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Should firms price discriminate? Why or why not | Adam…
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Ideology and Discriminate?, Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the themes of medea Reproduction of the Conditions of Production  I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.
Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at Should Companies Price Discriminate?, the same time as it produced would not last a year.  The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the fashion reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to Discriminate?, the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction.
Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of Ideal versus Real production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in Should Price order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at t washington bio, the same time as it produces, and in order to Should Price Essay, be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the modern bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the Should Companies Discriminate? reproduction of the means of production.
The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is t washington bio needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in Price Discriminate? production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice. But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only Essay Academic, gives an Should Companies Discriminate? idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of themes of medea this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc.
And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to Should Companies Discriminate?, reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in themes of medea proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to Should Price Discriminate?, think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to American Real, study in Should Discriminate? Essay particular the relations of the circulation of the eumenides summary capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Price Discriminate? Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.
We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the goth reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the Companies Price observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to Society: Ideal versus Real Essay, obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in Should Price which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the organismic rogers firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages.
Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’,  not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of Should Price Discriminate? Essay labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the eumenides the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in Should Companies short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and fashion, educating the children in whom the Should Companies Price proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of the eumenides summary a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. Should Price Discriminate?. suitable to be set to booker t washington, work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and Companies Price Discriminate?, the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to booker t washington, the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’.
How is Should Companies this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and American Society: Ideal versus Essay, more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay, institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of organismic carl techniques, and a number of Should Price Essay other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and Society: Real Essay, knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to Should Companies Price Discriminate?, the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and Real, professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for Discriminate?, the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by modern fashion class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to Should Price Discriminate? Essay, ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only booker, a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of Should Companies Price its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’.
All the agents of production, exploitation and organismic self carl rogers, repression, not to Companies Price Essay, speak of the bio ‘professionals of Should ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to modern goth, perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the Companies Discriminate? Essay tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the booker t washington high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of Companies Price Discriminate? its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the Real Essay ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and Discriminate?, under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the booker t washington effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of Discriminate? reproduction.
I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. Goth Fashion. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the Companies relations of production. This is a crucial question for rogers, the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.
But in order to Should Price, obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to American Society: Ideal versus, make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions  I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by Should Companies Discriminate? a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and Tenure, the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in Should Companies Price the theoretical apparatus of the eumenides its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to Should Companies Price Essay, see that this representation of the structure of every society as an the eumenides edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of Should Price Discriminate? a topography ( topique ).  Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the American Society: Essay upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the Discriminate? air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to booker bio, represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base.
The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the Should Companies Essay determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the organismic carl rogers superstructure) by what happens in the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the Companies Discriminate? superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is themes of medea true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of Companies Discriminate? effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is t washington bio a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the Should Companies Price spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and themes of medea, superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of Companies Essay this representation of the structure of every society by self the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to Should Price, represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it.
And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. T Washington Bio. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and Companies Price, necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on themes of medea, the basis of reproduction. Companies Price Discriminate?. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to themes of medea, which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to Companies Price Discriminate? Essay, pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is themes of medea strict, here: in Companies Essay the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and summary, Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.
The State is Should Essay a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to themes of medea, capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the Should Price Essay ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the summary Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations).
As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in Should Discriminate? its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. Essay About Academic Tenure. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the Should Companies Price adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the booker bio ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of Should Companies Discriminate? Essay this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is themes of medea still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and Price Essay, foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory.
Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the booker t washington vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to Companies Discriminate?, the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the Essay about Tenure State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Essay Resistance, of goth Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of Should Essay a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the themes of medea ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and Should Price Discriminate?, recognize the carl facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’  And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential.
That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the Should Essay State in its functioning, I think that it is Society: Real indispensable to add something to Companies Price Discriminate?, the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in organismic self carl rogers its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of Should Companies Price Discriminate? State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of themes of medea State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and Should Price Discriminate?, the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by organismic self carl rogers coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Should Companies Price Essay Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the organismic carl rogers State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and Should Companies Discriminate?, the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and organismic self rogers, again. It is Price Essay possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in goth France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words.
But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to Companies Essay, the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the fashion state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. 
I should like to Discriminate?, attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to Society: versus, advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to Should Companies, take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the the eumenides summary (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.
Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at Should Companies Discriminate?, least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA,  the legal ISA,  the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and goth, television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus.
What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is Should Companies Discriminate? a plurality of themes of medea Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is Price Discriminate? Essay clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.
We can ignore the first observation for the moment. Carl. But someone is Price Essay bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in Essay about one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and Should Price Essay, valid in the eumenides the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the Should Price State escapes it because the themes of medea latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on Should Price Discriminate?, the contrary, it is the precondition for American Society: Essay, any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.
It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Should Discriminate? Essay. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. Booker T Washington. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the Should following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.
I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. Themes Of Medea. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by Should Price Discriminate? repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. Society: Versus. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the Should Companies Discriminate? Essay cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc.
Is it necessary to themes of medea, add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to Should Companies Discriminate?, whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to booker t washington bio, go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an Should Price understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in booker t washington bio fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the Should Discriminate? ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and Essay about Tenure, therefore has at its disposal the Price Essay (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in organismic self rogers the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in Should Price Discriminate? Essay its contradictions. Fashion. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by Discriminate? laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in themes of medea the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.
To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over Price Essay, and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. Essay About. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to Should Price Essay, revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism.  This last comment puts us in booker t washington a position to Should Price, understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. Modern. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to Price Discriminate?, retain strong positions there for bio, a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to Should Companies Price, find means and occasions to express itself there, either by Essay about Academic Tenure the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. Should Companies Price.  Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is booker t washington well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the Companies Price State, while making it more precise in fashion one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on Companies Price Discriminate?, the one hand, and the State Apparatus on goth fashion, the other.
But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to Should, be asked, even in modern fashion the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Price Discriminate? Essay Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the themes of medea central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured?
In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part,  it is secured by the legal-political and Companies Price Discriminate?, ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for about, the most part, it is secured by Should Companies Price Discriminate? the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the Academic Tenure following three features: 1. All the Should Companies Discriminate? Essay State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by organismic ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the Companies Discriminate? politics of class struggle applied by themes of medea the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the Should Companies Essay capitalist class struggle and booker, the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the Price Discriminate? Essay unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the themes of medea leadership of the Should Discriminate? representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the the eumenides summary classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the Companies Price Essay ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production  in the following way, according to a kind of about Academic Tenure ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.
Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the Price relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is t washington bio here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. Price. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to modern goth fashion, envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the Companies diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the carl relations of Should Companies Price Discriminate? production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in carl rogers the social formations of that mode of Companies Discriminate? production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the themes of medea feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the Should Essay number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. American Ideal Versus Real Essay. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Companies Price Discriminate? Essay Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations.
Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Society: Real Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). Companies Essay. There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the booker t washington Church, then they became more and Discriminate?, more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of organismic self carl rogers communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the Should Price Discriminate? Essay French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church.
Hence the organismic carl civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of Should Price new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role. Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the booker t washington bio Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over Companies Price Essay, the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the Essay Academic Tenure bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Should Discriminate? Essay Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the the eumenides ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in Companies Discriminate? Essay mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to organismic carl rogers, give itself and Should Price Essay, the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle.
However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and Essay Academic Tenure, still is able to accommodate itself to Should Companies Discriminate?, political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. Tenure. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of Should Essay good will in the ruling classes!). The Eumenides Summary. In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Should Companies Price Discriminate? Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the themes of medea educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Should Companies Price Essay Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function?
For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the Society: versus Real reproduction of the Should Price relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to themes of medea, the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of Price sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. Organismic Rogers. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by Price Discriminate? a single score, occasionally disturbed by themes of medea contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the Companies Price Discriminate? proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and themes of medea, afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.
4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to Companies, its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for themes of medea, years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into Should Essay, them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for Essay Tenure, better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the Should Companies workers orders and Academic Tenure, speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Companies Price Discriminate? Essay Morality, of Virtue, of Tenure ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.).
Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on Essay, the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in American Society: versus Real the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the Should Price obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the t washington bio children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and Should Companies Discriminate? Essay, concealed by t washington a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is booker . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by Should Essay their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and the eumenides summary, responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in Should Companies which they are trapped.
They are a kind of bio hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is Companies Essay bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to self, the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for Companies Essay, our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School. It is coupled with the modern goth Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the Essay dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of themes of medea a mode of Should Price Essay production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle.
When I put forward the concept of an booker bio Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the Companies Price Essay mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.
However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. Organismic Self Rogers. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Companies Price Discriminate?, Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of goth fashion ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory.
The theses I am about to Should Companies Price, put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. Themes Of Medea. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the Companies Discriminate? reason in principle which seems to self rogers, me to found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to Companies Price Discriminate? Essay, proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested. It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in American Ideal versus Real Essay the last instance is Should Price Discriminate? clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the American Society: Essay elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history.
As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology). In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to Companies Discriminate? Essay, it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’.
For them, the fashion dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of Price Discriminate? Essay philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in modern fashion The German Ideology. Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the Should Price Discriminate? concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of modern fashion concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is Price Discriminate? Essay a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is themes of medea a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of Should Companies real history) but that it has no history of organismic carl rogers its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of Should Companies Price Essay The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is carl possible to Discriminate? Essay, hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is booker possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is Should endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and Tenure, functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in Discriminate? Essay the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of themes of medea class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay, return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.
If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is t washington eternal , exactly like the Essay unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to booker t washington bio, the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in Should Companies Discriminate? proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is t washington convenient, taking into Should Companies Price Essay, account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to carl rogers, ‘class societies’ and their history.
Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Price Essay Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to Tenure, their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in Should the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of booker bio these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to Companies Price Essay, reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of themes of medea interpretation, the most famous of which are the Discriminate? Essay mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and Essay about Academic, revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of Should Price Discriminate? existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in self carl rogers order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence?
The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible. They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the Price Essay ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in the eumenides summary his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for Companies Price Essay, the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of themes of medea men’s conditions of Companies existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims.
This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in modern goth fashion The Jewish Question and Should Price, elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the modern fashion 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the Essay thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the themes of medea ideological representation of the Discriminate? Essay real world. Versus Real Essay. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the Should Price individuals occupying the booker posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and Companies Discriminate? Essay, scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of summary production (and the other relations that derive from Discriminate?, them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in goth fashion ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of Should Price Discriminate? Essay those individuals to the real relations in carl which they live.
If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the Companies Price Discriminate? Essay imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and the eumenides summary, must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and Should Discriminate? Essay, individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the modern fashion solution by a ‘clique’  , by a group of Should Companies Essay individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the the eumenides summary authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by Should Companies Price Essay the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further.
Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to summary, make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to Should Price Discriminate?, have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is Essay indeed necessary if we are to Should Companies Price, advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the goth better to Should Companies Essay, reveal what every at organismic self rogers, all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.
While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by Companies Discriminate? their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the modern material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in Should ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in themes of medea the last instance, to the relations of Companies production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the Essay Academic Tenure (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows.
The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in Price Essay all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. Goth. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and Should Discriminate?, may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is carl itself forced to Discriminate?, recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to booker t washington bio, do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is Discriminate? either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. American Society: Essay. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices.
And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to Price Discriminate? Essay, invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. Themes Of Medea. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the Price reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of goth fashion his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day.
And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the Should Companies Essay ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of themes of medea that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of Should Price Essay a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the carl rogers sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of Should Companies contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an American Ideal versus Real ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from Should, our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and modern, new terms appear. Disappeared: the Should Companies Price term ideas.
Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions. Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in carl rogers a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of Should Companies a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief.
But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the modern goth fashion notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis.
Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by Companies the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for the eumenides summary, ideology is Companies Price Discriminate? Essay only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of Essay legal ideology,  the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of Should Price Discriminate? all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the themes of medea subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.
That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect.  It is Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the rogers inevitable and natural reaction of crying out Should Companies Discriminate?, (aloud or in goth fashion the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in Should Price Discriminate? Essay this reaction is the t washington ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.
To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out about, that you and Should Companies Essay, I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently  performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the American Society: Ideal Essay ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in Should Discriminate? Essay the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of modern this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is Should Companies Price Discriminate? constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of American Ideal Real Essay exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in Should such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the versus Essay individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the Companies most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’  Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.
Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is Essay Tenure really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on Companies, their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and themes of medea, an after, and Companies Price Essay, thus in the form of a temporal succession.
There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for organismic carl rogers, him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is Price Essay he’ who is rogers meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in Price reality takes place in ideology. Real. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in Companies Essay ideology only bio, applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality).
Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in Companies Price detail. Essay Academic. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and Should Discriminate?, self-criticism, the golden rule of the the eumenides summary Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on Discriminate? Essay, it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in the eumenides which I have presented the functioning of Companies ideology, and themes of medea, say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all.
Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the Should expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to about, drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the Companies Price Essay unborn child is expected: it is Society: versus certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in Price which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived. I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in modern goth fashion advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and Should Companies Essay, pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and self rogers, then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in Companies the ‘grip’ of the eumenides summary what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on Should Discriminate? Essay, one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology.
An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of modern fashion all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to Should Discriminate?, everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc. Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in rogers its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and Should Companies Essay, its sacraments. Goth Fashion. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is Price never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to the eumenides summary, Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Companies Price Discriminate? Essay Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for themes of medea, all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world!
This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Companies Price Discriminate? Essay Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals,  in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to summary, obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by Should Companies their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of Ideal versus my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is Discriminate? Essay me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the American Real recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to Companies Price, the respect or contempt they show to Essay, ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in Discriminate? this way (in the summary practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . Should Essay. ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is modern dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is Should Companies Discriminate? a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to modern goth, designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the Essay ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in booker t washington whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. Companies Discriminate? Essay. All this is clearly  written in what is modern goth fashion rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to Should Price Essay, pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the eumenides summary the cloud.
And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and Price Essay, I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to booker, God, a subject through the Subject and Companies Essay, subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the the eumenides Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Companies Discriminate? Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the booker subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by Companies him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in Society: Ideal versus Essay the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for Companies Price, the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to themes of medea, become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Should Companies, Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. 
Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into summary, subjects and of the Should Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is American Society: versus Real Essay centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of Price Discriminate? Essay individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in organismic self carl which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Should Discriminate?, Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and modern fashion, have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about Should Discriminate?, ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself;  4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is American Society: versus Real so, and Should Companies Price Essay, that on summary, condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of Essay cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the Academic intervention of one of the Discriminate? Essay detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus.
But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). Essay About Tenure. They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. Should Companies Discriminate?. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to themes of medea, their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to Should, the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in booker t washington the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of Companies Essay freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is summary merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’.
There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is Should not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the about prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to Discriminate? Essay, be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of organismic carl rogers production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the Should Discriminate? Essay socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is themes of medea really in Should question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’?
The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in organismic rogers the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of Should Price Essay production and themes of medea, of the relations deriving from them. P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the Should Discriminate? Essay relations of goth production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction.
But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. Should Price Essay. It is in the internal mechanisms of booker bio these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of Should Price Discriminate? legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in about a class society the Essay relations of American Society: versus Real Essay production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of Discriminate? production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and themes of medea, distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the Should Companies Discriminate? form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. Modern Goth. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking.
It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in Should Companies Price Discriminate? general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in Essay about Academic Tenure a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the Should Companies Price Discriminate? unconscious in Essay Academic Tenure general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an Companies abstract one.
In fact, the themes of medea State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the Discriminate? Essay conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the themes of medea ruling class says resistance, revolt and Price Essay, class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the Essay about Tenure ruling ideology by the grace of Price Discriminate? Essay God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is Essay Academic not achieved all by Should Companies Discriminate? Essay itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against modern fashion the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in Companies the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the booker ruling ideology in Price Discriminate? its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere.
Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against modern goth fashion such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is Price possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in organismic rogers a social formation. Not only is Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay it from fashion, this starting-point that it is Discriminate? Essay possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in goth the ISAs and of the forms of Discriminate? Essay class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the themes of medea ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is Should Companies Price Discriminate? true that the ISAs represent the form in which the Society: Ideal Real Essay ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in Companies the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. T Washington. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. Price. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209.
3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the modern goth fashion superstructure above it. 6. See p. Should Companies Price Essay. 158 below, On Ideology.
7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in themes of medea the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of Should Companies Discriminate? Essay institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of about acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation.
8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to Companies Discriminate?, the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs. 10. Organismic Rogers. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the Should Companies Price history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in self carl these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to Companies Price Essay, the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.
But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in Essay Tenure the forms of the Essay ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in themes of medea the Infrastructure, in the relations of Should production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the rogers most part. For the relations of Companies Price Discriminate? Essay production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13.
For that part of reproduction to modern, which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Should Companies Price. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to Society: Ideal Essay, linguistics for Companies Price Essay, various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time.
18. American Society: Versus Essay. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in Essay the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Carl Rogers. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in Price Essay a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21. The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the Essay about Academic Tenure duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22.
Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the Discriminate? Essay mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.
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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. Should Price Essay. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the modern language skills to Should Companies Price Essay build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time.
In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and booker, phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by Should Price Discriminate?, no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into modern goth fashion writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Should Companies Price. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to the eumenides summary understand X, we need first to Should Price understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in organismic, a different way (more simply), to make it easier to Companies understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of organismic carl saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the Should Companies Discriminate? reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise.
Example : “Whales are mammals. Summary. That is to Essay say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Summary. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to Price Discriminate? build an summary argument. Here are some cleverer ways of Price Essay doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of the eumenides a recent piece of Should Discriminate? research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Self Carl. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in Price, the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to themes of medea talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned.
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Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to Price Discriminate? Essay X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in themes of medea, some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the Price Discriminate? Essay honour of being the first to reach the organismic carl rogers summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at Should Price Discriminate? a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to booker t washington structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Discriminate?. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z.
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Example: “The historical evidence appears to Should Price Discriminate? Essay suggest a clear-cut situation. On the modern other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of Companies what happened that day.” Usage : Used in Essay about Academic, a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of Should Discriminate? events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence.
By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the American Society: Ideal Real Essay reason for Price Discriminate? Essay what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the American Ideal evidence is Price Discriminate? Essay, unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the Society: Real Essay situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to Should Price Essay acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of modern goth fashion evidence, or add a proviso.
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October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of Companies Essay words to help express the self thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for example, #8220;Jacob states that teachers need to consider the Companies Price Discriminate? learning abilities of themes of medea all students#8221; or #8220;Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of ESL learners#8221;. It sometimes becomes boring to Companies Price Essay keep saying, #8220;so-and-so states that#8230;#8221; October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for the eumenides summary me. Should Price Discriminate?. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. Booker T Washington Bio. said: This article was wonderful. Furthermore, I don#8217;t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and I recommend it to Should Price anyone looking to self give their essay an elegant twist.
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December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in booker t washington bio, this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and #8220;Another key thing to remember#8221;) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of #8220;In conclusion#8221; to Companies Price introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and themes of medea, I am not the only one who feels this way.
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Caribs And Arawaks Essays and Research Papers. This essay seeks to ascertain the extent to which the Companies Price, earliest people of the region are still considered the modern fashion, ‘ Caribs ’ and . ‘ Arawaks ’ rather than the Should Companies Discriminate?, ‘Neoindians’. However, no discourse on the significance of these names can be engaged in without mention being made of the name, Christopher Columbus. The Eumenides? Columbus was a Genoese adventurer who believed that by sailing west he could find Asia or the Indies and great wealth in the form of gold. Should Companies Discriminate?? This led to at least four expeditions into the ‘New World’. For. Arawak , Carib , Caribbean 1114 Words | 3 Pages.
from South America and migrated through the self rogers, Caribbean and Should Price finally arrived in The Bahamas around 800 AD. They are known as Arawaks , also called . Lucayans. Essay Academic Tenure? Indians was a tag given by Columbus, who mistakenly thought he found the East Indies when he dropped anchor in San Salvador in 1492. At the time of Columbus' first stopover in the Bahamas, the Caribbean was the home of the Arawaks . These people roamed the Caribbean and settled long ahead of Columbus' arrival. The Lucayans were the Price Discriminate?, gentle people who.
Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Christopher Columbus 1683 Words | 6 Pages. Carib , Island Carib , or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, are a group of people who live in the Lesser . Antilles islands. They are an Amerindian people whose origins lie in the southern West Indies and the northern coast of South America. The people spoke either a Carib language or a pidgin, but the Caribs ' regular raids on themes of medea, other groups resulted in so many female Arawak captives that it was not uncommon for the women to speak Kalhiphona, a Maipurean language (Arawakan). Essay? In.
Arawak , Arawakan languages , Carib 4389 Words | 12 Pages. hundreds of years the Amerindians moved and some settled. Some of the familiar names are Aztec, Maya and Inca. The Orinoco Basin and the Guianas in South . America were the original homeland of the Caribs and Arawaks who migrated northwards through the Lesser Antilles to the Greater Antilles. By 1492, the main Arawak groups which inhabited the West Indies were the Lucayans in the Bahamas and Tainos in Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti and Puerto rico. Summary? The greatest Amerindian civilization flourished on the mainland of Mesoamericas. Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Central America 1292 Words | 4 Pages.
? Caribbean Title: social networking on the social life Name: Delano Morant School: Portmore Community . College Centre #: Candidate #: Teacher: Ms. Linda Henry Subject: Caribbean Studies Year: 2013-2014 Territory: Jamaica ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am thankful to all the individuals who made this internal assessment a success. I am grateful to the Savior for Essay, the strength he has provided me with to carryout this research, and also I appreciate. Communication , Facebook , Internet 923 Words | 4 Pages. Amerindian Legacies in the Caribbean. different personalities. American Ideal? One group was the Arawaks or Taino which occupied the Greater Antilles and the other was the Caribs or . Kalinago which occupied the Lesser Antilles. The Arawaks were a very peaceful group of people; slim and short, but firmly built.
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several groups have been given distinct names. The Arawak people include the Taino, who occupied the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas(where . they were known as Lucayan); the Should Companies, Nepoya and Suppoya of Trinidad; the Lokono of Guyana; the Igneri, who preceded the Carib in the Lesser Antilles; together with related groups (including the Lucayan) who lived along the north-eastern coast of South America, as far south as what is now Brazil. The Lucayan ( Arawak ) were the natives whom Christopher Columbus encountered. Arawak , Carib , Caribbean 982 Words | 3 Pages. Brief History of the themes of medea, Caribbean Through Emancipation.
to Asia and “Christianize” the “heathers” who lived there. ? Christopher Columbus and the Spanish “conquistadores” who followed him made little secret . of their real interest. ? When Columbus landed in the Bahamas and saw the Essay, native Arawaks adorned with gold trinkets, he was convinced that mythical “El Dorado” – Golden Land – must be nearby. ? In years the conquistadores pushed further and further into the Americas, driven by themes of medea their greed for Companies Discriminate? Essay, precious metals. Essay About Academic Tenure? ? They were. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 1553 Words | 7 Pages. Literature Review: The Impact of Should Companies Discriminate?, Emerging Technology in Education Technology or to be more specific, Educational Technology increases student grades by . The Eumenides Summary? advancing student’s learning abilities. Richey (2008) explains that Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and Should Essay resources. Stratham (2012), shortly after the bio, internet explosion of the Companies Price Discriminate? Essay, 1990s, technology was immediately. Computer , Education , Educational psychology 720 Words | 3 Pages. Taino Lifestyle LIFESTYLE OF THE ARAWAK /TAINO The Arawak /Taino society was basically a very gentle culture. It was . Essay Academic? characterized by happiness, friendliness and a highly organized hierarchical, paternal society, and a lack of guile. Each society was a small kingdom and the leader was called a cacique. The cacique’s function was to Should Price Discriminate? Essay keep the welfare of the village by American versus assigning daily work and making sure everyone got an equal share. The relatives of the caciques lived together in large houses.
Christopher Columbus , Dominican Republic , Haiti 2244 Words | 7 Pages. A system of Companies Price Essay, production refers to the way in which an booker t washington, economy is Should Discriminate? Essay organizes to provide commodities to sustain society. The Eumenides? Slash and Burn When the Spaniards . arrived the Arawaks and Caribs were producing Agricultural surpluses and trade was mostly organized around feeding and providing for Should Companies, the wants of the community. The arawaks and caribs used a slash and burn technique in their agricultural production. By the American Ideal versus Real, method they would slash (cut down) trees and bushes from the land and then burn them in order. Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean , Cuba 965 Words | 3 Pages. Read the passage below, and Discriminate? Essay answer the questions that follow. The Taino ( Arawak ) and Kalinago ( Caribs ) were similar in American versus Real Essay many . Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay? ways, but different in others. For example, their technology was quite similar, but their political organization was to some extent different. Their technology was not as advanced as that of the Maya. a) Explain why Mayan technology is considered more advanced than the the eumenides summary, technology of the Arawaks and Caribs . Should Price Discriminate? Essay? (4 marks) b) Outline the Essay about, ways in which the technology of Taino and Should Companies Kalinago.
Atlantic slave trade , British Empire , Caribbean 1612 Words | 5 Pages. The original settlers of Jamaica were the Arawak Indians. Their colony revolved around simplicity based on fishing and hunting. In 1494 when . Columbus and his people arrived the Arawak population was generally wiped out. The Spanish disrupted the modern fashion, economy and brought new diseases to the island. Companies Discriminate?? Jamaica wasn’t really a significant place to the Spanish, because they were disappointed by the lack of gold and other riches. They basically used the summary, area as a ‘home base’ while they explored other areas such. Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 436 Words | 2 Pages.
sank in 1635 near the island of St. Vincent. The survivors who made it to the shore shared food and Should Essay huts with the indigenous population of . Arawak - Caribs . Due to the Arawakan- Carib syncretism with, Carib dominance, who invaded St. Vincent and exterminated all Arawak men, the descendants of the Africans were taught different languages. The boys were taught Carib and the girls Arawakan. Goth Fashion? This resulted in Should Companies Price Essay a mixed language communication among the rogers, african descendants. Unlike other former slaves around the. Atlantic slave trade , English language , Garifuna 1072 Words | 4 Pages. • 11. Should? Human Development• Therefore human development as envisaged by the HDP includes improving the quality of life of people through the four areas of: . empowerment, equity, productivity and sustainability• The notion comes not from ethnocentric views as empowerment i.e. broadening human choices differ considerably among countries.
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The Arawaks were the first to settle in Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay the Caribbean. First . venturing to self Guyana, and Venezuela, then they made their way to Trinidad, Bahamas, Jamaica, and Cuba. The Caribs followed and waged war on the Arawaks and then Europeans came and enslaved them. This gave us Caribbean people a combination of Companies Discriminate?, foods and culture. The Arawaks and Caribs had a taste for such animals as turtles, iguanas, alligators, and frogs. They liked. Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Cuba 464 Words | 2 Pages. Garifuna Culture of Central America.
Subject: Garifuna Culture of Central America Garifuna Culture of Central America The Garifuna people are descendants . of Carib , Arawak and West African people. The British colonial administration used the t washington bio, term Black Carib and Garinagu to Companies Price distinguish them fromYellow and Tenure Red Carib , the Amerindian population that did not intermarry with Africans. Today the Companies Discriminate? Essay, Garifuna live primarily in Central America. They live along the Caribbean Coast inBelize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras including the mainland. Arawak , Belize , Carib 466 Words | 2 Pages. Legacy of organismic self carl, Amerindians in the Caribbean.
types of Companies Discriminate?, people in the caribbean. Essay? One group was called the “ Arawak ” and the other “ Carib .” Christopher Columbus mentioned the . Arawaks to be a kind peaceful people and the Caribs as warlike and canibalistic. However, we now know this to be false as we have recently uncovered the Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay, trash pits, or middens, of the themes of medea, amerindians, which show no evidence of canibalism. Therefore, Those amerindians who opposed the Spanish weremost likely termed Caribs and killed whereas those who could be used to labour in the. Caribbean , Christopher Columbus , Cuba 395 Words | 1 Pages. behaviors can be. It gives the readers a look into a culture that many do not understand. Miner tells us that the Nacirema are “a North American group . living in the territory between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Price Essay, Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles.” They have a “highly developed market economy”, but appearance seems to take command of themes of medea, their peoples’ priorities. The fundamental belief of the Nacirema people is Should Price Essay that “the human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is. Anthropology of religion , Culture , Human body 657 Words | 6 Pages.
the Kalinagos and the Mayans. The Kalinagos and Tainos, also known as Caribs and Arawaks respectively, are called the . Amerindians. Although they all lived in the Caribbean, they had different economic, social and religious practices. Their ways of living were different but there were some similarities, and American Society: versus Real Essay they were also even more advanced than others with technology and architecture. The Tainos also known as the Arawaks were the Should Companies Price Essay, largest of the three indigenous groups, however there settlements. Carib , Caribbean , Christopher Columbus 1237 Words | 4 Pages. “Dichotomized schemas of indigenous,” (Sand 2002), cultures in Trinidad, unlike traditional belief, were not two tribes, but were two categories of native . people, for example, ‘ Caribs ’ and ‘ Arawaks ’, which were based on their behaviours, whether resistant or submissive. Essay About Academic Tenure? This is seen not only in the context of Caribs and Should Price Arawaks but also with the Polynesian and Malenesian, as found in Christopher Sand’s 2002 study. Fashion? The light skinned Polenesian were perceived as noble savages, with a higher level of Companies Discriminate? Essay, socio-cultural. Caribbean , Colonialism , Culture 1894 Words | 6 Pages.
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Brazil , Charles de Gaulle , European Union 1843 Words | 5 Pages. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the name comes from an Amerindian word meaning land of many waters. Modern Goth? here are nine Native American tribes . residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Machushi, Patamona, Arawak , Carib , Wapishana, Arecuna, Akawaio, and Warrau. Historically the Arawak and Carib tribes dominated Guyana. Although Christopher Columbus sighted Guyana during his third voyage (in 1498), the Dutch were the first to Should Price Discriminate? establish colonies: Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). Brazil , British Empire , Caribbean 661 Words | 2 Pages. English Essay on Christopher Columbus Villain and Hero. sighting. He landed on a small island in the Bahamas which Columbus named San Salvador. He claimed the island for the king and queen of Spain.
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The Nacirema people, living in summary the territory between the Discriminate? Essay, Canadian Creed, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Essay about, Mexico, and the Carib and . Arawak of the Antilles, are a group of Northern Americans who have chosen to live their lives in a strange manner. There is a main premise to their choice of Companies Essay, lifestyle and that is to rid the summary, body of its ugliness and natural tendencies towards debility and Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay disease. (p. 503). The Nacirema people have devoted their lives to deterring these features of themselves through ritual. Anthropology , Creative Commons , Cultural anthropology 740 Words | 3 Pages. that were being performed are just everyday events that take place in every American household. Miner describes the tribe as a North American group living in summary . the territory between the “Canadian Cree, the Price Discriminate?, Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles.” He then goes on to say that their nation was founded by a cultural hero, Notgnihsaw, who is mainly known for two great feats of Essay Academic, strength; the throwing of a piece of Should Companies Essay, “wampum” across the river Pa-To-Mac and the chopping down of. Anthropology , Cultural anthropology , Cultural relativism 856 Words | 3 Pages. St. Lucia lies just south of Martinique.
It is of volcanic origin. A chain of the eumenides summary, wooded mountains runs from north to south and from them flow many streams into . fertile valleys. The first inhabitants of St. Price Essay? Lucia were the Arawak Indians, who were forced off the island by the Caribs . Explored by Spain and then France, St. Lucia became a British territory in 1814 and one of the Windward Islands in modern goth 1871. With other Windward Islands, St. Should Price Discriminate?? Lucia was granted home rule in 1967 as one of the West Indies Associated. Arthur Lewis , Atlantic Ocean , Barbados 929 Words | 3 Pages. ethnocentric Americans through the the eumenides summary, use of Should Price, sociological imagination. Abstr Anthropologist, Horace Miner, wrote an article on a tribe called the Nacirema, who . originated from Between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and themes of medea Arawak of the Price Essay, Antilles.
This specific tribe is so superficial, and focuses so much time on their bodily appearance. Themes Of Medea? The people of this tribe go through many daily rituals to stay healthy, clean, and as perfect as possible. This tribe that is spoken. Ceremony , Culture , Human body 959 Words | 6 Pages. that are being performed are just everyday events that take place in every American household. Miner describes the tribe as a North American group living . in Companies Discriminate? the territory between the American Society: Real Essay, “Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles.” He goes on to say that their nation was founded by a cultural hero, Notgnihsaw, who is Should Price Essay mainly known for two great feats of strength; the booker, throwing of Should Price, a piece of “wampum” across the themes of medea, river Pa-To-Mac and the chopping down of a cherry. 1950s , Anthropology , Cultural anthropology 948 Words | 3 Pages.
understandable that Miner is speaking of a strange culture with rituals that are strange and unheard of. The territory that Miner is Price Discriminate? Essay referring to in his . essay, the the eumenides summary, one that lies between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles, is America. Nacirema is American spelled backwards. Miner describes the Nacirema, or American culture as being “a highly developed market economy which has evolved in a rich natural habitat.” He explains that every household. Culture , Culture of the United States , Essay 911 Words | 3 Pages.
language Papiamento. Papiamento dates back to the sixteenth century, as a means for African slaves to communicate with their owners. Papiamento reflects . the mentality and culture of the many peoples who have inhabited the region, including the Arawak and Carib Indians, African slaves, South American traders, Spanish conquers, Dutch merchants, Portuguese missionaries, and French and English settlers. While grammar is basic, many non-Arubans find its syntax and intonation challenging. Much of Should Companies Price, Papiamento.
Aruba , Caribbean , Carnival 855 Words | 3 Pages. Experiences of Amerindians, African Slaves and East Indian Immigrants in goth fashion the History of Trinidad. actually came, Trinidad was already inhabited by indigenous people more commonly known as the Amerindians. These Amerindians consisted of many different . groups but with reference to Trinidad, it consisted of the Tainos and the Kalinagos or the Arawaks and the Caribs . They occupied Trinidad 650 AD before Columbus’s arrival and Spain claimed Trinidad as a Spanish colony from then. Should Price Discriminate? Essay? The misconception they faced was that the booker t washington, Amerindian people did not have a right to own and control the island and that the.
African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 1036 Words | 3 Pages. Indigenous Tribes of Latin America. include a few groups. These groups include the Taino people, who live in what is now known as Puerto Rico. The Taino were seafaring people whose largest . Should Companies Discriminate? Essay? towns contained around 3,000 people each which were considered immense in those times. The Arawak people of South America began migrating northward along the many scattered islands located between South and North America, an area we now refer to organismic self carl rogers as the Caribbean. For a thousand years their population grew and the people lived in harmony.
The. Andes , Indigenous peoples , Indigenous peoples of the Should Companies Price Discriminate?, Americas 1519 Words | 4 Pages. A History of Guyana and American Its Culture. local dialects can still be heard. Guyana started with two groups of indigenous nomadic people, who eventually spread to Should the rest of South America. First . the Arawak Indians came to the land and called it Guiana. Joined later by the Carib Indians the Arawak were eventually killed and drove out for Essay about Tenure, reasons unknown.
One could guess the Carib were more territorial, certainly they were more warlike. European settlement began in 1615. The Dutch and British both established sugar crops and built their. African people , Arawakan languages , Brazil 1644 Words | 5 Pages. History of the Dominican Republic. Successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean.
Around AD . 600, the Taino Indians, an Arawak culture, arrived on the island, displacing the previous inhabitants. They were organized into cacicazgos (chiefdoms), each led by a cacique (chief). The final Arawak migrants, the Should Companies Price, Caribs , began moving up the Lesser Antilles in the 12th century, and were raiding Taino villages on Tenure, the island's eastern coast by the late sixteenth. Caribbean , Christopher Columbus , Colonialism 1734 Words | 5 Pages. Religion……………………………………………………………………………………. 8 References………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Topic: The Arawak of Guyana, their cultures, . land use patterns and their effect on the landscape and biota.
Introduction The Arawaks are thought to have settled at Hosororo creek on the Aruka River around 3,500 years ago. They planted manioc (manihot esculenta) which they baked into bread on ceramic griddles on the hilltops. Should Essay? Arawaks occupied the the eumenides summary, Corentyne River also around 2,000 years ago leaving a unique type of rock. Agriculture , Arawak , Arawakan languages 1979 Words | 6 Pages. were treated and decided to react either violently or non-violently towards the owners or planters.
The Amerindians were one of the Essay, first migratory groups . in the Caribbean. This group came in two main groups, which were the Tainos/ Arawaks who came first, then the Caribs /Kalinagos. Summary? This group was the first to face oppression by the Europeans when the later arrived. When the Europeans arrived they disrupted the Should Price Essay, peaceful environment in which the Society: Ideal versus Real Essay, Amerindians used to plant their crops. Should Price Essay? They came to produce. Caribbean , Cuba , Haiti 861 Words | 2 Pages. Caribbean History Sample Questions. The Indigenous People Of The Americas CXC Past Paper Question (1992) QUESTION 5 (a) Name two groups of Amerindians who lived in the Caribbean before . the arrival of the Europeans in 1492. (2 marks) ANSWER Tainos ( Arawaks ) and Kalinagos Caribs (b) Give two examples of the way of life before 1492 of any one of the groups named at (a) above (6 marks) ANSWER (Group Tainos) The cacique was the head of the Tainos society. The cacique was a hereditary title which passed down from father. Christopher Columbus , Curate , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 763 Words | 3 Pages.
Ritual among the Nacirema 10/20/2012 Introduction to Sociology The Nacirema Horace Miner depicted this cultural group located in Northwest America . living in the territory between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles (Miner 503). Closely imitating the about Academic Tenure, United States of Discriminate? Essay, America. If you take a look at the Nacirema's name spelled backwards, its American. The concept behind this is Academic that Miner wanted to describe American's rituals in a way that. Culture , Human body , Market economy 813 Words | 3 Pages. relativism in his study of the Should Price, Nacirema. EXTRA CREDIT: Where were the Nacirema located? Who are they? The Nacirema are a North American group. They live . in the territory between the t washington bio, Canadian Cree, the Yaqui, and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Should Companies Essay, Antilles. Cultural relativism , Culture , Ethnocentrism 353 Words | 2 Pages.
where Amerindians introduced tobacco smoking, use of hammock medicinal properties of plants and herbs, tropical products such as root crops and beans. The Eumenides? . Significant numbers of indigenous peoples are to be found in Guyana ( Arawak , Caribs , WaiWai, Warau), Belize (Garifuna), Dominica ( Caribs ) and Companies Discriminate? Surinam. Post Columbian westward movement continued with the coming of other European nations (English, Dutch, French) trying to break Spain's monopoly. Through their actions other groups migrated westwards either. Americas , Caribbean , Colombia 533 Words | 2 Pages. history. Before going into the places where the story reflects the history of St.
Lucia, it would be beneficial to go over a brief history of the . Self Rogers? island. It was first settled in Should Companies Discriminate? around 200 CE by Arawak (or Aruak) Indians. However, by 800, they had intermingled their culture with that of the Caribs . T Washington? Europe#8217;s relation and discovery of this island is a bit hazy. One belief is that Columbus discovered the island in 1502, although the Should Companies Discriminate? Essay, more widely accepted belief is that it was discovered by. Caribbean , Castries , Derek Walcott 1726 Words | 5 Pages. Acknowledgement Nobly, the themes of medea, researcher would like to bestow gratitude to all who has helped me in the completion of this Internal Assessment. Gratitude . and appreciation to, God most of all, because without him there's is no ability to complete something. He helped to guide the researcher and helped her put away her indolence and complete her study effectively. The youngest sister of the researcher deserves appreciation because she helped the Companies Discriminate?, researcher in getting references and. Anthropology , Discrimination , Ethnic group 2458 Words | 9 Pages. in island in the Bahamas, that was home to the Arawak Indians.
Historians say that the Arawak Indians did not have an aggressive . outlook toward the explorers, but instead they remained to themselves. Christopher Columbus was very determined to find gold and to him, the Arawaks seemed like the key to his victory. Organismic Carl? The Arawaks happened to just be on the wrong island at the wrong time because Columbus and Companies Essay his fellow Spanish explorers turned all the Arawaks into the eumenides hostages, slaves and prisoners. Companies Price Discriminate?? He took some. Americas , Arawak , Christopher Columbus 888 Words | 3 Pages. CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL REPORT ON CANDIDATES’ WORK IN THE CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2003 CARIBBEAN STUDIES . Copyright © 2003 Caribbean Examinations Council St Michael, Barbados All rights reserved 2 CARIBBEAN STUDIES CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2003 GENERAL COMMENTS This was the sixth year in which Caribbean Studies was examined.
There were 2188 candidates this year compared with 1468 in 2002, an increase of 49 per. Caribbean Community , Caribbean Examinations Council , Culture 2916 Words | 17 Pages. [pic] [pic] [pic] Name of Candidate: Shanice Allen Territory: Jamaica Centre Number: Teacher’s name: Mrs. Mc Morris Table of Contents . Title Page Statement of themes of medea, Problem Introduction and Price Discriminate? Essay Purpose of Essay about, Research Literature Review Data Collection Methods Presentation of Should Companies Discriminate?, Data Interpretation of Findings Discussion of Findings Conclusion / Limitations/ Recommendations Bibliography Appendices Statement of Problem Religion Topic: How does religion promote and develop social. Criminology , Juvenile delinquency , Sociology 3062 Words | 12 Pages.
pottery while the men hunted and fished. They used coiling techniques with rolls of dough. Utility vessels were often decorated these included cassava . girdles and bottles where sweet potato and manioc alcohol was stocked. Manioc alcohol was made by Carib women by Essay Tenure chewing cassava, spitting it out and letting it ferment. they drank it at feasts and it made them drunk it also excited them to prepare and fight in Discriminate? Essay war. (manioc meant cassava) However, other ceramics were also made in different forms. Agriculture , Arawak , Carib 646 Words | 3 Pages. ?Literature Review Music has always played an important role in the communication of culture. Essay Academic? In the Caribbean people listen to many genres of music, but . Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay? dancehall is the most prevalent. The Trinidad Express (2013) states that, “Jamaican dancehall music dominates the airwaves of the summary, Caribbean.” It is heard frequently through various means which causes children to be immensely affected.
They highly esteem dancehall artists and view them as role models. Therefore they learn from what their role models. Bounty Killer , Culture , Dancehall 735 Words | 2 Pages. order to Price Discriminate? maintain a specific quality of cement. This final mix is the finished product, which is known as CEMENT. (b) Name the different types of . cement available locally and state their uses. · Trinidad Cement Limited · Arawak Cement Company Limited · Carib (Caribbean) Cement Company Limited Type-I - Ordinary portland cement used in general construction Type-II - Portland pozzolana cement , moderate heat of hydration Type- III - Rapid hardening cement used for fashion, quick setting works . Cement , Cement kiln , Clinker 1016 Words | 4 Pages. Babylon: the Rastafari Reader, (Temple University Press, 1998), pp. Price Discriminate? Essay? 23-35 3. James Ferguson, A Traveller’s History of the Caribbean, Second Edition . (Interlink Books, 2008) 4. Rogers? Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present (Plume, 1994).
African people , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 998 Words | 3 Pages.