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oop essay I have tried to sort OOP's advantages. She Walks! Enjoy. Advantages of OOP. Object-Oriented Programming has the following advantages over depression inventories, conventional approaches: OOP provides a clear modular structure for she walks, programs which makes it good for defining abstract datatypes where implementation details are hidden and depression inventories, the unit has a clearly defined interface. She Walks! OOP makes it easy to maintain and modify existing code as new objects can be created with small differences to existing ones. OOP provides a good framework for code libraries where supplied software components can be easily adapted and iphone, modified by the programmer. This is particularly useful for developing graphical user interfaces.
Concepts of OOP: Objects Classes Data Abstraction and she walks, Encapsulation Inheritance Polymorphism. Objects are the basic run-time entities in preventing and enhancing security an object-oriented system. Programming problem is analyzed in terms of objects and she walks, nature of communication between them. When a program is executed, objects interact with each other by what influenced shakespeare sending messages. Different objects can also interact with each other without knowing the details of their data or code. A class is a collection of she walks objects of similar type.
Once a class is defined, any number of objects can be created which belong to that class. Data Abstraction and Encapsulation. Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including the how to, background details or explanations. Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a list of abstract attributes. Storing data and functions in she walks a single unit (class) is what shakespeare encapsulation.
Data cannot be accessible to the outside world and only those functions which are stored in the class can access it. Inheritance is the process by which objects can acquire the she walks, properties of objects of other class. In OOP, inheritance provides reusability, like, adding additional features to an existing class without modifying it. This is achieved by depression deriving a new class from the existing one. The new class will have combined features of both the she walks, classes.
Polymorphism means the how to wiki, ability to take more than one form. An operation may exhibit different behaviors in different instances. The behavior depends on the data types used in the operation. Polymorphism is she walks extensively used in implementing Inheritance. Moritz: I started programming in Perl and then some C. I made heavy use of iphone versus multi-dimensional arrays to store large amounts of data. She Walks! Then when I came to Python, PHP and preventing and enhancing security, Java I really learned to like the OOP approach to programming, making it more easily to handle data, not having to she walks, remember the structure of multidimensional arrays.
Now, I just had to think what disadvantages OOP has. What do you think? Let's distinguish two sorts of disadvantages: OO is often provided through such imperfect vehicles as C++ and Java [discuss their defects]; and OO is inapplicable because [explain many mismatches]. Peter Newman 24 January 2005: To me, the main problem with OO is by indifference that some implementations (eg; C++) make it way too complicated and obscure. For example, a description of OO in C++ will be loaded with terms like:- classes instances nodes inheritance operator overloading type safety encapsulation polymorphism dynamic binding constructors/destructors. What the she walks, hell is all that crap? And who cares?
And just because the useful bits seem to you to be irrelevant, doesn't make them irrelevant. By Indifference! However, note that I am no C++ fan. Larry Smith In all honesty and speaking as someone who used C++ professionally for years -- C++ has passed the point of she walks usefulness. I have heard people say that Ada was a language designed by a committee to how to reference, prove that not all programming languages can be implemented, it is overly complex and difficult to understand, yet it is a model of simplicity and elegance compared to C++, which in its latest incarnation also demonstrates the pristine and readable qualities of APL. Frankly, C++ should have its head cut off and its head and body buried at she walks, a crossroad with garlic in its mouth and a stake though its heart. That probably won't kill it, but it should slow it down somewhat. On Jeff Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming! Nowadays I would never start a project in C++ that I ever thought I'd need to finish. I'd rather do it in she walks something simpler and death, more portable. She Walks! Like assembler.
But it would be useful to versus, identify exactly what the useful bits of OO were. She Walks! And thus, in what situations is an OO approach likely to be better/easier than a procedural/command-oriented approach. Many Tcl-ers think that the by indifference, main characteristic of object orientation is she walks only the parameter order in commands call. So they show such examples. Object orientation is much more [missing word?] (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming ). At the very least, object oriented languages need inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, abstraction and objects. Larry Smith Tk is object-oriented. Tcl is not, though it could easily have been if JO had thought about it when he defined the core language. He did not, he was writing an interpreter that could be easily bolted into death programs to provide extension scriptability, and Tcl is still one of the she walks, most useful tools for that ever written. And Enhancing! It was never intended to actually become a programming language in its own right. SYStems I strongly disagree, first learning Tcl helped me understand OOP better, in my opinion the most important aspects of she walks OOP (a paradigm in which I strongly believe) are. The abstraction that everything is an Object (1) And that objects serve two purposes; they know things and inventories, do things (2)
And Tcl probably beats any language on aspect no. 1 and can do aspect no. 2. You see in Tcl everything is she walks a command, there is not any other statement, OOP suggest that work is done by reference wiki sending messages to objects, objects that knows things and can do things, parameter to she walks, methods are other objects, anyway, in any OOP this is not entirely true, as any OOP have syntax to create objects or do special things, Tcl doesn't even have that, every statement is a command, and what, all command play by the same rules, no one is special, I believe this make the she walks, abstraction stronger. As for the knowing and what, doing, aspect, well, set knows stuff, and puts do stuff, actually puts also knows many things, so its not really about the knowing, its about learning, as a system executes, some object are able to learn stuff, and she walks, modifie it are work gets done on them, so as a principle Tcl have commands like set which learn stuff, the nasty bit is that proc, the most popular command for creating command dynamically doesn't create such command. But the many OO systems for still would, and they just create commands, everything is a command. So it doesn't really matter how many OO systems Tcl have, since the only interface Tcl knows, is the command, you see everything is shakespeare a command!
LV And Tk's widgets have encapsulation and objects. She Walks! Polymorphism is not always an accepted OO attribute requirement - the versus galaxy, Java folk have argued over that aspect quite some years. The main difference between procedural and object oriented programming is that the functional programmer try to split function and data (data structures). But object oriented programmers think in objects that hold data and functions (methods) together in one structure. And, in she walks fact, that's what Tk's widgets do. Because Tcl is string based it also has a kind of polymorphism. For example Tk: It looks like object oriented but indeed Tk does not supports inheritance (anyways Tix - try it). So button and label have no parent class and reference wiki, you can not derive a new widget type directly from button. It is quite unproductive to compare Tcl as procedural language with C++ or Java as object oriented language.
Because actually you will compare dynamic and static typed languages. The right way is to she walks, compare Tcl with Smalltalk, Ruby, Scheme, Python, Self or Tcl object oriented extensions like XOTcl. Quite impressive is the effort to compare Tcl's low level API for C and the Java Tcl-Interpreter. The Java API is much more clear and better for understanding (http://tcljava.sourceforge.net/docs/TclJavaLib/contents.htm ) . Depression Inventories! There is for example one polymorph method Interpreter.setResult() that accepts int, String, double and TclObject. Of course one can write programs without object orientation and she walks, you can write bad object oriented programs (Antipattern: Blob, Spagheti Code, Ghost class) especially if one comes from procedural programming background. Another interesting thing is that many systems written in procedural languages build their own object oriented systems for on Jeff Lindsay's Darkly, structure programs; for example Tix in Tcl or GTK in C. So object orientation is not only the languages but the way that one structures programs or thinks about programming (mental work).
Also many Tcl programmers use different methods (arrays, namespaces) for she walks, build their own pseudo-object oriented systems. Darkly Dexter Essay! I said pseudo because they often do not support all the object oriented characteristics and are ad hoc solutions for one application (reinvent the wheel). That makes it hard for analysis for another programmer. Lars H: Two quick remarks. She Walks! Perhaps someone wants to try refuting them? A common (but this is Analysis Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming Dexter biased, as I base this mostly on she walks programs I've encountered as a scientist) reason programmers choose e.g. C++ instead of wiki C seems to she walks, be not that they want OOP, but that they want some way of structuring their data. In most cases, they could just as easily have obtained their goal by using Tcl library functions for death, lists! OOP (to me as a non-practitioner) seems to she walks, work very well for unary operations (methods affect or query the state of one object: their own), but what about binary operations? If some operation requires the reference wiki, data stored in two objects, then it seems the methods for one will need to peek into the other.
Doing so destroys the encapsulation and implicit polymorphism; it becomes necessary to enumerate the cases that are supported. Thus when binary operations are common, OOP fares no better than procedural programming; perhaps even worse, as the situation is less transparent. Potrzebie, about 2: I think that one important part of OOP is to make binary operations into two unary operations. She Walks! A method should never have to access the variables of inventories another type of object. You hide the data behind methods. When an oven gets a pizza put into it, it shouldn't set the baked variable of the pizza to 1, but rather call the setTemperature method of the pizza, and that method in the pizza class makes the she walks, pizza baked. Then you can put other stuff into preventing terrorism security the oven as long as they have a setTemperature method, and with inheritance, you don't need to write a separate method for all classes.
You can inherit e.g. from the she walks, thingsThatArentAffectedByTemperatureChange class or thingsThatGetBaked class. This abstraction makes it more work to write OOP, but the award is modularity. NEM 13Sept2005 : I've no idea how old these comments are, (Lars H: They date back to terrorism security, January 2005.) but I thought I'd reply to them anyway. With regards to point 1, I actually think that people use C++ as a way of structuring code rather than data. C does offer some reasonable ways of she walks structuring data (structs, arrays, unions), but it offers essentially no method of organising functions.
Point 2 is really dependent on the OO system being used, e.g. CLOS and some other systems use multi-methods that can handle those sorts of mencap death operations. Honestly, though, I don't see it as much of a problem. These discussions about OOP as a whole are less than pointless. Object oriented programming is a cluster concept, which means a whole bunch of different things to different people. If we want a productive discussion, let's instead discuss individual features that have been associated with different OO models, and she walks, see which ones make sense for Tcl programmers. I think the most important concepts associated with OOP (by no means exclusively) are: Ad-hoc polymorphism : essentially being able to specialise an operation by type. Higher-order collections : bundling up a load of functions/procedures into a data structure to be passed around. Influenced Shakespeare! Message-passing components : structuring a program as a collection of she walks interpreters that respond to messages. You can argue about these definitions, but I think these are the core useful properties that OO systems tend to have.
Tcl already supports these properties to a greater or lesser degree. Reference Wiki! Ad-hoc polymorphism is she walks supported reasonably well by namespace ensembles, which are really not too different from objects. Namespaces can also be seen as higher-order data structures, although I'd prefer to use lambda terms and dicts for this. Ensembles also work ok as message-passing components, and have the advantage that most people already structure their code in terms of namespaces, so adding a [namespace ensemble create] will go a long way towards this in 8.5. Structuring code as components that respond to death, messages is nice in she walks that it scales up -- those same messages can easily be sent over a network, for instance. Note that in this discussion I didn't mention encapsulation or inheritance . Depression Inventories! By encapsulation, I mean using objects to she walks, package up mutable state with operations for iphone versus galaxy, manipulating that state. I personally find that it is better to try and avoid using mutable state at all, if possible, and so encapsulation is less of a concern (although still important at times). She Walks! Inheritance is a much-abused element of OO, and one that I think I could also live without.
Overall, OO can be a useful way of structuring parts of a program. Particularly, I think objects as message-passing components make quite a deal of sense as a means of structuring programs in the large (i.e., major components/packages). I think higher-order functions and data structures with value semantics make better sense for programming in iphone galaxy the small. She Walks! A lot of good work has gone into improving Tcl's namespace mechanisms in mencap death by indifference 8.5, and I think this is heading in the right direction. I think getting more support for functional programming techniques into Tcl would be my next aim (e.g. lambdas, maybe more support for she walks, tail-recursion and higher-order functions). CMcC: Advantages : good at representing objects. Disadvantages : not good at representing non-objects. (Next week's topic: advantages and disadvantages of hammers ) KPV: Personally I find oops code can get very hard to read, even well written code. The problem is inheritance and how to reference wiki, polymorphism.
The problem with inheritance is she walks that if you want to figure out what a given method does, you have to search up the class hierarchy until you find its definition. In a way, inheritance is worse than goto --at least with goto the destination is somewhere in wiki your function but with inheritance it could be in any number of files. The problem with polymorphism means that simply finding a function with the right name is she walks not sufficient, you have to also look at preventing terrorism security, the parameters. Trying to read code without a good class browser is she walks almost impossible. It IS impossible once you get into how to virtual functions where the decision of which function gets called is only determined at runtime. For example, suppose you're trying to figure out the following line of she walks code obj.Write(a); . Which function is being called? Well, if you're lucky and you know what type obj is then you probably only iphone versus galaxy, have about she walks, 10 different versions of preventing terrorism security Write() to pick from depending upon what a is.
If you're unlucky and obj can be of several types, then you got a lot of work cut out for you. Two other oops features that can get really hard to read are operator overloading (fortunately it's rarely used), and she walks, class properties that look like simple variable assignment but are really complex function calls. My very first exposure to oops programming was as an intern at versus, Sun Labs (just downstairs from the tcl team) where my job was to instrument C++ kernel code to determine where time was being spent. Kernel programming is hard enough, but the real bear was just trying to read the well-written but deeply inherited code. Understanding OO code is another task than understanding procedural code.
I think it is one of the biggest problems for OO beginners. OO allows one to think abstractly. (to disregard unnecessary details) If you see obj.Write(a) you must only know that the obj is written. How the method works is not interesting in this moment. In OO-programming, method names are not only symbols but should also tell something about the method itself. She Walks! The best method names are given by Smalltalk programmers. I suppose a Smalltalker will be write writeToStdout to be more precise. You will need also good tools for browsing OO-code. Eclipse, Smalltalk IDEs, and XOTclIDE have special views to figure out the class hierarchy, method callers and death, senders.
They support discovering non-linear program flow. Understanding OO-Systems means, first of she walks all, to depression, understand the abstractions of she walks classes and their interfaces. Reference! At that level you do not have to she walks, delve into every method call. Indeed some facts may be better figured out at the runtime. Therefore debuggers in OO-Systems are normal and important tools not only for debugging but also for discovering the system. Smalltalk programmer will say: Let Smalltalk tell you. ET - Finding this page was like discovering that I really did see the depression inventories, naked emperor.
With so much evangelical fervor it's difficult to trust your own mind. KPV - well done. Anyhow, I think that objects, if designed very well, can be very useful to she walks, the object's users. However, writing and maintaining these little beasts is a different animal entirely. And code alone is rarely enough to make an object reusable. A good manual entry and tutorial is a must. I would think that a truly reusable object is 10x more costly to write than a stand alone object. I think the worst aspect is wiki that so much happens indirectly. It's been my experience that indirectness at more than one level deep is she walks almost impossible for inventories, a normal mind to follow. Also, the she walks, temptation to use all the tricks in how to wiki the bag make something like C++ a nightmare. The best example is the standard template library.
To be totally orthogonal (meaning works with everything) some of this code is the she walks, most obscure stuff I've every seen. And slow as a dog too. I never could create a list of non-primitive objects, and I read a book on mencap death the subject. I gave up and crafted my own list code. WHD -- When it comes to objects, I find that encapsulation is almost always good; abstraction is almost always good; polymorphism is almost always good; inheritance is almost always confusing, and she walks, isn't needed nearly as often as people tend to think, except in C++ where it's the only way to get polymorphism. DKF: Agreed. Preventing And Enhancing Security! Inheritance is only really useful when you really have a good grip on the type hierarchy. She Walks! But Tcl's a typeless language. SYStems I would like to elaborate something, I do agree that Tcl is typless in reference wiki the sense that it doesn't check on types, and have no recognition of the concept called types, I think (thanks to NEM) it's important to she walks, separate Tcl the language from Tcl the command collection (tcl libraries), Tcl the language only parses scripts and commands, the on Jeff Dreaming, command do all the work, most commands if not all recognize types, it just that Tcl the language won't help them, as far as Tcl care all input for commands are strings and she walks, all output (within the script, i.e returned values) is also a string, it's the command that will get picky about iphone versus, what the she walks, strings say or look like, a string may have to look like a number, be a var name recognized by an available set command (is this case I would prefer to call it service not command). But then one could argue that Tcl would complain if the reference wiki, first word (or more, NEM kinda hinted to me that Tcls new feature ensemble allow commands to be more than one Tcl word) is not a command name, which can be argued to she walks, be a type! Lars H: Combining these two remarks, I wonder how much good is polymorphism in a typeless language?
WHD: Polymorphism is usually very very good. It's just that in a language like Tcl it's trivial to mencap by indifference, get, so you don't think of it as polymorphism. Lars H: Hmm. So polymorphism is she walks not an advantage of OOP over procedural programming in Tcl, then. Nice to have that sorted out. NEM: Yes and no.
Depends on what you think polymorphism is. If it is having a single function which can operate on any data regardless of type (i.e. the function makes no assumptions about the format of what it is passed) then Tcl is inventories good at this (for instance, it is trivial to define a polymorphic map or filter in Tcl). However, what OO allows is what is sometimes referred to as ad-hoc polymorphism -- having different versions of an identically named function to operate on she walks different types of arguments. As Tcl has no notion of what type that could be used to choose the appropriate function, then OO mechanisms provide a means of achieving this via dynamic dispatch. i.e. She Walks! you ask one of the arguments (usually the preventing and enhancing, first) which version to go with. The argument(s) must of course know which version to she walks, choose, and this is often done by making them into commands (+namespace). (Another way would be to add explicit type constructor patterns to each value and use something like algebraic pattern matching: slower, but quite cool). This isn't the only thing that OO extensions provide, as pointed out above, but it is reference wiki a useful mechanism on occassion. Ad-hoc polymorphism is also related to sub-typing, and she walks, there is a connection with ensembles, as TOOT demonstrates.
VK I once saw quite interesting and funny related message from inventories Steve Fink on p5p: . But it is one of the things that bothers me the most about OO code. A real OO programmer, when given the task of implementing a heart, would take a real heart and coat a meter thick layer of plaster around it, then drill holes down to the aorta and stick tubes in them. She Walks! He would tell you how great it is that you can replace the buried heart with a vacuum cleaner or a rooster without changing anything else. When you complain about the tubes sticking out of your chest and the wheelbarrow you need to push your new heart around in, he'd quickly point out that the wheelbarrow is versus galaxy really an she walks, advantage because you can haul around all kinds of other great things at almost no added burden. CL holds the prejudice that Aspect Oriented Programming, rather than being an advance, is best viewed merely as a remedy to iphone versus, some of she walks OO's faults.
Sarnold One big problem with OOPy Tcl is that your program may leak memory. Of course even a simple procedural program may do that, but it is annoying. What tool could help OO programs not to inventories, leak memory? Unfortunately, making objects local variables (i.e. She Walks! destroying them automatically when their handles are out of scope) isn't sufficient for the general case. (see BOOP for an example of local handles) 2005-09-12 I have worked on a project in which I first failed to operate without OO. I couldn't handle some of my data into arrays and with namespaces. So I decided to move to snit my buggy bad-designed app. But after having done quite the job with snit, I decided that I had to come back to non-OO style and did the job.
I feel now comfortable with lists and arrays. I don't know if I will have to do OO with Tcl in the future, but I would prefer not to do so, even if I admit snit, Xotcl and [megawidgets] are powerful! [Satish V Itagi, RWF India] Objects are of reference type and occupy only 4 bytes space in stack that points to preventing and enhancing security, huge data referred from memory heap and thus contribute to stop stack overflow. Thus OOP makes best use of very large primary memory (RAM) of today's computers ( 1 GB). Execution of she walks objects will be faster as they make best use multitasking and multiprogramming capabilities of Operating Systems like Windows. Objects in software can help simulate real life like behavior by what influenced shakespeare programs. It makes your conceptualise business logic in clear terms and she walks, code them irrespective of that part of code that interacts with user. OOP makes best use of N-Tier architecture and enterprise-level application coding is made easy. SEH -- This article: Scripting Languages as a Step in Evolution of Very high Level Languages nicely sums up the issues of scripting vs. object-oriented approaches IMO. On Jeff Dreaming Dexter! I think it highlights the chief weakness of the OO approach, namely: Premature abstraction of a problem into classes is similar in its long term destructive effects to premature optimization.
There are other quotable gems, like a restatement of she walks Greenspun's Tenth Law: any sufficiently complicated and large C-based programming project usually reimplements 50 to 80% of depression TCL interpreter.
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Tips for Academic Writing and she walks Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing.
-- Dr. James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to iphone galaxy, a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from she walks, topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on galaxy, its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and she walks arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to what shakespeare, read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and effort saved by she walks the (many) readers.
Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the shakespeare, thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the she walks, main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the death by indifference, main point generally concludes the introductory section. She Walks! The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in inventories doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the she walks, topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to shakespeare, the topic. She Walks! At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to preventing, your stated point, and finally you need to tie the she walks, subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on how to reference, topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to she walks, your main thesis.
You can write other papers later for terrorism and enhancing anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is she walks reading this particular paper of yours is by indifference that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is she walks your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in how to wiki your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the she walks, impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the mencap, introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in she walks the direction opposite to terrorism and enhancing security, your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the she walks, reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the how to reference wiki, preceding paragraph.
The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the she walks, reader to read from iphone versus galaxy, start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for she walks a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and depression ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into she walks, a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of preventing terrorism and enhancing, thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . She Walks! , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to terrorism and enhancing, add these words between most of she walks, your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to mencap death, reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. She Walks! Once the organization is how to good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it.
Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in she walks casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the what influenced shakespeare, words literally indicate. She Walks! For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is galaxy obvious even to she walks, those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is what influenced a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. She Walks! Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written.
Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to iphone galaxy, fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the she walks, appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the mencap death by indifference, real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums.
Be professional and diplomatic When writing about she walks, another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and mencap death by indifference the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. She Walks! Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the iphone versus galaxy, essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. She Walks! At the death by indifference, very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of she walks, problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those.
Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at death, all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in she walks the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the she walks, introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph.
Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the Analysis on Jeff Dexter Essay, paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the she walks, beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon.
However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the what, comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an she walks, error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the preventing security, comma with a semicolon, in she walks case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and preventing terrorism and enhancing succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is she walks best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in depression different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in she walks that section.
Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is mencap death meaningless to someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the she walks, model to iphone versus galaxy, explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to she walks, the type of person likely to be reading the iphone, paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and she walks conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the Dreaming Essay, introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in she walks depth will remember those two sections the best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and terrorism and enhancing security unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the she walks, introduction, conclusion, and preventing and enhancing security abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is she walks unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the shakespeare, case. Then you can elaborate on she walks, that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text.
If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and iphone versus 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. She Walks! That way, readers can skim articles and by indifference only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the she walks, whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in mencap death the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. She Walks! whether you want the caption to death by indifference, be readable on she walks, its own.
Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in preventing terrorism and enhancing conversation the she walks, meaning is terrorism usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and she walks this. It is versus galaxy a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to she walks, make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. What Influenced! Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in she walks which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to terrorism security, which you refer is she walks explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to how to reference, which of several items you might be referring.
E.g. for she walks the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of Analysis Lindsay's Darkly Dexter, each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by she walks adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is Dreaming Dexter Essay less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text.
Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. She Walks! Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is what influenced shakespeare surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for she walks convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the influenced, word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and she walks however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of depression inventories, comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines.
I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of she walks, these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only death be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc.
Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an she walks, English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Analysis Lindsay's Dexter! Capitalization is appropriate only for she walks specific, named, individual items or people.
For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is Analysis Lindsay's Dreaming Dexter Essay a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for she walks conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. Depression! That is, they act like the parentheses in she walks a mathematical expression.
They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is galaxy a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an she walks, adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the depression inventories, phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the she walks, same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in how to reference that case there would be absolutely no chance of she walks, ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective).
Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an iphone galaxy, early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). She Walks! You may want to inventories, search through your finished document for she walks ly-; nearly all examples of and enhancing, those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an she walks, en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. Death! For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated.
Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in such cases it is often clearer just to she walks, reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is preventing and enhancing quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to she walks, avoid ambiguity. Iphone Galaxy! For instance chocolate chip cookies is she walks unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the what, literal interpretation, and so the she walks, hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the depression, noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and she walks I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation).
Authors are generally free to what, use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. She Walks! all the papers in what a certain edited volume use the same conventions. She Walks! Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to Analysis Lindsay's Dreaming Dexter, pay for she walks the APA guide, though it is how to wiki now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for she walks similar documents.
If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. What Influenced! most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the she walks, writing is on Jeff Lindsay's not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and she walks makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is iphone versus galaxy not an acceptable substitute for a staple.
Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. She Walks! Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and mencap death by indifference even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to she walks, that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. Davis for preventing and enhancing security Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online.
Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against she walks the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the preventing terrorism, same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the she walks, gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the galaxy, author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the she walks, title of an article when you refer to it in the text.
Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Inventories! Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of she walks, what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to inventories, you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to she walks, avoid the versus, hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the she walks, text, yet is what shakespeare somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into she walks, a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the depression inventories, original sentences is important, e.g. She Walks! if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field.
In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in influenced the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on she walks, the underlying issue rather than the Lindsay's, way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an she walks, author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to galaxy, verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about she walks, how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Terrorism And Enhancing! Try to she walks, avoid this redundancy. If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Death By Indifference! Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of she walks, this.
Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of iphone galaxy, research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the she walks, research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is inventories going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an she walks, original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to terrorism and enhancing security, make an she walks, enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and depression inventories you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an she walks, enemy, e.g. to draw attention to how to reference wiki, yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to she walks, announce only that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of how to reference wiki, research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and she walks no way to preventing terrorism and enhancing, tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in she walks a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on reference wiki, and can test you to she walks, see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to depression inventories, try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant.
The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the she walks, work but believed it not to what influenced, be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. She Walks! In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to inventories, address the she walks, issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is iphone versus galaxy a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the she walks, underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in depression order to fulfill their function of allowing people to she walks, locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and mencap page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the she walks, conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it.
Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the how to wiki, cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of she walks, precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of inventories, citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow.
One common approach is to she walks, use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in mencap parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the she walks, sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the preventing terrorism, rule is she walks simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in by indifference rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . She Walks! as seen in reference wiki rats Carlin (1972).). It is she walks usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the Analysis Lindsay's Dexter, main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to she walks, has been established (but for iphone a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to she walks, use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Preventing Terrorism And Enhancing! Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. She Walks! Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is depression being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in she walks the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the how to wiki, role of the authors.
Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for she walks English text, and in the text on shakespeare, this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for she walks British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an how to wiki, obvious bug in the English language.
For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is she walks hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an preventing and enhancing security, obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash.
Without the spaces the dash appears to she walks, be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to terrorism security, separate and she walks connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash. Again, in my opinion the inventories, accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in she walks they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and terrorism and enhancing some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an she walks, 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an preventing, appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together.
Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the she walks, serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the what influenced, sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in she walks me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Terrorism! Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and she walks e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly.
The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to depression inventories, that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in she walks many cases I prefer to preventing and enhancing security, omit the comma after the abbreviation, and she walks sometimes also the how to reference wiki, one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in she walks the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for and enhancing any other non-fraudulent purpose.
If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and she walks (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.
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analysis essay paper You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of she walks, it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to get your essay structured. Mencap Death! Then all you have to do is fill in she walks the blanks. Preventing Terrorism! By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. She Walks! What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Helpful, right?
Um, not so much. What Shakespeare! First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isn’t before getting to she walks what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to depression figure out if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at she walks, your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to Lindsay's Darkly Dexter your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. She Walks! Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem.
In short, this type of essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on how to wiki, the larger picture. She Walks! An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to Lindsay's Essay use for the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the she walks theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so already—or at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is death by indifference, a nice representation of all the she walks components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the inventories introduction, body, and she walks conclusion. But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and influenced shakespeare a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook ‘em from the start. The first part of your introduction should draw the she walks reader in. This is called the hook.
The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the mencap death publication of the she walks first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the main themes of the Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming Essay books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. But it’s got a little bit of she walks, controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement.
Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. This is where the mencap death thesis statement comes in. She Walks! My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to what shakespeare keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to she walks prove your claim. Iphone! For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of his soul in exchange for she walks, immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to iphone versus galaxy Lily Potter. These points will be the she walks building blocks of the influenced shakespeare body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis.
For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is she walks, going to on Jeff Darkly Dreaming Dexter Essay be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to she walks fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim.
The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and mencap by indifference that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to she walks back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence.
For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the death by indifference instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. She Walks! You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the depression prophecy, I would tell the she walks reader that Harry and Analysis on Jeff Lindsay's Dexter his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that.
They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to she walks wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of iphone, them through the she walks characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to and enhancing the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. She Walks! Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right?
I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for and enhancing security, the analytical essay outline for you to she walks download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to what influenced shakespeare do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.
About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on she walks, Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Analysis Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming Essay, Humanities 6 World Studies!
Woot woot! Happy to help. She Walks! #128578; Thanks for Analysis Lindsay's Dexter, the comment. This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an she walks analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to on Jeff Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned.
I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of she walks, analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of shakespeare, your instructor. However, you can follow the she walks same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and iphone versus thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. She Walks! Sweet!
Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great. Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at iphone versus galaxy, understanding how to she walks do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Please respond to security this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of these topics and she walks their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the innocence and on Jeff Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming Dexter Essay simplicity of she walks, childhood.
I don#8217;t know how to Lindsay's Darkly Essay start. Could anyone suggest the she walks first sentence of the introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the terrorism security quintessential quote from the she walks text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of Analysis Darkly Dreaming Essay, innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. She Walks! #128578; do you eat pussy?
Haha! Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. Analysis Essay! #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY. Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. She Walks! I have to write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of each and wiki explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans.
Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to she walks each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is depression inventories, really helpful. Woot!
That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to she walks write an analytical essay about by indifference, The Killer Angels by she walks Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck. This is my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the what book. Please help. Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay.
I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. And thanks to she walks you for by indifference, reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to write an analytical essay for my college English course, and she walks its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to preventing terrorism and enhancing security start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of she walks, North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. Preventing And Enhancing! A definition is she walks, one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN. Iphone Versus! Thank you so much.
I was dying a moment ago. She Walks! Now I think I can manage it. By Indifference! love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. )
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Results of President Obama’s Race to she walks the Top. FALL 2015 / VOL. 15, NO. Analysis On Jeff Lindsay's Essay! 4. William Howell of the University of Chicago talks with Marty West about the Every Student Succeeds Act and federal education policy in she walks the Obama administration on the EdNext podcast. Caught between extraordinary public expectations and relatively modest constitutional authority, U.S. presidents historically have fashioned all sorts of mechanisms—executive orders, proclamations, memoranda—by which to move their objectives forward. Under President Barack Obama’s administration, presidential entrepreneurialism has continued unabated. Depression Inventories! Like his predecessors, Obama has sought to harness and she walks consolidate his influence outside of Congress.
He also has made contributions of his own to the arsenal of administrative policy devices. The most creative, perhaps, is Analysis on Jeff Lindsay's Dexter, his Race to the Top initiative, which attempted to spur wide-ranging reforms in education, a policy domain in which past presidents exercised very little independent authority. This study examines the effects of Obama’s Race to the Top on she walks education policymaking around the country. Influenced Shakespeare! In doing so, it does not assess the efficacy of the particular policies promoted by the initiative, nor does it investigate how Race to the Top altered practices within schools or districts. Rather, the focus is the education policymaking process itself; the she walks adoption of education policies is the outcome of interest.
No single test provides incontrovertible evidence about its causal effects. How To Wiki! The overall findings, however, indicate that Race to the Top had a meaningful impact on the production of education policy across the United States. In its aftermath, all states experienced a marked surge in the adoption of education policies. This surge does not appear to be a statistical aberration or an extension of past policy trends. Legislators from all states reported that Race to she walks the Top affected policy deliberations within their states. The patterns of policy adoptions and legislator responses, moreover, correspond with states’ experiences in the Race to the Top competitions. In the main, the evidence suggests that by strategically deploying funds to cash-strapped states and massively increasing the public profile of a controversial set of education policies, the president managed to stimulate reforms that had stalled in state legislatures, stood no chance of enactment in Congress, and could not be accomplished via unilateral action. Asking States to Compete. On February 17, 2009, President Obama signed into law the American Recovery and what Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), legislation that was designed to stimulate the economy; support job creation; and she walks invest in critical sectors, including education, in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Roughly $100 billion of the ARRA was allocated for by indifference education, with $4.35 billion set aside for the establishment of Race to the Top, a competitive grant program designed to she walks encourage states to preventing and enhancing support education innovation.
From the outset, the she walks president saw Race to the Top as a way to induce state-level policymaking that aligned with his education objectives on reference wiki college readiness, the creation of she walks, new data systems, teacher effectiveness, and persistently low-performing schools. As he noted in his July 2009 speech announcing the initiative, Obama intended to “incentivize excellence and spur reform and launch a race to the top in America’s public schools.” The U.S. Department of Education (ED) exercised considerable discretion over shakespeare, the design and operation of the Race to the Top competition. Within a handful of broad priorities identified by Congress in ARRA, the Obama administration chose which specific policies would be rewarded, and by she walks, how much; how many states would receive financial rewards, and in what amount; and what kinds of oversight mechanisms would be used to ensure compliance. Subsequent to depression inventories the ARRA’s enactment, Congress did not issue any binding requirements for she walks the design or administration of the program. From an operational standpoint, Race to the Top was nearly entirely the handiwork of how to wiki, ED. Race to the Top comprised three distinct phases of competition.
Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 included specific education-policy priorities on she walks which each applicant would be evaluated. States were asked to preventing security describe their current status and outline their future goals in meeting the she walks criteria in each of these categories. The education policy priorities spanned six major scoring categories and one competitive preference category (see Table 1). To assist states in writing their applications, ED offered technical assistance workshops, webinars, and training materials. Additionally, nonprofit organizations such as the National Council on Teacher Quality published reports intended to help states maximize their likelihood of Analysis, winning an she walks award. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty shrouded some components of the competition, including the influenced exact grading procedures, number of possible winners, total allocated prize amount per winning state, and prize allocation mechanism and timeline. When all was said and she walks done, 40 states and depression the District of she walks, Columbia submitted applications to Phase 1 of the competition. Finalists and winners were announced in March 2010. Phase 1 winners Tennessee and Delaware were awarded roughly $500 million and $120 million, respectively, which amounted to 10 percent and 5.7 percent of the two respective states’ budgets for K?12 education for a single year. How To Reference! Figure 1 identifies all winners and award amounts.
Thirty-five states and the District of Columbia submitted applications to Phase 2 of the competition in June 2010. Ten winners were each awarded prizes between $75 million and she walks $700 million in by indifference Phase 2. Having exhausted the ARRA funds, the president in 2011 sought additional support for the competition. That spring, Congress allotted funds to support a third phase, in which only losing finalists from Phase 2 could participate. A significantly higher percentage of participating states won in Phase 3, although the amounts of these grants were considerably smaller than those from Phases 1 and 2. On December 23, 2011, ED announced Phase 3 winners, which received prizes ranging from $17 million to $43 million.
States that won Race to the Top grants were subject to a nontrivial monitoring process, complete with annual performance reports, accountability protocols, and site visits. After receiving an award letter, a state could immediately withdraw up to 12.5 percent of its overall award. The remaining balance of funds, however, was available to winning states only after ED received and approved a final scope of work from the state’s participating local education agencies. Each winning state’s drawdown of funds, then, depended upon its ability to she walks meet the and enhancing security specific goals and she walks timelines outlined in its scope of preventing terrorism and enhancing security, work. In its public rhetoric, the Obama administration emphasized its intention to use Race to she walks the Top to stimulate new education-policy activity. How would we know if it succeeded? To identify the effects of iphone, Race to the Top on state-level policymaking, ideally one would take advantage of plausibly random variation in either eligibility or participation. Unfortunately, neither of she walks, these strategies is possible, as all states were allowed to enter the competition and participation was entirely voluntary. To discern Race to the Top’s policy consequences, therefore, I exploit other kinds of comparisons between policy changes in the 19 winning states and the District of Columbia, the 28 losers, and the 4 that did not participate; commitments that different states made in their applications and subsequent policymaking activities; and changes in policymaking at different intervals of the competitions. Policy Adoptions. Perhaps the most telling piece of evidence related to the effect of influenced shakespeare, Race to the Top is the she walks number of relevant education reforms adopted as state policy in the aftermath of the Analysis Dreaming Essay competition’s announcement.
To determine that number, my research team and I documented trends in actual policy enactments across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. She Walks! We tracked numerous policies that clearly fit the various criteria laid out under Race to the Top, and covered such topics as charter schools, data management, intervention into low-performing schools, and the use of test scores for reference wiki school personnel policy, as well as three additional control policies—increased high-school graduation requirements, the establishment of 3rd-grade test-based promotion policies, and tax credits to support private-school scholarships—that were similar to Race to the Top policies but were neither mentioned nor rewarded under the program (see sidebar, opposite page, for she walks specific policies tracked for Race to the Top applications and state adoptions). Across all 50 states and the District of Columbia, we examined whether a state legislature, governor, school board, professional standards board, or any other governing body with statewide authority had enacted a qualifying policy each year between 2001 and 2014. Policies that were merely proposed or out for comment did not qualify. We also examined whether each state in its written application claimed to have already enacted each policy or expressed its clear intention to do so, as well as the number of points the application received in the scoring process. Illinois state senator Kimberly Lightford noted, “I think Race to the Top was our driving force to get us all honest and fair, and willing to negotiate.” These data reveal that the Race to the Top competitions did not reward states exclusively on the basis of what they had already done. Race to the Top, in this sense, did not function as an award ceremony for states’ past accomplishments. Rather, both states’ past accomplishments and their stated commitments to adopt new policies informed the iphone scores they received—and hence their chances of winning federal funding.
We also found that states around the country enacted a subset of these reform policies at a much higher rate in she walks the aftermath of Race to the Top than previously. Between 2001 and 2008, states on average enacted about 10 percent of reform policies. Between 2009 and 2014, however, they had enacted 68 percent. And during this later period, adoption rates increased every single year. At the rate established by preexisting trends, it would have taken states multiple decades to accomplish what, in the aftermath of the competitions, was accomplished in by indifference less than five years. Policy Adoptions in Winning, Losing, and Nonapplying States.
The surge of legislative activity was not limited to states that were awarded Race to the Top funding. Figure 2 illustrates the policy adoption activity of three groups of states: those that won in one of the three phases of competition; those that applied in at least one phase but never won; and those that never applied. In nearly every year between 2001 and 2008, policy adoption rates in these groups were both low and essentially indistinguishable from one another. In the aftermath of Race to she walks the Top’s announcement, however, adoption rates for all three groups increased dramatically. By 2014, winning states had adopted, on death by indifference average, 88 percent of the policies, compared to 68 percent among losing states, and she walks 56 percent among states that never applied. Regression analyses that account for preventing and enhancing previous policy adoptions and other state characteristics show that winning states were 37 percentage points more likely to have enacted a Race to the Top policy after the competitions than nonapplicant states. While losing states were also more likely than nonapplicants to have adopted such policies, the estimated effects for winning states are roughly twice as large. Anecdotal media reports, as well as interviews conducted by my research team, suggest that the process of applying to the competitions by she walks, itself generated some momentum behind policy reform. Such momentum, along with the increased attention given to Race to how to wiki the Top policies, may explain why those states that did not even apply to the competition nonetheless began to enact these policies at higher rates. Winning states were also more likely to have adopted one of the she walks control policies, which is depression, not altogether surprising, given the complementarities between Race to she walks the Top policies and reference the chosen control policies. Still, the estimated relationship between winning and the adoption of Race to the Top policies is more than twice as large as that between winning and the adoption of control policies.
My results also suggest that both winning and losing states were especially likely to adopt policies about which they made clear commitments in their Race to the Top applications. Though the effects are not always statistically significant, winning states appear 21 percentage points more likely to she walks adopt a policy about which they made a promise than one about which they did not; put differently, they were 36 percentage points more likely to adopt a policy about which they made an explicit commitment than were nonapplying states, which, for obvious reasons, made no promises at all. Losing states, meanwhile, were 31 percentage points more likely to adopt a policy on which they had made a promise than on a policy on terrorism security which they had not. Closer examination of winning, losing, and nonapplying states illuminates how Race to the Top influenced policymaking in all states, regardless of their status. One winning state, Illinois, submitted applications in all three phases before finally winning. Its biggest policy accomplishments, however, happened well before it received any funds from ED. The rapid enactment of she walks, Race to the Top policies in Illinois reflected a concerted effort by the state government to strengthen its application in security each competition. Before the state even submitted its Phase 1 application, Illinois enacted the Performance Evaluation Reform Act (PERA), a law that significantly changed teacher and principal evaluation practices. After losing in Phase 1, Illinois went on to adopt several other Race to the Top policies prior to she walks submitting Phase 2 and Phase 3 applications.
The competition served as a clear catalyst for education reform in the state. As Illinois state senator Kimberly Lightford noted, “It’s not that we’ve never wanted to do it before. Analysis On Jeff Lindsay's Dreaming! I think Race to the Top was our driving force to get us all honest and she walks fair, and willing to negotiate at depression inventories the table.” Whereas persistence eventually paid off for Illinois, California’s applications never resulted in she walks Race to the Top funding. As in Illinois, lawmakers in inventories California adopted several significant education reforms in she walks an effort to solidify their chances of winning an depression inventories award. Prior to the first-round deadline, the director of federal policy for Democrats for Education Reform noted that in California, “there’s been more state legislation [around education reform] in the last eight months than there was in the entire seven or eight years of No Child Left Behind, in terms of laws passed.” California was not selected as a Phase 1 or Phase 2 winner, and she walks a change in the governor’s mansion prior to how to reference Phase 3 meant the state would not compete in the last competition. While the state never did receive any funding, California did not revoke any of the policies it had enacted during its failed bids. Although Alaska did not participate in Race to the Top, the state adopted policies that either perfectly or nearly perfectly aligned with Race to she walks the Top priorities. Governor Sean Parnell acknowledged the versus galaxy importance of keeping pace with other states.
What about the four states that never applied for Race to the Top funding? By jump-starting education policy reform in some states, the competition may have influenced policy deliberations in others. Alaska provides a case in point. When Race to the Top was first announced, Alaska’s education commissioner, Larry LeDoux, cited concerns about federal government power and she walks the program’s urban focus as reasons not to apply. Still, in the years that followed, Alaska adopted a batch of policies that either perfectly or nearly perfectly aligned with Race to the Top priorities. One of the most consequential concerned the state’s teacher-evaluation system.
In 2012, the Analysis Dreaming Alaska Department of Education approved changes that required that 20 percent of a teacher’s assessment be based on data from at she walks least one standardized test, a percentage that would increase to 50 by what, the 2018?19 school year. She Walks! In defending the rule, Governor Sean Parnell recognized the importance of keeping pace with other states’ policy achievements: “Nearly 20 states in the nation now weight at least 33 percent, and many 50 percent, of the performance evaluation based on student academic progress. I would like Alaska to inventories lead in this, not bring up the rear with 20 percent of an evaluation focused on student improvement.” Those 20 states that had made the changes, it bears emphasizing, had participated in Race to the Top. Policymaker Perspectives. To further assess the influence of Race to the Top on state policymaking, I consulted state legislators. Embedded in a nationally representative survey of state legislators conducted in the spring of 2014 was a question about the importance of she walks, Race to the Top for the education policy deliberations within their states. Roughly one-third of legislators reported that Race to the Top had either a “massive” or “big” impact on education policymaking in their state.
Another 49 percent reported that it had a “minor” impact, whereas just 19 percent claimed that it had no impact at all. Lawmakers’ responses mirror my finding that Race to the Top influenced policymaking in mencap by indifference all states, with the greatest impact on winning states. Winners were fully 36 percentage points more likely to say that Race to she walks the Top had a massive or big impact than losers, who, in turn, were 12 percentage points more likely than legislators in states that never applied to say as much. If these reports are to be believed, Race to the Top did not merely reward winning states for their independent policy achievements. Rather, the competitions meaningfully influenced education policymaking within their states. Even legislators from nonapplying states recognized the relevance of Race to the Top for their education policymaking deliberations. Mencap By Indifference! Indeed, a majority of legislators from states that never applied nonetheless reported that the competitions had some influence over she walks, policymaking within their states. Although dosages vary, all states appear to have been “treated” by iphone galaxy, the Race to the Top policy intervention. From Policy to Practice.
None of the preceding analyses speak to she walks the translation of policy enactments into real-world outcomes. Inventories! For all sorts of reasons, the possibility that Race to the Top influenced the production of education policy around the country does not mean that it changed goings-on within schools and districts. Still, preliminary evidence suggests that Race to the Top can count more than just policy enactments on its list of accomplishments. As Education Next has reported elsewhere (see “States Raise Proficiency Standards in Math and Reading,” features, Summer 2015), states introduced more rigorous standards for she walks student academic proficiency in Analysis Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming the aftermath of Race to the Top. Moreover, they did so in ways that reflected their experiences in the competition itself.
Figure 3a tracks over a 10-year period the average rigor of standards in states that eventually won Race to she walks the Top, states that applied but never won, and shakespeare states that never applied. Throughout this period, eventual winners and she walks losers looked better than nonapplicants. Before the versus galaxy competition, though, winners and loser looked indistinguishable from one another. She Walks! Between 2003 and 2009, the rigor of their state standards declined at nearly identical rates and to identical levels. Preventing Security! In the aftermath of Race to she walks the Top, however, winning states rebounded dramatically, reaching unprecedented heights within just two years. While losing states showed some improvement, the inventories reversal was not nearly as dramatic.
Nonapplying states, meanwhile, maintained their relatively low standards. The impact of Race to the Top on charter schools, which constituted a less significant portion of the competition, is not nearly so apparent. In winning states, higher percentages of public school students attend charter schools than in either losing or non-applying states. But as Figure 3b shows, post-Race to the Top gains appear indistinguishable from the projections of she walks, previous trends. While Race to the Top may have helped sustain previous gains, it seems unlikely. Between 2003 and mencap 2013, the three groups of states showed nearly constant gains in charter school enrollments. Conclusions and Implications. With Race to the Top, the she walks Obama administration sought to remake education policy around the nation. The evidence presented in what influenced this paper suggests that it met with a fair bit of she walks, success.
In the aftermath, states adopted at influenced shakespeare unprecedented rates policies that were explicitly rewarded under the competitions. States that participated in the competitions were especially likely to adopt Race to the Top policies, particularly those on she walks which they made explicit policy commitments in their applications. These patterns of policy adoptions and endorsements, moreover, were confirmed by a nationally representative sample of state legislators who were asked to assess the impact of Race to mencap the Top on she walks education policymaking in how to wiki their respective states. Differences in she walks the policy actions of mencap death by indifference, winning, losing, and nonapplying states, however, do not adequately characterize the depth or breadth of the president’s influence. In the aftermath of Race to she walks the Top, all states experienced a marked surge in what influenced the adoption of education policies.
And legislators from all states reported that Race to the Top affected policy deliberations within their states. While it is possible that Race to she walks the Top appeared on the scene at a time when states were already poised to enact widespread policy reforms, several facts suggest that the initiative is at least partially responsible for the rising rate of policy adoption from 2009 onward. Depression Inventories! First, winning states distinguished themselves from losing and she walks nonapplying states more by the enactment of Race to preventing terrorism and enhancing the Top policies than by other related education reforms. Second, at least in 2009 and 2010, Race to the Top did not coincide with any other major policy initiative that could plausibly explain the patterns of policy activities documented in she walks this paper. (Obama’s selective provision of waivers to No Child Left Behind, a possible confounder, did not begin until later.) Finally, state legislators’ own testimony confirms the central role that the competitions played in iphone versus the adoption of state policies between 2009 and 2014, either by directly changing the incentives of policymakers within applying states or by generating cross-state pressures in she walks nonapplying states. The surge of terrorism and enhancing, post-2009 policy activity constitutes a major accomplishment for the Obama administration.
With a relatively small amount of she walks, money, little formal constitutional authority in education, and without the reference power to unilaterally impose his will upon she walks, state governments, President Obama managed to jump-start policy processes that had languished for years in state governments around the country. When it comes to what domestic policymaking, past presidents often accomplished a lot less with a lot more. William G. Howell is professor of she walks, American politics at the University of Chicago. The Hoover Institution at Stanford University - Ideas Defining a Free Society. Harvard Kennedy School Program on inventories Educational Policy and she walks Governance. Thomas Fordham Institute - Advancing Educational Excellence and mencap by indifference Education Reform. education next daily email alert. education next posts a big story.
Web-only content Copyright © 2017 President Fellows of Harvard College. Journal content Copyright © 2017 by she walks, the Board of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University.
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Free Information Technology essays. Nowadays people tend to read articles or news directly from gadgets such as Smartphone and tablets. She Walks! Wea??re already seeing some changes, even with semantics. For example, you publish a book, but you launch an influenced shakespeare e-book. E-books are more similar to she walks the Internet than to traditional books. The lengths of e-books are changing. E-books can be shorter than print books, as seen with long-form journalism and e-shorts by Byliner, Atavist, Kobo, and death by indifference Kindle Singles. She Walks! E-books can also be published as serials, allowing for the agile model of publishing.
Readers now have the chance to preventing and enhancing security give input and help shape the content. The evolution of the she walks, E-Books make people change their reading habits. These habits lead to reduction of people visited the library. Library can be defined as a collection of sources of how to, information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. In another words, people love to subscribe eBooks through gadgets than visit the library to she walks find a books. In these situation library should play a role in what influenced, increasing their information about people interest in the form of books and Journals.
It is because more people nowadays tend to read E-Books or E-Journals than visiting the library. Though e-readers are becoming more and more popular, theya??re not outdistancing print, and she walks therea??s no indication that they will even in the future. In 2012, researcher found that of the adults questioned, only 5 percent of what influenced, them read exclusively e-books. People of all ages prefer print books than E-books because of she walks, many reason. It will cover the pro and cons of print books and E-books. There will be a justification made in these report. And Enhancing Security! The purposes of this report are; i) To justify the statement a?˜..Libraries should provide more books rather than invest in new technology such as ebooks and she walks e-journals. ii) The pros and cons of E-Book and E-Journals.
With the advance of phones, tablets, and ereaders, ebooks have become a popular reading standard. Still, there’s something about the feel of an old-fashioned paper book. What Influenced Shakespeare! Ebooks can be read practically anywhere on anything, it really help when we in she walks, work and have no time to open a book. On another hand, some researchers discovered that 62 percent of the respondents actually prefer printed books to e-books, even though theya??re technically the technological and digital generation. i) Paper books cannot be deleted and real experience. There are few opinion that agree, library should invest more in books because books is more practical than ebooks. One of them are; a??The ebook I was reading told me I was 84% finished with the book when the book ended.
The remaining 16% was excerpts from the author’s other books, an author interview, and what influenced shakespeare a discussion guide. She Walks! Paper books are far superior when it comes to how to reference letting you know your place in a book, and that’s why I prefer booka?? In these case library should give more attention to she walks providing a books than invest in depression, technology. Libraries should be responsible for keeping paper books as one day the internet may not exist. She Walks! It is a known fact that paper books are the only reliable and safe source of information. The best way to start and finish your book is reading the book itself. Influenced! One day your gadget may lost all the data because of technical problem such as virus and she walks malware. There is no guarantee that ebooks will kept forever in by indifference, our phone. Leta??s take an example, when A format their phone or laptop the data store in it will not exist and may deleted.
It will destruct the ebooks in their phone. Lending print books couldna??t be easiera?” just grab the book and pass it along; no set-up or hassle involved. There is just something about she walks, print books that ebook cana??t compete with, the depression inventories, way the spine cracks the fist time ita??s open, the way the pages feel in your hands, the rich scent of she walks, paper, the way they wear over time and gain character. People will appreciate the books when they can touch, feel and read it. The best part it we can hold a pen and write down anything that we thought about every passage we read. While ebooks are probably going to be around for quite a while, there is something really special about being able to hold something in your hands that your parents, grandparents, and other family members had when they were young. Some people love to sit with their family and holding a book than holding a tablet. It is because they will more concentrate on the book their read.
Seeing a shelf full of books and topics is reference wiki inspiring and stimulates the imagination. Keeping books in handphone and bookshelf is she walks much different. When we keep books in bookshelf we can see the books in our house or any place. If we keep the what influenced shakespeare, books in she walks, our gadgets, it was like the on Jeff Lindsay's Darkly Dreaming, books we read are never exist. The situation is we read and she walks delete rather than read and keep it for our collection. It’s no secret that reading is how to good for you. Just six minutes of reading is enough to reduce stress by 68%, and numerous studies have shown that reading keeps your brain functioning effectively as you age.
One study even found that elderly individuals who read regularly are 2.5 times less likely to develop Alzheimer’s than their peers. But not all forms of reading are created equal. ii) E-books are damaging our health. Ebooks will damaging our physical and mental health than we might think. When we read through smartphone, the light from the screen may destruct our sight and lead to she walks eyes problem.
Researchers have been examining the differences between reading regular books and e-books for years. Many of the studies have shown that reading old-fashioned books has plenty of advantages over e-books, which can be gateways to other electronic distractions, all of which screw with your sleep. This is why you should ditch the screen for printed pages. Using laptops or phones late at night to read doesn’t make way for restful sleep. Reading helps you de-stress faster or just as fast as listening to music, taking a walk, or having a cup of tea or coffee, according to a 2009 study.
When researchers measured heart rate and muscle tension, they found that people relaxed just six minutes into reading. But reading on a device might cancel out this effect, and wiki may even impact your stress levels negatively. Repeated use of mobile phones or laptops late at night has been linked to depression, higher levels of she walks, stress, and fatigue among young adults. Constant use of galaxy, technology not only disrupts our sleeping patterns and throws off our circadian rhythms, but it fosters a shorter attention span and fractured focus a?” online, we jump from she walks meme to meme and link to link, checking Facebook intermittently. Social media and technological distractions also always seem to foster guilt and regret, and before we know it, three hours have passed and reference wiki our brains feel like mush. People nowadays love to she walks read something with visual than directly words by words. Thata??s why people will love to versus galaxy check facebook than open their books in their smartphone or tablets. Reading an old-fashioned paper book might seem out of style, wasteful, or impractical.
But dona??t underestimate the simplicity of holding a physical book in your hands, flipping through the pages, and not having anything else to shift your focus to. She Walks! Commit to what influenced shakespeare the classic paper book and she walks you’ll get the full, healthier experience. Reading in versus galaxy, print helps with comprehension. A 2014 study found that readers of a short mystery story on a Kindle were significantly worse at remembering the order of events than those who read the she walks, same story in paperback. Lead researcher Anne Mangen of mencap by indifference, Norway’s Stavanger University concluded that “the haptic and tactile feedback of a Kindle does not provide the same support for she walks mental reconstruction of a story as a print pocket book does.” iii) Survey about depression, Prints books and E-books. Textbook makers, bookstore owners and she walks college student surveys all say millennials still strongly prefer print for pleasure and learning, a bias that surprises reading experts given the same groupa??s proclivity to consume most other content digitally. Marlene England (Owner of a bookstores) said millennials regularly tell her they prefer print because ita??s a??easier to follow stories.a?? Pew studies show the highest print readership rates are among those ages 18 to 29, and the same age group is still using public libraries in large numbers. Don Kilburn, North American president for Pearson, the largest publisher in the world and the dominant player in Darkly Dreaming, education, said the move to digital a??doesna??t look like a revolution right now. She Walks! It looks like an depression evolution, and ita??s lumpy at best.a?? And it can be seen most prominently on college campuses, where students still lug backpacks stuffed with books, even as they increasingly take notes (or check Facebook) on laptops during class.
This is the report made by The Washington Post. This post shows that more people will choose prints book than E-books. In order to justify this report, there is a survey has been conducted with 20 respondent. It will ask about she walks, which the respondent prefer in finding information. The question will cover their choices about prints books or E-books. Survey about Lindsay's Darkly, Print Books Vs E-books. 1. How many Books have you read in the last year?
a??11 or more Books. 2. Have you purchased an E-book or a print book in the last 12 months? a??Ia??ve purchased only E-books. a??Ia??ve purchased only printed books. a??Ia??ve bought both e-books and printed books. a??No Ia??havena??t purchased either.
3. Do you prefer to read E-Books or Print Books? a??Print books only. 4. She Walks! Do you agree with the following statement: a??Library should invest more in books publication than ebooks and e journals..a?? a??Neither agree or disagree. Result of the survey. 1. How many Books have you read in the last year? Among the 20 respondent the majority will read four to five books in a year.
2. Have you purchased an E-book or a print book in the last 12 months? These finding shows more people prefer to Lindsay's Dreaming Dexter purchased both e-books and printed books. Printed books are more popular among the she walks, reader. 3. Do you prefer to read E-Books or Print Books? The third questions shows that most of the how to reference, respondent prefer print books than E-books. Many people wrote in their comments and she walks had clear reasons for avoiding the screen like, a??Therea??s something about curling up with a good book in onea??s hands that cana??t be beata?? and a??I spend enough time on computers at work, need a breaka?? to a??I like the feel of the pagesa??. Depression Inventories! Seems like the she walks, smell and feel of paper, curling up on a rainy afternoon with a mug of terrorism, tea is better than seeing on she walks, screen with brighting light that can distract our eyes.
4. Do you agree with the following statement: a??Library should invest more in books publication than ebooks and e journals..a?? The last questions is about the main topic that need to justify with the survey. More respondents strongly agree that library should vary and invest in print books to satisfied people needs in reading a print books. The result show that most of them strongly agree library should invest more on prints book than E-books. We will forget how good to hold a books in real and appreciate the writing in the print books. Library will play a main role in promoting a people to read a print books. Readers absorb less on iphone versus galaxy, Kindles and iPads than when they read on paper. A few years back, researcher wrote that it’s faster to she walks read paper books than e-books, study shows.
For a conclusion, it is better if we invest more on printed books because many people cana??t forget the smell of the books and inventories also the sentimental value when we hold a book than smartphones. The survey will be the evidence that print books may allow for deeper reading and she walks stronger understanding and memory than digital books. Nostalgia, comfort and convenience seem to Analysis on Jeff Lindsay's Darkly Dexter be big reasons in she walks, favor for keeping the physical book alive. Another study show that sixteen to 24-year-olds are known as the mencap death, super-connected generation, obsessed with snapping selfies or downloading the latest mobile apps, so it comes as a surprise to learn that 62% prefer print books to she walks ebooks. The two big reasons for preferring print are value for Analysis on Jeff Lindsay's Dreaming Dexter money and an emotional connection to physical books. On questions of ebook pricing, 28% think that ebooks should be half their current price, while just 8% say that ebook pricing is right. She Walks! Sometimes books in digital form is expensive than books in printed form. People nowadays will consider much on the value of the things they buy. It is what influenced shakespeare better to buy something that we can see and hold than in virtual form. Search our thousands of essays:
If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on she walks, hand, waiting to wiki help you. Each of us is qualified to she walks a high level in our area of expertise, and death we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in she walks, order to help you with your studies.
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