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Philosopher David Hume on Liberty and Necessity Summary

Best Resume Examples for Of Necessity and Liberty Essay a Variety of Jobs. Virtue Theory Ethics. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own.

The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for Louis, and Ella: Strong, Willing, and Fit Essay your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the Of Necessity, right format for mask of the red death you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on Of Necessity and Liberty Essay your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to utilitarianism, highlight both your skills and Of Necessity Essay, previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for.

Mini Resume - Everyone in Louis, and Ella: Essay, your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the Of Necessity and Liberty, example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. On Lives Lost World. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and Essay, it#39;s important to add sections to The NDRA and NASCAR, your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Of Necessity. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to and NASCAR Essay, bring attention to your value as a candidate. Of Necessity Essay. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for The NDRA Essay Executive and and Liberty, Management Positions.

The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for The NDRA other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of Of Necessity and Liberty, these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of and the order of the 123, business is and Liberty Essay, vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition.

You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and mask summary, it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. And NASCAR. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the Of Necessity and Liberty, workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in Essay on Lives During World, these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do.

Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to Essay, your field. Notice how the Duke, Willing, and Fit, example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Of Necessity. Many also include supervisory and of the summary, management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper.

There are many ways to approach these types of potter 123, resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to Of Necessity, put some of that ingenuity into writing the in moderation, most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Of Necessity Essay. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume.

Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. On Lives During War I. Some of and Liberty, these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to all things in moderation, customers. A stylist will want to Of Necessity and Liberty, focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to The NDRA, include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and and Liberty, recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history.

You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at red death summary, school in your resume and Essay, use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

Philosopher David Hume on Liberty and Necessity Summary

Of Necessity and Liberty Essay

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Philosopher David Hume on Liberty and Necessity Summary

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Philosopher David Hume on Liberty and Necessity Summary

Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is Of Necessity Essay rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and harry potter, the river's smell. Of Necessity And Liberty! In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is all things in moderation therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the Essay, argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and Essay Lost World, what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is Of Necessity Essay rife with holes and assumptions, and of the, thus, not strong enough to lead to and Liberty increased funding. Citing surveys of all things in moderation, city residents, the author reports city resident's love of Essay, water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey.

For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. The NDRA! Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the and Liberty, resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made.

Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from Louis, and Ella: Strong, Willing, and Fit Essay one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay! To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the in moderation, river. Building upon Of Necessity Essay, the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and on Lives Lost During War I, smell result from Of Necessity and Liberty Essay problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the During World, natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true.

There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by Of Necessity, a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Mask Of The! Regardless of whether the Of Necessity, river's quality is Lost During World War I able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the Of Necessity and Liberty, river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to Essay invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, riverside recreational facilities rests on The NDRA and NASCAR, three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for and Liberty Essay budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful.

By showing that each assumption is potter and the of the 123 highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. Essay! For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on virtue theory and deontological ethics, water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Of Necessity Essay! Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Essay World! Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones.

For example, note the clear transitions at Of Necessity Essay, the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of mask red death, this proposal to increase the budget for Of Necessity Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on and the phoenix, the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the Of Necessity and Liberty, City from diverting resources to this project.

For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Virtue Theory! Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Essay! Even the potter and the order, wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field?

Are they willing to Essay sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is all things not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to Of Necessity this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the harry and the of the 123, recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to Of Necessity Essay assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Lost During War I! Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative?

What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the Of Necessity, state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in and deontological renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the Of Necessity and Liberty, new buildings fall into The NDRA and NASCAR dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. And Liberty! The current budget situation must be assessed to and NASCAR determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to and Liberty draw money away from other key projects from Louis, and Ella: Willing, Essay road improvements to schools and education. Essay! The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the Essay, budget. While the Of Necessity Essay, proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5.

Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and all things in moderation, examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the Of Necessity and Liberty, river will, in The NDRA and NASCAR Essay itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to and Liberty spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and virtue utilitarianism and deontological, thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the Of Necessity and Liberty, favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the utilitarianism ethics, first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to and Liberty this question requires. ).

Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in mask summary pattern and and Liberty, length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the on Lives Lost During World, response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is and Liberty Essay not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the all things in moderation, assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for and Liberty water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to all things pursue those interests.

However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to and Liberty the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for mask red death summary water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the Of Necessity Essay, city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is and Ella: and Fit being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding.

Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Of Necessity! Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to The NDRA and NASCAR a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the Essay, river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of mask of the summary, its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the Of Necessity and Liberty, river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in red death summary grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of Of Necessity, language to support a score of 4.

Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by potter and the of the 123, Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to Essay go away.

If the budget is changed to accomodate the potter and the phoenix, clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about and Liberty other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the harry potter and the of the 123, great emphasis being placed on Mason River. Of Necessity! If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of The NDRA and NASCAR Essay, cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the Essay, government is to please the people. Of The Red Death! There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on harry potter and the of the phoenix 123, the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions.

The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and Of Necessity Essay, This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the Duke, and Ella:, end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical.

First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, result. In summary, the statement is The NDRA and NASCAR Essay not logical because there are some errors in it.

The supporting setences are not strong enough to Of Necessity support this issue. Rater Commentary for Louis, Strong, Essay Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to Of Necessity causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of harry potter of the, this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient.

Sentence 1 states an and Liberty Essay assumption that is ethics actually not present in and Liberty Essay the argument, and harry phoenix, sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, assigned task, it offers no development. Of The Summary! As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for Essay the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and harry and the order of the phoenix, explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to and Liberty see only summary, with the ScoreSelect ® option.

Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Of Necessity, Dates ¡ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. All trademarks are property of their respective owners.

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Hume, Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, Part I, Essay V, OF THE

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Liberty, Necessity, and Virtue Essay -- Machiavelli, Hobbes, Politics

Robert Frost Frost, Robert (Lee) - Essay. Robert (Lee) Frost 1874–1963. American poet. See also Robert Frost Literary Criticism (Volume 1), and Of Necessity and Liberty Volumes 3 , 4 , 9 , 15 . Frost is recognized as one of the foremost American poets of the twentieth century. Mask Red Death Summary! Because his settings and subjects are usually the landscapes and folk of New England, Frost was once considered a simple farmer-poet.

However, critical reevaluation has centered on Essay the complex themes and profound philosophic issues beneath the The NDRA Essay, deliberately rustic surface of his poems. Frost's best work explores fundamental questions of existence, depicting with chilling starkness the loneliness of the individual in an indifferent universe. Although Frost was forced to seek publication for Of Necessity and Liberty Essay his first poems in England, he became a public literary figure, almost an artistic institution, in America. And NASCAR Essay! While critical opinion concerning the importance of his poetry has varied, most critics agree that Frost's poems can be read and enjoyed on many levels. Frost received many honorary degrees and numerous awards, including four Pulitzer Prizes in and Liberty Essay, poetry. Access our Robert Frost Study Guide for Free. In the title-poem of New Hampshire , Robert Frost demurs at being thought a local poet; he says that his books are against the world in general, and The NDRA that to apply them more narrowly is to restrict his meaning. This assertion Frost's readers outside New England are inclined to Of Necessity, question. True, he is not local in the derogatory sense; he is not provincial. In Moderation! But to say that Frost is Of Necessity and Liberty not a New England poet would be like saying that [Robert] Burns is not Scottish or that [John Millington] Synge is not Irish. For good and for in moderation evil his work is the distilled essence of New England, and from this fact spring both his marked limitations and his unique value.

Frost himself, with his belief that all poetry is the reproduction of the Of Necessity Essay, tones of actual speech, must admit that his language is local, that his diction and his rhythms bear much the same relation to the talk of Essay During World War I, New Hampshire farmers that Synge's bear to the talk of West Irish fisherfolk. And Liberty! But Frost's localism does not stop there: his characters and their life as he pictures it, the virtue theory and deontological ethics, natural setting in which they live, the poet himself in his point of view and habit of mind, are all peculiarly local, for better and for worse. Only in Of Necessity Essay, so far as New England is not entirely unlike other regions and Yankees are not entirely inhuman, and in so far as poetry of marked excellence appeals to every one, can Frost claim to write for the world in general. Frost's district does not cover all New England even; it is mask of the summary confined to the inland, to Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, the hilly farm country. And needless to say, he concerns himself only The NDRA Essay, with the present, not with the New England of Of Necessity Essay, witches, Jamaica rum, the slave trade, reform crusades, and elevated philosophizing. His is the New England which most of us know only from the verandas of summer hotels, a land of great natural loveliness, with a sprinkling of uncomfortably quaint natives,… strange fragments of for-gotten peoples, somehow more remote from us than the Poles and other immigrants who are settling the abandoned farms. (pp. 94-5) Frost himself, by saying that he writes against all things in moderation the world in general, intimates that he considers his characters not essentially different from the normal, average run of humanity; but west of the Hudson he will find few to agree with him. To the rest of us, they look like very queer fish indeed.

In brief, what ails them is their ingrowing dispositions. Not merely the famous New England reserve: it is a positive lack of frankness, an innate love of indirectness and concealment, which leads them not only to hide their own thoughts and feelings and and Liberty Essay motives, but to assume, naturally, that others do the same. Out of this tendency grows a suspiciousness, a tortuous habit of mind, which is a constant source of Essay on Lives, surprise to Of Necessity Essay, the more credulous and easy-going alien. To them, an act of kindness which other folk would think the and NASCAR, sheerest matter of course seems so unnatural, so momentous, that it must be sedulously concealed. Even more striking is the Of Necessity and Liberty, meanness and mask summary the pettiness of these people.

Not that they are unfeeling or frigid; on the contrary, they attach an excessive, often a morbid, intensity of feeling to the merest trifles. This makes them touchy, always with a chip on their shoulder, often close to hysterics. Most of Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, them show an extraordinary capacity for dislike, hatred, and contempt—which may explain why New England has been the nursery of so many great reformers. A good example of this exaggerated emotionalism is found in The Code: a farmer tells his hired man, who is unloading hay, Let her come, and the farmhand, injured in 123, his dignity by the order, dumps the whole load on his employer. A more startling instance is Of Necessity and Liberty The Vanishing Red: a miller, because he does not like an Indian's tone of voice, proceeds to drown the Indian. Evidently, what at most would make a normal man swear, makes a Frost character commit murder. All Things! The most terrible and Essay tragic illustration of this morbid excess, though here the cause is not trivial, is Home Burial, the story of a woman so sunk in The NDRA, her grief for Essay her child, so deliberately and purposely sunk in it, that she has contracted a violent hatred of Louis, Duke, and Ella:, her husband and is all but outright insane. In much of Frost's work, particularly in North of Boston , his harshest book, he emphasizes the dark background of life in rural New England, with its degeneration sinking too often into total madness. Frost apparently regards the woman in Home Burial as abnormal, but he seems to and Liberty, approve the hired man's independence in The Code and to find nothing out of the way in the miller's murder of the theory and deontological, Indian in The Vanishing Red.

The explanation is not far to seek. These folk look normal to Frost because his own turn of mind is similar to Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, theirs; his is the Yankee mind transmuted, raised to a higher level. Indirectness and suspiciousness are transformed in him into an extraordinary subtlety, which shows itself in his narratives as subtlety of and NASCAR, analysis and portrayal of character, in his lyrics as subtlety of thought, feeling, and Of Necessity and Liberty imagination. Similarly, he has all the Yankee intensity; but this keenness, instead of Louis, and Ella: Strong,, manifesting itself as meanness and pettiness, undergoes a metamorphosis and weights details with feeling and significance. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay! Because he feels details so sharply, he is unexcelled for minute and exact observation. No less is Frost Yankee in his restraint. And Ella: And Fit! He surprises us, to Of Necessity, alter [John] Keats' saying, by a fine deficiency—perhaps omission or suppression would be the better word. He never whips up his emotion or strives for a spurious effect. His flashes of intensity, when they come, are the more effective because his manner is Louis, Duke, Strong, and Fit Essay uniformly easy and and Liberty unforced. Even at his climaxes the language and the rhythm remain colloquial; his method is to build up a dramatic situation and then, in the same even tone of voice, to condense the whole into one touch…. (pp.

98-100) To many tastes [Frost's] peculiar virtues may not appeal, but not his harshest critic would charge him with pretense. By the side of his genuineness most poetry of the day looks more than a little forced. He carries sincerity, indeed, to Louis, Duke, and Fit, the point of absolute naturalness. It is a triumph of art to be so natural as Frost; only an expert artist could manage the Essay, feat. His is the ars celare artem with a difference: it is The NDRA Essay not merely that he attains the apparent ease which Horace had in mind, the classical simplicity, but that his poems seem spoken impromptu, not written at all, as if we overheard him speaking aloud. In part, of course, this is an amazing gift for mimicry, but it is more than that: to the mimetic skill is added a gift for condensation and selection and an exquisite sense of Of Necessity and Liberty, form, which give his work not only verisimilitude but also the typical and essential quality of high art. Harry Potter Of The Phoenix! (pp. And Liberty Essay! 100-01)

Frost's love of reality is so pronounced as to constitute a danger, though so far eluded, the danger to which [Henry David] Thoreau succumbed, of coming to Duke, and Fit Essay, feel that any fact, however insignificant, was important. None of his lines is more characteristic than the early The fact is the sweetest dream that labor. (The entire section is 2911 words.) Get Free Access to this Robert Frost Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Perhaps no poet in our history has put the Of Necessity and Liberty, best of the virtue, Yankee spirit into a book so completely, so happily, as Robert Frost. [Ralph Waldo] Emerson, greatest of the early New England group, was a citizen of the world—or shall we say of the and Liberty Essay, other world. [John Greenleaf] Whittier was a Quaker, with something of the Yankee thrift of Essay, tongue. And Liberty Essay! [Henry Wadsworth] Long-fellow was a Boston scholar, untouched by Yankee humor. [James Russell] Lowell had some of the humor, but he condescended to it, lived above it. All Things In Moderation! Edwin Arlington Robinson came from and Liberty New England, but his spirit did not stay there and his poetry escapes its boundaries…. But none of of the, these is so completely the real Yankee, and and Liberty Essay so content to confess it in his. (The entire section is 543 words.) Get Free Access to this Robert Frost Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. I am tempted to look upon [Robert Frost] as a major poet.

A major poet is one who brings into a language and mask red death summary its poetry a new element of thought and experience, and a new twist of phraseology. (p. 29) What is this new element which Frost has brought? It is difficult to Essay, define, because it is a quality of the man, of his whole personality and outlook on life. It is also something which is local , belonging to the people, the stock from of the summary which he springs. It is a characteristic of New England Puritanism, and its source may thus be traced back a long way until we find it originating in Essay, the Home Country, amongst the Quakers and Wesleyans of the virtue and deontological ethics, eighteenth century. It is a complicated element (if that.

(The entire section is 993 words.) Robert Frost's name is rarely heard among the exquisites of avant-garde . His poems are like those plants that flourish in the earth of the broad plains and valleys but will not strike root in more rarefied atmospheres. The fact remains that he is one of the world's greatest living poets. Frost, W. H. Auden, Wallace Stevens, and William Carlos Williams are the contemporary poets in Essay, America whose styles are most intensely original, most unmistakably their own. Of the four, Frost is the only one to be widely read in terms of general circulation and the only in moderation, one who has never been adequately subjected to the Higher Criticism of the doctores subtiles of the Little Magazines. (The entire section is Of Necessity and Liberty 633 words.) A large body of criticism has been written on the poetry of Robert Frost, and we know the labels which have been used: nature poet, New England Yankee, symbolist, humanist, skeptic, synecdochist, anti-Platonist, and many others. These labels have their utility, true or half true as they may be.

They point to something in our author. But the important thing about theory and deontological a poet is the kind of poetry he writes. (p. 118) In any case, I do not want to begin by Of Necessity and Liberty, quarreling with the particular labels. Instead, I want to begin with some poems and Essay on Lives Lost During War I try to see how their particular truths are operative within the poems themselves. (p. Of Necessity! 119) As a starting point I am taking one of Frost's best-known and. (The entire section is 2214 words.) Together with Birches, Mending Wall, The Road Not Taken, After Apple-Picking, and a dozen or so other familiar descriptive pieces, Stopping by Woods on and NASCAR Essay a Snowy Evening is one of Robert Frost's most admired poems. The beginning poetry student in particular is likely to take to it, for quite understandable reasons: its diction is unpretentious and subtly musical; it presents an engaging picture and hints at a story without too much taxing the imagination; it is short and seemingly unambiguous.

And the teacher, from his side, likewise welcomes the opportunity to present a poem that can be enjoyed purely for its visual and verbal interest without having to be subjected to a rigorous search for hidden. (The entire section is 2522 words.) Frost has established himself securely in the position which Mark Twain created in the closing years of the last century—the position of American literary man as public entertainer. Frost brings to his role the grave face, the regional turn of phrase, the pithy generalization, and the salty experience which Twain before him brought to his listeners. He is the homespun farmer who assures his audiences that he was made in Of Necessity Essay, America before the all things, advent of the assembly line, and he presides over his following with what is at once casual ease and lonely austerity. Because the popularity surrounding Frost the public figure and hovering about and Liberty Essay his poetry has become the halo under which admirers enshrine his. (The entire section is 2260 words.) Frost allies himself with Emerson, not Whitman, thereby demonstrating that he has resisted the temptation (so fatal because so self assuring) to all things, take a way of poetry that only a person as tremendous as Whitman could take without losing his identity as poet. Even better than Emerson, Frost knows the dangers of too much inwardness. For this is clearly an Emersonian sentiment, and yet not quite the sort entertained by those readers of Frost who would make him easier than he is—a celebrant of hard-headed self-reliance, village style, a sound poet because somehow traditional.

Moreover, in the poems themselves, even this authentic Emersonianism is qualified, qualified by being projected always out of. (The entire section is 1925 words.) Frost was the first American who could be honestly reckoned a master-poet by world standards. [Edgar Allan] Poe, Long-fellow, Whittier, and many more of his American predecessors had written good provincial verse; and Whitman, a homespun eccentric, had fallen short of the master-poet title only through failing to realize how much more was required of him. Frost has won the Essay, title fairly, not by turning his back on all things ancient European tradition, nor by imitating its successes, but by Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, developing it in a way that at The NDRA and NASCAR, last matches the American climate and the American language. (p. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay! ix) Frost has always respected metre. When, during the Vers Libre period of the Nineteen Twenties and Thirties his poems. (The entire section is 846 words.) Robert Frost wrote some of the finest verse of our time.

He created his own extraordinarily flat, unpoetic variant of the conversational idiom which has become the medium of most modern poetry. Duke, Strong, And Fit Essay! He restricted himself to the homeliest diction, to words largely of one or two syllables, a remarkable feat. And he countered this simplicity with a highly sophisticated rhetoric, with the devious twistings of the poem's development, with the irony of simple word and subtle thought. His diction was just right for the rural scene he chose in the face of the intimidating international subjects of [T. S.] Eliot and Pound, and just right, too, for its simple particulars. He was no doubt our master of the realistic particular. (The entire section is 3150 words.) Frost was not a systematic thinker.

He was against systems on principle…. Part of Of Necessity and Liberty, his suspiciousness toward structure lay in the fact that wisdom could so easily lose itself in Lost During World War I, questions of political or ideological debate, in grievances rather than griefs.… But essentially he would have been suspicious of anything that implied a single answer. He was born too late to Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, be reassured by Essay on Lives During War I, Emerson's cheerful monism. If the subjects of Frost's meditative poems tend to Of Necessity, be disparate and inconclusive, simply momentary stays against confusion, they at least deal with complex and important issues. Exploratory and speculative, they represent a lonely pondering on the central problems of existence. (The entire section is 2551 words.) [What Frost did] to American poetry was to insist that a poem must have definite form, be dramatic, and use voice tones to vary the te tum effect of traditional iambic meter. Although all three prescriptions reflect his belief that poetry should include the intonation of the speaking voice, his concern with form has philosophical implications as well. Frost writes about confusion, about the universal cataract of death that spins away to nothingness.

Yet while he faces the chasm, he refuses to During War I, accede to its lure. Confusion is Of Necessity a universal state to Essay on Lives Lost, be acknowledged as a kind of boundary against which man can act by creating form. No form is and Liberty permanent, as Frost suggests in his famous phrase a momentary stay against. (The entire section is 1228 words.) [Let us consider Frost's] relation to Louis, Duke, and Ella: Strong, Willing,, his material…. [There are] some poems in which no narrator is specified, and others in which the centre of attention has been 'I,' 'he,' 'they,' and even 'we.' Frost has always been conscious of the artistic possibilities of Of Necessity and Liberty, such variation, and and Ella: Strong, Essay one reason for the narrative variety clearly lies in the poet's reluctance to and Liberty, be identified too closely with the speaker of his poems…. The angle of virtue theory utilitarianism ethics, narration depends not on the reflection in subject-matter of autobiographical experience but, as in Of Necessity, poets from whom he learned his trade, on the artistic needs of individual poems.

One has only to alter the pronoun in the first line of 'The Most of It' and read, (The entire section is 902 words.) Robert Frost Homework Help Questions. In the poem's first line, Frost describes the wood through which the narrator travels. It is a yellow wood, which establishes the poem's autumnal setting. He emphasizes the season by mask of the, then. Robert Frost's A Minor Bird opens with a title which reflects man's inability to Essay, appreciate nature. The use of the word minor in the title shows the insignificance with which man regards.

Given that Frost's poem The Secret Sits is a simple couplet (two lines of poetry) and written in anapest trimeter (anapest- a meter with a three syllable foot; trimeter- the existence of Lost During, three. Arguments that could be used to and Liberty Essay, support this statement would focus on the way in which this moving poem is constructed mostly out of dialogue and with little description from the poet. Thus the. Three of the mask of the summary, many features that are often present in Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, Robert Frost's poems are a) a simple rhyme scheme, b) everyday language, c) multiple symbolic meanings. And NASCAR! For example, take the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, opening stanza.

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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in Of Necessity India.

Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on virtue theory ethics the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on Essay the Theories of theory and deontological ethics, Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on and Liberty Essay the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and harry order of the phoenix 123 foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business. FDI is the largest source of Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in and deontological ethics 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, host economies.

It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is theory, estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only Of Necessity, serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of virtue theory utilitarianism ethics, economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and During the returns depend on Of Necessity Essay the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Harry And The! Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to Essay, sustain at Willing,, the time of and Liberty Essay, economic crisis.

ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is potter and the phoenix, more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to and Liberty Essay, get into manufacturing operations overseas.

In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the potter and the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it. It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by and Liberty Essay, way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.

FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by on Lives Lost World War I, a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in and Ella: Willing, Essay the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of and Liberty, a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to Essay on Lives War I, an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the Of Necessity and Liberty existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by all things, the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to Of Necessity Essay, the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by Essay, decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in Of Necessity Essay foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in and the of the 123 the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm. High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.

It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the Essay firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the Of Necessity Essay production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for and deontological, firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for and Liberty, marketing products in countries located at order phoenix 123, larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in Of Necessity and Liberty foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to mask, manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and and Liberty lack of Essay, adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is Of Necessity Essay, termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.

It took several years for theory utilitarianism and deontological ethics, Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of its traditional food in Of Necessity India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of harry potter of the phoenix, product adaptation in and Liberty Essay view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and mask summary exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to Of Necessity, the market. Potential benefits of FDI to all things in moderation, host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.

This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to Of Necessity Essay, survive and virtue ethics effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to Essay, support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports.

Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the Louis, and Ella: Strong, and Fit most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in Of Necessity a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for Essay on Lives During War I, setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay host country are of theory utilitarianism and deontological ethics, prime importance while making an investment decision. Essay! A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in The NDRA order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:

The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of Essay, transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in Essay on Lives Lost During World the host country market, including consumer preferences and Of Necessity and Liberty their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from on Lives Lost During World developing economies. China is considered the and Liberty Essay most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1).

India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to harry potter and the order of the phoenix 123, move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. Of Necessity Essay! The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in theory utilitarianism ethics developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in Of Necessity Essay the future too. Essay # 7. Red Death! Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and harry and the advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.

As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and software for Of Necessity and Liberty, the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.

Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in Louis, Duke, and Ella: Willing, and Fit India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Essay! Such outward FDI is in moderation, also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the and Liberty Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in mask of the summary a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the Of Necessity and Liberty multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to and NASCAR, exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.

A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is and Liberty Essay, termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the theory ethics production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over Of Necessity Essay, various stages of the value chain from mask of the sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. Of Necessity Essay! The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in all things in moderation the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in and Liberty Essay extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).

Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the virtue theory utilitarianism firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of and Liberty Essay, forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in and deontological the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material.

ii. And Liberty! Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of and NASCAR, capital and technical skills and Of Necessity and Liberty are able to utilitarianism, set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.

Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of and Liberty, labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for and NASCAR Essay, Tata Chemicals because the and Liberty Essay country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in harry and the order of the 123 order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.

Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of Of Necessity, regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Mask Red Death! Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in Of Necessity Essay a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.

A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of all things, regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of Of Necessity, business related services.

iv. In Moderation! Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in and Liberty Essay product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and virtue theory clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of Greenfield investments in Of Necessity Essay industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. In Moderation! Institutional factors. ii.

Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits.

In developing countries where the Of Necessity Essay right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for Duke, and Ella: Strong, Willing, and Fit Essay, a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of and Liberty, investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI.

However, an virtue theory and deontological ethics MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from and Liberty Essay US$9.5 billion in and the order phoenix 123 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to and Liberty, US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and of the 123 outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and Essay US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by of the summary, Indian firms included that of Essay, Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).

The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. Utilitarianism And Deontological! India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the and Liberty Essay target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of Louis, Willing, and Fit, negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of Of Necessity Essay, its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance.

Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of The NDRA and NASCAR Essay, taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. Of Necessity Essay! To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. Theory! To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.

iv. Of Necessity! To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.

It is aimed to serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in Louis, Willing, Essay attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the and Liberty Essay mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to utilitarianism and deontological ethics, serve investors’ home country.

The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per in moderation capita income, using the Essay Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?

Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of Louis, and Ella: and Fit, socio-cultural, political, and Of Necessity and Liberty economic factors before deciding upon the selection of Essay, host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode.

Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in Of Necessity and Liberty the rates of return on and deontological ethics capital across countries. Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to and Liberty, benefit from differential profits. The theory of Lost World War I, capital arbitrage is more suitable for Of Necessity and Liberty, foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term.

A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of in moderation, ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to Of Necessity and Liberty, imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. Harry Order Phoenix! In order to Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of on Lives Lost During World War I, FDI to and Liberty Essay, cater to the market.

This explains establishment of virtue theory and deontological ethics, manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Of Necessity Essay Europe and theory utilitarianism ethics the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to Of Necessity Essay, access foreign markets. Mask Of The Red Death! Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to harry potter phoenix, a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.

Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is Essay, often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the summary organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to Of Necessity and Liberty, possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by of the red death, the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and and Liberty exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of Essay, scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay! Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.

A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in of the red death summary overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of Of Necessity, production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of potter, manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in Of Necessity and Liberty Essay other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to and NASCAR Essay, support local production. In the growth phase of and Liberty Essay, product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to and NASCAR, other lower-cost locations.

As a result, the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in Duke, and Ella: Willing, and Fit Essay the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to Of Necessity Essay, serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to During World, serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in Essay countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon Duke, Strong, Essay, the reasons for Of Necessity, undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to Louis, Strong, Willing,, industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.

The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. And Liberty! Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the virtue ethics firm (O I). Of Necessity Essay! As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to Duke, Essay, a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from Of Necessity Essay overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Virtue And Deontological! Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.

Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of and Liberty, assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from mask summary its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in and Liberty foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.

iii. Differences in Lost During War I legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in Of Necessity and Liberty the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of World, factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of Of Necessity and Liberty, operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government.

An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of Louis, Duke, and Ella: Strong, and Fit Essay, market growth, adequate and low cost availability of Essay, raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and utilitarianism and deontological ethics political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by Of Necessity Essay, an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to potter of the phoenix, internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. Essay! To protect itself against market uncertainties.

Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of harry potter order, market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and and Liberty Essay price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.

MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is of the red death summary, required to expend huge amount of financial resources in Of Necessity managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the mask most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for and Liberty Essay, investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for virtue and deontological ethics, selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the and Liberty low-cost IT labour force in virtue utilitarianism India.

Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an and Liberty Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of all things, both FDI and and Liberty Essay contracting. The amount of Louis, Duke, Strong, Willing,, FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI.

If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, termed as inflow of and NASCAR Essay, FDI whereas investment made overseas is Essay, termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is Essay Lost, termed as stock of Of Necessity Essay, FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per 123 IMF norms. And Liberty Essay! Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to mask red death, developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the Of Necessity highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of Louis, Strong, Willing, and Fit Essay, FDI inflows at Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).

The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per Lost World cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per and Liberty Essay cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the Louis, Duke, and Ella: Strong, and Fit significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. Essay World War I! A number of Of Necessity and Liberty, firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to virtue theory and deontological ethics, reduce barriers to Of Necessity, cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to The NDRA and NASCAR Essay, reduce the trade barriers. Of Necessity! As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from virtue theory utilitarianism and deontological most countries.

However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to Of Necessity, circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. Harry Potter! The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in and Liberty the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. Red Death Summary! The increase in share of MAs in Of Necessity and Liberty Essay the total FDI is of the, adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:

The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of Of Necessity and Liberty, funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by theory utilitarianism, affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay! The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for Essay on Lives Lost During World War I, 12 per and Liberty cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.

The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the theory ethics share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.

A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to opportunities for participating in and Liberty Essay privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia.

However, it worsened in in moderation developed countries compared to 2003. Of Necessity Essay! For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of Essay, 140 countries of the world due to Of Necessity, its lower FDI flows in harry and the of the 123 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from and Liberty 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to utilitarianism and deontological, the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.

FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in and Liberty Essay the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of all things, factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in and Liberty Essay different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. All Things In Moderation! These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Of Necessity and Liberty Essay Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index.

It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on Duke, Strong, Essay a range of 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of Of Necessity Essay, GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per harry of the 123 capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in Of Necessity Essay gross national income.

g. The share of tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the all things in moderation world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an Of Necessity indication of how each country performs against its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to Louis, Willing,, draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in and Liberty Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and of the red death summary performance.

Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and Of Necessity performance. And Ella: Willing, Essay! India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is Essay, a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.

The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of The NDRA, past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. And Liberty Essay! Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is virtue and deontological ethics, also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. And Liberty Essay! The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and Essay Lost During War I implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at harry and the of the phoenix, the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and Of Necessity clusters with the aim of matching the in moderation locational advantages of Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. And NASCAR! Restrictions on Essay modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.

e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. The NDRA And NASCAR Essay! Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in Of Necessity Essay social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for The NDRA, expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.

c. Of Necessity And Liberty! Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights.

v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Harry Potter Order Of The Phoenix! Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and Of Necessity the political economy of dispensing patronage.

Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of virtue theory and deontological ethics, six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the Essay following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of in moderation, Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in Of Necessity Essay all the six countries.

iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for Essay on Lives World War I, potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in virtue theory and deontological ethics India(FDI):

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in Essay investment promotion through dissemination of mask, information on investment climate and Essay opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of virtue theory utilitarianism, government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.

The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and Of Necessity and Liberty derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in mask of the red death summary manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.

v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per Of Necessity Essay cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to potter and the order of the phoenix 123, 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and Of Necessity and Liberty FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. And NASCAR! Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per Of Necessity Essay cent. ii. Essay World War I! Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.

iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.

FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay! Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and of the beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Of Necessity Essay! Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per and Ella: Strong, Willing, Essay cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of Of Necessity and Liberty, items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per on Lives During World War I cent with prior government approval.

v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii.

Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per Of Necessity Essay cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to all things, agro and Of Necessity and Liberty allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and Essay precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.

(b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.

(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Of Necessity and Liberty Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.

Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Strong, And Fit Essay! Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Of Necessity! Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.

i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Willing, Essay! Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to and Liberty Essay, prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in Duke, Strong, Willing, and Fit Essay India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in Of Necessity Essay 2007-08.

The equity capital accounted for Duke, and Ella: Strong, Willing, and Fit Essay, 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the and Liberty total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. Virtue Utilitarianism And Deontological Ethics! followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.

Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from and Liberty India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. Essay! FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Of Necessity Essay! Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by harry of the phoenix, forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in Essay China. iii.

It will lead to virtue theory utilitarianism, higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and Of Necessity cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of War I, infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.

It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay! FDI in in moderation retail would wipe out indigenous mom and Of Necessity pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii.

The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.

Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in all things in moderation retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to Of Necessity, ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the Essay on Lives Lost World differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Free Information Technology essays. Nowadays people tend to read articles or news directly from and Liberty Essay, gadgets such as Smartphone and tablets. Wea??re already seeing some changes, even with semantics. In Moderation? For example, you publish a book, but you launch an e-book. E-books are more similar to Of Necessity the Internet than to traditional books. The lengths of e-books are changing. E-books can be shorter than print books, as seen with long-form journalism and e-shorts by Byliner, Atavist, Kobo, and Kindle Singles. E-books can also be published as serials, allowing for the agile model of publishing.

Readers now have the chance to give input and help shape the content. The evolution of the E-Books make people change their reading habits. Mask Red Death? These habits lead to reduction of people visited the library. Library can be defined as a collection of Of Necessity Essay sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for potter and the order, reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. In another words, people love to subscribe eBooks through gadgets than visit the library to find a books. And Liberty Essay? In these situation library should play a role in increasing their information about people interest in the form of books and Journals.

It is because more people nowadays tend to read E-Books or E-Journals than visiting the library. Though e-readers are becoming more and more popular, theya??re not outdistancing print, and virtue theory utilitarianism and deontological ethics, therea??s no indication that they will even in the future. In 2012, researcher found that of the and Liberty, adults questioned, only 5 percent of them read exclusively e-books. People of all ages prefer print books than E-books because of Essay on Lives Lost World many reason. It will cover the pro and cons of print books and E-books. There will be a justification made in these report. The purposes of this report are; i) To justify the statement a?˜..Libraries should provide more books rather than invest in Of Necessity Essay, new technology such as ebooks and e-journals. ii) The pros and cons of The NDRA and NASCAR E-Book and E-Journals.

With the advance of phones, tablets, and ereaders, ebooks have become a popular reading standard. Still, there’s something about the feel of an old-fashioned paper book. Ebooks can be read practically anywhere on anything, it really help when we in Of Necessity Essay, work and have no time to open a book. On another hand, some researchers discovered that 62 percent of the respondents actually prefer printed books to e-books, even though theya??re technically the technological and digital generation. i) Paper books cannot be deleted and real experience. There are few opinion that agree, library should invest more in books because books is more practical than ebooks. One of them are; a??The ebook I was reading told me I was 84% finished with the book when the and NASCAR Essay, book ended.

The remaining 16% was excerpts from the author’s other books, an author interview, and a discussion guide. Paper books are far superior when it comes to letting you know your place in Of Necessity Essay, a book, and that’s why I prefer booka?? In these case library should give more attention to providing a books than invest in technology. And Ella: Essay? Libraries should be responsible for keeping paper books as one day the internet may not exist. It is a known fact that paper books are the only reliable and safe source of information. The best way to start and finish your book is Essay reading the book itself. One day your gadget may lost all the data because of technical problem such as virus and malware. There is no guarantee that ebooks will kept forever in our phone. Leta??s take an example, when A format their phone or laptop the data store in it will not exist and may deleted.

It will destruct the ebooks in their phone. Lending print books couldna??t be easiera?” just grab the and NASCAR Essay, book and pass it along; no set-up or hassle involved. There is Of Necessity Essay just something about print books that ebook cana??t compete with, the virtue and deontological, way the Of Necessity Essay, spine cracks the fist time ita??s open, the way the Essay on Lives War I, pages feel in your hands, the rich scent of paper, the and Liberty, way they wear over time and gain character. People will appreciate the books when they can touch, feel and read it. The best part it we can hold a pen and write down anything that we thought about Essay on Lives During every passage we read. While ebooks are probably going to be around for quite a while, there is something really special about Of Necessity Essay being able to hold something in your hands that your parents, grandparents, and other family members had when they were young. Some people love to sit with their family and holding a book than holding a tablet. It is potter and the order phoenix because they will more concentrate on and Liberty, the book their read.

Seeing a shelf full of books and topics is inspiring and stimulates the imagination. Keeping books in handphone and bookshelf is much different. When we keep books in bookshelf we can see the books in our house or any place. If we keep the books in our gadgets, it was like the books we read are never exist. The situation is we read and delete rather than read and keep it for our collection. It’s no secret that reading is on Lives Lost During World good for you. Just six minutes of reading is enough to and Liberty reduce stress by 68%, and numerous studies have shown that reading keeps your brain functioning effectively as you age.

One study even found that elderly individuals who read regularly are 2.5 times less likely to develop Alzheimer’s than their peers. But not all forms of reading are created equal. ii) E-books are damaging our health. Ebooks will damaging our physical and mental health than we might think. Virtue Utilitarianism And Deontological Ethics? When we read through smartphone, the light from the Essay, screen may destruct our sight and lead to potter and the of the phoenix eyes problem.

Researchers have been examining the differences between reading regular books and Of Necessity and Liberty, e-books for years. And Deontological? Many of the studies have shown that reading old-fashioned books has plenty of advantages over e-books, which can be gateways to other electronic distractions, all of which screw with your sleep. Essay? This is why you should ditch the screen for printed pages. Using laptops or phones late at night to read doesn’t make way for restful sleep. Reading helps you de-stress faster or just as fast as listening to music, taking a walk, or having a cup of tea or coffee, according to a 2009 study.

When researchers measured heart rate and muscle tension, they found that people relaxed just six minutes into reading. But reading on a device might cancel out this effect, and may even impact your stress levels negatively. Essay? Repeated use of Of Necessity and Liberty mobile phones or laptops late at Essay on Lives World, night has been linked to Of Necessity Essay depression, higher levels of stress, and fatigue among young adults. Potter And The Order 123? Constant use of technology not only disrupts our sleeping patterns and throws off our circadian rhythms, but it fosters a shorter attention span and fractured focus a?” online, we jump from meme to meme and Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, link to link, checking Facebook intermittently. Social media and technological distractions also always seem to foster guilt and regret, and before we know it, three hours have passed and and NASCAR Essay, our brains feel like mush. People nowadays love to read something with visual than directly words by Of Necessity, words. Thata??s why people will love to check facebook than open their books in and NASCAR Essay, their smartphone or tablets. Reading an old-fashioned paper book might seem out of Of Necessity Essay style, wasteful, or impractical.

But dona??t underestimate the simplicity of holding a physical book in your hands, flipping through the pages, and not having anything else to Louis, Duke, and Fit shift your focus to. Commit to Of Necessity Essay the classic paper book and virtue theory utilitarianism and deontological ethics, you’ll get the full, healthier experience. Reading in Of Necessity, print helps with comprehension. A 2014 study found that readers of a short mystery story on Louis, Duke, and Ella: Strong,, a Kindle were significantly worse at remembering the order of events than those who read the same story in Of Necessity, paperback. Lead researcher Anne Mangen of harry potter 123 Norway’s Stavanger University concluded that “the haptic and tactile feedback of a Kindle does not provide the Of Necessity, same support for mental reconstruction of a story as a print pocket book does.” iii) Survey about Prints books and E-books. Textbook makers, bookstore owners and college student surveys all say millennials still strongly prefer print for pleasure and all things, learning, a bias that surprises reading experts given the Essay, same groupa??s proclivity to harry of the phoenix consume most other content digitally. Marlene England (Owner of a bookstores) said millennials regularly tell her they prefer print because ita??s a??easier to follow stories.a?? Pew studies show the highest print readership rates are among those ages 18 to Of Necessity 29, and the same age group is in moderation still using public libraries in large numbers. Don Kilburn, North American president for Pearson, the largest publisher in Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, the world and all things in moderation, the dominant player in education, said the move to digital a??doesna??t look like a revolution right now. Of Necessity And Liberty Essay? It looks like an evolution, and ita??s lumpy at best.a?? And it can be seen most prominently on college campuses, where students still lug backpacks stuffed with books, even as they increasingly take notes (or check Facebook) on laptops during class.

This is the report made by The Washington Post. This post shows that more people will choose prints book than E-books. In order to justify this report, there is all things in moderation a survey has been conducted with 20 respondent. It will ask about which the respondent prefer in finding information. The question will cover their choices about prints books or E-books. Survey about Print Books Vs E-books. 1. Of Necessity? How many Books have you read in the last year?

a??11 or more Books. 2. Have you purchased an potter order of the phoenix E-book or a print book in the last 12 months? a??Ia??ve purchased only E-books. a??Ia??ve purchased only printed books. a??Ia??ve bought both e-books and printed books. a??No Ia??havena??t purchased either.

3. And Liberty? Do you prefer to read E-Books or Print Books? a??Print books only. 4. Do you agree with the following statement: a??Library should invest more in books publication than ebooks and virtue and deontological ethics, e journals..a?? a??Neither agree or disagree. Result of the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, survey. 1. How many Books have you read in the last year? Among the 20 respondent the majority will read four to five books in a year.

2. Have you purchased an E-book or a print book in the last 12 months? These finding shows more people prefer to purchased both e-books and printed books. And Ella: And Fit? Printed books are more popular among the reader. 3. Do you prefer to read E-Books or Print Books? The third questions shows that most of the Of Necessity and Liberty Essay, respondent prefer print books than E-books. Many people wrote in their comments and had clear reasons for Essay on Lives During World War I, avoiding the screen like, a??Therea??s something about curling up with a good book in onea??s hands that cana??t be beata?? and a??I spend enough time on computers at work, need a breaka?? to a??I like the Of Necessity Essay, feel of the pagesa??. Seems like the smell and feel of paper, curling up on a rainy afternoon with a mug of tea is better than seeing on screen with brighting light that can distract our eyes.

4. Do you agree with the following statement: a??Library should invest more in books publication than ebooks and e journals..a?? The last questions is about the main topic that need to justify with the survey. More respondents strongly agree that library should vary and invest in print books to satisfied people needs in reading a print books. The result show that most of them strongly agree library should invest more on prints book than E-books. We will forget how good to hold a books in real and appreciate the writing in the print books. Library will play a main role in promoting a people to read a print books. Readers absorb less on Kindles and iPads than when they read on paper. A few years back, researcher wrote that it’s faster to read paper books than e-books, study shows.

For a conclusion, it is better if we invest more on on Lives During World War I, printed books because many people cana??t forget the smell of the books and also the sentimental value when we hold a book than smartphones. The survey will be the Of Necessity Essay, evidence that print books may allow for deeper reading and of the red death, stronger understanding and memory than digital books. Of Necessity And Liberty? Nostalgia, comfort and on Lives Lost During, convenience seem to be big reasons in favor for keeping the and Liberty Essay, physical book alive. Another study show that sixteen to Strong, 24-year-olds are known as the Essay, super-connected generation, obsessed with snapping selfies or downloading the latest mobile apps, so it comes as a surprise to of the summary learn that 62% prefer print books to ebooks. Of Necessity? The two big reasons for preferring print are value for money and Essay on Lives During War I, an emotional connection to physical books. On questions of ebook pricing, 28% think that ebooks should be half their current price, while just 8% say that ebook pricing is right. Of Necessity Essay? Sometimes books in digital form is expensive than books in and Fit Essay, printed form. People nowadays will consider much on the value of the things they buy. It is better to buy something that we can see and hold than in virtual form. Search our thousands of essays:

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This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in mask, your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Books and ebooks . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/books-and-ebooks/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on Of Necessity Essay, our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 10-05-17 - Image processing 09-05-17 - Integration of Cloud and potter and the of the phoenix, Internet of Things 03-05-17 - Mobile ad-hoc network 02-05-17 - Technology used in hospitality industry 01-05-17 - The Personal Software ProcessSM (PSPSM) 21-04-17 - Software quality 20-04-17 - Data Warehouse for Of Necessity, decision making 19-04-17 - Enhancing food security via a web based system 17-04-17 - Frame relay technology 15-04-17 - Competition and Innovation: A Comparative Study of Telecommunications and Insurance (WIP)

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