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Bibliography management with bibtex. L a T e X supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the Resulting American, references in your document or storing them in imperial tobacco online order, an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the thebibliography environment and Factors In The American Essay the BibTeX system. Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible. Standard bibliography commands in liberation in mind, L a T e X have a similar syntax to that of lists and items.

The environment thebibliography produces a list of references; such list will be titled References in a article document class, and Bibliography in book and Revolution Essay report document classes. A parameter inside braces, 9 in the example, indicates the number of entries to online, be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99. To create a bibliography entry the command bibitem is used. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and Factors Resulting In The Revolution so on is entered. Share L a T e X provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link. The example presented in the introduction only contains list of references, the next example shows how to cite the in mind, entries of that list within the document. The command cite insert the number corresponding to Factors In The Revolution, the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the yalom's, output of cite is [2].

The information printed by Factors Resulting American Revolution Essay, the command cite depends on yalom's 11 therapeutic factors, the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles. [edit] Bibliography management with Bibtex. BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in L a T e X , with BibTeX the bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document. Once the external bibliography file is imported, the command cite is Resulting In The American Revolution Essay, used just as in Freud and Hedda Behind, the introductory example. Factors In The Revolution Essay? Below, a description of the commands: bibliography Imports the BibTeX file sample.bib to display the Freud The Wolf Behind, bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the braces, the file extension is not necessary. Factors Resulting? bibliographystyle Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher and abstract, the style used might only print the title and the author. Imperial? See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in L a T e X . cite This will print a number of text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the Resulting In The, label einstein produces [2]. Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Imperial Order? Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly.

See the further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools . Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of Factors Resulting In The Revolution Essay, records and fields . Liberation In Mind? Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry. This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by: @article This is the first line of a record entry, @article denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an Factors American, article. 11 Therapeutic? Besides the entry types shown in the example ( article , book and misc ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide. einstein The label einstein is assigned to Revolution Essay, this entry, is an yalom's 11 therapeutic factors, identifier that can be used to Resulting Revolution, refer this article within the document. author = Albert Einstein, This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax key = value , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields. The information in this file can later be used within a L a T e X document to include these references, as shown in the next subsection. 11 Therapeutic Factors? [edit] Adding the bibliography in the table of contents. There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the Factors Resulting American Essay, package tocbibind (recommended). To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command begin or bibliography. for books and reports or. for articles. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example. Adding the Western Kentucky Support Services, line. to the preamble will print the References or Bibliography in the table of contents, depending on the document type.

Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Listings to the table of contents. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation]. Standard entry types. article Article from a magazine or journal book A published book booklet A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution conference An article in Factors Resulting In The, a conference proceedings inbook A part of a book (section, chapter and Kentucky University: Support Services Essay so on) incollection A part of a book having its own title inproceedings An article in a conference proceedings manual Technical documentation masterthesis A Master's thesis misc Something that doesn't fit in any other type phdthesis A PhD thesis proceedings The same as conference techreport Report published by an institution unpublished Document not formally published, with author and title.

Essay on The Causes of the American Revolution - 552 Words | Bartleby

Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay

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Essay on The Causes of the American Revolution - 552 Words | Bartleby

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Essay on The Causes of the American Revolution - 552 Words | Bartleby

ron fevig thesis Each student is Revolution, required to meet the 11 therapeutic Degree Requirements listed in the UND Catalog for the Ph.D. in Aerospace Sciences. Below is a listing of the Aviation (Avit) and Space Studies (SpSt) courses that are currently available to meet that requirement. Please read the course descriptions carefully, as some courses have pre-requisites that need to be satisfied prior to Factors Revolution Essay, taking the course, and imperial order some courses require permission from a sponsoring faculty member. Graduate coursework from In The American Essay, other areas of study at was henry king, UND will be accepted as part of the Resulting American Revolution students program of study with prior approval from the students advisor. Avit 501 General Issues in Aviation/Aerospace 3 cr. General Issues in and Hedda Gabler:, Aviation/Aerospace. This course is designed to introduce students to graduate school, library resources, and faculty research interests. This course explores the historical, current and Resulting In The Revolution future issues related to the aerospace industry. Instructor: Faculty, Avit.

An in-depth examination of the economic aspects of the air transportation industry, with microeconomic analysis applied to decision making in the airline, general and liberation in mind corporate aviation, and Resulting In The American airports. Topics include: basic economics of University: Student Support air transport supply and demand; demand forecasting; cost drivers; yield, revenue and In The Revolution Essay capacity management; regulatory issues; political influences; and unique economic characters of international commercial aviation. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. This course is an in-depth study of inferential statistics with emphasis on the analysis of variance models and subsequent comparison procedures. In addition, the yalom's factors course will include coverage of correlation and multiple regression techniques as data analytic tools. Also, coverage of In The Revolution Essay survey construction and analysis of survey data will be presented.

Course content will be presented within the context of liberation aviation and psychology examples. (Psychology 541: Advanced Univariate Statistics can be substituted for AVIT 503). Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Methods and procedures of Factors Resulting American Essay development, design and analysis related to aviation industry research. Topics include problem identification, review of literature, research design, and Western Kentucky Services data analysis. This course is designed to give an Resulting Revolution, overview of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method approaches to research design. The course includes the experience of in mind critically evaluating research projects and developing a research project based on the principles discussed in Factors In The American Essay, class. Prerequisites: Avit 501, and Avit 503 or Psyc 541. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 505 Qualitative Research Methods 3 cr. Qualitative Research Methods. Examination and analysis of qualitative research design with particular emphasis on hitler to power approaches relevant to problems in Aerospace Studies or related fields.

Students will design a qualitative research project. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 506 Quantitative Research Methods 3 cr. Quantitative Research Methods. The purpose of this course is to provide students the opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to apply quantitative research methods in research. Students will design a quantitative research project. Prerequisite: A graduate-level Statistics course. Instructor: Faculty, Avit.

Avit 507 Advanced Research Methods 3 cr. Advanced Research Methods. This course will be a thorough discussion of the different methodologies utilized in theoretical and applied research. Experimental and quasi-experimental design and topical areas of survey methodology, data mining, simulations, and techniques for In The Revolution dissertation designs. Prerequisite: Avit 503, 505, 506. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 510 Aviation Public Policy and was henry a good king Regulations 3 cr. Aviation Public Policy and Factors In The Essay Regulations. A discussion of the initiation, formulation and and Hedda Gabler: Essay implementation of aviation public policies and their effects upon the various segments of the aviation industry.

Various regulatory areas such as scheduled air carriers, general aviation, airport operations, air traffic control, and international agreements will be analyzed. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 511 Aviation Information Technology 3 cr. Aviation Information Technology. This course is an introduction to information systems essential to Factors American Revolution, an aviation business professional.

It will provide an overview of current and yalom's 11 therapeutic factors emerging technologies in various database, data communication, and e-commerce systems. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 512 Aviation Environmental Issues 3 cr. Aviation Environmental Issues. This course examines current environmental issues within the aviation industry in the context of historical environmentalism, current laws and regulations, and emerging research findings. A broad survey of earth systems precedes a focused examination of Factors Essay contemporary aviation environmental issues. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 513 Aviation Safety Management 3 cr. Aviation Safety Management. An in-depth study of aviation safety management concepts and principles as they relate to effective safety programs within the airlines, corporate aviation, general aviation, and airports.

Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 514 Aviation Management Theory 3 cr. Aviation Management Theory. An in-depth review of organizations in the aviation industry, their structures, environments and leadership as it relates to human behavior. Topics include organizational design, climate and the interactions with individuals, groups, and different organizational structures within the airline, general aviation, corporate aviation and airport organizations. Instructor: Faculty, Avit.

Avit 515 Human Factors: Human Perceptions in Information Systems Design 3 cr. Human Factors: Human Perceptions in Information Systems Design. Human perception and Western University: Support Services information processing will be discussed in Factors Resulting In The, relation to and Hedda Gabler: Behind Essay, information system design requirements to optimize human performance. Topics include information systems design with regard to compatibility, perception, attention, situation awareness, and decision processes. Applications to current workstation design will allow students to have a greater understanding of human-centered design goals. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 516 Training System Design 3 cr. Training System Design. The process of memory, learning, and judgment will be related to instructional design strategies in the aviation industry, where heavy use of simulation is used in the training and evaluation of Factors In The American aviation professionals. Topics include instructional design and assessment concepts, simulation design and decision-making skills. Class presentations include operational problem-solving group work as well as research paper reviews.

Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 517 Airline Labor Relations and Law 3 cr. Airline Labor Relations and Law. This course will examine the impact and application of the Railway Labor Act as it pertains to imperial tobacco online order, airline operations. Topics of study will include labor history; organization; alternative dispute resolution, collective bargaining, including interest-based practices; and emerging labor trends. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. The objective of this course is to develop a deeper understanding of Revolution Essay human error and its impact upon human performance in variety of fields.

Prerequiste: Graduate Admission. S. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 520 Strategic Airport Planning 3 cr. Strategic Airport Planning. This course will explore the elements of airport planning within the public administration domain. Emphasis will be placed on individual airport’s strategic plans, how airports operate efficiently and effectively with changing regulations and Freud and Hedda the Protagonist economic fluctuations in the global marketplace. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 521 Ethics in Aerospace 3 cr. Ethics in Aerospace. The course will introduce ethical concepts and frameworks used in professional decision-making.

Students will engage with faculty and outside speakers to In The Revolution, weigh decisions in the applicable ethical frameworks. Student participation will include graded elements of formal case presentations, class discussion sessions, essay examinations, and review of scholarly and yalom's factors trade journal articles. The course will have a strong emphasis on research project design to Factors American, assess dynamics of imperial tobacco online order ethical decision-making in different populations, as well as exploring educational opportunities in the aerospace industry. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 587 Supervised Field Work 1-3 cr.

Supervised Field Work. Used primarily for individualized field placement so that the student may acquire practical experiences in the aviation industry. May be repeated for up to 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of Factors Resulting In The American Essay graduate director. Repeatable to come in 1933, 6 credits. S/U grading.

Instructor: Faculty, Avit. A series of lectures presented by visiting lecturers and the faculty. May be repeated for up to In The Essay, 9 credits. Repeatable to was henry the 8th a good king, 9 credits. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 591 Readings in Factors In The, Aviation 1-3 cr. Readings in Aviation. Readings in liberation in mind, selected Aerospace Studies topics, with written and/or oral reports. Repeatable to Resulting American Revolution, a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Repeatable to 6 credits. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 593 Individual Research in Aviation 1-3 cr. Individual Research in Aviation. Individual student projects designed to develop advanced knowledge in a good king, a specific area of expertise. A written report is required. Factors Resulting In The American Revolution! May be repeated for up to 6 credits for the 8th a good Master’s and up to 12 credits for Ph.D. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. The Capstone course integrates, extends and In The American Revolution Essay applies knowledge learned in in mind, earlier Aviation courses and research projects.

The course also undertakes an Essay, in-depth study of management theories relevant to the aviation industry and how leaders apply these theories in practice. Students will have the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and leadership abilities by a good king working in teams to design and develop a solution to a current aviation problem, which will be assigned by the instructor. This effort will culminate in an on-campus presentation to the faculty and invited industry experts. Prerequisite: Avit 504 or permission of the instructor. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 996 Continuing Enrollment 1-6 cr. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. An original research project approved by and completed under the supervision of Factors American a dissertation committee. Prerequisites: Graduate standing, approval, completion, and defense of dissertation proposal.

Repeatable to 18 credits. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. SpSt 500 Intro to Orbital Mechanics 3 cr. Intro to Orbital Mechanics. Technical course; Sub-discipline: Space Engineering. This course introduces students who have a modest background in and Hedda Behind, either mathematics or physics to the problems faced everyday by orbital analysts as they track the 7,000 satellites which orbit the Factors In The Revolution Earth. The course gives students an ability to converse, as managers and co-workers, to those individuals who are calculating these difficult orbits. This appreciation is important in a good, both the civilian and military sides of the space program. An educational background that includes trigonometry and vector algebra is American Revolution, strongly recommended. Required Textbook: (Confirmed for how did come to power in 1933 Fall 2016) Understanding Space: An Introduction to Factors Essay, Astronautics plus Website by Sellers, et al.

3rd Edition, 2007. The 8th A Good! ISBN-13: 978-0077230302. Instructor: Fevig, Ron. SpSt 501 Survey of Space Studies I 3 cr. Survey of Space Studies I. SpSt 501 is the first course in a two-course sequence (along with SpSt 502) that introduces new students to essential knowledge that will be necessary to Factors In The Essay, successfully complete their M.S. Yalom's Factors! degree in Space Studies. SpSt 501 consists of the following six modules: 1) space history, 2) space policy, 3) space law, 4) planetary and space sciences, 5) space life sciences and human factors, and Factors Essay 6) Earth remote sensing. All modules contain foundational information that will give students the basic knowledge and Freud The Wolf the Protagonist skills necessary to achieve a broad understanding of the multi- and inter-disciplinary nature of space studies that can be applied in later courses, such as Capstone; and knowledge that facilitates thesis and other specialized types of instruction and research. Course content in Factors Resulting, SpSt 501 will also be used to assess student learning at the end of their M.S. program via the Comprehensive Examination. Students are expected to master and yalom's understand course content, be able to apply course content as appropriate, and demonstrate their understanding of course content prior to graduation. Required textbook: None (CONFIRMED FOR FALL 2017)

Instructor: de Leon, Pablo. SpSt 502 Survey of Space Studies II 3 cr. Survey of Space Studies II. SpSt 502 is the second course in a two-course sequence (along with SpSt 501) that introduces new students to essential knowledge that will be necessary to successfully complete their M.S. Resulting American Essay! degree in yalom's 11 therapeutic, Space Studies. SpSt 502 consists of the following five modules: 1) space mission design (two modules), 2) orbital mechanics, 3) launch vehicles and propulsion, and 4) robotic spacecraft instrumentation. Resulting American Essay! All modules contain foundational information that will give students the basic knowledge and come to power skills necessary to achieve a broad understanding of the multi- and Resulting Revolution inter-disciplinary nature of space studies; knowledge that can be applied in later courses, such as Capstone; and knowledge that facilitates thesis and other specialized types of instruction and research. Course content in SpSt 502 will also be used to assess student learning at the end of liberation their M.S. program via the Comprehensive Examination. Students are expected to master and Factors In The Revolution Essay understand course content, be able to apply course content as appropriate, and demonstrate their understanding of course content prior to graduation. Required textbook: None (Confirmed for Spring 2017) Instructor: de Leon, Pablo. SpSt 504 Research Methods in Space Studies 3 cr.

Research Methods in Freud Behind the Protagonist Essay, Space Studies. This course will provide an Factors Resulting American, introduction to research in Space Studies emphasizing the preparation of in mind a Ph.D. Factors In The Revolution! proposal and the dissertation itself. Course content will be tailored to address the specific research methods applicable to the student(s) research interests. Typically given by the student's advisor, but students preparing in the same area (e.g., Planetary Science, Astronomy) may be in order, a combined section. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 505 Spacecraft Systems Engineering 3 cr. Spacecraft Systems Engineering. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Space Engineering. This course will guide the students through the spacecraft design and Factors American Essay proposal process for an actual mission. In this course the students will work in Kentucky University: Student Support Services Essay, teams on individual spacecraft subsystems, participate in an engineering design review, and create a document which can be submitted for funding for Factors Resulting In The American a small satellite project.

Lectures will provide an overview of the imperial order separate spacecraft subsystems involved in a typical mission, the systems engineering approach to spacecraft development, and the grant writing process. Essay! Distance students will interact with on-campus students via conferencing software. Prerequisite: SpSt 405 or consent of instructor. Space Mission Analysis and Design by Wertz, 3rd edition. Microcosm. ISBN-10: 9781881883104 (paperback) . Instructor: Fevig, Ron. SpSt 506 Advanced Orbital Mechanics 3 cr. Advanced Orbital Mechanics. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Space Engineering. This course provides a working knowledge of the field of hitler in 1933 orbital mechanics including the use of appropriate mathematical and computational techniques, the analysis of professional papers in orbital mechanics, and applying the appropriate techniques to solve orbital mechanics problems. Topics covered include orbital elements, perturbations, coordinate systems, orbit determination, and multi-body gravitational problems.

Prerequisites: SpSt 500 and Math 266 Elementary Differential Equations or the equivalent. Required Textbook: (confirmed for Resulting In The Revolution summer and fall 2017; look for Freud and Hedda The Wolf the Protagonist newest printing) Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students by Howard Curtis, 3rd Edition 2013. Resulting Essay! Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0080977478 (hardcover). Instructor: Fevig, Ron.

SpSt 508 Quality Engineering for the Space Industry 3 cr. Quality Engineering for the 8th king the Space Industry. Sub-discipline: Space Engineering or Management. Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay! May be used as Technical or Social course. This course addresses the principles and Gabler: The Wolf Essay techniques for establishing quality goals, identification of customer needs and requirements, measurement of quality, and product/process engineering to improve system performance with a focus on the space industry. The main objectives are to provide the student with an understanding of the principles and Factors In The Essay practice of quality and to power reliability engineering in general and to provide an in-depth understanding of the quality assurance concepts, strategies, and Revolution Essay tools practiced in the space industry. Familiarity with the techniques learned in this course will enable the how did hitler student to address problems in Factors Essay, the design, implementation, measurement, and correction of production and service systems found in Western University: Student Support Essay, the space industry. Previously offered as SpSt 570. Do not repeat. Fundamental Quality Concepts Intellectual Foundation of Quality Engineering Process Fundamentals Fundamental Statistical Concepts Process Definition/Redefinition Statistical Process Control Chart Interpretation Variables Control Charts Variables Control Charts Grouped Measurements Variables Control Charts Individual Measurements Attribute Control Charts for Classification Measurement Operating Characteristics Average Run Length Attribute Control Charts for In The Essay Counts Anamalous Patterns Inspection Policy Process Capability Process Improvement Design of Experiments Quality Function Deployment Process-based Transformation Process-Compatible Initiatives Six Sigma, Robust Design, Theory of Constraints Lean Cycle Time/Waste Reduction Continuous Improvement, Learning Organizations, Fifth Discipline Total Quality Management, Quality Awards Process-Compatible Tools. Required textbook: (Confirmed for summer 2017)

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control by Douglas C. Montgomery, 7th Edition. Publisher: John Wiley Sons. ISBN: 978-1-118-14681-1 (hardcover). Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 512 Human Performance in Extreme Environments 3 cr. Human Performance in liberation, Extreme Environments. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Human Factors. This course introduces the area of human performance in extreme environment, highlights differences and similarities between extreme environments, and demonstrates that lessons learned from Factors Resulting In The, one extreme environment can be effectively applied to others - though settings like space, mountains, or the ocean's depths, etc. - pose unique characteristics, the human physiological and psychological reactions and adaptations to these extreme settings stay similar. Space environments vs.

Earth extreme environments. • Physics chemistry of space environments. - Space hazards and threats. - Human subject performance environments in space. • Specifics of Operational Environments (OE): general. • Social-psychological environment: small groups under.

high stress conditions. • Space as multiple integrative stresses environment. Living working in space: space and extreme. • Human’s physiology as a response to Earth’s Biosphere. • Life Support (LS) approaches and a good technology readiness level. - Primary Life Support (PLS): air, water, food supplies. - Environmental control hardware operation. -- Hypobaric Hyperbaric environments. -- Alternating air compositions.

-- Temperature Humidity endurance. -- Environment toxicity microbial. -- Radiation exposure limits. -- ‘Technology dependence stress’ (Psycho- - Physiological stresses (Space Adaptation. Syndrome), tolerance countermeasures. -- Respiratory function and Factors In The oxygen demands. -- Heart blood vessels in ‘normal’ environments and.

Required Textbook: (TEXTBOOK INFO NOT CONFIRMED FOR FALL 2017) 1. Bio-Astronautics Data Book (NASA SP 3006) Available for free download here. Recommended Textbooks for human factors specialization: 1. Performing in Extreme Environments by Lawrence Armstrong. 2000 Edition. Publisher: Human Kinetics.

ISBN-13: 978-0880118378 (paperback). 2. Fundamentals of Space Life Sciences , Churchill S. et al. Volumes 1 2. Krieger Publishing Company. 1997. ISBN-13: 978-0894640513 (hardcover). 3. Living Aloft: Human Requirements For Extended Space Flight by Connors, Harrison, and Akins. 1985 Edition. Publisher: NASA.

ISBN-13: 978-1410219831 (paperback) This book is available online, free of charge, from the NASA History Office webpage here. Recommended Textbook for psychological factors specialization: 1 . Essay! Bold Endeavors: Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration by Jack Stuster. 1996 Edition. Factors In The American Revolution Essay! Publisher: Naval Institute Press. Freud Essay! ISBN-13: 978-1557507495 (hardcover)

Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 515 Human Factors in Space 3 cr. Human Factors in Factors In The American Essay, Space. Technical course; Sub-disciplines: Human Factors or Applications. A review of the how did hitler come to power major stresses experienced by Factors In The Revolution Essay humans on entering the new and alien environment of space. Examples will be taken from the psychological and physiological impacts experienced by U.S. and the 8th king Soviet crews with emphasis on Factors In The Revolution Essay longer flights. How to avoid and/or overcome these stresses will be examined as an essential and Western Student growing need in the future development and settlement of the space frontier. Fundamentals of Factors In The Revolution Essay Space Life Sciences by Western Services Susanne Churchill. 1997 edition. Factors In The American Revolution Essay! Publisher: Krieger Publishing.

ISBN-10: 0-89464-051-8. Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Space Flight by Connors, Harrison and Akins. Imperial Tobacco Online! Publisher: NASA. Free download from NASA's History office available at Man-System Integration Standards . American! Publisher: NASA. Free download available at Bold Endeavors: Lessons from liberation, Polar and Space Exploration by American Jack Stuster. How Did Hitler To Power In 1933! 1996 edition. Publisher: Naval Institute Press.

ISBN-13: 978-1557507495 (hardcover). Instructor: Nelson, Travis. SpSt 519 Closed Ecological Systems for Life Support 3 cr. Closed Ecological Systems for Life Support. Technical course; Sub-discipline: Human Factors or Applications. Closed ecological systems have been suggested during the early decades of space exploration for extended life support in space operations. In reality, this principle of long-term life support mimics global bio-geochemical cycles supporting life on Earth. The course covers the multiple interactions of human/bio-regenerative life support based on physical/chemical regeneration (hybrid) life support environments. Extensive research in this area during more than five decades showed that material turnover in small closed environments becomes unstable compared to Factors Resulting In The, a planetary environment.

Specific attention is in mind, paid to the limits of stability for closed material cycles functioning during long-term remote confined missions; and the importance of the human factor as a target link, main sensor, and main integrator and control element for the system providing significant self-sustainability under proper motivations. Advanced scenarios for space life support based on ecological and in situ resource utilization approaches are discussed. Prerequisite/Co-requisite: SpSt 501 or permission of the instructor. Required Textbooks: (Verified for Spring 2017) Manmade Closed Ecological Systems by Factors Resulting American Essay Gitelson Lisovsky, 2003 Ed by Kentucky University: Support Taylor Francis, ISBN: 9780415299985. Fundamentals of Space Life Sciences by S. Churchill, 1997 Ed by Krieger, ISBN: 9780894640513.

Space Life Support Bio/Spherics by Peter Eckart. 1996 edition. Resulting Revolution! Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London. The 8th King! ISBN 1-881883-04-3 (paperback) ISBN 0-7923-3889-8 (hardcover). Space Physiology and In The American Revolution Essay Medicine by Nicogossian, Hunton Pool.

1994 edition. Publusher: Lea Febiger, A Waverly Company. ISBN-10: 0812115953 ISBN-13 : 978-0812115956. Other Recommended Materials: Silent Running , DVD; Universal Studios, 1972 (the time of public optimism in regard to yalom's, space exploration). Life Under Glass: The Inside Story of Biosphere 2 by Alling, Nelson Silverstone. Publisher: The Biosphere Press, 1993. ISBN 1-882428-07-2 (paperback) ISBN 1-882428-10-2 (hardcover). Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 520 Asteroids, Meteorites Comets 3 cr.

Asteroids, Meteorites Comets. Technical course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science. The small bodies of the solar system provide clues to Factors American Essay, the origin and early history of the solar system. The planets and larger moons have all been chemically transformed erasing their records of their formation. By contrast, many asteroids, meteorites and comets are essentially unmodified from the time of their origin 4.5 billion years ago and thus preserve a record of the formation epoch. How Did Come In 1933! Each of these classes of objects is investigated separately, and relationships between them are examined. Resulting In The American Revolution Essay! Implications for impact hazards and for extraterrestrial resources are also explored. The results of recent and current spacecraft missions to asteroids (e.g., Galileo, NEAR, DAWN, Hayabusa, Rosetta, OSIRIS-Rex, etc.) and to comets (e.g. Giotto, Vega 1, Stardust, Deep Impact, Rosetta, etc.) are reviewed.

Introduction to Course / Overview of Topics Basics of was henry king Mineralogy and Geochemistry Introduction to Factors Resulting In The American, Meteorites Introduction to Freud and Hedda Gabler: The Wolf Behind Essay, Asteroids Basics Principles of Orbits Overview and History of Factors In The Meteoritics Chondrites Achondrites Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites Asteroid Sizes, Rotations and and Hedda The Wolf Families Asteroid Surface Compositions Chondritic Parent Bodies Achondrite Parent Bodies Iron and Stony-Iron Parent Bodies Diversity of Asteroids and Meteorite Parent Bodies Delivering Meteorites from Asteroids Gaspra, Ida, Mathilde, and Eros Importance of Asteroids and Meteorites Compositions of Comets Origin and Factors Resulting In The Evolution of liberation Comets Interplanetary Dust Meteor Showers Lunar and Martian Meteorites, Tektites Impacts Comets, Asteroids and the Origin of the Solar System Comets, Asteroids and the Origin of Life Summary and Overview. Required Textbooks: (Confirmed for summer 2017) Meteorites and Resulting Their Parent Bodies (2nd ed.) by H. Y. McSween, Jr. Publisher: Cambridge. How Did Come In 1933! ISBN: 0-521-58751-4 (paperback). The New Solar System (4th ed.) by Beatty, Petersen and Factors Resulting In The Revolution Essay Chaikin Publisher: Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-64183-7 (hardcover). Liberation! NOTE: The pages of this book can be downloaded---somewhat awkwardly--following instructions provided on the class website. Factors American Essay! Currently, this book is out of print but relatively inexpensive copies can be obtained from a variety of internet book dealers. Instructor: Gaffey, Mike.

The Planet Mars. Technical course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science. This course provides an liberation in mind, in-depth review of the present state of our knowledge of Mars. Topics to be covered include: the origin and evolution of the In The American Essay planet, the surface geology and geological processes, the geophysical properties of the Martian interior, the origin and evolution of the Martian atmosphere, the present and past climates of Mars, the University: Student Essay Martian moons, and Resulting In The American the possibility of past or present life on Mars. The American and imperial tobacco order Soviet/Russian Mars exploration programs are reviewed and the course incorporates the Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay most recent results from spacecraft missions such as Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kentucky University: Student Services Essay Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity Rover). Factors! Potential future manned and unmanned missions are also discussed.

Required Textbook: No textbooks required or recommended for the 8th king this course. Access to free materials will be provided. Instructor: Gaffey, Mike. SpSt 522 Remote Sensing Principles 3 cr. Remote Sensing Principles. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Applications. This course covers the basic concepts and foundations of remote sensing, a review of major Earth observing satellite and aircraft platforms, and an investigation of the flow of data from satellite to Earth, what is represents, and how to Factors Resulting American, interpret it using both visual and digital image processing techniques.

A field visit to liberation, the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls may also be arranged. This course was previously offered as SpSt 522 Satellite Information Processing. Do not repeat. Required Textbook : None. Details provided in syllabus, or contact instructor. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 523 Remote Sensing Applications 3 cr. Remote Sensing Applications. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Applications. This course covers the use of advanced image processing algorithms and information extraction techniques for various Earth resource applications such as land cover/land use, environmental change detection, geology, oceanography, agriculture, forestry, rangeland, water resources, urban planning, natural disaster assessment, etc. P reviously offered as SpSt 570, or as SpSt 523 Advanced Image Processing.

Do not repeat. Required Textbooks: None. Instructor will provide selected readings. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 524 Current Topics in Astrobiology 3 cr. Current Topics in Resulting In The American Essay, Astrobiology. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science. This is a multi-disciplinary, literature-intensive examination of astrobiology, which is the study of life in the universe. Students will read scientific research and review papers from a variety of disciplines including astronomy, planetary science, chemistry, biology and geology. Course goals include: developing proficiency at reading/analyzing diverse scientific papers, developing the imperial tobacco online ability to incorporate knowledge from multiple disciplines in the study of astrobiological research, and developing the ability to effectively write summary papers to show basic understanding of course material. Prerequisites : SpSt 460 or consent of instructor.

Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 525 Technical Issues in Space 1-3 cr. Technical Issues in Space. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Space Engineering. An examination of the technological base for the exploration and development of space.

An understanding of this technology and of its impact is essential to an understanding of the issues and problems associated with our continuing efforts to explore and settle this new frontier. May be repeated if the topic is different. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 526 Advanced Astronomical and Spacecraft Instrumentation 3 cr. Advanced Astronomical and Spacecraft Instrumentation. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Applications or Space Engineering. This course will concentrate on instrument design, operation, and the resulting data products generated by ground- and Revolution space-based astronomical observatories, as well as common instrumentation used in NASA scientific solar system spacecraft. Hitler Come In 1933! Key goals for Factors Resulting Revolution this course include gaining a solid understanding of instrumental principles of imperial tobacco online order operation, the types of raw data that are generated, and the types of data reduction processes that lead to In The American Essay, interpretable data. The course will include an investigation of different types of spectrographs and spectroscopy data products, solar instrumentation (ground- and space-based), terrestrial and Jovian spacecraft orbiter/flyby instrumentation, terrestrial planet rover and online order lander instrumentation, and Resulting In The extra-solar system astrophysical instrumentation. Students will have the opportunity to Kentucky, examine, reduce, and interpret select data sets. Prerequisites : SpSt 425 and MATH 165 or consent of instructor.

Electronic Imaging in Astronomy: Detectors and Instrumentation , 2nd edition (2008) by Ian S. McLean. Publisher: Springer. ISBN 978-3642095320 (paperback). Instructor: Fieber-Beyer, Sherry. SpSt 527 Extraterrestrial Resources 3 cr. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science. This course focuses on the inventory, accessibility, acquisition, processing and utilization of extraterrestrial resources (space resources) from celestial bodies such as the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets. Consideration will be given to extraterrestrial resources for in situ utilization (such as a Lunar or Martian base), for space operations (such as supporting large scale near-Earth activities or a human Mars mission), and for terrestrial markets. The course will focus on the interplay between the scientific, technical, and In The Revolution Essay economic aspects of in mind acquiring and utilizing such resources. The course will also explore some of the Resulting American Essay legal and political ramifications and was henry the 8th a good king limitations of Revolution claiming and recovering space resources.

Introduction and Course Structure Why consider extraterrestrial resources? The Way the order Future Was - History of Space Resources Getting there and Factors Resulting American Revolution Essay back - Orbital Mechanics Inventory of Space Resources: Lunar Geology Inventory of Space Resources: Meteorites Inventory of Space Resources: Asteroids NEOs Inventory of Space Resources: Mars Geology Inventory of Space Resources: Martian Moons Shuttle tanks / “Dead” satellites / Space debris Resource utilization: History as a guide to hitler in 1933, future Demand / Markets for In The Space Resources Propulsion options - Chemical / Ion / Nuclear Propulsion options - Solar Sail / “Mass driver” / Exotic Mining and Extracting Raw Materials General Mining and Extracting Space Resources by Object Processing Space Resources General Case Study: Propellant production Lunar Case Study: Propellant production Mars Mars Propellant Production: Implications for Martian activities Asteroid Space Mining - Options, Prospects and Products Future Space Activities: Demand? / Pricing? / Where? Infrastructure - Minimum Optimum Infrastructure - Minimum optimum Resources and Western Support Services Hazard Abatement ET Resource Implementation: Social and Cultural Aspects Summary and Factors Resulting In The American Essay Review. Required Textbook: None. Students will be directed to online readings in the course syllabus. Instructor: Gaffey, Mike. SpSt 528 Space Environment and the Sun 3 cr. Space Environment and the Sun. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science.

This course will provide an in-depth study of the science and was henry the 8th a good king observations of the American Sun, space weather, and effects of the Sun on astronauts, Earth, and the space environment. Topics that will be covered include the solar photosphere and active surface phenomena such as sunspots, flares, and was henry the 8th a good king coronal mass ejections; the Resulting In The American nature of the quiet Sun; the solar interior and helioseismology; space weather and impact of solar particles on the space environment and Earth; the hazards posed to astronauts by solar eruptions; common techniques of solar observations; and a review of the primary types of solar instrumentation and the observatories that currently study the Sun. Imperial Online! Students will be able to observe the Sun using the UND Observatory's small solar telescopes; all students will have the opportunity to analyze solar datasets to aid their understanding of the Factors Resulting American Revolution Sun. Prerequisite : Math 165 or consent of the king instructor. Prerequisite/Co-requisite: SpSt 501. Physics of the Sun: A First Course by D.J.

Mullan. 1st edition. 2009. Publisher: Chapman and Hall. ISBN-13: 978-1-4200-8307-1 (hardcover). Research articles in PDF format will be provided by the instructor. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 540 Space Economics and Commerce 3 cr. Space Economics and Commerce. Social Course; Sub-discipline: Management.

A study of the economic aspects of space activities, with analysis of the possibilities and the barriers. Key areas include launch services, satellite communications, remote sensing, microgravity materials processing, and interaction with the Resulting American government. Global competition against subsidies or government-sponsored entities is examined. Why economics? Review of relevant economic theory Relationships of was henry a good space industry with economic environment Economic impact of commercial space on U.S. economy Government space budgets Structure of selected space industries Regulatory issues International effects Insurance in support of space industry Economic analyses Engineering economic considerations Financial effects of quality and reliability Cost estimation of space systems (CER) Life cycle costing Economics of Apollo, Faster-Better-Cheaper (FBC), Constellation Launch costing Investment and entrepreneurship Economics of New Space and space tourism. Required Textbook : None. See course syllabus for Factors Resulting In The further details. (confirmed for Spring 2017) Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 541 Management of Space Enterprises 3 cr. Management of Space Enterprises.

Social Course; Sub-discipline: Management. This course investigates the management of space organizations. Factors! These include organizations that are public and private, RD and Resulting Revolution operations, profit and non-profit. You will learn the basics of management theory, the imperial online history of Resulting American systems management, and the technical issues that must be considered in the management of space RD and operations. Role of management Management approaches Leadership Motivation Communication Ethics Decision theory Organizational structure Organizational change Organizational culture Organizational behavior Strategic decision making Controlling and Management Human resource management Risk management Technical management Project management Management of civil space organizations Management of large space business Management of Freud and Hedda Gabler: The Wolf Behind Essay small space business Entrepreneurship. Required Textbook: (confirmed for fall 2016) Applied Project Management for Space Systems by Chesley, Larson, McQuade and Menrad. Publisher: Learning Solutions. Factors Resulting Revolution Essay! ISBN-13: 978-0073408859 (paperback).

The Secret of Apollo: Systems Management in American and European Space Programs by former UND Space Studies Professor Stephen B. Johnson, PHD. Publisher: John Hopkins University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0801868986 (hardcover). Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 542 Risk Management of 11 therapeutic Space Organizations 3 cr. Risk Management of Space Organizations. Social course; Sub-discipline: Management. This course includes a systematic approach to the principles and Factors Resulting In The Essay practices of risk management in the space industry from project initiation through planning, implementation, control and closeout. It discusses various techniques and liberation in mind models for qualitative and quantitative risk assessment and risk mitigation in Resulting Revolution Essay, such areas as cost, schedule, and performance. Decision making under conditions of uncertainty and risk is imperial order, also discussed. Analytical methods for risk management: A systems engineering perspective by Factors American P. R. Garvey.

Publisher: Chapman Hall, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-1-58488-637-2 (hardcover). Required Supplemental Work: The black swan: The impact of the liberation in mind highly improbable , by N. N. Taleb 2010 2 nd edition, New York: Random House. ISBN 13: 978-0812973815 (paperback) (confirmed for Spring 2016) Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 545 Space and the Environment 3 cr. Space and the Environment.

Social Course; Sub-discipline: Policy. This course is an advanced graduate-level review of international relations theories as applied to the international implications of Essay global commons. The course introduces the concept of global commons, examines the theories and practices concerning management of global commons, and analyzes the global commons dealing with the problems of liberation in mind collective action as applied to global environmental change and the uses of outer space. Required Textbooks: (Confirmed for Spring 2017) 1) Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Factors Resulting In The American Institutions for Collective Action by Elinor Ostrom, 9th Edition. Was Henry The 8th A Good King! Publisher: Cambridge University Press. ISBN-13: 978-1107569782 (Paperback) Instructor: Dodge, Michael. SpSt 551 History of the Space Age 3 cr. History of the Space Age.

Social Course; Sub-discipline: History. This course introduces students to the history of human endeavors in space. These include the Factors Resulting development of rocketry, the Kentucky Support Services influence of amateur societies and science fiction, the military development of ballistic missiles, and In The Essay human and robotic spaceflight. Intro Science Fiction Visionaries Pioneers WW2 Space Cadets Nukes ICBMs IGY Sputnik and Explorer Early Military Spaceflight Space Policy 1955-1961 NASA, Mercury and Gemini Apollo Space Applications Golden Age of Planetary Exploration Beginnings of Space Astrophysics Shuttle ISS Solar System Exploration The Exploration of and Hedda The Wolf Mars Great Observatories Commercial Space Militarization of Space International Space. This New Ocean : The Story of the First Space Age by Resulting In The American Revolution Essay William E. Burrows, 1985 Modern Library ISBN: 978-0375754852. Space and the American Imagination by Howard E. To Power In 1933! McCurdy. 2011. Publisher: John Hopkins University Press.

ISBN-13: 978-0801898686 (paperback). The Heavens and the Earth : A Political History of the Space Age by Factors In The American Walter A. McDougall. 2008. Publisher: ACLS Humanities, ISBN: 978-1597404280 (paperback). Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 552 History of Astronomy and Cosmology 3 cr. History of Astronomy and Cosmology.

Social Course; Sub-discipline: History. This course investigates the history of human endeavors to understand the stars, planets, and cosmos as a whole from a scientific perspective. It covers the liberation in mind early observations and theories of the Babylonians and Greeks through the European Scientific Revolution, and finally to the development of astrophysics and modern cosmology using space vehicles. Cosmos: An Illustrated History of Astronomy and Factors Resulting Cosmology by John North, University of Chicago Press, 2008. And Hedda Behind! ISBN: 978-0226594415 (paperback).

Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 555 Military Space Programs 3 cr. Military Space Programs. Social course; Sub-discipline: Policy or History. An introduction to the military uses of space by the United States, Russia, and other nations. In The American Essay! The course introduces ballistic missiles, anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite systems, space-based reconnaissance and yalom's factors intelligence-gathering, communications, navigation, acquisition, and military space treaties.

Previously offered as SpSt 555 Strategic Implications of Factors Space. Do not repeat . Course Outline Spring 2017. Introduction to Military SpaceLeaders and Theorists Post World War II Policy and Weapons The Cold War and Military Space Programs ICBMs Reconnaissance Satellites U.S. vs. USSR Space Race Arms Control Strategic Warning and Strategic Defense Space Warfare Desert Storm to the Present Space Power Theory. Required Texts (confirmed for Spring 2017) Toward a Theory of Space Power , Charles D. Lutes and Peter L. Hays (eds.), with Vincent A Manzo, Lisa M. Liberation! Yambrick, and M. Elaine Bunn.

Publisher: Washington, DC: National Defense University, 2011. Available free on Resulting In The the web Beyond Horizons: A Half Century of in 1933 Air Force Space Leadership by David N. Spires, (Washington: GPO, 1998). American! Reprinted by University Press of the Pacific 2002. ASIN: B003HKQH66 (paperback) Available free on the web Harnessing The Heavens: National Defense Through Space Paul G. How Did Hitler In 1933! Gillespie and Grant T. Weller (eds.) Chicago: Imprint, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-1-879176-45-4 (paperback). Instructor: Kugler, David. SpSt 560 Space Politics and Policy 3 cr. Space Politics and Policy.

Social Course; Sub-discipline: Policy or History. This course serves as a graduate-level introduction to In The Revolution Essay, the field of Public Policy as applied to Space Policy. The course surveys the evolution of Space Policy at tobacco, several levels of analysis including context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes, and assesses the symbiotic relationships between policy, technology, and Factors American Essay science. . The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Western Student Essay Space Age by Walter A. McDougall, 1997 Johns Hopkins Paperback Edition. ISBN: 0-8018-5748-1. After Apollo? Richard Nixon on the American Space Program by John M. Logsdon, 2015 Edition, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978-1-137-43852-2. This New Ocean by William E Burrows, 1st Edition 1998, Modern Library.

ISBN: 0-375-75485-7. Instructor: Dodge, Michael. SpSt 561 Public Administration of Space Technology 3 cr. Public Administration of Space Technology. Social course; Sub-discipline: Management.

This course is an advanced graduate-level review of Public Administration theories as applied to the implementation of space technology programs. In this course, the political, organizational, and Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay technical variables that affect the management processes of space organizations are examined. Prerequisite: SpSt 560 or SpSt 541. This course was previously offered as SpSt 525 Public Administration and the 8th Technology Assessment of Space Technology. D o not repeat. Historical perspective Intellectual heritage Political heritage Stateless origins “Chinking in” Rise of professional technocracy 20 th Century development Contemporary public administration Rational model New Public Administration model New Public Management model Principles practices of US Federal space-related organizations Review of Federal government organization Regulatory environment Operations environment Planning, Programming, Budgeting process Specific principals actors Organizational culture Formative NASA culture Apollo Post-Apollo FBC Post-Columbia Organizational decision-making Challenger launch decision Faster, Better, Cheaper philosophy Columbia Management of Factors American Revolution Essay space technology Program management Systems management Case study: Apollo Case study: Space Shuttle Case study: Constellation. Required textbooks (TEXTBOOK INFO CONFIRMED FOR FALL 2017) Denhardt, R. B. (2014).

Theories of public organization , 7 th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth. ISBN-13: 978-1285436333. Stillman, R. J. II (1999). 11 Therapeutic! Preface to public administration: A search for themes and direction , 2 nd ed. Resulting In The Revolution Essay! Burke, VA: Chatelaine Press. ISBN-13: 978-1574200652. Instructor: Kugler, David. Social Course: Sub-discipline: Law.

This course serves as a graduate-level introduction to the field of Law as applied to Space Law. The course examines the origins and evolution of the laws of outer space from the beginnings of the space age to tobacco online order, the present. International laws governing access and use of space, and national laws regulating governmental and commercial activities in space are reviewed and analyzed. Origins Bodies of Law General Principles of Law Statutory Interpretation Cannons of Construction Airspace v. Outer Space Legal Theory Maritime Law (Origins) Interpretation US Air Law International Law The Space Law Treaties - Outer Space Treaty of 1967 Rescue Agreement of 1968 Liability Convention of 1972 Registration Convention of 1975 Moon Treaty of 1979 Meteorology Communications Remote Sensing UAS Issues Private Space Flight Issues Geostationary Issues Large Space Structures Commercial Use Commercial Use Nuclear Power Use Environmental Issues UNCOPUOS Guest Lecture Peaceful Purposes. Handbook of International Law by Anthony Aust, 2nd Edition, ISBN-10 0521133491, ISBN-13 978-0521133494. ( confirmed for spring 2016) Instructor: Dodge, Michael. SpSt 570 Quality Engineering for Resulting American Revolution the Space Industry 3 cr. Quality Engineering for the Space Industry. Technical Course; Sub-disclipline: Space Engineering or Management. This course addresses the principles and techniques for establishing quality goals, identification of customer needs and requirements, measurement of how did hitler come quality, and product/process engineering to improve system performance with a focus on the space industry. Resulting Revolution! The course covers the liberation in mind principles and practice of quality and reliability engineering in general and the quality assurance concepts, strategies, and Resulting In The tools practiced in hitler in 1933, the space industry.

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control by Douglas C. Montgomery, 7th Edition. Publisher: John Wiley Sons ISBN: 978-1-118-14681-1 (hardcover). Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 574 Remote Sensing in Developing Countries 3 cr. Remote Sensing in Resulting, Developing Countries. May be considered a Social or Technical course; Sub-disciplines: Applications/Technical or Policy/Social. This course will introduce students to remote sensing programs in developing countries and typical remote sensing application areas pertinent to a good king, developing countries, such as potable water, forest fires, vector diseases, environmental degradation, food security, fisheries, floods, droughts, crop pests, etc., with case studies. Instructor: SpSt Faculty.

SpSt 575 Remote Sensing Law Policy 3 cr. Remote Sensing Law Policy. Social Course; Sub-discipline: Law. This course focuses on the evolving laws, policies, and institutions that have long-term ramifications for earth observations. Some topics addressed are the United Nations Principles on Remote Sensing; the Factors Resulting Revolution United Kingdom's 1984 National Remote Sensing Policy; the Montreal Protocol; and, the U.S. Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992. Liberation In Mind! Ground segment institutions considered are the Landsat Ground Stations Operations Working Group and the Global Land 1-KM AVHRR Project. Remote sensing litigation that has begun to address various applications of remote sensing will also be considered.

Cases include Dow vs. Factors In The! U.S. and EOSAT vs. NASA and NOAA. Unmanned Aircraft in the National Airspace: Critical Issues, Technology and the Law by Donna A. Dulo, Editor, 2015, 1st Edition. Publisher: ABA Publishing. ISBN 13: 978-1-62722-998-2 (paperback). (Confirmed for summer 2016) Instructor: Dodge, Michael. SpSt 581 Field Visits to Space Centers 1-3 cr. Field Visits to liberation in mind, Space Centers.

Social Course; Sub-discipline: Policy. This course will provide a first-hand knowledge of selected space centers in Factors In The Revolution, the U.S. and/or abroad through an was henry a good king, organized field visit. The field visit will be led by a space studies faculty and will include prior preparation through readings, class seminars, lectures and written assignments. May be repeated up to a maximum of 3 credits. Graded as pass/fail (S/U). Required Textbook: None (Confirmed for Spring 2017)

Instructor: Seelan, Santhosh. SpSt 590 Space Studies Colloquium 1 cr. Space Studies Colloquium. A series of invited lectures presented by visiting lecturers and faculty. May be repeated up to Factors In The American Revolution, 2 credits.

Graded as pass/fail (S/U). Required Textbooks: None (Confirmed for Spring 2017) Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 591 Readings in Space Studies 1-3 cr. Readings in Space Studies.

Readings in selected Space Studies topics, with written and/or oral reports. Repeatable to a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 593 Individual Research in Space Studies 1-3 cr. Individual Research in Student Essay, Space Studies. Individual student projects designed to develop advanced knowledge in a specific area of expertise. A written report is required. May be repeated for Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay up to 6 credits for Master's and up to 12 credits for Ph.D. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. An original research project approved by and completed under the supervision of a dissertation committee.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing, approval, completion and defense of dissertation proposal. S/U grading only. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. Courses from other departments may be included with the consent of the students advisor.

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Sony Music Entertainment's chief creative officer and Factors In The American Revolution Essay, famous hit-maker Clive Davis, who launched the careers of Whitney Houston, Alicia Keys and and Hedda The Wolf the Protagonist Essay, more, released his biography on Feb. 19, 2013. In it, he reveals his homosexual relationships and sparked a feud with Kelly Clarkson, who says Davis bullied her in the book. Factors Resulting In The American! (Feb. 18, 2013) 30. POKER FACE: The Rise and Rise of Lady Gaga. By Maureen Callahan (Hyperion) The meteoric rise of the Ga -- once known as Stefani Germanotta -- is now documented in was henry the 8th, her first in-depth bio. The book covers her from Factors In The American Essay her beginnings at NYU Tisch School of the Arts (what, a tad more than two years ago?) to her cultivation of the hyper-persona that keeps the liberation in mind clubs pulsating -- with dish on her quirks, control freak-outs, messy (already?) love life and what pop music execs originally said (not pretty enough). 29. STORMY WEATHER: The Life of Lena Horne, By James Gavin (Atria) I've had stormy weather all my life, and if anybody can sing about the trouble they've seen, it's this old broad. That's Lena on Lena, the extraordinary diva who attained wealth and world renown despite racism on Factors American Revolution Essay both sides of the liberation color divide (allowed to sing but not drink at Resulting Revolution segregated clubs, and, with the exceptions of Cabin in the Sky and Stormy Weather, She actually had sizable roles in imperial online order, both of these films, only given bit parts in Hollywood films in the pre-civil rights era; and criticized by other African-Americans for marrying a white man). She makes it through, beauty intact.

Bitterness, too. 28. MARTHA STEWART: Just Desserts, By Jerry Oppenheimer (out of print) Any analysis of the woman behind the Factors Resulting American Revolution Essay decorating dynasty is yalom's factors going to be a little -- pardon the Resulting In The American Essay expression -- dishy. We're talking dirty, dirty dishes, here. This tabloid biographer, known for salacious tales (see No. 20), offers the obvious (Martha's a control freak) and online order, the not so (she may have dabbled in wife-swapping). (Credit: Allan Tannenbaum) 26. THE ANDY WARHOL DIARIES. Resulting Revolution Essay! Edited by online order, Pat Hackett (Grand Central) Not a bio, per se, but biographical, for sure.

Warhol dictated daily to Hackett, his secretary, but what started as an expense-account diary became 20,000 pages of Factors Revolution catty gossip. When the edited version hit in hitler come to power, 1989 (two years after his death), celebs, socialites and the Studio 54 crowd raced to Factors In The American find their names -- and found they were savagely dissed: Liz Taylor (like a fat little Kewpie doll), Patti Smith (all I could think about was her B.O.), Jerry Hall (underarm B.O.). Liberation! Got it, Andy -- they're stinkers. So were you. By Ozzy Osbourne with Chris Ayres (Grand Central) A TELL-ALL (it needs all caps) with something for everyone: sex, cocaine, Black Sabbath, sex, hash, booze, sex, pills, sex, sex, wife beating, MTV, almost killing a vicar (accidentally), nasty moments with chickens and cats and . . Factors Resulting In The American! . of course . Kentucky Student Services Essay! . . the bat -- which, to be fair, he thought was fake when he bit its head off in a 1982 concert. My mouth was instantly full of this warm, gloopy liquid, with the worst aftertaste you could ever imagine, he writes. Revolution! 24.

STAR: How Warren Beatty Seduced America, By Peter Biskind (Simon Schuster) Beatty spoke to author Peter Biskind for this 2010 bio, though he rejected the the 8th king finished product as unauthorized. Though his life with wife Annette Bening and their kids was off limits, there's plenty of insight on the hits (Bonnie Clyde, Reds, Heaven Can Wait), flops (Ishtar), politics and Resulting, all those loves (Natalie Wood, Julie Christie, Diane Keaton -- 12,775 in all, by the author's estimate, including the women in bios No. 16 and 27). And Hedda Behind The Protagonist! Which surely makes him Hollywood's most infamous ladies' man -- though he might be tied for that title (see No. 4). (Credit: Jerry Lewis Films) 23. KING OF COMEDY: The Life and Art of Jerry Lewis, By Shawn Levy (St. Martin's) It's not all laughs -- not by a long shot. The high school dropout-turned-megastar and telethon promoter was deserted by his parents, dumped by comedy partner Dean Martin, and plagued by chronic pain, a drug addiction and a suicide attempt. 22. TAB HUNTER CONFIDENTIAL: The Making of Resulting In The Essay a Movie Star.

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FRONT ROW: Anna Wintour -- What Lies Beneath the Chic Exterior of Vogue's Editor-in-Chief. Was Henry! As we know, there's trash and good trash . . . and this bio lies somewhere in between. Alas, most of Anna's pals and colleagues refused to Factors Resulting American Essay go on the record, so the 2005 book relies on accounts by random old school chums, ex-beaus, distant relatives and other gripers with mud to sling. Still, you get a truer sense of what she's like than you do from tobacco a certain lame (if bestselling) novel with Prada in the title. 19. UNMASKED: The Final Years of Michael Jackson. In The! By Ian Halperin (Simon Spotlight) There are plenty of Jacko books out there, mostly cheesy. This bio -- notable for hitler, its quickie production (the publisher bought the unedited manuscript a day after MJ's death and it hit shelves before the burial) -- at least comes from a veteran celeb biographer, albeit packed with scads of unnamed inside sources. The author contends Jackson was gay, occasionally cross-dressed, and Revolution Essay, wasn't a pedophile but blackmail victim. Also, he used wife Lisa Marie Presley as a beard. No!

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16. Revolution! JUST JACKIE: Her Private Years. By Edward Klein (Ballantine) OK ? journalist (and Jackie pal) Klein is the 8th a good clearly k-k-k-krazy for the Kennedys (having written no less than five books on Resulting American Revolution Essay members of the clan). Folks seem to yalom's love or hate this book and all its insider dirt: Onassis putting the moves on Jackie 48 hours after Dallas; her make-out sessions with Brando; and those rumors about her and Sinatra, or Bobby Kennedy? No, she didn?t sleep with them, Klein asserts. One of the images of Elizabeth Taylor from Liz: An Intimate Biography of Elizabeth Taylor. by C. David Heymann. 14. GRACE: The Secret Lives of a Princess. By James Spada (out of print) This 1987 bio with the sub-subtitle, An Intimate Biography of Grace Kelly, is just that -- a sympathetic tale of one of the most beautiful and mythic (hey, she actually married a prince) women in America. The big reveal: that the white-gloved, convent-educated, society starlet had her share of premarital sex -- Ray Milland, David Niven and on Factors Resulting American Revolution and on.

13. HEAVIER THAN HEAVEN: A Biography of Kurt Cobain. By Charles R. Western University: Services! Cross (Hyperion) The definitive work on the ill-fated grunge rocker, written by a former editor of Seattle music mag The Rocket, authorized by widow Courtney Love and culled from 400+ interviews and Cobain's unpublished journals. Disclosed: the Nirvana front man never lived under a bridge (as one song alleges), he'd talked about Factors Resulting In The American Revolution, his suicide genes since his teens, and Gabler: The Wolf the Protagonist, as for the Courtney-killed-Kurt rumor -- nahhh. 12. OPEN: An Autobiography. This 2009 stunner isn't stocked with the typical megastar mea culpas (sorry about all the sex and drugs). Resulting American! But it reveals, in startling clarity, how much a tennis player as gifted and successful as Agassi can actually hate the game. His exes (ex-wife Brooke Shields and ex-rival Pete Sampras) aren't crazy about how they get depicted, and was henry the 8th a good king, former No. 1 Marat Safin has suggested Agassi turn in his tennis titles after the book revealed Agassi once tested positive for drugs (crystal meth) and lied about it to tennis officials.

11. NO ONE HERE GETS OUT ALIVE: The Biography of Jim Morrison. Factors Resulting American Revolution! By Jerry Hopkins and Danny Sugerman (Grand Central) The first biography of Morrison -- the man, the myth -- written by a journalist (Hopkins) and an office aide to The Doors (Sugerman). Was Henry The 8th King! The book idolizes its subject a tad, fans admit. Yet it's candid (he wasn't that great a singer) and comprehensive -- discussing Morrison's rise, music, total rejection of Factors Resulting In The American Revolution authority and the psychological demons that led to his premature death at 27. By Tina Turner with Kurt Loder (It Books) Her volcanic stage presence and legs of death mesmerized audiences for decades. Then came this 1986 bestseller, which blew the lid off the and Hedda Behind decades spent as a victim of Factors American Revolution domestic violence. Ike, her ex-husband and rock partner denied the allegations for years, until his own 2001 autobiography.

Sure, I've slapped Tina, he admitted. We had fights and there have been times when I punched her without thinking . But I never beat her. Sure, Ike. By Christopher Reeve (Ballantine) This memoir, which Reeve wrote in 1998, three years after the tragic horseback riding accident that left him paralyzed, recounts his metamorphosis from Hollywood heartthrob to how did hitler in 1933 medical research maverick and icon for the disabled. He takes an unflinching look at his WASP-y youth (talk about In The Revolution, a dysfunctional family), acting career, political activism and Freud The Wolf Behind, then the family life and paralysis foundation he built with his wife, Dana. 8. HIGH ON ARRIVAL: A Memoir. Revolution! By Mackenzie Phillips (Simon Spotlight) The young actress who America watched grow up on online the sitcom One Day at a Time was actually exposed at an astoundingly young age to sex, drugs and Factors Resulting Revolution Essay, rock and roll, thanks to her dad, John Phillips of The Mamas and the Papas. This 2009 memoir reveals demons she's battled for decades, from addictions to incest at the hands of and Hedda Essay her father. Factors In The! Her story, tenderly told (and disputed by how did to power in 1933, stepmom Michelle Phillips), rocked Hollywood. Factors Resulting Revolution! By Donald Spoto (Cooper Square) The veteran biographer of Alfred Hitchcock, Laurence Olivier and Ingrid Bergman relied on 150 interviews, plus Monroe's letters and diaries, to craft this detailed account of a cultural icon.

The 2001 book traces her early life (as Norma Jeane), through her various films, marriages, acting coaches and was henry the 8th king, addictions. Spoto provocatively sheds light on various rumors and innuendo (like her supposed tryst with Robert F. Kennedy -- not!) and what really happened the Factors In The Revolution Essay night she died. 6. LAST TRAIN TO MEMPHIS: The Rise of in mind Elvis Presley and. Yes, it's two books here, not one -- but it's impossible to decide between the two and, really, they come off as one fascinating read, covering both Elvises -- the cool, up-and-coming hip-swiveler (growing up in Tupelo, recording sessions at Sun Studios, being drafted) and the sequined Vegas chubby. Released in 1994 and '99, the In The Essay two volumes are considered the definitive accounts of the imperial online order life of the King.

5. Factors Resulting In The American! THE LIVES OF JOHN LENNON. By Albert Goldman (Chicago Review Press) This 1988 unauthorized bio by an academic and music critic is was henry king as hefty (720 pages, 1,200 interviews and written over the course of six years) as it is In The Revolution controversial (it's been called a hatchet job by ardent Lennon fans and condemned by Freud and Hedda Gabler: Behind Essay, Yoko Ono). The book paints Lennon as a dark, conflicted figure (duh) and sifts through little-known facts about American Revolution Essay, his youth, life with Yoko and post-Beatles years. Startling allegations include how Lennon took LSD daily, had a gay relationship with Brian Epstein and may have killed a man. There isn't a lot of music analysis but, what -- you're looking for a book that's longer than 720 pages? 4. MY WICKED, WICKED WAYS: The Autobiography of Errol Flynn. It's all here -- obsessions, addictions, divorces and Kentucky Support Services Essay, brawls from the greatest of Hollywood swashbucklers. The big question of Factors this 1959 autobiography: How much is true?

Some anecdotes have been disputed, but with plot twists that include his pre-Hollywood life as a mercenary, his 1943 trial for rape (he was cleared of the charges) and all that action with the ladies (he spawned the phrase in like Flynn), it's one rollicking ride. Tobacco Online Order! 3. HIS WAY: An Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra. Factors In The Essay! Sinatra sued Kelley to imperial tobacco online order stop publication of this unauthorized 1986 biography, which dug up the dirt on Factors In The American Revolution his abusive marriages, womanizing, hair-trigger temper and ties to organized crime. To Power In 1933! He ultimately withdrew the lawsuit, and Resulting In The Revolution, the book went on to become a huge bestseller, forever changing our perception of Ol? Blue Eyes. Yalom's Factors! 2. Factors In The American! DIANA: Her True Story. By Andrew Morton (Pocket Books) Morton's 1992 bio of Princess Diana exposed her scarily unhappy marriage to Prince Charles and the dysfunctions of the royal family, giving Elizabeth her unshakable rep as an yalom's 11 therapeutic, Ice Queen. Factors Resulting In The Revolution Essay! It was later revealed that Diana was Morton's principal (and anonymous) source. 1. MOMMIE DEAREST.

By Christina Crawford (Seven Springs Press) The Mother's Day card to end all Mother's Day cards. This how-to of maternal dysfunction set the factors benchmark for tell-all tomes written by the offended offspring of American Essay freaky celebrities. Written by 11 therapeutic, Joan Crawford's adopted daughter (who Mommie disinherited before she died), this 1978 bestseller told a Hollywood horror story of a tempestuous megastar and the psychological and physical abuse she heaped on American her kids. Liberation! Grab the Factors 20th Anniversary Seven Springs edition, which includes 100 pages of dirt cut from the liberation original. Essay! The 1981 film starred an irrepressibly campy Faye Dunaway. C'mon, let's all say it together: No! More! Wire! Hangers! Sign up for Newsday's Entertainment newsletter. Get the latest on celebs, TV and more.

By clicking Sign up, you agree to our privacy policy. It looks like there is no Newsday subscription account associated with this login information. If you used an Optimum login , click the how did come in 1933 Connect Account button to use your Optimum login info to manage your Newsday subscription account. If you used a Newsday login , it looks like it's not connected to Factors American an active subscriber account. To verify your subscription information, click the liberation Connect Account button. Otherwise, click Subscribe to create a new Newsday account.

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essay dated tazuma An Essay on Radiometric Dating. By Jonathon Woolf. Radiometric dating methods are the strongest direct evidence that geologists have for the age of the Earth. All these methods point to Resulting Revolution Essay Earth being very, very old -- several billions of years old. How Did Hitler To Power! Young-Earth creationists -- that is, creationists who believe that Earth is no more than 10,000 years old -- are fond of attacking radiometric dating methods as being full of inaccuracies and riddled with sources of In The, error.

When I first became interested in the creation-evolution debate, in late 1994, I looked around for come to power in 1933 sources that clearly and simply explained what radiometric dating is and why young-Earth creationists are driven to discredit it. I found several good sources, but none that seemed both complete enough to stand alone and simple enough for a non-geologist to understand them. Thus this essay, which is my attempt at producing such a source. What is Factors In The American Revolution radiometric dating? Simply stated, radiometric dating is in mind a way of Factors In The, determining the age of Freud and Hedda Gabler: The Wolf Behind the Protagonist, a sample of material using the decay rates of radio-active nuclides to provide a 'clock.' It relies on three basic rules, plus a couple of critical assumptions. The rules are the same in all cases; the assumptions are different for each method. To explain those rules, I'll need to talk about some basic atomic physics. There are 90 naturally occurring chemical elements. Elements are identified by their atomic number , the number of protons in the atom's nucleus. All atoms except the In The, simplest, hydrogen- 1, have nuclei made up of protons and neutrons. Hydrogen-1's nucleus consists of only a single proton.

Protons and neutrons together are called nucleons , meaning particles that can appear in the atomic nucleus. A nuclide of an element, also called an come isotope of an element, is an atom of that element that has a specific number of nucleons. Resulting American Revolution Essay! Since all atoms of the same element have the same number of protons, different nuclides of an element differ in the number of how did hitler come to power, neutrons they contain. Factors American Essay! For example, hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 are both nuclides of the element hydrogen, but hydrogen-1's nucleus contains only imperial tobacco online, a proton, while hydrogen-2's nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Uranium-238 contains 92 protons and 146 neutrons, while uranium-235 contains 92 protons and 143 neutrons. To keep it short, a nuclide is usually written using the elements abbreviation. American Revolution! Uraniums abbreviation is U, so uranium-238 can be more briefly written as U238.

Many nuclides are stable -- they will always remain as they are unless some external force changes them. Some, however, are unstable -- given time, they will spontaneously undergo one of the several kinds of radioactive decay, changing in the process into another element. There are two common kinds of how did hitler come in 1933, radioactive decay, alpha decay and Factors Resulting Essay, beta decay . In alpha decay, the radioactive atom emits an alpha particle . An alpha particle contains two protons and two neutrons. Was Henry The 8th A Good! After emission, it quickly picks up two electrons to balance the two protons, and becomes an electrically neutral helium-4 (He4) atom. When a nuclide emits an alpha particle, its atomic number drops by 2, and Factors Revolution Essay, its mass number (number of nucleons) drops by 4. Thus, an tobacco online order atom of Factors Resulting Revolution Essay, U238 (uranium, atomic number 92) emits an alpha particle and becomes an atom of Th234 (thorium, atomic number 90). A beta particle is an electron. When an atom emits a beta particle, a neutron inside the nucleus is transformed to a proton. The mass number doesn't change, but the atomic number goes up by yalom's factors, 1. Thus, an atom of carbon-14 (C14), atomic number 6, emits a beta particle and becomes an atom of nitrogen-14 (N14), atomic number 7. A third, very rare type of radioactive decay is called electron absorption . In electron absorption, a proton absorbs an electron to become a neutron. In other words, electron absorption is the Factors Resulting American Revolution Essay, exact reverse of beta decay.

The mass number doesnt change, while the hitler come to power, atomic number goes down by 1. So an atom of potassium-40 (K40), atomic number 19 can absorb an electron to Resulting In The become an atom of argon-40 (Ar40), atomic number 18. The half-life of a radioactive nuclide is defined as the time it takes half of 11 therapeutic, a sample of the element to Factors American Revolution decay. A mathematical formula can be used to imperial order calculate the half-life from the number of breakdowns per second in a sample of the nuclide. Some nuclides have very long half-lives, measured in billions or even trillions of years. Others have extremely short half-lives, measured in tenths or hundredths of a second. The decay rate and Factors Resulting In The Revolution, therefore the half-life are fixed characteristics of a nuclide. How Did Hitler! They dont change at all. Thats the Resulting, first axiom of how did hitler to power, radiometric dating techniques: the Resulting In The American Revolution, half-life of a given nuclide is a constant. (Note that this doesnt mean the half-life of an element is a constant. Different nuclides of the same element can have substantially different half-lives.)

The half-life is a purely statistical measurement. It doesnt depend on the age of individual atoms. A sample of U238 ten thousand years old will have precisely the same half-life as one ten billion years old. So, if we know how much of the nuclide was originally present, and how much there is University: Student now, we can easily calculate how long it would take for the missing amount to decay, and therefore how long its been since that particular sample was formed. Thats the essence of radiometric dating: measure the amount thats present, calculate how much is missing, and Resulting In The American Revolution Essay, figure out yalom's factors how long it would take for that quantity of the nuclide to break down.

Because its a statistical measure- ment , theres always a margin of error in American the age figure, but if the procedure is liberation in mind done properly, the Factors American Essay, margin is very small. Obviously, the major question here is how much of the nuclide was originally present in our sample? In some cases, we dont know. Such cases are useless for Freud Gabler: The Wolf Behind the Protagonist Essay radiometric dating. We must know the original quantity of the parent nuclide in order to date our sample radiometrically . Fortunately, there are cases where we can do that. In order to do so, we need a nuclide thats part of a mineral compound.

Why? Because theres a basic law of chemistry that says Chemical processes like those that form minerals cannot distinguish between different nuclides of the same element. They simply cant do it. If an element has more than one nuclide present, and Resulting In The American, a mineral forms in a magma melt that includes that element, the elements different nuclides will appear in in mind the mineral in precisely the same ratio that they occurred in the environment where and when the Resulting American, mineral was formed. This is the second axiom of radiometric dating. The third and final axiom is that when an atom undergoes radioactive decay, its internal structure and also its chemical behavior change. King! Losing or gaining atomic number puts the atom in a different row of the periodic table, and Factors Resulting Revolution, elements in hitler come to power in 1933 different rows behave in different ways. The new atom doesnt form the same kinds of chemical bonds that the old one did. It may not form the same kinds of compounds. Resulting American Revolution! It may not even be able to hold the parent atoms place in the compound it finds itself in, which results in yalom's 11 therapeutic an immediate breaking of the chemical bonds that hold the atom to Factors American Revolution the others in the mineral. Why not? you might ask.

Well, an atoms chemical activity pattern is a result of to power, its electron shell structure. Resulting In The Revolution Essay! (The exact details of Kentucky Student Support Essay, this are rather complicated, so I wont go into Resulting American Revolution Essay, them here.) When the number of electrons change, the shell structure changes too. Yalom's Factors! So when an Resulting American Essay atom decays and changes into Freud and Hedda Gabler: The Wolf Behind the Protagonist, an atom of a different element, its shell structure changes and Factors Resulting In The Essay, it behaves in a different way chemically. Thats it. Thats the sum total of the Student Support Essay, chemical and physical basis of Factors, radiometric dating. Thats all you really need to know to understand radiometric dating techniques. How do these axioms translate into useful science?

In the next part of this article, Ill examine several different radiometric dating techniques, and show how the axioms I cited above translate into how did to power, useful age measurements. This section describes several common methods of radiometric dating. To start, let's look at the one which almost everyone has heard of: radiocarbon dating, AKA carbon-14 dating or just carbon dating. Method 1: Carbon-14 Dating. The element carbon occurs naturally in three nuclides: C12, C13, and Factors Resulting Essay, C14. The vast majority of carbon atoms, about 98.89%, are C12.

About one atom in a good 800 billion is C14. The remainder are C13. Of the three, C12 and C13 are stable. C14 is radioactive, with a half-life of 5730 years. C14 is also formed continuously from N14 (nitrogen-14) in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. And since carbon is an essential element in living organisms, C14 appears in all terrestrial ( landbound ) living organisms in the same proportions it appears in the atmosphere. Plants and Resulting In The Essay, protists get C14 from the environment. Animals and fungi get C14 from the plant or animal tissue they eat for food. When an Western University: Student Services organism dies, it stops taking in C14. The C14 already in the organism doesnt stop decaying, so as time goes on there is Resulting Essay less and less C14 left in the organisms remains.

If we measure how much C14 there currently is, we can tell how much there was when the organism died, and therefore how much has decayed. Western Kentucky University: Student Support Services Essay! When we know how much has decayed, we know how old the sample is. Many archaeological sites have been dated by applying radiocarbon dating to samples of bone, wood, or cloth found there. Radiocarbon dating depends on several assumptions. One is that the Factors Resulting In The American Revolution, thing being dated is organic in was henry king origin. Radiocarbon dating does not work on Factors In The American Revolution Essay anything inorganic, like rocks or fossils. Only things that once were alive and now are dead: bones, teeth, flesh, leaves, etc. The second assumption is that the organism in imperial question got its carbon from the atmosphere.

A third is that the thing has remained closed to C14 since the organism from which it was created died. The fourth one is Factors Resulting that we know what the concentration of Kentucky University: Support Services Essay, atmospheric C14 was when the organism lived and died. That last one is more important than it sounds. Factors American Essay! When Professor William Libby developed the C14 dating system in 1949, he assumed that the amount of C14 in the atmosphere was a constant. However, after a few years a number of scientists got suspicious of this assumption, because dates obtained by the C14 method werent tallying with dates obtained by other means. A long series of studies of C14 content produced an equally long series of corrective factors that must be taken into account when using C14 dating. So the dates derived from C14 decay had to be revised. One reference on radiometric dating lists an entire array of Kentucky University: Student Services, corrective factors for the change in atmospheric C14 over time. Factors Resulting In The American Essay! C14 dating serves as both an illustration of how useful radiometric dating can be, and liberation in mind, of the pitfalls that can be found in untested assumptions. Method 2: U238/U235/Th232 Series.

U238 and U235 are both nuclides of the Factors In The American Revolution, element uranium. U235 is well known as the major fissionable nuclide of uranium. Its the primary active ingredient of nuclear power plant reactor cores. It has a half-life of roughly 700 million years. U238 is more stable, with a half-life of 4.3 billion years. Th232 is the most common nuclide of the element thorium, and has a half-life of 13.9 billion years.

All three of these nuclides are the starting points for what are called radioactive series . A radioactive series is a sequence of was henry the 8th a good, nuclides that form one from another by radioactive decay. The series for U238 looks like this: Th234 -- Pa234 + B. Th230 -- Ra226 + A. Ra226 -- Rn222 + A. Rn222 -- Po218 + A. Po218 -- Pb214 + A.

Pb214 -- Bi214 + B. Bi214 -- Po214 + B. Po214 -- Pb210 + A. Pb210 -- Bi210 + B. Bi210 -- Po210 + B. Po210 -- Pb206 + A. (Chemical symbols: U = Uranium; Th = Thorium; Pa = Protactinium; Ra = Radium; Rn = Radon; Po = Polonium; Pb = Lead; Bi = Bismuth. A indicates alpha decay; B indicates beta decay.) We can calculate the Factors Resulting Essay, half-lives of all of these elements. All the intermediate nuclides between U238 and Pb206 are highly unstable, with short half-lives. That means they dont stay around very long, so we can take it as given that these nuclides dont appear on Earth today except as the result of uranium decay.

We can find out the normal distribution of lead nuclides by looking at a lead ore that doesnt contain any uranium, but that formed under the same conditions and from the same source as our uranium-bearing sample. Was Henry The 8th A Good! Then any excess of Pb206 must be the result of the decay of U238. When we know how much excess Pb206 there is, and we know the current quantity of U238, we can calculate how long the U238 in our sample has been decaying, and therefore how long ago the rock formed. Th232 and U235 also give rise to radioactive series -- different series from that of U238, containing different nuclides and ending in different nuclides of lead. Chemists can apply similar techniques to all three, resulting in three different dates for the same rock sample. (Uranium and thorium have similar chemical behavior, so all three of Resulting, these nuclides frequently occur in Western Kentucky Student Essay the same ores.) If all three dates agree within the margin of error, the date can be accepted as confirmed beyond a reasonable doubt. Since all three of In The Revolution, these nuclides have substantially different half-lives, for all three to come agree indicates the technique being used is sound.

But even so, radioactive-series dating could be open to question. Its always possible that migration of nuclides or chemical changes in Factors Resulting In The the rock could yield incorrect results. The rock being dated must remain a closed system with respect to uranium, thorium, and their daughter nuclides for the method to work properly. Both the uranium and liberation in mind, thorium series include nuclides of Factors In The American Revolution Essay, radon, an inert gas that can migrate through rock fairly easily even in the few days it lasts. To have a radiometric dating method that is unquestionably accurate, we need a radioactive nuclide for which we can get absolutely reliable measurements of the original quantity and the current quantity. Is there any such nuclide to be found in nature? The answer is yes.

Which brings us to the third method of imperial order, radiometric dating . Resulting American Essay! . . Method 3: Potassium-Argon Dating. The element potassium has three nuclides, K39, K40, and K41. Only K40 is order radioactive; the other two are stable. K40 is unusual among radioactive nuclides in that it can break down two different ways. It can emit a beta particle to become Ca40 (calcium-40), or it can absorb an electron to become Ar40 (argon-40). Argon is a very special element. Its one of the Factors Resulting In The Essay, group of elements called noble gases or inert gases. Argon is a gas at Earth-normal temperatures, and in any state it exists only as single atoms. It doesnt form chemical compounds with any other element, not even the most active ones. Gabler: Essay! Its a fairly large atom, so it would have trouble slipping into a dense crystals molecular structure. By contrast, potassium and calcium are two of the most active elements in nature.

They both form compounds readily and hold onto Factors Resulting American Essay, other atoms tenaciously. What does this mean? It means that potassium can get into online, minerals quite easily, but argon cant. It means that before a mineral crystallizes, argon can escape from it easily. It also means that when an atom of argon forms from an atom of potassium inside the mineral, the Factors, argon is trapped in the mineral. So any Ar40 we find deep inside a rock sample must be there as a result of K40 decay. We know K40s half-life, and we know the probability of K40 decaying to Ar40 instead of Ca40. That and was henry the 8th, some simple calculations produce a figure for how long the Factors Resulting Revolution Essay, K40 has been decaying in our rock sample.

However, again its important to remember that were dealing with assumptions , and we always have to keep in mind that our assumptions may be wrong. What happens if our mineral sample has not remained a closed system? What if argon has escaped from the mineral? What if argon has found its way into the mineral from some other source? If some of the radiogenic argon has escaped, then more K40 must have decayed than we think -- enough to produce what we did find plus what escaped.

If more K40 has decayed than we think, then its been decaying longer than we think, so the mineral must be older than we think. In other words, a mineral that has lost argon will be older than the result we get says it is. In the other direction, if excess argon has gotten into the mineral, it will be younger than the result we get says it is. An isochron dating method ( isochron dating is described in the next section) can also be applied to Western University: Support Essay potassium-argon dating under certain very specific circumstances. When isochron dating can be used, the result is a much more accurate date. Method 4: Rubidium-Strontium Dating. Yet a fourth method, rubidium-strontium dating, is even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks. The nuclide rubidium-87 (Rb87) decays to strontium-87 (Sr87) with a half-life of 47 billion years. Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of In The American Revolution Essay, several nuclides. Was Henry The 8th! If three minerals form at the same time in different regions of a magma chamber, they will have identical ratios of the different strontium nuclides. Essay! (Remember, chemical processes cant differentiate between nuclides). Liberation In Mind! The total amount of Factors Resulting, strontium might be different in the different minerals, but the ratios will be the same.

Now, suppose that one mineral has a lot of Rb87, another has very little, and the third has an in-between amount. That means that when the minerals crystallize there is a fixed ratio of Rb87:Sr87. The 8th! As time goes on, atoms of Rb87 decay to Sr-87, resulting in a change in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio, and also in a change in the ratio of Sr87 to other nuclides of strontium. Resulting In The American Revolution Essay! The decrease in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio is exactly matched by the gain of liberation in mind, Sr87 in the strontium-nuclide ratio. It has to Resulting In The be -- the two sides of the equation must balance.

If we plot the yalom's factors, change in the two ratios for these three minerals, the In The Revolution, resulting graph comes out as a straight line with an ascending slope. This line is called an isochron . The lines slope then translates directly into a figure for the age of the rock that contains the different minerals. The power of the yalom's 11 therapeutic factors, Rb/Sr dating method is enormous, for it provides multiple independent ways of Factors Resulting In The American Essay, verifying the accuracy of the Western University: Support Essay, isochron . When every one of four or five different minerals from the Resulting In The American Essay, same igneous formation matches the isochron perfectly, it can safely be said that the liberation in mind, isochron is correct beyond a reasonable doubt. Contaminated or otherwise bad samples stand out like a lighthouse beacon, because they dont show a good isochron line. There are numerous other radiometric dating methods: the Revolution, samarium-neodymium, lutetium-hafnium, rhenium-osmium, and lead isochron methods just to name a few. However, I simply havent time or room to deal with all of them. For further information on all methods of radiometric dating, please refer to how did to power in 1933 Gunter Faures textbook PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY. A full cite for this book is Factors In The Revolution Essay given in the bibliography. III . Possible Sources of Error. Now, why is all this relevant to the creation-vs.-evolution debate? Every method of radiometric dating ever used points to an ancient age for the Earth.

For creationists to factors destroy the old-Earth theory, they must destroy the credibility of Resulting In The Essay, radiometric dating. They have two ways to do this. They can criticize the science that radiometric dating is based on, or they can claim sloppy technique and experimental error in the laboratory analyses of radioactivity levels and nuclide ratios. Option 1: Criticize the Theory. Is there any way to Freud and Hedda Gabler: Behind the Protagonist criticize the theory of Factors Revolution, radiometric dating? Well, look back at the axioms of radiometric dating methods. Are any of those open to question. Answer: yes, two of them are.

Or at least, they seem to be. Do we know, for imperial tobacco order a fact, that half-lives are constant (axiom 1)? Do we know for a fact that nuclide ratios are constant (axiom 2)? Regarding the first question: There are sound theoretical reasons for accept- ing the constancy of nuclide half-lives, but the reasons are based in the remote and Resulting In The Revolution, esoteric reaches of quantum mechanics, and I dont intend to get into was henry the 8th a good king, that in this article. However, if all we had were theoretical reasons for believing axiom 1, we would be right to be suspicious of it. Do we have observational evidence? The answer is yes. On several occasions, astronomers have been able to analyze the radiation produced by American Revolution Essay, supernovas. In a supernova, the vast amount of The Wolf Behind Essay, energy released creates every known nuclide via atomic fusion and fission. Some of these nuclides are radioactive. We can detect the presence of the various nuclides by spectrographic analysis of the supernovas radiation.

We can also detect the American Revolution, characteristic radiation signatures of radioactive decay in those nuclides. We can use that information to the 8th calculate the half-lives of those nuclides. In every case where this has been done, the measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the nuclide from the supernova matches extremely well with measurements of Factors Resulting In The, that nuclide made here on yalom's 11 therapeutic factors Earth. Now, because light travels at American a fixed rate (a bit under 300,000 kilometers per second), and because stars are so far away, when we look at a distant star were seeing it as it was when that light left it and headed this way. When we look at a star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 light-years away, were seeing that star as it was 2,700,000 years ago. And when we look at 11 therapeutic factors a supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 years old, we see nuclides with the exact same half-lives as we see here on Earth. Not just one or two nuclides, but many. For these measurements to all be consistently wrong in In The American Revolution exactly the same way, most scientists feel, is beyond the realm of possibility. What about nuclide ratios? Are they indeed constant? Well, lets think about it: Minerals form by recognized chemical processes that depend on the chemical activity of the and Hedda Gabler: the Protagonist, elements involved.

The chemical behavior of an element depends on its size and Factors Resulting In The Essay, the number of electrons in tobacco online order its outer shell. This is the Factors In The American, foundation of the periodic table of the Western Essay, elements, a basic part of chemistry that has stood without challenge for a hundred and Revolution Essay, fifty years. The shell structure depends only on the number of electrons the nuclide has, which is the same as the number of protons in its nucleus. So the University: Student, shell structure doesnt change between different nuclides of the same element. K39 is chemically identical to In The American Essay K40; the only way we can distinguish between them is to use a nonchemical technique like mass spectrometry. (Note: Its true that some natural processes favor some isotopes over others. Was Henry The 8th A Good King! Water molecules containing oxygen-16 are lighter and Resulting In The Revolution, therefore evaporate faster than water molecules with oxygen-18.

However, as far as is and Hedda Gabler: Essay known such fractionation occurs only with light nuclides: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon. Factors Resulting In The Revolution Essay! The atoms used in radiometric dating techniques are mainly heavy atoms, so we can still use the Support, axiom that mineral-forming processes cant distinguish between different nuclides.) So the processes that are involved in mineral formation cant distinguish between nuclides. Sr86 atoms and Factors Resulting American Essay, Sr87 atoms behave identically when they bond with other atoms to form a mineral molecule. If there are ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in yalom's the original magma melt, there will be ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the minerals that crystallize from that melt.

Option 2: Criticize the Techniques. So, weve seen that radiometric dating techniques are built on a sound theoretical basis. The only other possible source of error is in laboratory technique. To translate theory into useful measurements, the lab procedures must be accurate. A contaminated rock sample is useless for dating. In The Revolution! A sample that is taken from the surface, where atoms could get in and out easily, is also useless.

Samples must be taken by coring, from deep within a rock mass. To date a rock, chemists must break it down into its component elements using any of several methods, then analyze nuclide ratios using a mass spectrometer. If the lab technique is how did come to power sloppy, the date produced isnt reliable. Theres no way to eliminate the possibility of error. Factors In The American Revolution Essay! It cant be done. Mistakes can always happen -- Murphys Law rules in science as much as in any other field of human endeavor. Order! (For those who have never encountered it, Murphys Law is the simple rule that in any field of human endeavor, anything that can go wrong will go wrong.) But we can try to minimize error. And when we do, the dates produced can be accepted as accurate. When samples taken from different parts of a given igneous rock formation are dated by different people at different labs over many years, the possibility that all those measurements could be wrong is vanishingly small.

Some may well be wrong. Revolution! If nine analyses agree, and a tenth produces radically different results, the odd-man-out is usually considered a result of some kind of error and discarded. If the researcher doing the work can find and document a specific problem in analysis that could produce precisely that observed wrong result, then its virtually certain the odd-man-out is an error. And Hedda Gabler: The Wolf Behind The Protagonist! A 90% success ratio in a technique that requires such delicate, accurate work is very impressive. And some radiometric techniques have a much better success ratio than that. In any case, while its true that there are numerous possible sources of error, there is no source of error that could account for the enormous difference between the 6000-year age demanded by young-Earth creationists and the 3.5-billion-year radiometric age for the oldest known rocks on Earth. Factors In The American Essay! Its completely illogical to think that these techniques could be wrong by that much. Creationist objections to radiometric dating techniques basically fall into three categories: 1) Creationists often claim that radiometric dates are unreliable because the entire theory is based on invalid assumptions. How Did To Power In 1933! Weve already seen that this doesnt hold up under examination.

The assumptions that are used in Resulting Revolution Essay radiometric dating techniques are perfectly justified given current physics. 2) Creationist geologists compile long lists of yalom's factors, dates obtained by Resulting Essay, radiometric techniques that deviate widely from the normally accepted values. Creationist geologist John Woodmorappe is the best known of the creationists who attempt this approach. Imperial Online Order! Hes compiled a list of In The Essay, several hundred radiometric dates that are widely divergent from the values accepted by conventional geology. Based on liberation this, he claims that radiometric dating methods don't produce consistent results, that geologists conceal radiometric dates which don't match what's expected, and that therefore the whole methodology of radiometric dating is worthless.

In general, such claims are revealed as flawed by what they dont say more than by what they do say. Resulting In The American! In an article for how did hitler come in 1933 the creationist journal Creation Science Research Quarterly , Woodmorappe listed 350-odd aberrant dates, and claimed that there are many, many more. What he did not say is Factors Resulting American Essay that those 350 were winnowed out of tens of was henry king, thousands of radiometric dates which do give more reasonable results. If we run dating tests on 500 samples and Factors In The Revolution Essay, 350 (70% of the total tests) are scattered all over the place, with only a few anywhere near the expected values, then we clearly have a serious problem. Freud The Protagonist! But if we run dating tests on Resulting American 10,000 samples and get 350 aberrant results (3.5% of the total), that could easily be simple experimental error. If we test fifty samples from the same rock formation and we get 2 ages of 1 million years, 2 ages of 500 million years, and 46 ages all clustered around 175 million years, its not a great leap of imperial tobacco online order, logic to Factors In The Revolution Essay conclude that the 4 aberrant results were in error, and the 46 clustered results are probably correct. 3) Some creationists produce radiometric dates of their own that show that radiometric dating produces illogical, contradictory results. A classic example of king, this tactic is a claim by creationist geologist Steve Austin that rocks taken from Recent lava flows on the Uinkaret Plateau at the top of the Grand Canyon produce older dates than rocks taken from the bottom of the canyon, when both samples are dated using the Rb87/Sr87 isochron method. This appears to be a serious blow against the Rb/Sr isochron technique, but in his article A Criticism of ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project, Chris Stassen points out that Austin made a critical error in In The American Essay his work.

The samples he took from the Plateau are from different rock formations. For any type of radiometric dating to work properly, all samples must come from the same formation. In Mind! So its not surprising that Austin s results make no sense. Were still not done, though. If all we had was the radiometric techniques that Ive described, there would remain a possibility (a miniscule one, but a real possibility nonetheless) that the entire idea is grievously wrong, that some as-yet-undetected factor is throwing off all the hundreds and thousands of radiometric dates that have been produced based on rock samples from all around Earth and even beyond it. But we have more than that.

We have several methods completely unrelated to Resulting In The American Revolution radioactivity which serve as independent checks on Western Kentucky University: Support Services Essay the radiometric dating techniques. For example, in 1838, the American geologist James Dwight Dana made a systematic survey of the Hawaiian Islands . He noted that the Factors Resulting In The American Essay, islands become more heavily eroded as you move from Freud and Hedda Hawaii toward the northwest. Resulting In The American Revolution! He interpreted this to mean that the islands become older as you move northwest along the chain. When rock samples were taken from the Hawaiian Islands and dated radiometrically , they agreed with Danas conclusions of over how did hitler come a century before. The islands do indeed become older as you move northwest. And the degree of erosion corresponds roughly with the radiometric dates. No island in the chain is dated as being significantly older than the erosion rate implies, nor is any island in the chain dated as being significantly younger than the erosion rate indicates.

Both modern corals and fossil corals deposit daily and annual growth bands. By careful analysis of these bands, we can tell how many days there were in Factors American Essay a year when the coral was growing. For modern corals, this technique yields 365 day-bands per year, more or less, just as it should. Western Kentucky University: Student Essay! For corals that grew in formations identified as Early Devonian, the technique shows a little over 400 day-bands per year. Astronomers can measure the rate at which Earths rotation is Factors In The Revolution Essay slowing. Assuming the rate of slowing has remained constant, a day-count of 400 days per year indicates an age of roughly 400 million years. Freud And Hedda Gabler: Essay! And when Early Devonian rocks are dated radiometrically , we get dates of roughly 400 million years.

Yet another cross-check on radiometric dating is Factors Resulting In The Essay provided by plate tectonics. The plates that form the The Wolf, Earths surface are moving at a measurable rate. There are several ways of Revolution, measuring this movement that themselves have nothing to do with radiometric dating. The plate that forms the Pacific Ocean basin is moving northwest at how did come in 1933 at a known rate. Geologists generally accept that the Hawaiian Islands have been formed by upwelling of Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay, magma from a hot spot in the Earths mantle, below the seafloor. The Pacific Plate is moving; the hot spot remains fixed; and the result is a series of volcanic islands growing upward over the hot spot. Between Hawaii and Midway Island (2400km northwest of Hawaii ) are some thirty volcanoes, active and extinct. Many of liberation, these volcanoes have had lava flows dated by the potassium-argon method. In all these cases, the radiometric date agrees substantially with the date derived from extrapolation of plate motion. Particularly striking is the correlation for Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay Midway Island itself. By drift rate it should be about 27 million years old.

By K- Ar dating, the volcanic rock that forms Midway's core is 27.7 million years old. Two other island chains that are located over Pacific Plate hot spots show substantially similar patterns of motion to the Hawaiian Islands . They both correlate well with other measurements of the Pacific Plates motion. And their radiometric dates match as well. Three independent methods of dating these islands, and they all agree within acceptable ranges of error. What are the chances of and Hedda Gabler: The Wolf Behind Essay, all three being wrong in such ways as to produce the same wrong answer?

Theres no way to calculate them, but Id say theyre so miniscule that youd have better odds of Resulting In The American Revolution, hitting the state lottery five times in a row. One more example, just to wrap things up. In the late sixties, two geologists identified a specific reversal of the Earths magnetic field using the rocks in Olduvai Gorge in Africa . ( Olduvai Gorge is famous as one of the best sites in the world for early hominid fossils.) They called this reversal the Olduvai Event. A few years later, another geologist, Neil Opdyke , was taking samples of sea-floor rock and found that he could identify the Olduvai Event in his cores. Freud And Hedda The Wolf Behind! Sea-floor sediments often preserve evidence of magnetic field reversals. After carefully analyzing the sedimentation rates in his cores, Opdyke concluded that the American Revolution Essay, Olduvai Event had spanned a period from roughly 1.85 million to about 1.5 million years ago.

Obtaining radiometric dates from Olduvai Gorge is difficult for several reasons, but one of the few dates thats considered solid comes from a specific layer of yalom's factors, volcanic tuff called Tuff 1B. This tuff occurs near the bottom of the Olduvai Event. It was dated in 1959 using the potassium-argon method. The date produced was approximately 1.8 million years ago. Far from being rickety constructs full of sources of error and Resulting American Revolution Essay, unproven assumptions, radiometric dating techniques are actually on a very sound theoretical and procedural basis.

To destroy that basis, creationists would have to destroy much of chemistry and how did hitler in 1933, a lot of American, atomic physics too. The periodic table is the Kentucky Essay, bedrock on American Essay which modern chemistry is built. The constancy of the velocity of light is a basic axiom of Einsteins theories of relativity, theories which have passed every test physicists could devise. The constancy of radioactive decay rates follows from in mind quantum mechanics, which has also passed every test physicists can create. In short, everything we know in chemistry and in physics points to Resulting Revolution Essay radiometric dating as being a viable and valuable method of calculating the ages of igneous and in mind, metamorphosed igneous rocks. To question it seems to be beyond the bounds of reason. To charge thousands of Resulting In The American, chemists all over the world with mass incompetence also seems to be beyond the bounds of Western University: Student Support Services, reason. Factors In The American! Radiometric dating has been used ever more widely for hitler come in 1933 the past forty years. Resulting In The! The dates produced have gotten steadily more precise as lab techniques and instrumentation has been improved. How Did Hitler In 1933! There is Factors Resulting American simply no logical reason to throw this entire field of science out the tobacco online, window.

There is Factors In The American Revolution no reason to believe the Western Student Essay, theory is faulty, or to believe that thousands of different chemists could be so consistently wrong in Factors Resulting Revolution Essay the face of every conceivable test. Further, radiometric dates can be checked by other dating techniques. When they are, the dates almost always agree within the range of expected error. In cases where the dates dont agree, its always been found that some natural factor was present which selectively affected one or the other dating method being used. Creationists are forced to challenge radiometric dating because it stands as the 11 therapeutic factors, most powerful and most damning evidence against Factors Essay, their idea of a young Earth.

But in the end, they are reduced to saying that radiometric dating must be wrong, because we know it happened this way. Hitler In 1933! And that is not a scientific position. If theory says it happened this way and evidence says it happened that way, theory must be revised to Resulting In The fit the evidence. Creationists wont do that. Kentucky University: Services! That reveals creation science to be a sham, and Essay, not any kind of science at all. Information on the nature of atoms, half-lives, and types of radioactive decay was taken from ATOM : Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos, by Isaac Asimov (c. How Did In 1933! Nightfall, Inc., 1991). Information on radiometric dating techniques comes from a variety of Resulting American, sources, including the Asimov book cited above, and these: PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY, 2nd Ed. c. John Wiley Sons, 1986.

EARTH THEN AND NOW , 2nd Ed. Carla W. Montgomery and David Dathe. c. Wm C. Support! Brown, Publishers, 1994. Scientific Creationism vs. Evolution: The Mislabeled Debate Kenneth R. Miller. Essay in SCIENCE AND CREATIONISM. Edited by Resulting American Essay, Ashley Montagu.

c. Oxford Press, 1984. (This essay contains an excellent explanation of the and Hedda The Wolf Behind, rubidium-strontium isochron dating method.) GROLIERS ACADEMIC AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1994 ed. Articles on Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating, and related subjects. Multimedia CD-ROM distributed by Grolier Electronic Publishing.

Information on creationist critiques of radiometric dating, and Factors Resulting In The Revolution, the flaws in those critiques, comes primarily from hitler come to power these sources: The Unreliability of Radiometric Dating Uploaded to CompuServes Dinosaur/Paleontology Forum Library 13 as JDATIN. TXT. Evaluation of ICR Grand Canyon Research Project. This paper is available on Resulting American Revolution the World Wide Web at the FAQ Archive, File uploaded to CompuServe Religion Forum. (Note: Glenn Morton is an old-Earth creationist, not an evolutionist. Im using him as a source because his criticisms of Woodmorappes claim are quite valid regardless of his personal position.) Information on the independent cross-checks for radiometric dates comes mainly from how did in 1933 these sources:

On the Hawaiian Islands chain: The Evolution of the Pacific Heezen , Bruce and MacGregor , Ian. c. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Nov. 1973. Reprinted in CONTINENTS ADRIFT AND CONTINENTS AGROUND, Scientific American Press, 1976. On the Olduvai Event: LUCY S CHILD: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor.

Donald Johanson and Factors Essay, James Shreeves. c. 1989, Wm Morrow and Company, Inc. On the length of the year as shown by hitler to power in 1933, coral growth patterns: A TRIP THROUGH TIME: Principles of Historical Geology, 2nd Ed . John Cooper, Richard Miller, and Jacqueline Patterson. c. Merrill Publishing, 1990. A Calendar in the Coral, pp. 307-8.

These sources are supplemented by references in other books, numerous threads on several CompuServe forums, and other papers and Factors In The, articles downloaded from CompuServe and the World Wide Web.

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Essay: MEASUREMENT OF CURRENT PERCEPTION THRESHOLDS USING THE NEUROMETER #039; APPLICABILITY IN DIABETIC NEUROPATHY. General aspects about diabetic neuropathy. We are witnessing to a continuing growth in rates of Factors Resulting American Revolution, diabetes incidence and prevalence worldwide, and the overwhelming burden of the disease is being carried by low- and middle-income countries, where four out of five people are living with diabetes. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates that 382 million people have diabetes, and the number of people with the disease will dramatically escalate to 592 million in less than 25 years (1). Permanent and progressive nature of the disease leads to imperial tobacco order specific microvascular (neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy) and Factors Resulting, macrovascular chronic complications (coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease) having a negative impact on life expectancy, its quality and on extremely high costs it induces.

Diabetes is the fifth cause of death worldwide (2), being responsible for more than 4.9 million deaths worldwide in 2014, according to liberation in mind IDF data (1). Factors Revolution Essay? Diabetes mellitus is considered a cardiovascular disease equivalent with a major impact on was henry a good morbidity and mortality, people with diabetes having a two-fold increase in the risk of Factors Resulting In The American Revolution, stroke (3). Also, diabetes is the major cause of renal failure and the leading cause for visual impairment and blindness in developed countries (2). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes, affecting more that 50% of those with diabetes (4). DPN is a major risk factor for development of 11 therapeutic factors, foot ulcers in Factors American Revolution Essay, people with diabetes (5) and up to 25% of diabetic patients will develop a foot ulcer (6). The majority of lower limb amputations are preceded, in most of the cases, by and Hedda The Wolf the Protagonist, a foot ulcer. Approximately 70% of all leg amputations are being performed in people with diabetes, and annually more than 1 million diabetic people are suffering from an amputation, meaning that, every 20 seconds, somewhere in the world, a person is losing one foot because of diabetes. After a major amputation, up to 50% of the diabetic people will suffer an amputation to the other leg, in the next 5 years, and 5 years mortality rate after a leg amputation is 68% (7). There is evidence that instituting a structured diabetic foot program can yield a 75% reduction in Factors American Revolution Essay, amputation rates and a near fourfold reduction in inpatient mortality.

Given the high cost (both economic and personal) of treating foot ulcers, it is important that we understand the modifiable risk factors associated with the development of neuropathy, in order to delay or prevent its development, and also it is was henry a good, important to detect peripheral neuropathy early in Revolution, the natural history of the disease so that specific education be provided, and Kentucky Essay, preventive measures can be applied to avoid devastating complications associated with the diabetic foot (8). Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a number of neuropathic syndromes, but, by far, the commonest form, meet in more than 90% of diabetic patients, is the chronic diabetic peripheral neuropathy, also known as distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (4). In daily practice, diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a clinical diagnosis, based on patient history and clinical examination, after the exclusion of other causes (9). But, the diagnosis cannot rely on history alone, as up to 50% of patients may be asymptomatic. For clinical research, the diagnosis of DPN requires at Revolution Essay least two tests in addition to was henry the clinical history and examination: these normally comprise quantitative sensory testing (QST) and electrophysiology (EP). Lately, promising new techniques are rising, such as intra-epidermal nerve fiber density, nerve biopsy and corneal confocal microscopy (10).

Current perception threshold using the Neurometer?? Describing the method. Among quantitative sensory testing, measurement of current perception threshold (CPT) using the Neurometer?? (Neurotron Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, USA) have been proved to be a reliable method to asses DPN (10,11). Factors In The American Essay? The technology is available since 1989, and its employment has been progressively increase in the past years, with applicability in both clinical use and human research. Figure 1. Services Essay? The Neurometer?? device ((Neurotron Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, USA) The typical sensory nerve is composed of three distinct sub-populations of nerve fibers that are characterized by Factors In The Revolution, their diameter. These various sub-populations of nerve fibers transmit different sensations. The smallest (unmyelinated) fibers transmit dull pain and hitler come to power in 1933, temperature, the middle diameter (small myelinated) fibers transmit fast pain, temperature and pressure sensation, and the largest (myelinated) fibers transmit touch and pressure sensation. Unmyelinated C fibers also play an important role in the peripheral autonomic nervous system providing the innervation to the smooth musculature. One third of the C fibers are autonomic efferents. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was defined in Factors Revolution, literature as a small-fiber neuropathy(12) (13).

The smallest diameter unmyelinated fibers represent more than eighty percent of the total fibers, have the longest refractory periods and the slowest average conduction velocities (CV) of 1 m/s. Come? In contrast, large diameter myelinated fibers comprise less than ten percent of the total fibers, have the shortest refractory periods and fastest average CV of 60 m/s. Neurometer?? is able to Factors In The Revolution Essay evaluate the functional status of the 8th a good king, these three distinct nerve fiber types by Factors Revolution, measuring the CPT at frequencies of was henry king, 2000, 250 and Factors Resulting Essay, 5 Hz, respectively (11). 2000 Hz stimulus selectively induce large myelinated fiber responses and the 5 Hz stimulus selectively determine unmyelinated fiber responses. The device quantify in a quickly and painlessly manner the conduction and yalom's 11 therapeutic factors, functional integrity of the large and small myelinated and small unmyelinated sensory nerve fibers (14). The device is producing transcutaneous electrical stimuli through a pair of gold plated electrodes to quantify neuroselective CPT values. The patient can be tested at one or more body sites with three different alternating frequencies of electrical stimulus (2000, 250, 5 Hz) and the tested skin sites have to be intact. With the patient sitting in In The Essay, a comfortable position two electrodes coated with conductive gel are attached to the skin site to be evaluated. The current is increased (to a maximum of 9.99 mA) until the patient begin to feel the current at the skin where the liberation in mind electrodes are attached. The current is then terminated, decreased by Factors Resulting American Essay, 0.08 mA and reapplied.

When a sufficient number of tests have been performed the CPT device determines and liberation, displays the CPT value for the test series (15). At each frequency (2000, 250 and Factors Essay, 5 Hz), an R-CPT (rapid current perception threshold) value is generated and could range from 1 to 25. A value ranging from 6 to 13 is classified as normal, while a value ranging from 1 to and Hedda The Wolf 5 show hyperesthesia (increased sensation). Essay? A value between 14 and liberation, 25 is showing hypoesthesia (decreased sensation). Both hyperesthesia and Factors In The Revolution, hypoesthesia indicate the University: Support Services presence of sensory neuropathy. Figure 2. R-CPT nerve evaluation in a patient without DPN (A) and Resulting Revolution Essay, a patient with sensory DPN (B) Using the in mind Neurometer?? for the screening and diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy-existing evidence. This test can be used to detect neuropathy in Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay, the earliest and asymptomatic stages. It is Western Support, clearly proven and Factors Resulting In The American Revolution Essay, unanimously accepted that HbA1C (glicated hemoglobin) value is Gabler: Essay, positively associated with specific diabetic microvascular complications, including neuropathy (16). But, it has been suggested that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) may also cause neuropathy (17).

One study, conducted on Factors Resulting Revolution 45 subjects with IGT and 46 healthy volunteers assessed the presence of neuropathy in people with IGF, by measuring the CPT using the Neurometer?? as evaluating method for the sensory nerve function (18). The results showed that subjects with IGT had a higher frequency of both hyperesthesia and hypoesthesia as detected by current perception threshold testing at 5 Hz as well as increased heat detection thresholds. Thus, this study has demonstrated that subclinical small-fiber neuropathy and 11 therapeutic factors, autonomic neuropathy are commonly present in IGT subjects, and measurement of CPT using the Neurometer?? demonstrated to be able of detecting neuropathy in Factors American, the early stage. Kempler and 11 therapeutic, co, conducted a study in Factors Resulting American Revolution Essay, 1995 in witch CPT and liberation, tests of autonomic function were applied on In The American Revolution Essay 22 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), 6 patients with newly diagnosed-NIDDM, and 12 healthy subjects. The authors concluded that CPT permits the University: Support diagnosis of sensory dysfunction early in the course of diabetes and in NIDDM (19). The results of a study conducted in 116 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 38 healthy controls (11), who were assessed for peripheral neuropathy by measurement of CPT using the Neurometer. showed that the CPT at 2000 Hz was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and also showed a significant negative correlation with motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. Significantly higher CPT values were obtained in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macroalbuminuria. So, the authors concluded that CPT is useful in detecting abnormalities of myelinated as opposed to unmyelinated nerve fibers in patients with type 2 diabetes.

We also conducted a study on 60 patients with type 2 diabetes, who were divided in three groups based on their diabetes durations ( 10 years), and the patients were assessed for the presence of Factors American Revolution, DPN using two different methods: Semmes Weinstein Monofilament testing (SWMT) and rapid-current perception threshold measurement using the Neurometer?? (14). Our results also showed a higher incidence of sensory neuropathy in patients with more than 10 years duration of diabetes when compared with those with less than 5 years of diabetes duration. Neurometer?? detected sensory neuropathy in liberation in mind, a higher percent of subjects (250Hz: 30%, 5Hz: 46.6%) compared with monofilament testing method (21.7%), statistical significant only for 5Hz frequency (p=0.01). Essay? Also, frequency of 5Hz proved to be the how did come to power in 1933 most sensitive in Factors Resulting In The Revolution Essay, detecting patients with hyper and hypoesthesia. Giving the Western University: Support Services fact that a significant incidence of Resulting In The American Essay, sensory neuropathy was found in diabetics with less than 5 years duration of diabetes it is important to recommend screening for sensory neuropathy in patients as soon as diabetes is diagnosed. The findings of a similar study including 60 type 2 diabetic patients, conducted by Nather and co (20) suggested that sensory testing using both Neurometer?? and Pin-Prick tests detected a higher incidence of sensory neuropathy compared with Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing. The results of liberation in mind, our study were also consistent to those found by Cheng et al. (21) in a study involving 558 type 2 diabetic people, from which 59 had sensory neuropathy after SWMT assessment, 45 were positive on Vibration Perception Threshold and American Essay, 189 were diagnosed with sensory neuropathy according to R-CPT measurements by the Neurometer.

The conclusion were that the Neurometer?? is capable of imperial, detecting peripheral sensory neuropathy in significantly more patients as compared to SWMT and Vibration Perception Threshold. A very recent paper published in In The Revolution, 2014 (22) involving 241 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes, evaluated the usefulness of CPT for diagnosing distal polyneuropathy and liberation in mind, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients. The conclusions were that even thou the subjects with DPN had significantly higher CPT at all of the frequencies than the Factors In The American Revolution subjects without DPN and the CPT was significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms or signs corresponding to the nerve fiber stimulated, it provides little additional information compared with conventional evaluations. Assessment of current perception threshold is a useful evaluation method of patients with peripheral nervous system pathologies resulting in altered cutaneous sensation. Liberation? By applying this method it is possible to detect both clinical and subclinical large and Resulting In The Essay, small fiber neuropathy. How Did Come In 1933? The Neurometer?? CPT can independently evaluate those three sub-types of nerve fibers (A. A?? and C fibers) by using different frequencies of an alternating current, providing improved detection sensitivity over other methods testing. However, conflicting information and methodological problems exist regarding the usefulness of the Neurometer?? CPT for Factors In The American Revolution Essay the evaluation of specific conditions such as diabetic neuropathy, although an important body of literature describe many of the Kentucky University: Support benefit features attributed to this instrument. So, in the light of this facts, future research is needed in Factors Essay, order to establish the real diagnosis value of factors, Neurometer??

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