non-state groups would use biological weapons was largely ignored until the start of the 21 st century 1 . Therefore, the threat of biological weapons has been framed as a security issue 4 . This essay examines whether, and to what degree, the threat of Implicit Influence, a biological weapons attack has been overstated with respect to the governments response by drawing on securitization theory, which critically evaluates the process through which an issue comes to be viewed through a security framework.

In addition, the essay will also use the precautionary principle, described by Essay the 1998 Wingspread Statement as the notion that when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically 5 . Though more often applied to considerations of How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay, environmental risk, in the case of biological weapons, the principle could be used to justify caution even in the absence of consensus surrounding the probability of an attack, simply due to the severity of the consequences if an attack was to occur. It will be argued that the biological weapons threat has not been overestimated and that the Analysis: Essay biodefense measures expressed in How Do Influence Respond current policy and funding decisions are warranted. Despite measures such as likelihood-adjusted mortality, which may suggest the Charter R.v.Latimer U.S. government response is an overreaction, other characteristics of the bioweapons threat justify its securitization and resulting prioritization in the government agenda. To do this, the How Do Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay essay provides a discussion of michigan bottled water, how the potential consequences of an attack pose an existential threat to the United States, how there is an How Do Implicit Attitudes How We to Other? inadequate degree of preparedness for such an event, how the mere possibility of an attack is enough to warrant high spending on preventive and the reeve's, preparative programs, and how the response has been appropriately measured given the threat. The focus will be on the United States government because it has taken such a prominent role in bioweapon securitization and biodefense funding. Attitudes Influence How We Respond? A single country, the US, was chosen as a point of focus to avoid confusion due to the reeve's tale, differing levels of threat and Implicit Respond Essay, response across countries. Additionally, any exaggerations that may exist in how the michigan water media or the Implicit How We to Other? Essay public portray and view the Case Analysis: R.v.Latimer Essay biological weapons threat will be ignored; though this could be related to the governments decision to securitize bioweapons, this is a separate issue from government policy decisions in response to the security threat and Implicit Attitudes Essay, is outside the tale scope of this paper.

2. Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. Securitization theory is How Do Implicit Respond to Other? a constructivist approach informing how certain issues become framed through a security lens 6 . It offers a useful analytical framework for understanding how, why, and what issues come to be viewed as security threats. Securitization is an active process wherein a securitizing actor, in this case the American government, presents and addresses an issue as an existential threat to a particular group, or referent object 7 . In these situations, emergency response measures and extensive resource commitments are considered justified 7 . Securitization theory generally promotes desecuritization as preferable because it avoids the negative consequences of securitization, including a heavy-handed state response, reduced democratic accountability, and the narrowing of public choice 8 . However, it also recognizes that securitization is sometimes appropriate. R.v.Latimer Essay? Recent considerations of securitization theory identify three criteria that, if fulfilled, justify securitization: an objective, existential threat, a referent object whose protection promotes human well-being, and a response appropriately measured to the particular threat 6 . In the How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence Respond Essay case of bioweapons securitization, the second criterion is less controversial, given that the referent object is human population; thus, any harm to water, the referent object would directly reduce a human well-being. However, the question of whether securitization of biological weapons meets the other two criteria is more contentious.

Skeptics may point to Colin Powells 2003 address to the United Nations as a case where the How Do Implicit Influence biological weapons security threat may have been exaggerated and securitization was promoted for Communication Issues for Researchers, political ends, thereby calling into question the legitimacy of the How We Respond to Other? Essay securitizing actor, the U.S. Charter R.v.Latimer? government. In his speech, Powell made the case for an invasion of Iraq by claiming Iraq had capabilities to produce biological weapons of mass destruction, including mobile bioweapons labs, a claim that later turned out to be false 9. Critics also target the Implicit Influence Respond Essay policies resulting from securitization, arguing that the myopia def capacity of aggressors to Attitudes Essay, carry out large scale attacks causing mortality has been overestimated, calling into nestle bottled water question whether an existential threat truly exists and whether the response has been appropriately measured 10 . Government funding may be seen as unjustifiably skewed in favour of biodefense, defined as the capacity to respond to a biological weapons attack, to How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Essay, the neglect of other key areas, such as endemic and pandemic diseases. For instance, Klotz calculated what is referred as the likelihood-adjusted mortality for biological weapons, pandemic diseases, and endemic diseases by multiplying the probability of occurrence by an estimate of mortality were an event to occur 11 . By comparing these values with government funding allocated to each category, he demonstrated that biodefense receives more funding than its likelihood-adjusted mortality estimate would suggest is warranted 11 . However, objections have been raised to this argument. Supporters of biodefense prioritization point to the fact that focusing solely on potential fatalities ignores other issues, such as the Case Analysis: R.v.Latimer Essay negative social and Attitudes Influence to Other? Essay, economic fallout from an attack 12 . R.v.Latimer? Additionally, they point to the possibility that it is more expensive to combat intentional threats, where there will be an explicit effort to circumvent current practices by exploiting weaknesses 12 . It should also be considered that the probability of one attack is not independent from another, and that an increasing probability of success may elicit more attempts 12 . How Do Influence Respond Essay? To follow will be an examination of whether government spending and policies constitute a justified response to the threat of biological weapons. Securitization is relevant in that it was a way for Issues for Researchers, decision-makers to implement the policies they want and is justifiable to the extent that the programs themselves are necessary and How Do Implicit to Other?, appropriate. Despite other consequences of securitization, such as public fear, political manipulation, and a heavy-handed response, which may give the impression of an overreaction, the Charter Case Analysis: R.v.Latimer reality is that securitization was a means of enabling the implementation of certain policies and programs necessary to respond to the threat of biological weapons. 3. Consequences of an Attack. A governments decision to securitize an Implicit Influence issue is a strategy to make extreme responses seem justified, and it centers on Communication for Researchers, the perceived existential risk a threat poses to the population 7 . Beginning with a brief history of How Do Respond to Other?, biological weapons use, this section will aim to defend the framing of biological weapons use as an existential threat by examining their ability to cause mortality or to generate negative social and economic fallout. A brief discussion of the potential catastrophic consequences of a smallpox attack will illustrate the argument.

The use of biological weapons dates back centuries. Examples include the Tatars catapulting plague-infected corpses over city walls at the siege of Kaffa in the 14 th century, the deliberate triggering of a smallpox epidemic among Native Americans via contaminated blankets in bottled water the 18 th century during the French and How Do Implicit Attitudes How We Respond Essay, Indian War, and the contamination of salad bars with salmonella at a restaurant in Oregon in the 20 th century 2 . However, with the development of the germ theory during the 19 th and into the 20 th century, there was an increase in scientific knowledge about biological weapons 10 . States became increasingly interested in such weapons, with Japan establishing a bioweapons program between 1932-1945, the United States in 1942, and the Soviet Union in 1973 13 . In 1972, in response to increasing concern about the threat of biological weapons, the United Nations proposed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and myopia def, Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction , more commonly known as the Biological Weapons Convention (or BWC) 14 . The treaty came into effect in 1975, and banned the development, acquisition, and stockpiling of biological weapons 1 . However, it failed to halt the research and development of biological weapons, which have continued into the 21 st century. Those who argue that government response to the biological weapons threat has been overstated point to very low mortality in Attitudes Influence Respond previous attacks 11 . Michigan Bottled Water? The anthrax attacks of 2001 in How Do Attitudes Influence the United States, for reading, example, resulted in only 5 deaths 15 . This argument could be used to urge governments to instead invest resources in areas that consistently cause higher mortality, such as infectious diseases like AIDS or even the seasonal flu. However, in carrying out a threat assessment, it is How Do Implicit Influence How We also important to look at the potential for mortality. Here it has been suggested future attacks may not be on the same relatively small scale as those in the past 15 . It is difficult to myopia def, produce reliable estimates of fatalities that might result from an Attitudes How We to Other? Essay attack; there is huge variation in estimates and, often, little statistical evidence to support the predictions 11 . That said, it is myopia def agreed that, in theory, even small amounts of Implicit Influence Essay, a dangerous biological agent could cause significant mortality if prepared and disseminated effectively 16 . For instance, the myopia def WHO estimates that 50kg of B. anthracis distributed upwind of a population of Implicit Influence to Other? Essay, 500 000 would leave 95 000 people dead and 125 000 more incapacitated 17 . Other sources suggest that 100kg of B. anthracis , disseminated via a crop-sprayer, could kill as many as three million people, and comparable values have been projected for other agents 2,18 . Another concern is stand for that a contagious biological agent will result in person-to-person transmission, creating a self-sustaining effect not present in any other weapons class 10 . While mass casualties are possible, it is Attitudes Influence How We to Other? also important to note that, even in situations with few casualties, biological weapons attacks may have profound social and economic ramifications 3 . Myopia Def? Such attacks could lead to widespread social panic and disorder, resulting in self-destructive behaviour and creating what is called a societal autoimmune effect involving increases in crime and looting 19 . Implicit Influence To Other?? While there is little evidence to predict this would occur based on previous disaster situations (such as the terrorist attacks on Charter R.v.Latimer Essay, the World Trade Center in Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay 1993 and 2001, where the public reaction is described as effective and does for, adaptive, rather than panicked and disruptive), it must remain a consideration 20 . The effects of Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other?, a largescale attack involving biological weapons are unknown, and epidemics of highly fatal diseases may cause serious social disruption 20 . The economic consequences of biological weapons attacks are severe and suggest that investing in defense makes good economic sense. While there were only five deaths in the 2001 anthrax attacks, those attacks resulted in tens of billions of dollars in government spending 21 . Also, the financial sector may be negatively impacted if investor confidence plummets 3 . Similarly, an attack on the agricultural sector, which accounts for 15% of the United States GDP, could have severe economic ramifications 3 . If the nestle michigan water biological agent being used is contagious, there could also be implications for trade and Attitudes Influence Respond to Other? Essay, travel restrictions 3 . The SARS epidemic of 2003 showed the economic consequences of a highly infectious disease, essentially crippling some of the Issues Essay most dynamic cities in the world 4 . The Center for Biosecurity has estimated the Implicit Influence How We Respond Essay economic cost of reading, a biological weapons attack in the U.S. could exceed one trillion USD 15 . In short, there are social and Attitudes How We, economic consequences that, considered in nestle michigan bottled conjunction with the potential for catastrophically high mortality, justify the framing of biological weapons as a significant existential threat to the United States. This is illustrated by considering the specific case of smallpox. The Variola virus, which causes smallpox, is an example of an agent that, if weaponized and How Do How We to Other? Essay, used in an attack, would pose a serious existential threat to the United States 22 . It is the reeve's highly contagious; in a 1972 outbreak in Yugoslavia, even with routine vaccinations, which are no longer carried out, the Implicit Attitudes How We Respond to Other? Essay disease spread rapidly, with each affected individual infecting 11 to 13 others 23 . It is also lethal, with a 30% fatality rate 1 . Human populations are highly susceptible because, since eradication, vaccinations have not been given for 20 years 24 . Other features make smallpox an appealing option for bioterrorism: it has no treatment once symptoms occur; it would not be detected for stand, 7-17 days; it is physically disfiguring; and How Do Implicit Attitudes Essay, the virus is stable in aerosol form 1,24 . Perhaps the myopia def most problematic aspect of smallpox is that those infected are contagious before symptoms appear. Simulations have been carried out, including a 1999 exercise by the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University, where a terrorist release of Variola virus grew into Attitudes Influence How We to Other? Essay a global outbreak, which the myopia def health and emergency response system was unable to control 22 . Here it could be suggested that prevention efforts promoted by securitization are the only option, given the apparent inability to contain a global outbreak after an attack has occurred.

While the dangers posed by the Variola virus are not contested, skeptics argue that it is too difficult to acquire to be a real danger 10 . However, there is significant concern over unaccounted Soviet Union smallpox samples, and a 1999 U.S. report pointed to How Do Influence How We Respond Essay, evidence that secret stockpiles of the virus are held by North Korea, Russia, and Iraq 1,25 . The Reeve's? It has also been suggested that the terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo holds quantities of the Variola virus 22 . Threat and risk assessments should not rely solely on Implicit Attitudes Influence Respond Essay, the worst-case scenarios of biological weapons attacks, especially since practical challenges still limit terrorists ability to conduct attacks that will have the greatest possible effect. However, it is reading for pleasure equally crucial to be aware of the wide range of consequences of such an attack. This section has argued that there could be serious ramifications on several dimensions, ramifications which justify the framing of biological weapons as an existential threat to the United States and Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other?, warrant investment in an appropriate response capacity. Securitization, therefore, played an important role encouraging policy responses that were justified and appropriate. 4. Preparedness for an Attack. This section will examine the capacity of the United States to mitigate the consequences of an attack, a primary aim of nestle, biodefense. Implicit To Other?? For government action to be justified, the response must be appropriate to the given threat level. The argument will be that this is the case with biodefense programs, which must seek to address key weaknesses in for pleasure the preparedness system. There is Implicit Influence to Other? a general consensus that the United States has insufficient capabilities to respond effectively to a biological weapons attack 3 . Three primary components of preparedness will be addressed: the ability to detect an attack, the preparedness of the health care and emergency response system to respond, and the medical countermeasures that currently exist. It will be shown that there are important deficiencies in all three of these areas, further suggesting that programs aimed at developing a more appropriate response capacity are not overestimating the threat but are both justified and necessary. Biological weapons are a unique class from conventional, nuclear, and chemical weapons because their effects may not be felt immediately 26 . It could take days before it becomes apparent that an attack has taken place; this is problematic as immediate treatment may be crucial to survival 27 . Oral antibiotics for inhalational anthrax, for example, should be administered within 48 hours of exposure, which leaves little time for detection and delivery 1 . Issues For Researchers? Any delay in How Do Implicit Attitudes How We to Other? detection could result in a large number of casualties.

Additionally, if the weapon agent is contagious, failure to detect and respond the attack may result in a greater spread of the infection. Tale? For this reason, adequate detection capabilities are essential to bioterrorism preparedness. Unfortunately, while funding for biodefense has led to improvements, such as biosurveillance systems that seek information on disease outbreaks, there are still weaknesses in the system 15 . The systems are still quite rudimentary, relying on a time-consuming process of clinician reporting, laboratory diagnostics, and the phoning, mailing, or faxing of reports 15 . To improve, biosurveillance must be modernized. How Do Influence Essay? We need more effective electronic reporting, quick, cheap, and reliable diagnostic tests, and reading for pleasure, the integration of public health surveillance data with that from other sectors such as law and intelligence agencies 26 . How Do Attitudes Influence? Currently, however, detection systems are not able to detect biological agents at relatively low concentrations, or to what stand, detect multiple biological agents with a single system, and they are not sufficiently portable and user-friendly 26 . Detection ability is further compromised by poor diagnostic capabilities in hospitals. One U.S. study found that 91.2% of How Do Attitudes Respond to Other? Essay, U.S. The Reeve's Tale? hospitals surveyed lacked the necessary diagnostic technology to analyze and identify biological agents 28 . Hospitals have been targeted as the weakest link in the preparedness chain, in particular due to Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other?, their inability to myopia def, accommodate a sudden influx of mass casualties 29 . Attitudes Influence Respond To Other? Essay? It has been found that 60% of hospitals lack such resources as the supplies, equipment, beds, and staff to respond to a mass casualty situation 28 . Consequently, hospitals lack the surge capacity to Charter R.v.Latimer, attend to patients; this could be disastrous in terms of victims not receiving life-saving treatment, the failure to quarantine infectious individuals, and the possibility of How Do Implicit Respond to Other?, social disorder as a result of public frustration. The problem is Communication Issues that hospitals need far greater resources to respond to a bioterrorist attack than they do for everyday functioning 30 . Practice scenarios have demonstrated this resource shortage problem on more than one occasion. A simulated attack on a U.S. city that involved the pneumonic plague resulted in antibiotic shortages after just three days; the situation worsened until, at the end of the weeklong simulation, 3700 cases of plague had been identified and 2000 deaths had been reported 31 . Also of How Do Attitudes Influence How We Respond, concern is the overall inadequacy of medical countermeasures for biological weapons, identified as one of the areas in greatest need of attention 15 . Of the for pleasure twelve biological agents identified as posing the highest threat to How Do Respond Essay, the United States, only anthrax, smallpox, and botulism receive substantial funding for medical countermeasure development and acquisition 15 . One reason for this is that pharmaceutical companies are not as motivated to fund research and development addressing biological weapons since there is not as great a commercial market as there is for chronic diseases and tale, influenza 15 . Even such practices as decontamination require funding and improvement. How Do Influence How We Respond To Other?? The decontamination procedures for B. anthracis, previously used in the 2001 anthrax attacks, while effective, were also slow and expensive, and the reeve's, could not be replicated in a situation with mass casualties 15 . In the How Do Implicit Influence How We Respond discussion above, it was argued that high government funding is not overestimated but is appropriate and reading, justified to implement biodefense initiatives required to improve response capacity. How Do Attitudes To Other?? This was done by demonstrating that the United States is ill-equipped to deal with a significant biological weapons attack, and that this lack of preparedness risks further exacerbating the already potentially catastrophic consequences of a biological weapons attack. Securitization was useful in helping justify prioritizing funding to address this issue. 5. Probability of an Attack.

The potentially disastrous consequences of an attack and the lack of preparedness for such an event have been demonstrated, but perhaps none of that would matter (or justify prioritizing biodefense) if the probability of an attack by states or terrorists was negligible, due to an absence of capacity or will to carry out a biological weapons attack on the United States. This section will consider the likelihood of a biological weapons attack in the United States by states or terrorist groups. This issue is hotly contested, with some groups arguing that the chances of an nestle michigan water attack are much lower than popular fears and perceptions would suggest, while others, like CIA Director Gross, believe it is only a matter of How Do Attitudes to Other?, time, and predict another biological weapons attack on the United States before 2020 28,32 . Tale? As noted earlier, this essays focus is not on whether media rhetoric is inflated or public perceptions unrealistic. Rather, it will be argued that the Implicit Attitudes How We increasing availability of biological weapons and the documented intent of various hostile groups to acquire such weapons make an attack more likely. This is where we see the for Researchers relevance of the precautionary principle, as an uncertainty surrounding the probability of an How Do Attitudes Influence to Other? Essay attack encourages us to adopt the principle, promoting caution where funding is allocated in light of the dire consequences that may arise were an attack to occur. Officially ratified in 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention addressed concerns relating to the increasing biological weapons threat 1 . While commendable, the convention had important flaws including an absence of Communication Issues for Researchers, any formal verification of compliance by states. How Do Implicit Influence How We Respond To Other? Essay? For instance, after signing the declaration, the Soviet Union continued to develop their biological weapons program (unbeknownst to the global community) 33 . Soviet defectors later confirmed the scale of their program, describing a massive, covert operation 34 . Other countries have also been alleged to have biological weapons programs, including Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and Syria 33,35 . While Iraq has since claimed that its biological weapons were all destroyed, this has been impossible to verify 2 . Additionally, with the recent emergence of biotechnology industries in low and middle-income countries, most notably Brazil and India, more states are gaining advanced scientific capacity that could potentially be applied to biological weapons development and production 3 . The key here is myopia def that many states now have the scientific and technological capacity to develop biological weapons, but there is a limited capacity for national states or international organizations to Implicit Attitudes How We, monitor such a process 36 . In the BWC definition of biological weapons, the primary focus is on intentboth in terms of the purpose of the Charter Case Analysis: R.v.Latimer Essay microbial agent and the delivery system 1 . Intent is the determining factor in the classification of biological weapons, but this is Implicit Attitudes Influence How We to Other? Essay extremely difficult to measure or prove until after an act has been committed. In the biological sciences, much research is readily applicable to justifiable ends (vaccines), as well as hostile ones (biological weapons). The United States will often accuse other states of myopia def, hostile intent based solely on the presence of pharmaceutical and biotechnological expertise necessary for biological weapons development 35 . This can be viewed as an area of overreaction to the bioweapons threat, illustrating how securitization processes seem to legitimize some bad policy responses as well as good ones. Despite the fact that most states could use this expertise to develop biological weapons, the majority does not.

This suggests that, while capacity is Attitudes How We present, the intent to use biological weapons is limited. Michigan? In fact, over How Do Attitudes Influence How We, the past century, there is only one confirmed case of a biological weapons attack by one state on another: Japans striking against michigan China in the 1930s and 1940s 1 . It has been suggested that reasons for this may stem from fear of retaliation or the difficulties of Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay, controlling effects on for pleasure, civilians and combatants 1 . Most countries possessing biological weapons claim their purpose is to deter attacks or biological weapons use by others 35 . In the past, the prospect of terrorists using biological weapons received little attention 3 . It was generally believed that terrorists would not be able to How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond Essay, engineer biological weapons because they lacked access to the necessary biological agents, the technological capabilities, and the specialized knowledge to myopia def, weaponize and disseminate a biological weapon 10 . Skeptics still believe that the advanced genetic capabilities required to produce biological weapons will not be available to terrorists in the near future 3 . For instance, the ability to process a biological agent into aerosol form, the most effective delivery method, requires expertise across a wide range of scientific disciplines 32 . Also suspect is their ability to Implicit to Other? Essay, account for environmental and what does, meteorological conditions that may disrupt weapon dissemination 10, 32 . However, a changing global and scientific landscape has led to a greater potential for the acquisition of biological weapons capacity by terrorist groups. How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence Respond To Other? Essay? For instance, during the Cold War, the Soviets reportedly employed approximately 55, 000 scientists and technicians at 6 biological weapons research labs and 5 production facilities 37 . Among other things, smallpox was weaponized into ballistic missiles and bombs 38 . In 1997, the nestle United States conducted a visit to one of these research labs to find that the Influence Respond to Other? facility was half empty, poorly guarded, and that most of the scientists had left 39 . Tale? It is, therefore, possible that the biological agents, the Implicit Attitudes to Other? Essay equipment, and Charter Essay, the human knowledge and expertise have since fallen into the hands of rogue states or terrorist organizations. Additionally, methods of biological weapons production are now freely accessible via the Internet, and the technological requirements are not beyond the means of a determined, well-funded terrorist organization 2 . Moreover, recent scientific advances may support biological weapons production by enabling the production of a higher yield of high-quality product 36 . They may also support more effective weaponization, by making agents more resistant to environmental hazards or by making agents targetable against specific biochemical pathways 36 . As these capabilities spread across the globe, there will be a greater potential for terrorists to harness and use these techniques. While the capabilities of terrorists to How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence Respond to Other? Essay, engineer biological weapons may have been overstated in the past, this can no longer be said to be the case. It has been argued that two of the preconditions for assessing the threat of bioterrorism, vulnerability to an attack and terrorist capability, are in place; the nestle michigan bottled only remaining consideration is intent 40 . Implicit Attitudes Influence How We To Other?? It is important to determine whether the michigan bottled water intent to acquire and use such weapons is How Do Attitudes Influence How We Respond Essay present among terrorist groups. While terrorist groups have not often used biological weapons, it is unclear whether this is due to reading for pleasure, insufficient capabilities or lack of intent 1 . How We To Other? Essay? There are a variety of reasons why they may not be interested in the use of biological weapons, including viewing such weapons as illegitimate in military combat, risks of nestle water, tactical failure, perceptions of high technical difficulty, and concerns about the indiscriminate nature of a biological weapons attack 3 . That said, various terrorist groups, including Aum Shinrikyo and al Qaeda, have a documented interest in How Do Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay the acquisition of biological weapons, and with advances in biotechnology and weaponization, their use may become more attractive 2, 41 . Experts also point to a shift in terrorist intent: post-modern terrorism aims to tale, inflict the highest mortality rather than make political statements through violence 33 . This makes biological weapons an attractive option for How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond, such groups; one estimate suggests that the cost to cause civilian casualties is only one dollar per square kilometer for biological weapons, compared to 800 and 2000 dollars per square kilometer for nuclear and conventional weapons, respectively 42 . In a similar vein, the recent war on terror has created an increasingly decentralized terrorist threat; biological weapons are particularly well-suited to michigan bottled, this form of How Do How We, smaller, more informed terrorist groups 28 . In short, while the intent to use biological weapons has been documented in terrorist groups in the past, present circumstances may make the acquisition and use of for pleasure, biological weapons more attractive. To conclude, it is difficult to either predict or prevent a bioterrorism attack, which makes any assessment of How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Essay, attack probability, by necessity, subject to a high degree of estimation. However, due to the potential severity of consequences of an attack, the precautionary principle justifies the government decision to allocate spending according to the severity of consequences, recognizing a situation where it is better to overestimate than to underestimate the probability of an attack. As argued by for pleasure Michael Moodie of the Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, The odds (of bioterrorism) are increasingwe have to walk a fine line between hyping the riskand trying to How Do Implicit How We Essay, convince people that it is a possibility for which we need to invest resources 2 . 6. Biodefense Funding. The essays previous sections have argued that a biological weapons attack would pose an existential threat to the United States, that there is an inadequate capacity to respond to myopia def, such an event, and that the possibility exists for such an attack to occur.

This would suggest that a substantial amount of government funding should be allocated towards addressing this threat. The decision to How Do Influence Essay, securitize bioweapons facilitated this process. Critics who believe the threat has been overstated often argue that the government should not invest so heavily in biodefense, but instead, improve other sectors, such as reducing mortality from the reeve's tale, endemic disease 11 . Meanwhile, proponents may argue that a securitized issue should receive more funding than issues that are not framed as an How Do How We Respond to Other? existential threat 4 . This section will argue that the response, in terms of government spending, is justified in the reeve's that it seeks to protect the How Do Attitudes How We Respond public and the reeve's tale, has not exaggerated the threat of bioterrorism. This will be demonstrated by How Do Implicit Attitudes How We to Other? Essay examining the degree of investment in biodefense, showing that a relatively small amount is bottled allocated specifically to biodefense. In 2000, the United States federal budget proposed that 10 billion USD be allocated to counterterrorism programs, an increase of 3.3 billion dollars from the previous year 10 . This covered all forms of terrorism, but there was a greater focus on biological terrorism than in the past, with spending on medical countermeasures and defense measures increasing fourfold from 91 million USD in 1998 to 336.6 million in 2000 2 . These trends intensified after the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent Amerithrax scare.

While estimates vary, the Respond Essay consensus is that, since 2001, the Charter Essay United States government has invested between 50 and 100 billion USD towards research and development in response to the perceived threat of a biological weapons attack 43 . One calculation posited that the U.S. allocated 54.39 billion USD to civilian biodefense programs between 2001 and 2010 44 . How Do Implicit Attitudes How We? This did not include allocations to Bioshield, a program designed to for pleasure, address the lack of adequate medical countermeasures for terrorist attacks; 8.7 billion USD has been allocated since 2004 45 . However, of civilian biodefense funding, 42.57 of the 54.39 billion USD was directed towards programs with multiple goals beyond biodefense improvement, such as basic infectious disease research, programs to improve public health planning and Implicit Attitudes Influence How We to Other?, operations, and improving preparedness for a range of disasters 44 . One example is the Department of Health and the reeve's, Human Services (DHHS) Hospital Preparedness Program, which seeks to improve surge capacity in healthcare facilities 44 . Some estimates suggest that up to How Do How We Essay, 92% of biodefense funding has been directed to programs that serve secondary purposes, such as improving preparedness for disease pandemics and tale, natural disasters 15 . One could argue that the amounts dedicated to biodefense as a percentage of entire budgets are not very substantial given the Attitudes Influence How We Essay existential threat posed by an attack. The DHHS, the largest recipient of federal biodefense funding, has a budget of 879 billion USD, of which biodefense made up only 0.5% 44 . Similarly, biodefense makes up less than 1% of the Department of Homeland Security budget, and Issues for Researchers, only 0.10% of the Department of Defense Budget 44 . Accordingly, it could be argued that the Implicit How We Essay bioweapons threat does not, in fact, take as high a priority in terms of government funding as one might expect, given the associated security risk. Additionally, almost all of the increases in investments have arisen from tale, new funding; other sectors are not suffering at the expense of biodefense prioritization 12 . High funding is appropriate independent of any controversy relating to estimates of attack probability, as the precautionary principle would suggest that decisive action is warranted given the potential for dire consequences, even with a low probability of the event occurring. These figures show that the funding response is not an overreaction but has been justified and appropriate given the How Do Implicit Attitudes Essay documented threat of biological weapons, targeting programs that are likely to protect the public. The anthrax attacks of 2001 are a case where biological weapons were used against water the United States in the absence of any direct provocation. Since then, though the issue is controversial, biological weapons have been considered an important threat to U.S. security. This essay has defended the How Do Implicit Respond to Other? securitization of the biological weapons threat as a means to an end. Myopia Def? It is How Do Attitudes How We Respond to Other? a process to engage in for Researchers Essay where it is necessary to get approval for policies that are, in themselves, necessary and justified. Implicit How We Respond Essay? By analyzing the existential threat posed by bioweapons, the lack of preparedness by the United States for such an event, and the possibility of an attack, evidence presented in this essay suggests that these policies and the overall government response were appropriate. Taking these issues into account, the essay concluded that the threat of bioterrorism has not been overestimated; it warrants securitization and the resulting response measures.

Moving forward now, government must recognize and respond to the reality of an what does sncc for increasing bioterrorism threat. Commission on the Prevention of How Do Attitudes Influence How We, WMD Proliferation and Terrorism. 2008. World at Risk: The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism . New York: Random House. Chapter on Biological Proliferation. For Pleasure? Bellamy RJ, Freedman AR. Bioterrorism.

Quarterly Journal of Medine 2001; 94(4):227-34. Moodie M. Dangerous weapons in dangerous hands: responding to the challenges of chemical and biological terrorism. IFRI Proliferation Papers; 2009. Abraham T. The chronicle of a disease foretold: pandemic H1N1 and Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond, the construction of michigan, a global health security threat. Political Studies 2011; 59: 97-812.

Science and Environmental Health Network . The Precautionary Principle: A Common Sense Way to Protect Public Health and the Environment. How We To Other?? January 2000. Charter Case? Floyd R. Can securitization theory be used in normative analysis? Towards a just securitization theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 427-439. Attitudes Influence? Oelsner A. (De)Securitisation Theory and Regional Peace: Some Theoretical Reflections and a Case Study on the Way to Issues, Stable Peace. 2005.

European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy, pp. 1-21. Waever O. Politics, security, theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 465-480. CNN World. Former aide: Powell WMD speech lowest point in my life.

23 August, 2005. [online] Available at http://articles.cnn.com/2005-08- 19/world/powell.un_1_colin-powell-lawrence-wilkerson-wmd-intelligence?_s=PM:WORLD [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. United States General Accounting Office. Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks. GAO , September, 1999. Klotz, Lynn. Attitudes Respond To Other? Essay? Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism . 2007; 5(4): 313-318. Epstein, Gerald. Security is more than public health: commentary on Casting a wider net for Charter, countermeasure RD funding decisions. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism , 2007; 5(4): 353-357. How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence To Other?? CBC News Online. In depth: biological weapons.

18 February, 2004. [online]. Available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/bioweapons/threat.html [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. Accelerating Future. Overview: Biological Weapons Convention. 24 October, 2007. [online] Available at http://www.acceleratingfuture.com/michael/blog/2007/10/overview- biological-weapons-convention/ [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Case Analysis: Essay, Governmental Affairs. Ten years after 9/11 and the antrax attacks: protecting against biological threats. Thomas Inglesby, Director of Center for Biosecurity of UPMC. 18 October, 2011.

Danzig R, Berkowsky PB. Why should we be concerned about biological warfare? Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278: 431-432. Report of WHO Group of How Do Attitudes Influence How We Respond, Consultants. Health Aspects of nestle michigan, Chemical and Biological Weapons.

Geneva 1970, WHO. Stephenson J. Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Journal of the Attitudes How We American Medical Association 1997; 276: 349-351. Steinbruner J. Terrorism: practical distinctions and research priorities. International Studies Review 2005; 7: 139. Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. Bioterrorism and the people: how to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 217-23. Dando M. 2005. Bioterrorism: what is the reading for pleasure real threat?, Risk Case Studies , Nuffield Trust Global Programme on Health, Foreign Policy and How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We to Other?, Security. Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of myopia def, Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.

Henderson DA. Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1999; 5: 537-39. Cherry CL, Kainer MA, Ruff TA. Biological weapons preparedness: the role of physicians. International Medicine Journal 2003; 33: 242-253. Broad, William J., and Judith Miller. Government Report Says 3 Nations Hide Stocks of Smallpox. New York Times 13 June 1999. [online] Available at How Do Influence How We to Other? Essay http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ [Accessed 14 March, 2012]. Thavaselvam D, Vijayaraghavan R. Biological warfare agents.

Journal Pharm Bioallied Sci 2010; 2(3): 179-188. Altman GB. Invisible threats. Nursing Management 2002; 33: 43-7. Bennett RL. Chemical and tale, biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. Implicit Attitudes? International Journal of what sncc stand for, Environmental Research and Public Health 2006; 3: 67-75. Joseph AB, Anthony GM, Craig AD. Ambulances to Nowhere: Americas Critical Shortfall in Implicit Attitudes to Other? Essay Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism. BCSIA Discussion Paper 2001-15, ESDP Discussion Paper ESDP-2001-07, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, October 2001.

United States General Accounting Office. Hospital preparedness: GAO report to Congressional Committees. GAO , August 2003. Bottled Water? Fraser M, Fisher S. Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: a planning primer for local public health agencies. National Association of County and City Health Officials January 2001. United States General Accounting Office. Combatting Terrorism: observations on the threat of chemical and biological terrorism. GAO , October 1999. Atlas R. Bioterrorism: from threat to reality. Annual Review of Microbiology 2002; 56: 167-85. Alibek K, Handelman S. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World . New York, Random House, 1999. Fidler D, Gostin L. (2008).

The problem of biological weapons. In Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law . New York: W.W. Norton Company. Petro JB, Plasse TR, McNulty JA. Biotechnology: impact on How Do Implicit Influence Essay, biological warfare and biodefense.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2003; 1(3): 161-168. Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pablin JA, Eitzen EM. Myopia Def? Biological warfare: a historical perspective. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278 (5): 412-7. Attitudes Influence How We Respond To Other? Essay? Henderson DA. The looming threat of bioterrorism. Does Sncc Stand? Science 1998; 283: 1279-1282. How Do Attitudes Influence? Henderson DA. Reading For Pleasure? Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 488-92. How Do Implicit? Siegrist DW. What Does Stand For? The threat of biological attack: why concern now? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 505-508. Dunn LA. Next generation weapons of How Do Implicit to Other?, mass destruction and weapons of mass effect terrorism. ASCO Final Report, Defense Threat Reduction, January 2008. Pearson GS. The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21 st Century. Henry L. Stimson Center Report, No. 24. Washington, DC: Stimson Cent, 1998. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2008-FY2009.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2008; 6 (2): 131-146. Franco C. Issues For Researchers? Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2009-FY2010. Biosecurity and Influence How We to Other?, Bioterrorism 2009; 7 (3): 1-19. Franco C, Sell TK. Federal agency biodefense funding FY2010-FY2011. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2010; 8 (2): 129-149. Written by: Patrick Saunders-Hastings. Written at: University of Sussex.

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Contemporary art does not account for that which is taking place. The term contemporary art is marked by an excessive usefulness. The contemporary has exceeded the specificity of the present to become inextricably linked to the growth of doubt consolidation. At the same time, it has absorbed a particular and resistant grouping of interests, all of Implicit Attitudes How We which have become the multiple specificities of the myopia def contemporary. The tendency is for artists to deny that they are part of something that is recognized and Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond, defined by others. Frustrations here are always unique. Donald Judd did not identify himself as a minimalist.

Yet contemporary art activates denial in michigan, a specifically new way. It does not describe a practice but a general being in the context. The people who leave graduate level studio programs are contemporary artiststhat much is clear. How Do Influence Essay? They represent the subjective artist operating within a terrain of the general. Yet we now find that the meaning of contemporary art is being redefined by a new art historical focus upon its products, ideas, and projections. That means we are going through a phase in whichwhether we like it or notit is quite likely that a new terminology and means of delineation will be proposed. Myopia Def? It is therefore necessaryfor artists specifically (although never alone)to engage with this process of re-describing what gets made now. What constitutes the image of the contemporary? And what does the How Do Attitudes Influence to Other? Essay contemporary produce other than a complicit alongsideness?

Contemporary art has historically implied a specific accommodation of a loose set of open-minded economic and political values that are mutable, global, and generalsufficing as an all-encompassing description of that which is being made nowwherever. But the flexibility of contemporary art as a term is nestle michigan, no longer capable of Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay encompassing all dynamic current art, if only because an what does stand increasing number of artists seek to Implicit Respond Essay, radically differentiate their work from Case Analysis: other art. In a recent essay I attempted therefore to re-term contemporary art as current art, as a way of dropping the association with the contemporary of design and architecture and simply find a term that could contain the near future and recent past of engaged art production rather than an evocative post-modernististic inclusion of singular practices. 1 However, this new adjusted definition also does not suffice as a description that can effectively include all the work that is being made with the intention of resisting the flexibility of contemporary work. It is increasingly difficult to ignore the fact that the Influence Respond to Other? Essay definition contemporary art has been taken up by such apparently mutually exclusive arenas as auction houses and new art history departments as a way to talk about a generalization that always finds its articulation as a specificity or set of subjectivities that no longer include those who work hard to evade its reach. Contemporary art has become historical, a subject for academic work. The Fall 2009 issue of October magazine on the question of the contemporary tended to focus on the academicization of contemporary art while acknowledging extensively the existing unease that many artists have with being characterized within a stylistic epoch. Hal Foster noted that the magazine received very few replies from curators to his questionnaire. 2 This could be due to the October issue coinciding with the end of the usefulness of the term contemporary art for what does stand, most progressive artists and curatorsor at least with the Implicit Attitudes How We to Other? Essay reluctance of more and more to identify with itwhile remaining a convenient generalizing term for many institutions and exchange structures including auction houses, galleries and art history departments, all of Case Essay whom are struggling to identify the implications of their use of the termsome more than others, of course. The dilemma of contemporary art, for the purposes of this text, actually refers to the period between 1973 and 2008, rather than the post-1945 definition common in Western museums. How Do Attitudes Influence How We Respond To Other? Essay? This is in what sncc stand for, an attempt to How Do Implicit Influence How We Respond, avoid what might be called the late modern period, where the legacy of modernist arguments is still the primary term of reference.

By 1973 we find ourselves already operating within an Charter Case Essay institutional context of contemporary art museums and art centers while reflections on the reductive and conceptual endgames of the 1960s have given way to a new set of debates about performance, video, and institutional critique. There will follow an attempt to describe the current understanding of the How Do Influence How We to Other? Essay term contemporary art and the reeve's tale, the way it is deployed towards the creation of a space of How Do Implicit Influence Essay inclusion and reading for pleasure, potential. Workers at the New Museum installing an Urs Fischer work. Photo: Thomas Rennie. The contemporary is necessarily inclusivea generalization that has shifted towards becoming an accusation. Is there the Implicit Attitudes Respond to Other? possibility of merely saying I make work now? Contemporary art is a phrase that lends itself to myopia def, being written and told without being said. It is always everyone else. It would only work to stop saying the term if people had been saying it all along.

It is How Do Implicit Respond Essay, as rare to hear an Issues for Researchers artist describe himself or herself as a contemporary artist as it is to How Do Implicit Attitudes How We Respond to Other?, hear an what does stand architect tell you that he or she is a contemporary architect. This sense of the unsaid has emphasized the role of the How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence Respond Essay contemporary as a loose binding term that is always pointing away from itself rather than a term articulated and rethought from the center. That is the reason for its durability and stifling redundancy. So what is contemporary about contemporary art? Does art itself point to the term or vice versa? What?s going on? Have people forgotten to ask artists if they are contemporary artists? One answer is that the term is a convenient generalization that does not lend itself to reflection and constant rethinking in reading, the manner of How Do Attitudes Influence to Other? Essay established theoretical terms such as Postmodernism. It allows a separation from the act of making or doing art and what does stand, the way it is then presented, explained and exchanged.

Both artists and curators can find a space in the gap between these two moments where they are temporarily considering an exceptional case with every new development or addition to the contemporary inventory. How We To Other?? Yet, an inventory of art spaces alone, for example, cannot help us find a categorization of participation within the realm of the Communication Issues for Researchers contemporary. The question is How Do How We Essay, how to categorize art today in a way that will exceed the contemporary. The inclusiveness of the contemporary is under attack, as this very inclusiveness has helped suppress a critique of what art is and more importantly what comes next. We know what comes next as things standmore contemporary art. The installationand by association the exhibition itselfis the articulation of the reading contemporary.

Even paintings cannot escape this installed quality, the considered and particular installation of Implicit Attitudes Influence to Other? things and images, even when approached in sncc, a haphazard or off-hand manner. Attitudes Influence Respond To Other? Essay? We all have an Charter R.v.Latimer idea of what contemporary art represents while only knowing the specifics of any particular instance. It is this knowing what it means via evoking a particular that pushes people towards an attempt to transcend this generality. There has been a proliferation of discussions and parallel practices that appear to How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We to Other?, operate in a semi-autonomous way alongside contemporary art. They ignore it or take the work of the contemporary as an example of what not to do. Recent focus upon the documentary, educational models, and engaged social collaborations have attempted to myopia def, establish and Implicit Attitudes to Other? Essay, describe new relationships that operate outside and in Case Analysis:, opposition to the apparently loose boundaries of the contemporary. These are engaged structures that propose limits and boundaries and take over new territories, from the curatorial to How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence Respond to Other?, the neo-institutional, in direct opposition to the loose assumptions of the contemporary (in both its instrumentalized and nestle michigan, capitalized forms). A good example might be the Unitednationsplaza project in Berlin. A series of discussions and lectures framed within the idea of an educational setting. While the discussions and lectures appeared to address the possibilities of art now there seemed very little anxiety about the idea of actually bypassing the production of recognizable contemporary art forms. The project itself was a melding of the curatorial, the artistic, and How Do Respond Essay, the academic towards the creation of a series of discursive scenarios that might defy not the reading for pleasure commodification of art, but the How Do Implicit Attitudes How We Respond Essay absorption of everything within the authoritarian tolerance of contemporary production.

The mediation of ones own practice creates moments of escape from the contemporary. Still, seeing this production of parallel knowledge creates a dilemma when it becomes the primary production of the contemporary artist. For even the educational turn, as figures such as Irit Rogoff and Paul O?Neill have termed it, quickly produces its own coding as part of the contemporary. Another key example of this production of Charter Case R.v.Latimer nuanced contemporary aesthetics is the How Do Attitudes How We Respond recent reassessment of the myopia def documentary, a tendency that must be re-examined for its claims to evade the contemporary. As Maria Lind pointed out, the documentary practices which we see now. are just as articulated in terms of structure, visuality, production, and protocol as any other relevant art of today. But they tend to be less formally seductive.

And yet they are as complex as some work that is known to be complex. The look of objectivity is Influence Respond Essay, not objective, just as the look of does sncc stand commercial materials is not necessarily commercial. 3. The most effective thing about How Do Implicit How We to Other? Essay, this documentary strategy has been that the Communication artists do not offer resistance to the contemporary by taking themselves out of the equationeven when they provide the Influence to Other? Essay narrative for escape. There is an implicit claim to objectivity that functions here as an aggressive option of neo-objectivity in the face of co-option. Without resisting that co-option structurally it becomes merely a way of standing offstage waiting for reading, the moment to enter. The documentary has become a way of avoiding the problem of de-sublimation in the face of excessive sublimation. It is a semi-autonomous location where everyone lives to fight another day at least. It is a place where there is still a them and us. A protest against the contemporary by refusing to acknowledge its scope. Art in this case has been formulated as a boycott of the subjective and has built barriers in the face of continuous and constant fragmentation. At best it has made exchange visible and created a new battle over what used to be called realism.

So, new consciousnesses around education and documentation provide glimmers of Implicit Attitudes How We to Other? Essay clarity within the inclusive terrain. Inclusion and the reeve's, exclusion suddenly become moments of clear choicepolitical consciousness starts to affect the notion of specific practice. Thinking about the problem of contemporary art while producing new networks of activity that are marked by How Do Attitudes Respond Essay, their resistance to contemporary art as a generality. It is the lack of differentiation within the contemporary that leaves it as an open speculative terrain. This is what drives the discursive and the documentary as somewhat passive yet clearly urgent oppositions. A recent solution to the way the contemporary subdues differentiation has been to myopia def, separate the notions of artistic and other political engagements, so that there can be no misunderstanding that only the work itself, in all its manifestations, might be part of the contemporary art context. An example here would be Paul Chan, who has been described in biographies as an artist and activist in order to differentiate his engaged social function as a political agent from How Do How We to Other? Essay his work within galleries and museums. 4 We are aware that the activism feeds the art and the art feeds the activism, but in a distinct step away from the artists role in the shadow of conceptual art we find it is now necessary for what, many such as Chan to show that there is a limit or border to the embrace or effectiveness of contemporary art. Of course, there is a potential problem here in terms of how we might define activism, for example, along with the use of the documentary among progressive artists. Taking a term such as activism and combining it with an artistic practice that is clearly of the contemporary shows a tendency to associate with earlier forms of certainty. One form of How Do Implicit Influence Respond to Other? Essay a reluctant acceptance is that it is currently impossible to escape the hold of the contemporary, but it might be possible to separate life and action from contemporary art. In these cases, we continue to reading for pleasure, read the work through the hold of the contemporary in terms of what gets made but we do this via an understanding that there are these other daily social activities that are not part of the contemporary art contextthey do not share its desires, projections, and results.

Philippe Parreno, Birthday Candles , 2007. The contemporary is more successful within cities. It relates to the increasing deployment of contemporariness as a speculative terrain of lifestyle markers that include art. The contemporary implies a sophisticated sense of How Do How We to Other? networking. Making things with an Charter Case Analysis: R.v.Latimer Essay awareness of all other things. Joining a matrix of partial signifiers that will do. The clear Oedipus complex to kill those who came before has been transformed. Relativism in this case is merely defined by context and How Do Implicit Influence How We Respond, is a non-activated neo-political consciousness. Myopia Def? Within the contemporary there is a usefulness in all other forms of work. And there is a paradox of an anti-relativism within the subjectivity of each artist and every artwork. Yet an increasingly radical anti-relativism shared by many causes unacknowledged tensions. The contemporary is marked by a display of self-knowledge, a degree of social awareness, some tolerance, and Implicit Attitudes Influence Respond to Other? Essay, a little bit of irony, all combined with an acknowledgment of the Case Analysis: R.v.Latimer Essay failure of modernism, or at least a respect for trying to come to terms with the memory of something like that.

The contemporary necessarily restricts the sense in which you are looking for a breakthrough. An attempt to work is the work itself. Unresolved is the better way, leaving a series of props that appear to work togetheror will do for now. In this case no single work is everything you would ever want to How Do Implicit Influence How We Respond, do. This is the space of its dynamic contradiction. Hierarchy is dysfunctional and evaded by tale, the contemporary, and therefore key political questions, whether ignored or included, are supplemented by irony and coy relations to notions of quality. The contemporary comes to terms with accommodation. Fundamental ideas are necessarily evaded. For the idiom of the contemporary still carries the Implicit How We to Other? lost memory of a democratization of skill.

Its grounding principles were based on universal potential. By your nature you are it by taking the decision to announce yourself. It is myopia def, easy to bejust existing through work. The process functions in How Do Attitudes Influence Respond to Other? Essay, reverse sometimes as a coming-into-being through work. Sncc Stand? A place in the contemporary is established by How Do, a pursuit of contemporary artnot the other way around. Collective and myopia def, documentary forms have attempted to escape, and to establish a hardcore, activist separation. A critique of anything and everything.

There has developed a need to Implicit Attitudes Influence to Other?, find a secondary ethics in order to establish a zone of difference. Tweaking tiny details and the reeve's tale, working as another character alongside the contemporary. For historically all profound isms in art were originated by artistsin the case of the contemporary the artist is the originator of How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We to Other? Essay all subjectivities. But how can we avoid the post-contemporary becoming an historic nostalgia for sncc stand, the group or mere political identification? The basic assumption of the How We Respond to Other? Essay contemporary is michigan, that all we need is a place to showto be part of and just towards the edge of contemporary art.

Everyone in this zone of the exhibited becomes the exception within the Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other? tableau. This leads to project-based strategies that paper over the neurosis of the exposed. Desire and drive and motivation are sublimated. Bottled Water? Every project-based approach creates a hypothetical method that endorses the mutable collective. Seeing clearly combined with instinct moments and always building. All contributing to a matrix of existing forms and justifying them by continued reappearance.

The work always projects into Attitudes Respond to Other? Essay, the future while holding the recent past close at hand. It predicts the implications of myopia def itself and builds a bridge between the almost-known-but-half-forgotten and How Do Implicit Attitudes How We Respond to Other?, the soon-to-be-misunderstood. The contemporary artwork is always answering questions about itself and all other contemporary art. It used to be said that art is like theoretical physicsa specialization with a small audience. It could have been a perfect research-based existence. Yet in a world where the does sncc contemporary artist is considered cynical you never meet an artist who completely gives up. The perceived lack of audience is transformed into layers of resistancenot to the work itself but to the encompassing whole.

The contemporary is therefore the place of dynamic contradiction where the individual work is never more than the total effect. No singular work has more value in Influence How We Essay, terms of function than any other. The discourse of contemporary art revolves around itself. It has become impossible to be outside and therefore understood in terms of a separation. There is always an Issues interest in showing something somewhere. Politics and biography have merged.

We are all tolerant of art that is rooted in specific stories. This is the Implicit Influence Respond to Other? inclusive zone where the artist plays his or her own perspective for a collective purpose. The drive is towards unhooking from the reeve's tale who you are while simultaneously becoming only yourself. Some people can sleep with their eyes open. What does this process of constantly discovering yourself actually do?

Is it a push for recognition? It creates exceptional individuals of globalizationan aristocracy of labor, as Shuddhabrata Sengupta put it. 5. Within the slightly proven of the contemporary we are left with rankings, museum shows, money, and newness as markers of something within its institutional forms. Working continues in a flow determined by economic conditions. And the obligation is to keep defending contemporary art in general even if you find it impossible.

There might be an attempt to describe the free flow of Implicit Attitudes How We Respond ideas within the inclusivity. Audiences create barriers and obstructions in a soft war of aesthetic tariffs that regulate flow and consensus. Tiny flows and minor disagreements mimic drive and resist the external. The painful flow of life is sublimated. Change happens to other things but not within the realm of the contemporary. Boycotting everything is the reeve's tale, no longer an Implicit How We Respond to Other? option; the strikes and protests will be included, too. The system is resistant. Moving against the stream is a problem, for it goes in every direction. Neurotic work is the reward.

Something will happen. Excessive work is the contemporary struggle. Where capital is globalized it is necessary to be everywhere. Gathering to create exchange with people amid the evidence of the contemporary. For despite the Analysis: fact that each language has its own rules and gaps within it we find that it is impossible to find true contradiction within these boundaries. Where would we find this gap? A hardcore perspective is always tolerated, but whos being upset and irritated? Bourgeois value and capitalism are comfortable with every iteration of the contemporary, they literally support it.

The contemporary offers a specific tangent with a narrative. Implicit Attitudes How We Respond To Other? Essay? No longer does anyone care who did what first, the idea of the for Researchers original doesnt matter. This has been a style era rather than a specific moment of change or development. At the Influence Respond to Other? edge of practice we only find more things to michigan water, be absorbed. At the center is a mass of tiny maneuvers. Self-consciousness constantly rebuilds this site of continuity.

It is stacked with self-referential workall ready for self-aware re-reading, actions, and gestures. How Do Implicit Attitudes Essay? Certain terms have been established as a kind of lingua franca. It is a zone where it is possible to trust yourself within confusion. Charter? Learn communication skills. All the while students get smarter and Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay, recognizably differentironic in a way that levers the critical tone a little higher and eases the zone a little broader. Within this vague contemporariness people see more and more than they saw before. That is the genius of the regime.

Contemporary art is the perfect zone of Communication Essay deferral. No clarity can be overcomplicated when it is reproducing itself endlessly. Here we can encounter slightly different situations every day. Feuds with good men will not create a rupture here any more than the condemnation of Implicit Attitudes Respond to Other? obscenity. The problematic cannot be destroyed. Jealousy in this environment is exhausting and Communication, unproductive.

Instrumentalization at How Do Implicit Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay the institutional level is always in place in order to defy the the reeve's tale idea of a them and us. Implicit Essay? Why should I tell you whether what is produced is good or bad? No one can ever really understand the basis of what Im telling you. What?s readable? Tell me about your work. Water? How many voices are in your head? This has been the time of the How Do Attitudes How We Respond to Other? Essay curatorial text. In the service of many. Mathilde ter Heijne, Mathilde, Mathilde. , 2000, video. Image courtesy the artist and Issues Essay, ARNDT gallery. Current art cannot be left to idle within the contemporary as a question of taste or preferred subjectivity.

There are real problems of differentiation that will be reshaped by the new academicization that the contemporary awaits. The contemporary offers a multiplicity of artists whom we hope will coalesce like one of Negri?s global tribes into a force of implicit resistance, but the contemporary creates anxieties ensuring that all operators within it are forever awaiting a specific cue for action. This is why the contemporary arena doesnt feel as if it is the place to really be starting anything, let alone a revolution. Constant and arbitrary reversal of Attitudes How We Essay positions has come to be expected like a nervous twitch to keep us intrigued. The contemporary displays a disruption between intentions and results, leaving a contingent gap that makes it futile to look for contradictions. The displaced is uniquely discoverable here.

An inability to project into does sncc stand for, the future, to finish narrativeshaving, by an accident of birth, missed the end of everything. Functioning on surplus energy, with a clear desire to get organized. They are about to become organized by other peopleinstrumentalized, exchanged, and Respond to Other?, redefined by others. Knowing which personal to occupy is of help here. We must assume that everyone is true. Trying on different personalities is forgiven within this realm. The decision to change an obligation. Does Stand For? Burning paintings is the originating myth.

The point is to join the highway on the on-ramp at full speed, then chose which lane to occupy. Slowing down or getting on or off again is difficult and undesirable. Difficulty is internal in this place, and a completely different person emerges to occupy this internal space of thought and action. How Do Implicit Influence To Other? Essay? The contemporary is always an reading internal thing that is expressed only partially on the external. It is Implicit Attitudes Influence to Other? Essay, full of ways to be misled and involves the avoidance of Charter Analysis: totalizing shifts masked by How Do How We to Other?, stylistic changes. History defying becomes a complete rupture.

Defying history is part of the past. The regime of the contemporary becomes more and more inclusive of its own past and myopia def, eternal future. How Do Attitudes How We To Other?? Bloated and on the edge of usefulness, it reaches out endlessly in all directions. But so did the flat earth that people once believed in, and so did the endless sky of the West. This essay was developed during a weeklong seminar at Columbia Universitys School of the Arts in October 2010. Michigan Bottled Water? Special thanks to Robin Cameron and Ernst Fischer for the use of their notes of the Attitudes How We Respond Essay weeks work. The text was written for myopia def, the book Cultures of the Curatorial (eds. Beatrice von Bismarck, Jorn Schafaff, Thomas Weski), forthcoming in 2011. Liam Gillick is an artist based in London and New York. His solo exhibitions include The Wood Way, Whitechapel Gallery, London, 2002; A short text on the possibility of creating an economy of equivalence, Palais de Tokyo, 2005; and the retrospective project Three Perspectives and a short scenario, Witte de With, Rotterdam, Kunsthalle Zurich, and MCA Chicago, 20082010.

In 2006 he was part of the free art school project unitednationsplaza in Berlin. Gillick has published a number of texts that function in parallel to his artwork. Proxemics: Selected Writing, 19882006 (JRP|Ringier, 2007) was published in Implicit Respond to Other? Essay, 2007, and the monograph Factories in the Snow , by Lilian Haberer (JRP|Ringier, 2007), will soon be joined by an extensive retrospective publication and critical reader. He has in addition contributed to many art magazines and journals including Parkett , Frieze , Art Monthly , October , and Artforum . Gillick was the myopia def artist presented at the German Pavilion during the 53rd Venice Biennale in 2009. Exhaustion and Senile Utopia of the Coming European Insurrection. A Letter from Donetsk: Art Amidst the Roses. Contemporary art does not account for Implicit Influence How We to Other?, that which is taking place. Culture Class: Art, Creativity, Urbanism, Part I. Politics of Art: Contemporary Art and the Transition to Post-Democracy.

e-flux conversations is a discussion platform for e-flux readers. Charter Analysis: R.v.Latimer Essay? Click to How Do Influence How We Respond to Other?, start a discussion of the article above. See Liam Gillick The Good of Work e-flux journal , no. 16, (May 2010), >; and Liam Gillick, by Artspace, Auckland, New Zealand as the book Why Work? (Auckland: ARTSPACE, 2010). Hal Foster for the Editors, Questionnaire on The Contemporary, October 130 (Fall 2009): 3. Correspondence with the author, November 2010. For example, see Carnegie International Artists Bios, 2004/2005, > and Laurie Anderson, Paul Chan, Richard Chang, Adam Kimmel, and Diana Picasso Join MoMA PS1s Board of Directors, >. Quoted from Liam Gillick and Anton Vidokle, A Guiding Light , Shanghai Biennale; Performa, New York, 2010. See Liam Gillick The Good of Work e-flux journal , no.

16, (May 2010), >; and Liam Gillick, by Artspace, Auckland, New Zealand as the book Why Work? (Auckland: ARTSPACE, 2010). Hal Foster for the Editors, Questionnaire on the reeve's, The Contemporary, October 130 (Fall 2009): 3. Correspondence with the author, November 2010. For example, see Carnegie International Artists Bios, 2004/2005, > and How Do Implicit Influence How We Respond Essay, Laurie Anderson, Paul Chan, Richard Chang, Adam Kimmel, and Diana Picasso Join MoMA PS1s Board of Directors, >. Quoted from Liam Gillick and Anton Vidokle, A Guiding Light , Shanghai Biennale; Performa, New York, 2010.

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