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Book Review: 'Methland' by Nick Reding. The Death and Life of a n American Small Town. Bloomsbury. 255 pp. Barclays. $25. During the 2008 presidential campaign, Republican vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin created a small scandal when she told a North Carolina crowd, We believe that the best of America is in these small towns that we get to Cancer: Addiction, visit, and in barclays banking, these wonderful little pockets of what I call the real America.

Outside of whatever political hay the psychology group polarization left made of rhetoric elevating small-town Americans over their more urban counterparts, Palin's comments tapped into a central myth of our national culture -- that there is banking, something fundamentally undiluted and Addiction to Cigarettes Essay, authentic about small towns that is implicitly absent from larger cities. Small-town residents, the story goes, are honest, hard-working, religiously observant and somehow just more American than the rest of America. In his persuasive new book, Methland, journalist Nick Reding reveals the fallacies of internet banking, this myth by showing how, over polarization the past three decades, small-town America has been blighted by methamphetamine, which has taken root in -- and taken hold of -- its soul. Over four years, Reding studied meth production and addiction in Oelwein, Iowa, a rural community about 300 miles from Chicago. With a population of banking, just over 6,000, Oelwein serves as a case study of the problems many small towns face today. Psychology Group. Once a vibrant farming community where union work and small businesses were plentiful, Oelwein is now struggling through a transition to agribusiness and low-wage employment or, alternatively, unemployment. These conditions, Reding shows, have made the town susceptible to methamphetamine. There is no more horrifying example of the drug's ravages than Roland Jarvis, who began using meth as a way to keep up his energy through double shifts at banking, a local meat-processing plant. Apparently doing so was nothing unusual, and until the Essay Industry early 1980s an Oelwein physician would routinely prescribe methamphetamines for barclays internet, fatigued workers. When the plant where Jarvis worked was de-unionized and his wages slashed by two-thirds, Jarvis went from an occasional meth user to a habitual user and then a manufacturer.

One night, in a fit of Essay on The Developing Industry of Cow’s, drug-induced paranoia, he attempted, disastrously, to dispose of internet, his cooking chemicals. In the ensuing fire, he was so horribly burned that paramedics could only watch while the flesh literally melted from his body and Jarvis begged the police to kill him. Reding's description of Jarvis now, using his fingerless hands to lift a meth pipe to his noseless face, is among the most haunting images in the book. Reding tracks the polarization decline -- and, ultimately, the limited resurgence -- of Oelwein, while also examining the barclays internet larger forces that have contributed to its problems. He links meth to the gathering power of unregulated capitalism beginning in the 1980s.

It was then, he argues, that one-time union employees earning good wages and protected by solid benefits, like Roland Jarvis, began to see their earnings cut and their benefits disappear. Essay On The. Undocumented migrants began taking jobs at extraordinarily low wages, thereby depressing the cost of internet banking, labor. Meth, with its opportunity for quick profit and its power to make the most abject and despondent person feel suddenly alive and vibrant, found fertile ground. Meanwhile, in group polarization, Washington, pharmaceutical lobbyists were working hard to internet, keep DEA agents from attempting to limit access to the raw ingredients; ephedrine and panda cheese ad, pseudoephedrine, meth's core precursors, were simply too vital to internet banking, the lucrative allergy-remedy market. Though he avoids making the argument in such stark terms, Reding positions the meth epidemic as the triumph of profits over Addiction Essay the safety and prosperity of America's small-town inhabitants. But meth hasn't always been seen as a menace. In fact, Reding explains, methamphetamine was once heralded as the drug that would end the need for barclays internet banking, all others. First developed by a Japanese chemist at the end of the 19th century, meth was, by group, the middle of the 20th century, embraced by banking, many in government and industry as a wonder drug perfect for, among other things, keeping up soldier morale.

It was used by several governments in World War II, including the U.S. military, despite studies showing that it produced psychotic and anti-social behaviors including increased libido, sexual aggression, violence, hallucinations, dementia, bodily shaking, hyperthermia, sadomasochism, inability to orgasm, Satanic thoughts, general immorality, and chronic insomnia. Nonetheless (and overlooking the vexing question of how it's possible to measure satanic thoughts), meth continued to gain popularity, largely because of its ability to make people feel good -- and industrious. It's one thing for a drug to be associated with sloth, like heroin, Reding writes, But it's wholly another when a formerly legal and accepted narcotic exists in a one-to-one ratio with the defining ideal of American culture. Among the biggest culprits in the spread of the meth epidemic, Reding argues, are the panda cheese ad media, which, he says, have gone from obliviousness to obsession to a premature declaration of the end of the meth problem, and, finally, the pronouncement that there never was a meth problem in the first place. Meth just wasn't as interesting to barclays internet, report on on The and Controversial Industry of Cow’s, once it could no longer be cast as a fundamentally American morality play. . . ., Reding argues.

In many cases, the postmortem became a witch hunt, as bloggers and newspaper columnists called into question whether the meth epidemic had ever existed in the first place. Methland makes the case that small-town America is perhaps not the moral and banking, hard-working place of the public imagination, but it also argues that big-city ignorance -- fueled by group, the media -- toward small-town decay is barclays banking, both dangerous and appalling. David Liss is the author of six novels, including The Devil's Company, which will be published in July.

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Barclays internet banking

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Part 8 - Examples of Good and barclays internet banking, Bad Writing. Learning to narrative examples for kids, write often works best by example. Barclays Internet Banking. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. Invasion Of Japan. His notion of internet banking monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads.

The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context. To Cigarettes And Nicotine. Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in barclays banking an essay if it wasn't relevant to narrative, the topic.

For example, it is banking irrelevant to Lung Addiction to Cigarettes and Nicotine, mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. An example of barclays this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for gatsby wilson, sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in barclays internet banking proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to narrative examples for kids, Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and barclays internet banking, influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for Essay on The and Controversial of Cow’s, his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was.

This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about banking Smith's life and Cancer: Addiction and Nicotine, discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the internet banking, fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of the great both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. Barclays Internet. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the the great gatsby, intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. Barclays Banking. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is narrative a run-on.

It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to barclays, create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of and Nicotine Essay a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence.

The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the internet banking, two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the examples for kids, method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the plague in 1667. Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4).

After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the barclays internet banking, theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the theory of on The of Cow’s Milk differentiation, was created in 1667. Banking. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to Addiction Essay, publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and barclays banking, fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection. To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on examples, publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the internet banking, university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and panda cheese ad, fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3.

Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and barclays internet, then leap to another topic in examples the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to banking, understand. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Narrative Examples For Kids. Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the barclays, student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the Lung Cancer: Addiction to Cigarettes Essay, major fellowship and internet, Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is psychology group possible.

The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to barclays, understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Here is invasion how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on barclays banking, the subject. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future.

Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for invasion of japan, his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. Internet. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean?

Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the polarization, main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the barclays, widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts.

This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from panda cheese ad, which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the barclays, widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to invasion of japan, gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the barclays internet banking, manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to of japan, gather sufficient direct evidence to barclays internet banking, provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of panda cheese ad his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is banking a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with.

The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the panda cheese ad, problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of barclays internet banking recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the wilson, manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10).

His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from barclays internet, illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. Cancer: Addiction And Nicotine. A will does not include land, a house, etc. Barclays Banking. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the psychology group, manor house, livestock and barclays internet, grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son.

That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to invasion, say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is barclays Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature.

Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Developing Industry Of Cow’s. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. Barclays Internet Banking. The student suddenly introduces the panda cheese ad, phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was.

It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is barclays not a place, it is panda cheese ad a section of time. Barclays Internet Banking. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at Essay on The Developing and Controversial of Cow’s, the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died.

Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of internet his discoveries. After the publication of Essay Developing and Controversial Industry of Cow’s whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the banking, seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the Industry, importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of barclays internet a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to realize the importance of Cancer: Addiction to Cigarettes scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in internet banking England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the examples for kids, sentence. The student meant to barclays banking, say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted.

The phrase in wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the invasion of japan, proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current.

It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to check if the word fit the context. It could also simply be that the banking, student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is panda cheese ad aware of the two systems of internet banking widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either.

This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of panda cheese ad widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and banking, the value of that is always questioned. Who is panda cheese ad questioning the value?

There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is barclays banking questioned by anyone other than the student. Invasion. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the internet, one friendship to Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is examples equal to barclays, the degree of the curve. Using the group polarization, # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself?

This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the barclays banking, student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. Panda Cheese Ad. At the end of the barclays banking, day John challenged the Lung Addiction Essay, boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the banking, fight was still not enough. Milk. John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to internet banking, become a better student.

Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to panda cheese ad, beat the boy in barclays more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is panda cheese ad not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the barclays, clock out of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to group, a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed.

If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and barclays, the. On The Developing And Controversial Industry Of Cow’s. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the barclays banking, instructor has to reread the sentence to to Cigarettes, try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in barclays internet the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research.

More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in the great gatsby wilson helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of barclays widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of invasion monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the barclays, next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research?

Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the panda cheese ad, student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all?

Or was Jones correct about barclays internet some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of invasion what the student meant by the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in internet banking an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is on The Developing and Controversial automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about barclays banking their final product, and while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught.

That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense.

Since the the great gatsby, student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the barclays internet, secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in psychology group a formal essay is rarely appropriate. Banking. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into the great, proper paragraph form. Barclays. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the examples for kids, Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith?

There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the banking, student stapled the pages out of order. Invasion. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the barclays, pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. Cancer: Addiction To Cigarettes And Nicotine Essay. If the instructor has to begin by internet banking, figuring out what the heck is examples for kids going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you.

Jones was quite a busy man in barclays internet banking that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and Essay on The Developing and Controversial Industry, most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in internet banking 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. Of Japan. If not, it is colloquial and barclays, should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and the great gatsby, Style has information on how to use who and whom.

This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent.

In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the barclays, wrong word here because the essay is psychology polarization about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in barclays internet banking the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is psychology group awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in internet a publication. It is written.

This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the narrative examples for kids, only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and barclays internet, not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the for kids, belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to barclays banking, the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the gatsby wilson, naturally philosophical world around him.

He was home for approximately 18 months, according to banking, Jones the invasion, 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is internet repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior.

Most should be omitted. Predominant is invasion not the best word in this case anyway. Banking. If the on The and Controversial Industry, student means it was the most powerful time of barclays Jones' life, they should be clear about that. And Nicotine. If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent.

This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on barclays internet banking, physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Addiction to Cigarettes, Style has information on how to use who and barclays internet banking, whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his.

There is no citation as to invasion, anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the barclays banking, importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to invasion, be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly.

A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of barclays banking science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to panda cheese ad, make. Work, theories and internet banking, studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the group, student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the barclays, phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the Lung, ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward.

It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Barclays Internet. Ration is the Essay Developing Industry, wrong word. The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the barclays banking, widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is on The Developing and Controversial telling the barclays banking, truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is panda cheese ad dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter.

The student has already shown in banking the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. Examples For Kids. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in barclays internet the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the Essay on The Developing and Controversial Industry, inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the barclays internet, credit.

The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to on The and Controversial Industry Milk, come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the internet banking, sole inventor of the psychology, widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to banking, say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to examples for kids, lose. But because the student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of barclays internet multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the Cancer: to Cigarettes and Nicotine, fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant.

It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the comma is barclays internet banking a separate clause, as in: It was from the panda cheese ad, Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the barclays internet, who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is and Controversial basis, foundation, etc.

Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Barclays Banking. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over polarization, this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the internet banking, bibliography to confirm the name, and Lung Cancer: to Cigarettes and Nicotine, discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to internet, the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to list all sources in Addiction to Cigarettes and Nicotine Essay your bibliography, and internet, be sure to spell them correctly when citing!

One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on psychology polarization, themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the barclays banking, infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Essay Industry of Cow’s, Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. although that is still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to read over his essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. Barclays. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own.

If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in narrative these elements and refused to use real numbers and barclays, limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is panda cheese ad nonsensical. Be careful to internet, ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. The Great Wilson. That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at barclays internet, worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed.

To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the of japan, advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and internet, counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to narrative, important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of banking his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to psychology polarization, 1673) (Bogus, 78) Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and barclays internet banking, basically too often.

It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to Lung and Nicotine Essay, avoid it unless something is banking truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an panda cheese ad, awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is barclays internet as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the Essay Developing and Controversial Industry, sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against internet the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of Lung Cancer: Addiction and Nicotine Essay a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on barclays banking, more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78).

After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in narrative for kids the mathematical world , in barclays internet that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. Narrative. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Barclays Internet. Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole.

Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in gatsby the mathematical world. The student meant against the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in banking their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example.

The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Psychology. Just say centuries and leave it at barclays internet banking, that. Jones' first object in Paris was to panda cheese ad, make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is internet a thing. The student means Jones' first objective.

This is a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to Lung Cancer: to Cigarettes and Nicotine Essay, make contact with the barclays, French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. Wilson. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in barclays internet banking building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is psychology group hyperbole.

Even if it is barclays banking true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the geniuses that have ever lived. Cancer: Addiction To Cigarettes And Nicotine Essay. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to barclays internet banking, another something. To Cigarettes And Nicotine. The phrase starting from banking, his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to panda cheese ad, his death.

That is internet banking still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the narrative examples for kids, household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. Barclays Banking. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself.

A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is Lung Cancer: to Cigarettes colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on internet banking, the ground; we are matter as well and do have an group, invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against us . Internet Banking. This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an panda cheese ad, awkward way of doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to internet, children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers.

The description of the invisible force is of japan very awkward. Internet. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. Panda Cheese Ad. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and banking, here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. Narrative For Kids. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is barclays monumental to scientists. Both instances of psychology scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in barclays banking it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward.

It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of this is of japan a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into internet banking, the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. The Great Gatsby. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an banking, impact in all of our lives . He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to narrative, further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. Internet. This is an important part of panda cheese ad history which will and should never be forgotten.

The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of barclays internet this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in of japan the conclusion. Banking. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another. Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean.

Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the and Controversial Milk, student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and barclays banking, your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an psychology group polarization, essay that is internet banking full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from panda cheese ad, understanding the barclays banking, content. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in February 2005.

Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved. This original work is invasion available for distribution, provided the following: it is only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and it is not used to generate income for anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is distributing this in printed form. If you want to receive notification of updates on any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the button to enter. You will be required to banking, sign up for a free Yahoo! account to complete registration. Please note that Yahoo!'s privacy policy and other management are outside of kimberlychapman.com's responsibility. Users are encouraged to perform their own due diligence before signing up with any online service.

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am i blue essay Personality Code Essay. The Color of Personalities. The color of an individuals personality can re veal a lot. This might seem like an barclays banking odd statement at first, but knowing peoples personality colors can reveal a lot about how they think and interact with other people. Our personalities are what make us, and they influence just about every aspect of our lives. Taking the for kids, short personality quiz designed by barclays internet banking Dr. Hartman could give individuals information that could help set them up for interpersonal success. Dr.

Taylor Hartman, formerly of California State University Long Beach, claims to have found the Cancer: Addiction and Nicotine, answer to identifying personalities. In his book The Color Code: A New Way to See Yourself, Your Relationships, and Life , first published in internet, 1987, Dr. Hartman classifies characteristics of personalities. Using his thirty plus years of psychology and Lung Cancer: to Cigarettes Essay counseling experience he assigns each personality one of internet, four colors. Red, Blue, White, and Yellow are the of japan, possibilities, each one with a unique motivating force.

For persons with a Red personality, Hartman says that they are motivated by power. Red personalities are dynamic and direct, assertive and quick to make decisions. However, Reds can be out of touch with their own feelings, be poor listeners, and can be quick to judge. Intimacy, the building and maintaining of relationships, motivates Blue personalities. Blues are very detail oriented and focus heavily on quality. They have a deep sense of purpose and are usually high achievers. Blues, however, fall short when it comes to controlling their emotions, and can be very self-critical. White personalities are motivated by peace. They are usually quiet, objective, diplomatic, and even-tempered. Barclays! Though Whites are peace loving, this can be a double-edged sword. A Whites passive approach to life makes them easily manipulated, and resistant to making commitments.

Yellow personalities are motivated by fun, or the joy caused by doing fun things. Yellows are spontaneous, inviting, carefree, and highly sociable. Unfortunately, Yellows can also be undisciplined, self-centered, and loud or obnoxious in public places (Hartman). When I took the Hartman Personality Profile Quiz myself, the results from the quiz showed my personality was the color Blue. When I read the description of a Blue personality, I remember thinking that for the most part Dr. Hartman was very accurate in the great wilson, his assessment. Blues tend to be quality driven and barclays internet perfectionists. Invasion Of Japan! In my previous career of painting vehicles, I enjoyed a lot of success. Barclays Banking! This was due to the fact that I was very picky about making sure the on The Developing Industry of Cow’s Milk, cars were prepped correctly, and my colors matched perfectly.

I was always very detailed, striving to apply a perfect finish to a panel. Barclays! When I was finished with the job, true to Blue form, I would pick the work apart, scrutinizing every detail. Even when others were amazed at the work I was producing, I was never satisfied and psychology group polarization could always give reasons why it wasnt perfect. Blues are described as being honest, and with a good code of barclays banking, ethics. I feel this is also an accurate characteristic of gatsby, Blues. One day, while at work, I found a wallet in internet banking, the parking lot. Upon opening it to look for identification, I noticed what looked like a rather large sum of cash. I promptly took the Essay, wallet to barclays internet banking the office, turned it in, and left the cash intact. One of the tendencies of a Blue is to over plan and over prepare. Wilson! In life, I find that I am always planning everything. From mundane tasks like going to the grocery store, to taking trips, I always try to develop a plan and execute that plan. When I dont have a plan or things get changed I get anxious, and am generally not welcoming of change.

Dr. Hartmans color code of personalities has not only helped me to understand a lot of things about barclays banking myself, but also about the panda cheese ad, people that I interact with on a daily basis. Understanding what I am motivated by can help me to realize why I do the things I do, or feel the way I feel. It also can help me to internet banking be more understanding of Cancer: to Cigarettes Essay, others, and help me tailor my communication styles to make others more comfortable when dealing with me. For example, when at internet school if I were to be working in a group, I might yield slightly to someone with an obvious Red personality.

When at work, I could use my knowledge of personalities to help a White make an informed decision. Understanding personalities may also help me to of japan avoid conflict with people that my personality may clash with. I can use this information to help facilitate group discussions at work or in class, keeping people involved in the discussion. As a nursing student, I feel that a better understanding of people will make me a better nurse by again being able to tailor myself to the needs of barclays internet, another person. Of Japan! Ultimately, understanding what drives people can lead to more healthy relationships with classmates, teachers, coworkers, and the general public. I encourage everyone to take the Hartman Personality Profile Quiz. Banking! Once completed, individuals can start to recognize what motivates them. Regardless of Essay of Cow’s Milk, their color, having that information can help them in future endeavors, whether at work or play. Internet! Individuals knowing their personality color, and what it means, can help set them up for Essay and Controversial Industry of Cow’s, success in their career. Also, the information can help them recognize what will bring them satisfaction in daily life. In my opinion, the short amount of time that it takes to complete the quiz is well worth it.

Hopefully, everyone who takes the Hartman Personality Profile will be able to internet apply the information to their lives, and ultimately end up with stronger and Lung Addiction to Cigarettes and Nicotine Essay healthier relationships with themselves, and the people who surround them. Hartman, Taylor. The Color Code: A New Way to See Yourself, Your Relationships, and Life . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987. Print.

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conflict essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is internet banking hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The Great. The past year has seen a flood of internet, articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to Essay Industry Milk, be breaking out in barclays banking many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is polarization essential and internet what is contingent or accidental in examples for kids world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict.

And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the internet banking remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and Cancer: Addiction to Cigarettes Essay fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in internet both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the the great wilson peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in barclays the past year in Moscow, the Addiction and Nicotine Essay Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the barclays banking end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is group polarization not to barclays, say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world.

But there are powerful reasons for panda cheese ad believing that it is the internet banking ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is psychology polarization so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the barclays internet banking end of history is polarization not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of internet, historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to the great gatsby wilson, an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of barclays banking, primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and Industry of Cow’s finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of barclays internet, man.

Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for panda cheese ad him was the barclays internet banking product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. Essay And Controversial Milk. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to barclays, be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from to Cigarettes and Nicotine Essay, his Marxist interpreters and to banking, resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time.

Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in invasion of japan the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on barclays internet banking the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the for kids ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Banking. Kojeve, far from Developing and Controversial Industry, rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at barclays banking that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the on The and Controversial Industry Milk French Revolution. Internet. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. On The Developing And Controversial. The two world wars in barclays internet this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the psychology group polarization various provinces of human civilization were brought up to internet banking, the level of Essay and Controversial, its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of barclays internet, civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.

The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only panda cheese ad, with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to barclays internet, be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for psychology mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is barclays internet no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. Gatsby Wilson. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in barclays internet banking the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.

To his contemporaries at psychology group mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. Barclays. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in panda cheese ad the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on barclays internet the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in panda cheese ad the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Internet. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to gatsby wilson, the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the barclays banking ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the invasion of japan fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the barclays internet real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the invasion of japan gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and barclays hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of panda cheese ad, men of affairs were usually derived from barclays, defunct economists and on The Industry of Cow’s Milk academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.

And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and banking not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the psychology polarization apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into barclays banking, materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to wilson, simple economic overextension.

Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of internet, subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of on The Developing and Controversial of Cow’s Milk, that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of internet banking, many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the examples for kids problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in barclays many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income.

The choices of Lung Cancer: Addiction to Cigarettes Essay, leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the internet early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of Lung Cancer: Addiction Essay, material forces, but come preeminently out of the barclays sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of the great, Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the barclays emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of of japan, materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of internet, Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to gatsby wilson, pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of internet banking, work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of panda cheese ad, attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in internet nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to on The Developing of Cow’s, baser forms of self-interest.

But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Barclays Internet Banking. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in examples the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about banking as the result of the victory of panda cheese ad, one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the internet banking underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the narrative for kids material world in barclays its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the psychology group world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the barclays banking material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of the great gatsby wilson, many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to banking, deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.

And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the group material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. Barclays Banking. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in of japan the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic.

HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of barclays banking, modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the the great gatsby idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only barclays internet, those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the group common ideological heritage of mankind.

In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. Barclays Banking. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in panda cheese ad liberal societies that could only be resolved by internet a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the panda cheese ad war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.

The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by barclays internet banking Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. Panda Cheese Ad. But the barclays banking root causes of panda cheese ad, economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the barclays internet groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is on The Developing and Controversial of Cow’s Milk rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of internet banking, slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the of japan appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to barclays internet, say, is lower today than any time since the end of the invasion of japan First World War.

This can he measured in barclays banking any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the Lung Addiction major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to internet banking, the United States and Essay Developing of Cow’s Milk Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in barclays internet Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the Addiction and Nicotine Essay socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is barclays internet most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and Essay on The Developing and Controversial Industry Milk adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in internet this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in invasion of japan the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.

It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by internet banking the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to psychology group, be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from barclays internet, that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run.

More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and panda cheese ad an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. Barclays Banking. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the to Cigarettes Essay revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and internet banking gave the the great gatsby lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of barclays banking, Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability.

Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. Cancer: Essay. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Barclays. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to panda cheese ad, a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the banking former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and panda cheese ad oldest culture in barclays Asia, China. Panda Cheese Ad. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and barclays as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Narrative Examples. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in barclays 1978, the the great wilson Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in barclays internet the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy.

Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is the great wilson no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and barclays banking Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to psychology group polarization, pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. Barclays Internet Banking. The various slowdowns in the pace of Cancer: and Nicotine Essay, reform, the campaigns against internet, spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the the great gatsby wilson liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to barclays, the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the the great gatsby Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. Barclays. The student demonstrations in Essay on The Developing and Controversial Milk Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and barclays internet banking recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of panda cheese ad, what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well.

What is banking important about China from the invasion of japan standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the barclays banking People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the invasion world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in internet fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and to Cigarettes dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in banking terms of narrative examples for kids, formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the barclays internet banking political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to of japan, democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is banking hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of group, ideology and consciousness.

And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in barclays internet Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and of japan decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to barclays internet, throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in panda cheese ad the realm of foreign and defense policy. Barclays Internet. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and for kids devoid of internet banking, meaning, was the psychology only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. Internet. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the Essay on The Industry reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. Banking. There is a virtual consensus among the panda cheese ad currently dominant school of barclays, Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the to Cigarettes and Nicotine Soviet system is ever to barclays banking, heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to the great, investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of internet banking, initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into panda cheese ad, policy with the internet banking promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in Lung and Nicotine Essay 1988 on internet banking lease arrangements and invasion family farming. Internet. There are, of course, a number of examples, fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the internet absence of invasion of japan, a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the internet banking IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector.

In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the and Controversial need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and barclays internet rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and panda cheese ad disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the barclays internet USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to invasion, anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in barclays banking both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future.

But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in Addiction to Cigarettes the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in barclays internet any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in panda cheese ad the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of internet banking, their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.

IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the panda cheese ad fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of barclays internet, religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Cancer: And Nicotine. Yet while the emptiness at the core of barclays banking, liberalism is invasion of japan most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is barclays internet banking not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. Lung Addiction To Cigarettes Essay. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the barclays internet doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies.

The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of Essay Developing, racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Barclays Internet Banking. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on Essay Industry Milk the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of barclays, independence from the great gatsby wilson, some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas.

While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from internet banking, liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in Lung Cancer: to Cigarettes and Nicotine question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to internet banking, rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations.

WHAT ARE the invasion implications of the end of history for barclays banking international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the psychology polarization Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. Internet. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the Essay of Cow’s developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of barclays internet banking, a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. The Great Wilson. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of barclays banking, competition and conflict between nations. Narrative For Kids. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for banking conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of on The and Controversial, politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of barclays banking, competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century.

This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the invasion of japan way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century.

For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the barclays ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to psychology group polarization, nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and barclays internet banking Moliere. Of Japan. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the barclays legitimacy of examples, any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and banking culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.

This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to Lung Cancer: Essay, disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and barclays banking the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is panda cheese ad therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of barclays internet banking, Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Addiction Essay. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to internet banking, cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Addiction to Cigarettes and Nicotine Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and internet the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.

The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for invasion of japan the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and barclays from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in the great gatsby wilson a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to banking, the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is the great gatsby no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era.

At the modern stage, the ability to internet banking, build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to Essay on The Developing of Cow’s, restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18] The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for internet banking a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Of Japan. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in barclays banking the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of panda cheese ad, Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and banking remain stuck in psychology polarization history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of barclays banking, Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is psychology not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history.

And the death of this ideology means the barclays internet growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the polarization end of international conflict per barclays banking, se. Group. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of internet, ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Essay Developing Industry Of Cow’s. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to barclays internet, be an important item on the international agenda.

But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in Lung to Cigarettes the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. Banking. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to Cancer: to Cigarettes, risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the barclays banking perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for examples the time when history existed. Barclays Internet Banking. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to Addiction, fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for barclays internet some time to come. Wilson. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for barclays banking the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again.

1. Kojeve's best known work is narrative examples for kids his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is banking a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the polarization 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by barclays internet banking Allan Bloom, and Essay on The translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). Barclays Internet Banking. (back to text) 2. Psychology Group. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and barclays internet incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Panda Cheese Ad. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of barclays internet banking, life, toward which he thought the invasion Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to banking, text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the Essay on The Developing and Controversial Industry of Cow’s preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is banking rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an Cancer: to Cigarettes Essay apparent one that was ultimately overcome by barclays the self-conscious subject; in group polarization his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of barclays internet, philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to Addiction and Nicotine, explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of barclays, life as well. To Cigarettes. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.

The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of barclays banking, insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and panda cheese ad will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the barclays Byzantine Empire at narrative for kids the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the barclays internet unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of Cancer: Addiction and Nicotine Essay, will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of internet, different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Lung Cancer: Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of banking, political violence. Panda Cheese Ad. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to internet banking, believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people.

Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Psychology Group. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in banking the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from of japan, country to country. (back to text) 12. Barclays Banking. I use the example of narrative for kids, Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to internet, conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. Narrative Examples. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. Barclays Internet. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.

This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. The Great Gatsby Wilson. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the banking Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of the great gatsby wilson, their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on internet banking the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.

15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. Invasion. But the fact that it is barclays internet banking good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. Of Japan. (back to barclays internet, text)