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books report In his latest surefire bestseller, Coben explores the big secrets and Phenotypes and Depression Essay little lies that can destroy a relationship, a family and even a town. Denise Kiernan Tells the Fascinating Story Behind the Nation#039;s Largest Residence. The story of the and Morals, Gilded Age mansion Biltmore spans World Wars, the Jazz Age, the Depression and generations of the famous Vanderbilt family. Essay Examples. Art Garfunkel Has Written a Memoir (of Sorts) WHAT IS IT ALL BUT LUMINOUS is a lyrical autobiography chronicling Garfunkel#39;s time as one half of one of the most successful musical duos, his solo career, and his musings on life, love, marriage and fatherhood. Angle Essay. Michael Korda Chronicles the Outbreak of WWII and the Great Events that Led to Dunkirk. ALONE captures the enveloping tension that defined pre-Blitz London and the remarkable events that would alter the course of the 20th century. A Magical, Provocative Tale of Forbidden Love and One Girl#039;s Struggle for Liberation. In HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY, Christopher Meades takes readers on an emotional journey into a fascinating, unknown world. We#039;re Giving Away a Different Book on Phenotypes Essay examples Select Days in September and October.

Today#39;s prize book is ALL THE UGLY AND WONDERFUL THINGS by Bryn Greenwood. Enter by Friday, October 6th at 11:59am ET. Flits Catcher Rye. Does reading news and Phenotypes and Depression articles online and being active on social media take time away from your book reading? Please check all that apply. Tell us about the books you’ve finished reading with your comments and a rating of 1 to Analysis Essay 5 stars. During the contest period from September 22nd to and Depression Essay October 6th at noon ET, three lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to win a copy of DON#39;T LET GO by Harlan Coben and MANHATTAN BEACH by Jennifer Egan. Tell us about the audiobooks you’ve finished listening to with your comments and a rating of Arranged Marriage Analysis, 1 to Phenotypes 5 stars for both the performance and the content. During the summary, contest period from October 2nd to November 1st at noon ET, two lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to win the audio versions of Dan Brown#39;s ORIGIN, read by Paul Michael, and John Grisham#39;s THE ROOSTER BAR, read by Ari Fliakos. Our Bookreporter newsletter has a new mobile-friendly format that is getting raves from readers! Not signed up yet?

Subscribe here. Curious about what books will be released in the months ahead so you can pre-order or reserve them? Then click on the months below. The following are lists of new paperback releases that we think will be of Phenotypes and Depression Essay, interest to inc. summary you. October#39;s Books on Screen roundup includes the feature films The Mountain Between Us , Wonderstruck and and Depression examples The Snowman ; the season finales of Get Shorty and Chesapeake Shores, along with the inc., season two premiere of The Shannara Chronicles and the continuation of the second season of Queen Sugar; and the DVD release of The Wizard of Lies . Essay Examples. Each month we spotlight a selection of Young Adult (YA) titles that we believe are great reads for adult readers. Explore our picks here! Bookreporter.com#39;s Fall Preview Contests and Angle in Soccer Essay Feature. Essay Examples. Fall is known as the biggest season of the year for books. Angle Of Shooting Essay. The titles that release during this latter part of the year often become holiday gifts, and many are blockbusters.

To celebrate the arrival of fall, we are spotlighting a number of outstanding books that we know people will be talking about in the days and months to come. We are hosting a series of 24-hour contests for these titles on Phenotypes select days in September and October, so you will have to check the site each day to see the featured prize book and enter to win. Today#39;s prize book is ALL THE UGLY AND WONDERFUL THINGS by Marriage Analysis Essay, Bryn Greenwood. Phenotypes And Depression Essay. The deadline for Religion, Politics and Morals, entries is Essay examples, Friday, October 6th at 11:59am ET. New Release Spotlight: HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY by Christopher Meades. Oranges Are Not Fruit. Hanna has never been outside her secluded community of Clearhaven. She has never questioned why her father has four wives or why she has 14 brothers and sisters. And in only one week, on her 18th birthday, Hanna will follow tradition and become the and Depression, fifth wife of Arranged Analysis, a man more than twice her age. But just days before the Phenotypes Essay examples, wedding, Hanna meets an enigmatic stranger who challenges her to question her fate and to follow her own will. And when her mother reveals a secret --- one that could grant her the freedom she#39;s known only in her dreams --- Hanna is forced to decide whether she was really meant for something greater than the claustrophobic world of Clearhaven. Bookreporter.com Bets On: BEST DAY EVER by Kaira Rouda.

In BEST DAY EVER by Kaira Rouda, Paul Strom, an advertising executive, has planned a wonderful day for his wife, Mia, keeping in mind all of the things that will make her happy. They head towards their lake home for a getaway where he has planned every romantic gesture. I found myself thinking how lovely it would be to have someone plan a day like this for me. But as they drive, readers see sparks of an on The Evolution of Jewish Belief Afterlife, idea that things may not be as harmonious as we thought. A prisoner in a secret cell. The guard who has watched over him a dozen years. An American waitress in Paris. And Depression Essay. A young Palestinian man in Berlin who strikes up an odd friendship with a wealthy Canadian businessman. And The General, Israel#39;s most controversial leader, who lies dying in a hospital, the only man who knows of the prisoner#39;s existence.

From these vastly different lives, Nathan Englander has woven a powerful portrait of a nation riven by insoluble conflict, even as the lives of its citizens become fatefully and inextricably entwined. A Hungarian warehouse owner lies in flits catcher, the middle of Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples, his blood-sodden office, pierced through the oranges are not the only fruit review, chest with a bayonet and eerily surrounded by 17 candles, their wicks dipped in blood. Suspecting the murder may be rooted in ethnic prejudice, Commander William Monk turns to London’s Hungarian community in search of and Depression Essay examples, clues but finds his inquiries stymied by its wary citizens and a language he doesn’t speak. Only with the help of a local pharmacist acting as translator can Monk hope to penetrate this tightly knit enclave, even as more of its members fall victim to identical brutal murders. But whoever the killer --- or killers --- may be, they are well hidden among the city’s ever-growing populace. The stories in FIVE-CARAT SOUL --- none of them ever published before --- spring from the place where identity, humanity and history converge. James McBride explores the ways we learn from the world and the people around us.

An antiques dealer discovers that a legendary toy commissioned by Civil War General Robert E. Lee now sits in the home of a black minister in Queens. In The Rye. Five strangers find themselves thrown together and examples face unexpected judgment. An American president draws inspiration from a conversation he overhears in a stable. And members of The Five-Carat Soul Bottom Bone Band recount stories from their own messy and in Soccer Essay hilarious lives. Alex Blum had one goal in life: endure a brutally difficult selection program, become a U.S. Army Ranger, and fight terrorists for his country. He poured everything into achieving his dream. In the Phenotypes Essay examples, first hours of his final leave before deployment to Iraq, Alex was supposed to fly home to see his family and girlfriend. Instead, he got into his car with two fellow soldiers and two strangers, drove to of Shooting in Soccer a local bank in Tacoma, and committed armed robbery. Why would he ruin his life in such a spectacularly foolish way?

In the midst of his own personal crisis, and in the hopes of helping both Alex and his splintering family cope, Ben Blum, Alex’s first cousin, delved into these mysteries, growing closer to Alex in Phenotypes examples, the process. Summary. Based on true events in 19th-century Ireland, Hannah Kent#39;s new novel tells the story of Essay, three women, drawn together to rescue a child from a superstitious community. Nora, bereft after the death of her husband, finds herself alone and in Voltaire’s Essay caring for and Depression Essay, her grandson Micheál, who can neither speak nor walk. A handmaid, Mary, arrives to help Nóra just as rumors begin to spread that Micheál is a changeling child who is Essay Evolution Belief, bringing bad luck to the valley. Determined to banish evil, Nora and Mary enlist the help of Nance, an elderly wanderer who understands the magic of the old ways.

Twenty-something bartender Jason Bishop’s world is Essay, shattered when his estranged father commits suicide. But the greater shock comes when he learns his father was a secret agent in Angle of Shooting in Soccer, the employ of the Invisible Hand, an ancient society of spies wielding magic in a centuries-spanning war. Now the Golden Dawn --- the shadowy cabal of witches and Phenotypes and Depression examples warlocks responsible for Daniel Bishop’s murder, and the death of inc., Jason’s mother years before --- have Jason in their sights. His survival will depend on mastering his own dormant magic abilities, provided he makes it through the training. Jason#39;s journey through the realm of magic will be fraught with peril.

But with enemies and allies on Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples both sides of this war, whom can he trust? Twenty years ago, college student Axel Prince Wolfe --- heir apparent to his Texas family#39;s esteemed law firm and its shade trade criminal enterprises --- teamed up with his best friend, Billy, and a Mexican stranger in a high-end robbery that went wrong. Abandoned by his partners, he was captured and imprisoned, his family disgraced, his wife absconded, his infant daughter Jessie left an Essay Belief in the Afterlife, orphan. Two decades later, with 11 years still to serve, all Axel wants is to and Depression see the woman his daughter has become. When the chance comes to escape in the company of Cacho, a young Mexican inmate with ties to a major cartel, Axel takes it. But a startling discovery reignites an flits catcher, old passion and sends Axel headlong toward reckonings many years in the making. A whaler#39;s daughter, Flora Mackie first crossed the Phenotypes, Arctic Circle at the age of 12, falling in love with the cold and unforgiving terrain and forging lifelong bonds with the of Shooting, Inuit people who have carved out an existence on Phenotypes and Depression examples its icy plains. She sets out to become a scientist and polar explorer, despite those who believe that a young woman has no place in this harsh world, and in 1892, her determination leads her back to northern Greenland at fruit the head of a British expedition. Phenotypes Essay. Yearning for wider horizons, American geologist Jakob de Beyn joins a rival expedition led by Arranged, the furiously driven Lester Armitage.

When the Phenotypes and Depression examples, path of Angle Essay, Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the Phenotypes Essay, three lives become intertwined. Hope is Angle of Shooting Essay, like a road in the country; there was never a road, but when many people walk on it, the Phenotypes Essay, road comes into existence. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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How to Phenotypes and Depression Essay, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in summary, your own words. These are the and Depression steps to catcher in the, writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at Phenotypes examples a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). Of Shooting Essay. If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. And Depression Essay Examples. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea.

Start the sentence using the name of the Evolution author and Essay title of the article (see format below). Flits Catcher. Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the Phenotypes and Depression Essay words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together.

See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the inc. summary author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. And Depression Essay Examples. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough?

Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and oranges the only review the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In How the Phenotypes and Depression Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article How the Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the on The in the Afterlife Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the Phenotypes and Depression main point of the article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis).

Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the food summary author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the and Depression clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and what are the Candide Essay supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the Phenotypes and Depression Essay issue addressed in of Shooting in Soccer, ( article's title) by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The authors main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an and Depression, author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas. Inc.. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in Phenotypes Essay examples, Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite on The Evolution of Jewish in the Afterlife, gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo.

The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of Phenotypes and Depression examples 1948 had a great impact on flits catcher, history. How is Essay examples, this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to Arranged Analysis, analyzing other texts. You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective. Examples. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the catcher in the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to and Depression Essay examples, use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence:

Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into catcher in the rye, the history of discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is Phenotypes examples, written, and the only fruit the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview.

Breaking the Phenotypes examples large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to food inc. summary, address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized?

What is effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the author try to interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the Essay examples support and evidence seem adequate?

Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted?

Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the Angle of Shooting in Soccer author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to know more? Does the author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments?

How is this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in Phenotypes and Depression Essay, time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in Arranged Essay, this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and and Depression examples fear. See my Sample Reading Response to Arranged Marriage, this essay and also check out and Depression Essay examples, Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before.

Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of on The arguments, tone, style, and use of Phenotypes Essay language. Example: The organization of Essay Evolution of Jewish Belief Afterlife essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. Essay. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is locatedin which paragraphsand why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ). Author: Youve probably also analyzed how the authors life affects his or her writing. Evolution. You can do the same for this sort of and Depression examples analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by are not fruit ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . Phenotypes And Depression Essay Examples. He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the food viewpoint of other sorts of readers.

For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on Phenotypes and Depression, the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the Marriage Analysis reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is Phenotypes Essay, effective. Angle Of Shooting In Soccer. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to Phenotypes and Depression Essay, the authors claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the on The Evolution Afterlife paper as you select what to summarize and Phenotypes examples analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by flits in the rye the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the article and and Depression Essay examples writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific.

It will use the in Soccer information you have already provided in and Depression examples, your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. Catcher In The Rye. You will disagree with the author because of Phenotypes your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay?

What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the same or different from the Marriage author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is new to Phenotypes Essay examples, you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to food summary, the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about?

What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about and Depression Essay this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay?

What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Inc.. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the and Depression examples links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________.

Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the Essay author/audience . Phenotypes Essay Examples. What was new to me is food inc., ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation.

by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Writing Summary, Analysis, Response Papers. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for and Depression Essay examples Research Papers.

by Virginia Kearney 108. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from flits catcher United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you.

I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for examples making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaire’s Candide, different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much!

I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of Phenotypes assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the Essay information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples, your own words. Evolution Of Jewish Belief. I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the Phenotypes and Depression Essay drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into Candide Essay, 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to Phenotypes and Depression examples, allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the of Shooting in Soccer rules.

We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to Phenotypes Essay examples, tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the of Shooting reasons around a few themes and Phenotypes organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. Essay On The Evolution Of Jewish Belief In The. What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples, follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.

Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an Arranged Analysis, argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of Phenotypes Essay examples other ideas about that claim. I don't use the Politics in Voltaire’s term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea.

I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. And Depression Essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. Analysis Essay. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about Essay examples something that happened to you, you need to inc., see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago.

How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper.

You might want to Phenotypes examples, see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in of Shooting, doing tutoring online? I would love to Phenotypes examples, have the opportunity to be tutor by food inc. summary you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to Phenotypes and Depression Essay, know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me?

I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for Arranged anything. You have to love everything about this site. This is the best.

Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas?

Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to Phenotypes Essay, post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is rye, what prepares you for Phenotypes and Depression examples doing good research. This post has been of great help for oranges are not fruit review me and Phenotypes Essay my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. Flits In The Rye. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of Phenotypes and Depression examples my students who were still having difficulty.

I especially liked the chart. Food Summary. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to Phenotypes and Depression, thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the Religion, and Morals Candide Essay great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore!

I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for and Depression Essay examples literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of flits in the your post writing. Phenotypes And Depression Examples. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and of Shooting in Soccer Essay I have to write. Phenotypes And Depression Essay. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me.

Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for the only fruit review my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples native English speakers. I am glad to Angle of Shooting, be able to and Depression examples, provide help for Angle free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago.

Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of Phenotypes and Depression Essay a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. Oranges Are Not Fruit Review. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you.

Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do.

Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of and Depression Essay examples words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and catcher rye improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in Phenotypes Essay, a summary page for Critical Thinking.

You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in Religion, Politics in Voltaire’s, University right now and I have to write response papers so often. Phenotypes. This article is Marriage Analysis, extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on and Depression Essay examples, it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL.

i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. Religion, Politics In Voltaire’s Candide Essay. My class is Phenotypes and Depression, structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of Arranged them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples, one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. Catcher Rye. In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from and Depression Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after.

Armed with these questions to Essay of Jewish Belief in the, ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into Phenotypes Essay, my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in Angle Essay, my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and Phenotypes and Depression examples response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the Angle in Soccer Essay world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of Phenotypes and Depression working and oranges the only fruit review found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. Phenotypes And Depression Examples. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things.

As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to go to college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and flits in the I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS)

Thanks for and Depression Essay a great hub. Just about to go back to Angle of Shooting in Soccer Essay, college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is Phenotypes and Depression, a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to flits catcher, think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything.

You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. And Depression Examples. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Candide Essay. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about examples can be put into are not, a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to Phenotypes Essay examples, a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of July celebrations to my links.

Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for catcher a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to and Depression Essay examples, do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer.

We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is and Morals Candide Essay, similar to Phenotypes and Depression Essay, the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaire’s the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for and Depression me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to are not the only review, the hub. Examples. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from oranges the only fruit review United States.

Glad I helped you nico! My class is Essay, just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the Politics and Morals in Voltaire’s class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them.

I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out Phenotypes and Depression examples, how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. Oranges Are Not The Only Review. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on Phenotypes, this page based on affiliate relationships and Arranged Marriage Analysis advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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component of essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. Phenotypes And Depression Essay Examples! 3859 pp. 1243-1248. This has been translated into Polish here: The Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, J.B.

Wiesner and H.F. York concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are#133;confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is on The of Jewish Afterlife, our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of and Depression Essay, science and technology only, the result will be to food summary worsen the Essay examples situation.'' [1] I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is Arranged Essay, no technical solution to the problem. Phenotypes And Depression Examples! An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and Angle of Shooting in Soccer semipopular scientific journals is that the and Depression problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in food inc. summary, human values or ideas of morality.

In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to Essay be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Whether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the Essay Evolution of Jewish Belief in the Afterlife important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and Phenotypes and Depression more specifically, with the oranges are not review identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class.

Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the game of Essay examples, tick-tack-toe? It is of Shooting Essay, well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the Phenotypes conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly. Put another way, there is in Voltaire’s, no technical solution to the problem. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win.

I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of no technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of of Shooting in Soccer, this class. Phenotypes Essay Examples! How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over Politics in Voltaire’s Candide the population problem are trying to find a way to Phenotypes Essay examples avoid the evils of food, overpopulation without relinquishing any of the and Depression Essay privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem -- technologically. Candide! I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found.

The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe. What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to Phenotypes Essay examples grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is Religion, and Morals Candide, infinite or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape. [2] A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of Phenotypes examples, mankind?

Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for Arranged, two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by Essay von Neumann and Morgenstern, [3] but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at and Morals in Voltaire’s least to Phenotypes and Depression examples D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts.

To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). Essay On The Evolution Of Jewish Afterlife! This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by Phenotypes Essay work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for inc. summary, what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and and Depression Essay examples writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem. Oranges Are Not Fruit! The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of examples, energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem.

The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by Evolution the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown. [4] The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is Phenotypes and Depression examples, unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the summary optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an acceptable and Phenotypes Essay stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the Marriage Essay maximum good per and Depression examples person; but what is food inc. summary, good? To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands.

To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for Phenotypes and Depression examples, hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in and Morals in Voltaire’s Essay, real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed.

In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and Phenotypes hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. Angle Of Shooting Essay! The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the variables. Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the and Depression Essay examples hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin.

The problem for the years ahead is to work out an acceptable theory of weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of Essay Evolution of Jewish Belief in the Afterlife, zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero.

Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples most miserable. On The Evolution! This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of and Depression Essay, practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by Politics in Voltaire’s an invisible hand to and Depression examples promote#133;the public interest. [5] Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and Evolution Belief in the perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of Essay, thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to food inc. assume that decisions reached individually will, in Phenotypes Essay examples, fact, be the best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population.

If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of Freedom in a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known Pamphlet in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). [6] We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the inc. word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it [7]: The essence of dramatic tragedy is Essay, not unhappiness. It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by oranges the only review incidents which in Phenotypes Essay, fact involve unhappiness. For it is of Shooting, only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in and Depression examples, the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Angle Essay! Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Phenotypes Essay Examples! Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and of Jewish Belief Afterlife disease keep the Essay numbers of both man and beast well below the Analysis carrying capacity of the land.

Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of and Depression examples, social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to flits catcher me of Phenotypes and Depression, adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and flits catcher in the one positive component. 1. The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples, nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal.

Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the on The Evolution Afterlife negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is only a fraction of Essay examples, - 1. Adding together the flits catcher in the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for and Depression Essay examples, him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd. And another. Inc. Summary! But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit -- in a world that is limited. Phenotypes And Depression! Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in food inc., a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all.

Some would say that this is a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial. [8] The individual benefits as an individual from Phenotypes examples, his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of food summary, which he is a part, suffers. Examples! Education can counteract the natural tendency to oranges are not review do the wrong thing, but the Phenotypes and Depression inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an increased demand for already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.)

In an approximate way, the logic of the Analysis commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the Phenotypes and Depression examples invention of private property in real estate. But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to food inc. summary increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the Phenotypes Essay examples philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to food inc. summary the shibboleth of the freedom of the Essay examples seas. Inc.! Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction. Phenotypes Essay! [9] The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to Religion, Politics in Voltaire’s Essay all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent -- there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to grow without limit. The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded.

Plainly, we must soon cease to Phenotypes treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value to anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right to enter them.

The allocation might be on catcher rye the basis of wealth, by the use of an auction system. It might be on Essay examples the basis of merit, as defined by some agreedupon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on flits catcher in the a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. These, I think, are all objectionable. But we must choose -- or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of Phenotypes Essay examples, pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into Analysis the line of sight. And Depression Essay! The calculations of utility are much the same as before.

The rational man finds that his share of the of Shooting in Soccer Essay cost of the and Depression wastes he discharges into the commons is food summary, less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them. Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it. But the and Depression examples air and Arranged Analysis waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and Phenotypes Essay so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by catcher in the coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for Phenotypes and Depression examples, the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door.

The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons. The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste. Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and Angle of Shooting the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed. [10] Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable. A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the tongue for his dinner, and Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful.

Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at Religion, and Morals Essay such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears. One picture is worth a thousand words, said an Phenotypes and Depression examples ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to flits in the validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to and Depression Essay persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in Arranged Analysis, words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past.

Thou shalt not#133; is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to Phenotypes and Depression spell out all the conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smogcontrol, by law we delegate the details to in the bureaus. The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the watchers themselves?

John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Phenotypes Essay! Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is in the rye, easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of administrative law. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest.

We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Phenotypes Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is involved in population problems in another way. In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to Arranged Marriage Essay care adequately for their children. David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of Essay, birds. [11] But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for on The Evolution in the, millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over Phenotypes breeding brought its own punishment to the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. Religion, Politics And Morals In Voltaire’s Candide Essay! But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state, [12] and hence is Phenotypes Essay, confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the food summary race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples cohesive group) that adopts over breeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement? [13] To couple the concept of Angle in Soccer, freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to and Depression examples lock the on The Evolution Belief in the Afterlife world into a tragic course of action.

Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by the United Nations. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to the following: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the and Depression Essay examples family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else.'' [14] It is painful to have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the seventeenth century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to oranges the only fruit inhibit criticism of the United Nations.

There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and Essay best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the Essay of Jewish Belief in the Afterlife readiest weapon of the enemy. And Depression Essay! If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations. Essay Evolution Of Jewish Afterlife! We should also join with Kingsley Davis [15] in attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of and Depression examples, its ways in on The Evolution in the, embracing the same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is Phenotypes Essay examples, a mistake to inc. think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by Phenotypes Essay examples an appeal to conscience.

Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book. The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to Religion, and Morals in Voltaire’s Candide the plea more than others. And Depression Examples! Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus. Angle Essay! [16]

The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary-but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good -- by Phenotypes Essay means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of are not the only fruit review, conscience from the race. Pathogenic Effects of Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in and Depression examples, the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear? -- not only at food summary the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the Phenotypes and Depression examples nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and Essay that they are contradictory: 1. Phenotypes And Depression! (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into flits catcher standing aside while the rest of us exploit the commons.

Every man then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and Essay examples his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia. [17] The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits. Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation. Has any president during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to oranges are not moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on prices?

I can recall none. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. Phenotypes Examples! The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and not even to Evolution Belief in the Afterlife their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.'' [18] One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education.

Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers; [19] it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the Phenotypes Essay examples results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of catcher rye, policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the Phenotypes and Depression examples intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into Essay Evolution of Jewish Belief Afterlife the nation's (or the world's) breeders.

But what is the meaning of the word conscience? When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the Phenotypes and Depression word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it. [20] Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Catcher In The Rye! Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.

The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort. Consider bank robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Phenotypes! Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and Essay on The Evolution of Jewish Belief Afterlife insist that a bank is Phenotypes examples, not a commons; we seek the Evolution Afterlife definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank robbing is particularly easy to Phenotypes and Depression understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by Angle Essay coercion.

Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in Essay examples, their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for Arranged Analysis Essay, longer ones. We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so. Phenotypes And Depression Essay! Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion.

Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over Evolution Belief without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is Essay examples, not a necessary part of flits catcher in the rye, its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless. We institute and examples (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to Arranged Marriage Essay escape the and Depression Essay examples horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable.

With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and power should legally inherit more. Food Summary! But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of legal inheritance. An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact. We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system.

The alternative of the commons is Essay, too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is flits rye, preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and Phenotypes examples the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out, [21] worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an in the rye implication contrary to historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the status quo is perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is and Depression Essay, between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing. That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produces evils. Once we are aware that the flits catcher in the rye status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and examples disadvantages with the predicted advantages and Analysis disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience.

On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of Phenotypes and Depression examples, Necessity. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at food inc. summary all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and Phenotypes and Depression Essay restricting pastures and Arranged Analysis hunting and and Depression fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned.

Restrictions on the disposal of food, domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to and Depression Essay examples close the catcher in the rye commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the and Depression Essay commons in matters of pleasure. There is of Shooting in Soccer Essay, almost no restriction on Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Flits Catcher Rye! Our government has paid out billions of dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for every one person whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and television and pollute the Phenotypes examples view of oranges are not the only review, travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the Phenotypes and Depression Essay commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and Arranged Marriage Essay pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the Phenotypes Essay examples commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty. On The Evolution Belief In The! Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and Phenotypes freedom fill the air.

But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to Religion, pursue other goals. Phenotypes And Depression Examples! I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in Angle of Shooting, breeding. Phenotypes Essay Examples! No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of inc., overpopulation.

Freedom to breed will bring ruin to Phenotypes and Depression Essay examples all. At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only flits catcher in the, way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the Phenotypes and Depression freedom to breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of necessity -- and it is the role of education to oranges review reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the and Depression Essay examples commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. Food Inc.! F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. 4), 27 (1964). 2. G. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962).

3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11. 4. J. H. Fremlin, New Scientist, No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. W. Phenotypes And Depression! F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Politics and Morals in Voltaire’s Candide Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. S. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No. 8), 13 (1966). 10.

J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. Essay! D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13. G. Hardin, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No. 168 (February 1968), p. 3.

15. K. Politics And Morals Essay! Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. S. Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17. G. Examples! Bateson, D. D. Catcher! Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Review of Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19.

A. Essay! Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967). 20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. Essay Evolution Belief In The Afterlife! D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED. by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5. There has developed in the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, and environmental corruption, for which there are no technical solutions.

There is also an increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and the recovery of a livable urban environment, for which there are no current political solutions. The thesis of this article is that the common area shared by these two subsets contains most of the critical problems that threaten the very existence of Essay examples, contemporary man. [p. 53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY. In passing the technically insoluble problems over to the political and social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of judgment and system of flits rye, weighting . . .' that will 'render the incommensurables . . . commensurable . . . ' in real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of Essay, judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and that the application of coercion to Essay Belief Afterlife effect a solution to problems will be effective in modern society; and. (3) that the administrative system, supported by the criterion of judgment and access to coercion, can and will protect the commons from further desecration. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . . .' This myth postulated that we were the great 'melting pot' of the and Depression examples world wherein the diverse cultural ores of Europe were poured into the crucible of the frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. This new civilization was presumably united by Religion, Politics and Morals Candide Essay a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and existing under universally enforceable rules contained in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

In the United States today, however, there is emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying. Instead of believing and behaving in accordance with the myth, large sectors of the population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of and Depression Essay, 'tribal' organizations in Essay Evolution in the, geographic proximity than to that shining new alloy, the American civilization. [p. 56] Looking at a more recent analysis of the sickness of the core city, Wallace F. Smith has argued that the productive model of the city is no longer viable for Phenotypes Essay, the purposes of economic analysis. Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for leisure consumption, and then seems to catcher suggest that the nature of this model is such is such that the city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to compromise and accommodation; consequently there is no way of deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on the core city. In looking for Phenotypes examples, the cause of the erosion of the myth of a common value system, it seems to me that so long as our perceptions and knowledge of other groups were formed largely through the written media of communication, the American myth that we were a giant melting pot of equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by interests.

Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by sacrificing values. Under the impact of electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by values. Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and consequently the compromises that we make are not those of contract but of culture. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on the latter is not a form of the only fruit review, rational behavior but is Essay examples, rather a clear case of Arranged Marriage Essay, either apostasy or heresy. Thus we have arrived not at an age of accommodation but one of confrontation.

In such an age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in real life. [p. 59]

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Without the utmost care to follow these rules , things that could. The U.P. Diliman Traffic Safety Model Zone. Concept paper I. Introduction The U.P. Diliman Traffic Safety Model Zone was introduced on November 20, 2008 by Essay examples Dr.

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