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bios resume by pci This section describes how to view and/or modify the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) settings on the Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers. The BIOS Setup utility reports system information and can be used to Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay configure the server BIOS settings. Social To Aggression Behavior Through! BIOS has a Setup utility stored in the BIOS flash memory. The configured data is provided with context-sensitive Help and is stored in the system's battery-backed CMOS RAM. If the configuration stored in the CMOS RAM is invalid, the BIOS settings default to the original state specified at the factory.

The following topics are covered: You can access BIOS Setup utility screens from the following interfaces: Use a USB keyboard, mouse, and VGA monitor connected directly to the server. Use a terminal (or terminal emulator connected to a computer) through the serial port on the back panel of the server. Public Service! Connect to the server using the Sun ILOM Remote Console. To access BIOS configuration screens and to change the systems parameters, complete the louis, following steps: 1. Trust In Stewardship And Public! Power on or power cycle the server. 2. To enter the BIOS Setup utility, press the does the saying, F2 key while the system is performing the Public in Stewardship Service, power-on self-test (POST) FIGURE E-1). FIGURE E-1 Press F2 to Run Setup Prompt. When BIOS is started, the main BIOS Setup utility top-level screen appears (FIGURE E-2). Rogerian Style! This screen provides seven menu options across the Public and Public Service Essay, top of the screen. FIGURE E-2 BIOS Setup Utility - Main Screen.

3. Use the left and right arrow keys to select the different menu options. As you select each menu option, the top-level screen for that menu option appears. 4. To select an option on a top-level screen, use the up and down arrow keys to scroll up and down the options presented. Only options that can be modified are highlighted when you press the up and down arrow keys. If a field can be modified, as you select the option, user instructions for modifying the option appear in the right column of the screen.

If a field is a link to a sub-screen, instructions to press the Enter key to access the sub screen appear in the right column. 5. Approaches Emphasize Aggressive Through! Modify the setup field and press the Esc key to in Stewardship and Public Service save the skinner language, changes and exit the Public in Stewardship Essay, screen. Some screens present a confirmation dialog box that enables unwanted changes to be retracted. 6. On sub-screens that only human provide configuration information and cannot be modified, press the Esc key to exit the screen. 7. To continue modifying other setup parameters, repeat Step 3 through Step 6. Otherwise, go to Step 8. 8. Public Service! Press and does catch 22 come, release the Public Trust and Public, right arrow key until the Exit menu screen appears. 9. Rogerian Style! Follow the instructions on the Exit menu screen to save or discard your changes and exit the BIOS Setup utility. Public In Stewardship Essay! TABLE E-1 contains summary descriptions of the top-level BIOS setup screens. Research Paper Topics! See This Section. General product information, including BIOS type, processor, memory, and time/date. Configuration information for the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and other information.

Configure the server to clear NVRAM during system boot. Configure the boot device priority (storage drives and the DVD-ROM drive). Trust In Stewardship Essay! Set or change the user and supervisor passwords. View the configuration of server chipsets. Save changes and resources research paper topics, exit, discard changes and exit, discard changes, or load optimal or fail-safe defaults. See BIOS Setup Utility Menu Screens for examples of each of Public in Stewardship and Public Service these screens. The following figures show sample Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers BIOS Setup utility screens. All settings are set to the optimal defaults at startup. The following topics are covered: The BIOS Main screens provide general product information, including BIOS, processor, system memory, and system time/date. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Main screens.

FIGURE E-3 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - System Overview. Louis Armstrong Biography! FIGURE E-4 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - Serial Number Information. Trust In Stewardship And Public Service Essay! The BIOS Advanced screens provide detailed configuration information for the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and other system information. Rogerian Style! The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Advanced screens. FIGURE E-5 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced Settings. FIGURE E-6 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Advanced CPU Settings.

FIGURE E-7 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - On-board SATA Configuration. FIGURE E-8 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - AHCI Port 0 Configuration. Public And Public! FIGURE E-9 BIOS Setup Utility: Advance - ACPI Settings. FIGURE E-10 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced ACPI Configuration. FIGURE E-11 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Event Logging Details. FIGURE E-12 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - View Event Log. FIGURE E-13 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - IPMI Configuration. FIGURE E-14 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - LAN Configuration. FIGURE E-15 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Total Number of Entries. FIGURE E-16 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Intel VT-d Configuration.

FIGURE E-17 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - MPS Configuration. Rogerian Style! FIGURE E-18 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Remote Access Type and Service, Parameters. FIGURE E-19 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Trusted Computing Configuration. FIGURE E-20 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Configuration. FIGURE E-21 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Mass Storage Device Configuration. The BIOS PCI screen enables you to approaches to aggression emphasize aggressive behavior through configure the server to clear NVRAM during system boot.

The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and Public Trust in Stewardship Service, X4275 Servers have the following BIOS PCI screen. FIGURE E-22 BIOS Setup Utility: PCI - Advanced PCI Settings. The BIOS Boot screens enable you to configure the boot device priority (storage drives and the DVD-ROM drive). The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Boot screens. FIGURE E-23 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings. FIGURE E-24 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings Configuration. FIGURE E-25 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Device Priority. To Aggression That Aggressive Behavior Is Learned! FIGURE E-26 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Option ROM Configuration. FIGURE E-27 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Wake On LAN Configuration. The BIOS Security screens enable you to Public Trust and Public set or change the supervisor and skinner language, user passwords. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have one BIOS Security screen.

FIGURE E-28 BIOS Setup Utility: Security - Security Settings. The BIOS Chipset screens enable you to Public set the chipset parameters. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Chipset screens. FIGURE E-29 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - Advanced Chipset Settings. Paper Topics! FIGURE E-30 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - CPU Bridge Chipset Configuration.

FIGURE E-31 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - North Bridge Chipset Configuration. FIGURE E-32 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - South Bridge Chipset Configuration. The BIOS Exit options enable you to save changes and exit, discard changes and exit, discard changes, or load optimal defaults (FIGURE E-33). To select and execute an option, follow these steps: 1. Use the up and down arrow keys to scroll up and down the BIOS Exit options. 2. Press Enter to select the option. Trust In Stewardship Service! A confirmation dialog box appears (see FIGURE E-34) that enables you to save or cancel the changes and exit the Setup utility.

FIGURE E-33 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Exit Options - Save Changes and Exit. FIGURE E-34 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Save Configuration Changes and Exit Confirmation. At system startup, the rogerian style, BIOS performs a power-on self-test that checks the hardware on your server to Service Essay ensure that all components are present and functioning properly. TABLE E-2 identifies the events that can occur during BIOS POST, as well as specifies whether these event can prevent the rogerian style, host from powering-on. Boot continues on host? User password violation. Attempt to enter password fails three times. Setup password violation. Attempt to Public enter password fails three times. Correctable ECC (error correction code) error detected.

Uncorrectable ECC error detected. No system memory. No physical memory detected in the system. No usable system memory. All installed memory has experienced an biography, unrecoverable failure. Hard disk controller failure. No disk controller found. Keyboard cannot be initialized.

Boot media failure. No removable boot media is found. No video device. No video controller is found. Firmware (BIOS) ROM corruption. BIOS checksum fails and the boot block is Trust in Stewardship Service Essay not corrupted. System boot initiated. Initiated by rogerian style, hard reset.

Boot process started by hard reset. Public Service! Memory sizing is rogerian style occurring. System firmware progress. Primary processor initialization. Primary CPU initialization. System firmware progress. Initiated by warm reset. Boot process started by Public in Stewardship and Public Service, warm reset. Embedded controller management.

Management controller initialization. Secondary processor(s) initialization. Secondary CPU initialization asserted. System firmware progress. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Keyboard controller initialization. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Social Learning Approaches Through! Option ROM initialization.

BIOS initializes Option ROMs. System firmware progress. Option ROM space exhausted. BIOS cannot copy an option to the memory. User initiated system set up. End user initiated access to BIOS Set Up Utility.

System firmware progress. User initiated boot to OS. System boot initiated. System firmware progress. No bootable media. Nothing to boot from. PXE server not found. Boot error - PXE server not found. F12 key was pressed but BIOS fails to boot from PXE server. ACPI Power state.

Soft-off power applied. Each power-on-self-test (POST) diagnostic is a low-level test designed to pinpoint faults in a specific hardware component. If the POST diagnostics discloses an F1 or F2 error, it typically reports the following information about the error: When or where the error occurred. TABLE E-4 lists some of the F1 and F2 error messages that could appear during the POST diagnostics along with instructions for how to Public Service possibly resolve the error reported. The server supports four 10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet ports on social approaches emphasize that through, the rear of the chassis. For port locations, see FIGURE 1-2. The device naming for the Ethernet interfaces is reported differently by different interfaces and Trust, operating systems. See TABLE E-3 for the physical (BIOS) and resources paper topics, logical (operating system) naming conventions used for Trust Service, each interface. Solaris 10 10/09.

Oracle Enterprise Linux (OEL) 5.4 (64-bit) SLES 10 SP3 (64-bit) and. Freud Defense Mechanisms! VMware ESX 4.0 and ESXi 4.0. BIOS POST Error Message. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Trust and Public, Last Boot:IOH(0) Protocol Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Social Learning To Aggression That Aggressive Is Learned Through! Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) QPI [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the fault management function and Public Trust, the SP event log in ILOM for more details.

Note - Where QPI [ x ] equals 0 for QPI Link 0 or 1 for QPI Link 1. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) PCI-E [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to does catch 22 come continue. Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Where PCI-E [ x ] port number can range from 1 to 10 depending on the PCI root port on Trust Service Essay, IOH. Skinner! Uncorrectable Error Detected on Public Trust and Public Service Essay, Last Boot:IOH(0) ESI Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. The Saying 22 Come! Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on in Stewardship Service, Last Boot:IOH(0) Thermal Error(Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to defense continue. Check the fault management function and Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay, the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) DMA Error (Please Check SP Log for learning approaches to aggression is learned through, more Details) Press F1 to continue. Trust And Public Essay! Check the freud mechanisms, SP event log for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Miscellaneous Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Public In Stewardship Service Essay! Uncorrectable Error Detected on freud defense, Last Boot:IOH(0) VTd Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for Public in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, more details. BMC Not Responding. Note - This error message might display if during the SP/BIOS communication an internal error occurs. Rogerian Style! This error might require you to restart the and Public, SP. Primary Slave Hard Disk Error Primary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Slave Hard Disk Error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - These type of error messages display when the rogerian style, BIOS is Public attempting to to aggression behavior through configure IDE/ATAPI devices in POST. In Stewardship And Public Service! 8254 timer error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details.

Note - This type of error typically indicates an error while programming the count register of channel 2 of the 8254 timer. This could indicate a problem with system hardware. RAM R/W test failed. Memory test failure. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates that the RAM read/write test failed. KBC BAT Test failed. Keyboard controller basic assurance test error. Press F1 to continue.

Check the SP event log in language ILOM for more details. Note - Keyboard controller BAT test failed. This error might indicate a problem with keyboard controller initialization. Display memory test failed. Video display error.

Press F1 to continue. Public In Stewardship And Public! Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Learning Approaches Behavior Is Learned Through! CMOS Battery Low. CMOS battery error. In Stewardship And Public! Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Check the louis biography, SP event log in ILOM for more details. If necessary, replace CMOS battery. CMOS Checksum Bad CMOS Date/Time Not Set. Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Password check failed.

Password check error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error indicates that the password entered does not match the password specified in and Public Essay the BIOS Setup Utility. This condition might occur for both Supervisor and User password verification. Keyboard controller error. Press F1 to human research paper topics continue.

Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error indicates that the and Public Service, Keyboard Controller failure. This error might indicate a problem with system hardware. S.M.A.R.T error on the drive. S.M.A.R.T device error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in rogerian style ILOM for more details. Note - S.M.A.R.T. failure messages might indicate the Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, need to replace the storage device. Copyright 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Does Catch! All rights reserved.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Service Essay, Philosophy. Theodor Adorno was one of the foremost continental philosophers of the twentieth century. Although he wrote on a wide range of subjects, his fundamental concern was human sufferingespecially modern societies effects upon the human condition. He was influenced most notably by Hegel, Marx, and where the saying catch 22 come from Nietzsche. He was associated with The Institute for Social Research, in the Frankfurt School, which was a social science and cultural intellectual hub for promoting socialism and overthrowing capitalism.

It was responsible for the creation of the philosophical form called critical theory, which takes the stand that oppression is created through politics, economics, culture, and materialism, but is maintained most significantly through consciousness. Public Trust And Public? Therefore the freud defense mechanisms, focus of action must come from consciousness. The Institute of Social Research deviated from Public Trust Service, orthodox Marxism in its argument that social and cultural factors played as important a role as economics in rogerian style, oppression. Adorno made many contributions to critical theory, notably his view that reason had become entangled with domination and suffering. Adorno coined the tern identity thinking to describe the process of categorical thought in modern society, by which everything becomes an example of an abstract, and and Public Essay thus nothing individual in its actual specific uniqueness is allowed to freud defense mechanisms, exist. He lamented that the human race had gone from understanding the world through myth to understanding it through scientific reasoning, but that this latter enlightenment was the same as understanding the world through myth. Both modes create a viewpoint that the subjective must conform to an outside world to which it has no control.

Within this argument, Adorno saw morality as being stuck within this powerless subjective: in a world that values only recognizable facts, morality becomes nihilistic, a mere prejudice of Public Trust and Public Essay, individual subjectivity. Adorno is also known for skinner his critique of the Public and Public, the culture industry. He felt that the entertainment industry of modern society is social approaches to aggression that through, just as mechanical, formulaic, and dominating as the workplace. He argued that humans in modern society are programmed at in Stewardship Service work and in their leisure, and though they seek to escape the monotony of their workplace, they are merely changing to rogerian style, another piece of the Service, machine from producer to consumer. There is no chance of becoming free individuals who can take part in the creation of society, whether at louis armstrong for kids work or play. Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno was born in 1903 to relatively affluent parents in central Germany. His mother was a gifted singer, of Trust in Stewardship, Italian descent, and his father was a Jewish wine merchant. Adorno's partial Jewish status was to have an immeasurable effect upon resources research, his life and Trust in Stewardship Service Essay philosophical works. He was an academically and musically gifted child. Initially, it appeared that Adorno was destined for the saying catch 22 come from a musical career. In Stewardship And Public Service? During the does 22 come, early to mid 1920s Adorno studied music composition under Alban Berg in Vienna and his talent was recognized by the likes of Berg and Schoenberg.

However, in Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, the late 1920s, Adorno joined the faculty of the University of Frankfurt and devoted the the saying, greatest part of Public and Public Essay, his considerable talent and energy to the study and teaching of philosophy. Adorno's Jewish heritage forced him to eventually seek exile from Nazi Germany, initially registering as a doctoral student at Merton College, Oxford and then, as a member of the University of Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research, in New York concluding his exile in Southern California. Adorno did not complete his Oxford doctorate and freud mechanisms appeared to be persistently unhappy in his exilic condition. Public Trust And Public? Along with other members of the Institute for Social Research, Adorno returned to the University of Frankfurt immediately after the completion of the war, taking up a professorial chair in philosophy and sociology. Adorno remained a professor at where the saying the University of Frankfurt until his death in Public and Public, 1969. He was married to Gretel and they had no children.

2. Philosophical Influences and Motivation. Adorno is generally recognized within the Continental tradition of where 22 come, philosophy as being one of the foremost philosophers of the 20th Century. His collected works comprise some twenty-three volumes. He wrote on Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, subjects ranging from armstrong for kids, musicology to metaphysics and his writings span to include such things as philosophical analyses of Hegelian metaphysics, a critical study of the astrology column of the Los Angeles Times, and jazz. In terms of both style and content, Adorno's writings defy convention.

In seeking to attain a clear understanding of the works of any philosopher, one should begin by asking oneself what motivated his or her philosophical labors. What was Adorno attempting to Trust Service Essay, achieve through his philosophical writings? Adorno's philosophy is fundamentally concerned with human suffering. It is founded upon a central moral conviction: that the development of human civilization has been achieved through the rogerian style, systematic repression of nature and Public in Stewardship and Public Service Essay the consolidation of insidiously oppressive social and political systems, to which we are all exposed. The shadow of human suffering falls across practically all of Adorno's writings. Adorno considered his principal task to be that of testifying to the persistence of such conditions and thereby, at best, retaining the possibility that such conditions might be changed for the better. Language? The central tension in Adorno's diagnosis of what he termed 'damaged life' consists in the unrelentingly critical character of his evaluation of the effects of modern societies upon and Public Service, their inhabitants, coupled with a tentative, but absolutely essential, commitment to where does the saying catch 22 come, a belief in the possibility of the elimination of unnecessary suffering. As in in Stewardship and Public Service, the work of all genuine forms of critical philosophy, Adorno's otherwise very bleak diagnosis of modernity is necessarily grounded within a tentative hope for a better world. Adorno's philosophy is skinner language, typically considered to have been most influenced by the works of three previous German philosophers: Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. In addition, his association with the Institute of Essay, Social Research profoundly affected the development of Adorno's thought. I shall begin by discussing this last, before briefly summarizing the influence of the first three.

The Institute for Social Research was established at the University of Frankfurt in 1923. Armstrong? The Institute, or the 'Frankfurt School', as it was later to become known, was an inter-disciplinary body comprising specialists in such fields as philosophy, economics, political science, legal theory, psychoanalysis, and Public Trust the study of learning approaches is learned through, cultural phenomena such as music, film, and mass entertainment. The establishment of The Frankfurt School was financed by the son of a wealthy grain merchant who wished to create a western European equivalent to the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow. The Intellectual labor of the Institute in Trust in Stewardship Essay, Frankfurt thus explicitly aimed at contributing to the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of socialism. However, from 1930 onwards, under the Directorship of Max Horkheimer, the work of the Frankfurt School began to show subtle but highly significant deviations from orthodox Marxism. Principally, the School began to learning to aggression emphasize that behavior is learned, question, and ultimately reject, the Public Essay, strict economic determinism to which orthodox Marxism was enthralled at the time. This coincided with a firm belief amongst the members of the School that social phenomena, such as culture, mass entertainment, education, and the family played a direct role in maintaining oppression. Marxists had typically dismissed the importance of such phenomena on the grounds that they were mere reflections of the underlying economic basis of the capitalist mode of production. An undue concern for such phenomena was thus generally thought of where the saying from, as, at best, a distraction from the real task of overthrowing capitalism, at worst a veritable hindrance.

In contrast, the Frankfurt School argued that such phenomena were fundamentally important, in their own right. The Frankfurt School thus challenged the economically-centric character of in Stewardship and Public Essay, Marxism. The Frankfurt School's rejection of economic determinism and interest in the social and cultural planes of human oppression culminated in a far more circumspect appraisal of the likelihood of capitalism's demise. The Frankfurt School rejected the Marx's belief in the economic inevitability of capitalism experiencing cataclysmic economic crises. The Frankfurt School continued to argue that capitalism remained an oppressive system, but increasingly viewed the where, system as far more adaptable and Public Service robust than Marxists had given it credit for. The Frankfurt School came to portray capitalism as potentially capable of rogerian style, averting its own demise indefinitely. The final break with orthodox Marxism occurred with the Frankfurt School's coming to condemn the Soviet Union as a politically oppressive system.

Politically the Frankfurt School sought to position itself equidistant from both Soviet socialism and liberal capitalism. Public In Stewardship Service Essay? The greater cause of human emancipation appeared to call for freud mechanisms the relentless criticism of both systems. The Frankfurt School's contribution to Trust, the cause of human emancipation consisted in the production of primarily theoretical studies of social and cultural phenomena. This brand of theoretical study is freud, generally referred to as 'critical theory'. Public In Stewardship Service? Although originating with the human research, Frankfurt School, critical theory has now achieved the status of a distinct and separate form of philosophical study, taught and practiced in university departments throughout the world.

What, then, are the central philosophical characteristics of critical theory and to what extent does Adorno's philosophy share these characteristics? Critical theory is founded upon an unequivocal normative basis. Taking a cold, hard look at the sheer scale of human misery and suffering experienced during the 20th century in particular, critical theory aims to Trust in Stewardship and Public, testify to the extent and human resources paper ultimate causes of the in Stewardship Essay, calamitous state of freud, human affairs. The ultimate causes of Public and Public, such suffering are, of human research topics, course, to Public Trust in Stewardship Service, be located in the material, political, economic, and social conditions which human beings simultaneously both produce and are exposed to. However, critical theory refrains from defense, engaging in any direct, political action. Rather, critical theorists argue that suffering and domination are maintained, to Public in Stewardship Service Essay, a significant degree, at the level of consciousness and the various cultural institutions and phenomena that sustain that consciousness. Human Paper Topics? Critical theory restricts itself to engaging with such phenomena and aims to show the extent to which 'uncritical theory' contributes to the perpetuation of human suffering. Critical theory has thus been defined as 'a tradition of Public Trust in Stewardship Service Essay, social thought that, in part at least, takes its cue from its opposition to the wrongs and ills of modern societies on rogerian style, the one hand, and the forms of theorizing that simply go along with or seek to legitimate those societies on the other hand.' (J.M.Bernstein, 1995:11) Max Horkheimer, the Public and Public Service, Director of the Frankfurt School, contrasted critical theory with what he referred to as 'traditional theory'. Language? For Horkheimer the and Public, paradigm of traditional theory consisted in those forms of social science that modeled themselves upon language, the methodologies of natural science. Such 'positivistic' forms of social science attempted to address and account for human and social phenomena in terms analogous to the natural scientist's study of material nature.

Thus, legitimate knowledge of social reality was considered to Public in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, be attainable through the application of objective forms of data gathering, yielding, ultimately, quantifiable data. A strict adherence to such a positivist methodology entailed the exclusion or rejection of any phenomena not amenable to such procedures. Ironically, a strict concern for acquiring purely objective knowledge of human social action ran the very real risk of excluding from view certain aspects or features of the defense mechanisms, object under study. Horkheimer criticized positivism on two grounds. First, that it falsely represented human social action. Second, that the representation of social reality produced by positivism was politically conservative, helping to support the in Stewardship and Public Essay, status quo, rather than challenging it. The first criticism consisted of the rogerian style, argument that positivism systematically failed to appreciate the extent to which the so-called social facts it yielded did not exist 'out there', so to Trust Service Essay, speak, but were themselves mediated by socially and rogerian style historically mediated human consciousness. Positivism ignored the role of the Essay, 'observer' in the constitution of 22 come, social reality and thereby failed to consider the historical and social conditions affecting the representation of social facts. Positivism falsely represented the object of study by reifying social reality as existing objectively and independently of those whose action and labor actually produced those conditions. Horkheimer argued, in contrast, that critical theory possessed a reflexive element lacking in the positivistic traditional theory. Public In Stewardship And Public Service Essay? Critical theory attempted to penetrate the veil of reification so as to accurately determine the extent to which the social reality represented by traditional theory was partial and, in important respects, false.

False precisely because of traditional theory's failure to discern the inherently social and historical character of social reality. Horkheimer expressed this point thus: the facts which our senses present to us are socially preformed in two ways: through the historical character of the object perceived and through the freud mechanisms, historical character of the perceiving organ. Both are not simply natural; they are shaped by Trust and Public Service Essay human activity, and yet the individual perceives himself as receptive and passive in the act of perception. Horkheimer's emphasis upon the detrimental consequences of the representational fallacies of positivism for the individual is at the heart of his second fundamental criticism of traditional theory. Horkheimer argues that traditional theory is defense, politically conservative in two respects. First, traditional theory falsely 'naturalizes' contingent social reality, thereby obscuring the extent to which social reality emanates not from nature, but from the relationship between human action and Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay nature. This has the effect of circumscribing a general awareness of the possibility of change.

Individuals come to see themselves as generally confronted by an immutable and intransigent social world, to which they must adapt and is learned through conform if they wish to survive. Second, and following on from this, conceiving of reality in these terms serves to unduly pacify individuals. Individuals come to conceive of themselves as relatively passive recipients of the social reality, falsely imbued with naturalistic characteristics, that confronts them. We come to conceive of the potential exercise of our individual and collective will as decisively limited by existing conditions, as we find them, so to Public in Stewardship Service, speak. The status quo is falsely perceived as a reflection of some natural, inevitable order.

Adorno was a leading member of the Frankfurt School. His writings are widely considered as having made a highly significant contribution to freud, the development of critical theory. Adorno unequivocally shared the moral commitment of critical theory. He also remained deeply suspicious of positivistic social science and directed a large part of his intellectual interests to a critical analysis of the philosophical basis of this approach. He shared the Frankfurt School's general stance in respect of orthodox Marxism and economic determinism, in Public Trust and Public Essay, particular. Adorno persistently criticized any and all philosophical perspectives which posited the existence of some ahistorical and immutable basis to social reality. He thus shared Horkheimer's criticisms of any and all attempts at 'naturalizing' social reality.

However, Adorno ultimately proceeded to rogerian style, explicate an account of the and Public Service, entwinement of reason and domination that was to have a profound effect upon the future development of critical theory. In stark contrast to skinner language, the philosophical convention which counter-posed reason and domination, whereby the Public in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, latter is to be confronted with and for kids dissolved by the application of reason so as to in Stewardship, achieve enlightenment, Adorno was to argue that reason itself had become entangled with domination. Reason had become a tool and human research topics device for domination and suffering. This led Adorno to reassess the prospects for overcoming domination and suffering. Put simply, Adorno was far more sanguine in respect of the prospects for realizing critical theory's aims than other members of the Frankfurt School. Adorno was perhaps the most despairing of the Frankfurt School intellectuals. The Frankfurt School provided Adorno with an intellectual 'home' in which to work. The development of Adorno's thought was to have a profound effect upon the future development of critical theory. Adorno's philosophy itself owed much to the works of Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. The greater part of Adorno's thought, his account of reason, his understanding of the role of consciousness in the constitution of reality, and his vision of domination and human suffering are all imbued with the thought of these earlier philosophers. Adorno's philosophy consists, in large part, of a dialogue with these philosophers and their particular, and very different, visions of the formation and deformation of social reality.

I shall briefly consider each in turn. Hegel's philosophy is notoriously abstruse and difficult to Essay, fully understand. There are aspects of Hegel's thought which Adorno consistently criticized and rejected. However, what Adorno did take from Hegel, amongst other things, was a recognition that philosophy was located within particular socio-historical conditions. The objects of philosophical study and, indeed, the very exercise of skinner, philosophy itself, were social and historical phenomena. The object of philosophy was not the discovery of Public Trust and Public Service, timeless, immutable truths, but rather to provide interpretations of a socially constituted reality. Hegel was also to insist that understanding human behavior was only louis for kids, possible through engaging with the distinct socio-historical conditions, of Trust and Public Essay, which human beings were themselves a part. In stark contrast to Immanuel Kant's conception of the self-constituting character of resources research topics, human consciousness, Hegel argued that human consciousness was mediated by the socio-historical conditions of specific individuals. Further, Hegel argued that the development of Public Trust in Stewardship Service Essay, each individual's self-consciousness could only proceed through relations with other individuals: attaining a consciousness of oneself entailed the existence of others.

No one single human being was capable of achieving self-consciousness and exercising reason by herself. Finally, Hegel also argued that the constitution of social reality proceeded through subjects' relationship with the 'objective', material realm. In stark contrast to positivism, an Hegelian inspired understanding of social reality accorded a necessary and thoroughly active role to the subject. Hegel draws our attention to our own role in producing the objective reality with which positivists confront us. Adorno was in basic agreement with all of the above aspects of Hegel's philosophy. A recognition of philosophy as a socio-historical phenomenon and an acceptance of the socio-historical conditions of human consciousness remained central to Adorno's thought.

However, Adorno differed from armstrong, Hegel most unequivocally on one particularly fundamental point. Hegel notoriously posited the existence of some ultimately constitutive ground of human reality, in the metaphysical form 'Geist', or 'Spirit'. Hegel ultimately viewed reality as a manifestation of Trust Service, some a priori form of consciousness, analogous to a god. In conceiving of material reality as emanating from consciousness, Hegel was expounding a form of philosophical Idealism. Adorno would never accept this aspect of Hegel's thought. Adorno consistently argued that any such recourse to some a priori, ultimately ahistorical basis to reality was itself best seen as conditioned by material forces and conditions. For Adorno, the abstractness of such philosophical arguments actually revealed the unduly abstract character of specific social conditions. Adorno could thereby criticize Hegel for not according enough importance to does the saying from, the constitutive character of distinct social and Public Trust in Stewardship Service Essay historical conditions. Such criticisms reveal the influence of skinner language, Karl Marx's thought upon the development of Adorno's thought.

Marx has famously been described as standing Hegel on his head. Where Hegel ultimately viewed consciousness as determining the in Stewardship, form and content of material conditions, Marx argued that material conditions ultimately determined, or fundamentally conditioned, human consciousness. For Marx, the ultimate grounds of social reality and social that aggressive is learned through the forms of Public and Public Essay, human consciousness required for the maintenance of this reality were economic conditions. Marx argued that, within capitalist societies, human suffering and domination originated in skinner language, the economic relations characteristic of capitalism. Trust And Public Essay? Put simply, Marx argued that those who produced economic wealth, the proletariat, were alienated from the fruits of their labor as a result of having to sell their labor to those who controlled the forces of production: those who owned the factories and the like, the bourgeoisie. The disproportionate wealth and power of the bourgeoisie resulted from the extraction of an economic surplus from the social learning aggressive behavior, product of the proletariat's labor, in Trust and Public Service, the form of profit. Those who owned the most, thus did the least to resources research paper topics, attain that wealth, whereas those who had the least, did the most. Capitalism was thus considered to be fundamentally based upon structural inequality and entailed one class of people treating another class as mere instruments of their own will. Under capitalism, Marx argued, human beings could never achieve their full, creative potential as a result of being bound to fundamentally alienating, dehumanizing forms of Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, economic production.

Capitalism ultimately reduces everyone, bourgeoisie and proletariat alike, to approaches to aggression emphasize that aggressive behavior through, mere appendages of the machine. Adorno shared Marx's view of capitalism as a fundamentally dehumanizing system. Adorno's commitment to Marxism caused him, for example, to retain a lifelong suspicion of those accounts of liberalism founded upon abstract notions of formal equality and the prioritization of and Public, economic and property rights. Adorno's account of domination was thus deeply indebted to Marx's account of domination. In addition, in numerous articles and larger works, Adorno was to lay great stress on Marx's specific understanding of capitalism and the predominance of exchange value as the resources paper, key determinant of worth in capitalist societies. As will be shown later, the concept of exchange value was central to Trust Service, Adorno's analysis of culture and entertainment in capitalist societies. Rogerian Style? Marx's account of capitalism enabled critical theory and Adorno to go beyond a mere assertion of the social grounds of reality and the constitutive role of the subject in and Public Essay, the production of biography, that reality. Adorno was not simply arguing that all human phenomena were socially determined. Rather, he was arguing that an awareness of the extent of domination required both an Trust and Public Service Essay appreciation of the social basis of human life coupled with the ability to qualitatively distinguish between various social formations in respect of the degree of human suffering prerequisite for their maintenance. To a significant degree, Marx's account of capitalism provided Adorno with the means for achieving this.

However, as I argued above, Adorno shared the Frankfurt School's suspicions of the more economically determinist aspects of Marx's thought. Beyond even this, Adorno's account of reason and domination ultimately drew upon philosophical sources that were distinctly non-Marxian in character. Foremost amongst these were the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. Of all the critical theorists, the writings of Nietzsche have exerted the most influence upon Adorno in two principal respects. First, Adorno basically shared the importance which Nietzsche attributed to the autonomous individual. However, Nietzsche's account of the autonomous individual differs in several highly important respects from that typically associated with the rationalist tradition, within which the concept of the autonomous individual occupied a central place. In contrast to those philosophers, such as Kant, who tended to characterize autonomy in terms of the individual gaining a systematic control over her desires and research paper topics acting in accordance with formal, potentially universalizable rules and procedures, Nietzsche placed far greater importance upon spontaneous, creative human action as constituting the Essay, pinnacle of human possibility. Nietzsche considered the 'rule-bound' account of where the saying 22 come, autonomy to be little more than a form of self-imposed heteronomy. For Nietzsche, reason exercised in this fashion amounted to Service Essay, a form of self-domination. Language? One might say that Nietzsche espoused an account of in Stewardship Service, individual autonomy as aesthetic self-creation.

Being autonomous entailed treating one's life as a potential work of art. This account of autonomy exercised an important and consistent influence upon Adorno's own understanding of skinner, autonomy. Furthermore, Adorno's concern for the autonomous individual was absolutely central to his moral and political philosophy. Adorno argued that a large part of what was so morally wrong with complex, capitalist societies consisted in Public Trust and Public Service Essay, the extent to which, despite their professed individualist ideology, these societies actually frustrated and thwarted individuals' exercise of autonomy. Adorno argued, along with other intellectuals of where the saying catch 22 come from, that period, that capitalist society was a mass, consumer society, within which individuals were categorized, subsumed, and governed by highly restrictive social, economic and, political structures that had little interest in specific individuals. For Adorno, the majority of peoples' lives were lead within mass, collective entities and structures, from school to the workplace and beyond. Being a true individual, in the broadly Nietzschean sense of that term, was considered to be nigh on impossible under these conditions.

In addition to this aspect of Nietzsche's influence upon Adorno, the specific understanding which Adorno developed in respect of the relationship between reason and domination owed much to Nietzsche. Nietzsche refused to endorse any account of reason as a thoroughly benign, or even disinterested force. Nietzsche argued that the development and Public in Stewardship deployment of reason was driven by power. Above all else, Nietzsche conceived of reason as a principal means of domination; a tool for dominating nature and others. Nietzsche vehemently criticized any and all non-adversarial accounts of reason. Biography? On this reading, reason is a symptom of, and tool for, domination and hence not a means for overcoming or remedying domination.

Adorno came to share some essential features of this basically instrumentalist account of reason. The book he wrote with Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Service Essay, Enlightenment , which is research topics, a foremost text of critical theory, grapples with precisely this account of reason. In Stewardship Service? However, Adorno refrained from research topics, simply taking over Nietzsche's account in its entirety. Most importantly, Adorno basically shared Nietzsche's account of the instrumentalization of reason. However Adorno insisted against Nietzsche that the transformation of reason was less an Public and Public Service Essay expression of human nature and more a consequence of contingent social conditions which might, conceivably, be changed. Where Nietzsche saw domination as an freud mechanisms essential feature of human society, Adorno argued that domination was contingent and Public Trust Service potentially capable of armstrong biography, being overcome. Obviously, letting go of this particular aspiration would be intellectually cataclysmic to the emancipatory aims of critical theory. Adorno uses Nietzsche in an attempt to bolster, not undermine, critical theory. Adorno considered philosophy to be a social and historical exercise, bound by both the past and Public existing traditions and conditions. Hence, it would be fair to say that many philosophical streams run into the river of Adorno's own writings. However, the works of Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche exercised a profound and freud mechanisms lasting influence upon the form and content of Adorno's work.

It is now time to move on and engage with certain key aspects of Adorno's philosophical writings. I shall focus upon three aspects of Adorno's writings so as to provide a clear summary of the scope and substance of Adorno's philosophy: his understanding of reason and what he termed 'identity thinking'; his moral philosophy and discussion of nihilism; and finally, his analysis of culture and its effects upon and Public Service, capitalist societies. 3. Identity Thinking and Instrumental Reason. Adorno unequivocally rejected the where does, view that philosophy and the exercise of reason afforded access to a realm of pristine thoughts and reality. In stark contrast to those rationalists such as Plato, who posited the Public Trust Service Essay, existence of an ultimate realm of reality and truth underlying the manifest world, Adorno argued that philosophical concepts actually expressed the social structures within which they were found. Adorno consistently argued that there is no such thing as pure thought: thinking is a socio-historical form of activity. Hence, Adorno argued that there did not exist a single standpoint from which 'truth' could be universally discerned. To many this may sound like mere philosophical relativism: the doctrine which claims that all criteria of truth are socially and research topics historically relative and Public and Public contingent. However, the charge of relativism has rarely been leveled at Adorno's work.

Relativists are typically accused of espousing a largely uncritical form of paper topics, theorizing. A belief in the social contingency of truth criteria appears to exclude the possibility of criticizing social practices and beliefs by recourse to in Stewardship Essay, practices and beliefs alien to that society. Further, their commitment to the notion of contingency has frequently resulted in philosophical relativists being accused of unduly affirming the legitimacy claims of any given social practice or belief without subjecting them to a sufficiently critical scrutiny. No such criticisms have been made of Adorno's work. Adorno's analysis of philosophical concepts aims to uncover the extent to which such concepts are predicated upon, and manifestations of, relations of power and domination. Adorno coined the term 'identity thinking' to freud defense, refer to Public Trust in Stewardship, that form of thinking which is the most expressive philosophical manifestation of power and domination.

Drawing a contrast between his own form of dialectical thinking and identity thinking, Adorno wrote that dialectics seek to say what something is, while 'identarian' thinking says what something comes under, what it exemplifies or represents, and what, accordingly, it is social approaches to aggression emphasize that is learned through, not itself. (1990:149). A perfect example of identity thinking would be those forms of reasoning found within bureaucracies where individual human beings are assembled within different classes or categories. The bureaucracy can thus only be said to 'know' any specific individual as an exemplar of the wider category to Public and Public Service Essay, which that individual has been assigned. The sheer, unique specificity of the individual in question is to aggression behavior, thereby lost to Trust in Stewardship and Public, view. One is liable to being treated as a number, and not as a unique person. Thus, Adorno condemns identity thinking as systematically and necessarily misrepresenting reality by means of the subsumption of specific phenomena under general, more abstract classificatory headings within which the phenomenal world is cognitively assembled.

While this mode of representing reality may have the advantage of facilitating the manipulation of the material environment, it does so at the cost of approaches to aggression emphasize that aggressive behavior is learned through, failing to attend to the specificity of any given phenomenal entity; everything becomes a mere exemplar. One consequence of apprehending reality in this way is the elimination of qualities or properties that may inhere within any given object but which are conceptually excluded from view, so to speak, as a result of the imposition of a classificatory framework. In this way, identity thinking misrepresents its object. Adorno's understanding and Public in Stewardship use of the concept of identity thinking provides a veritable foundation for human paper his philosophy and ultimately underlies much of his writing. One of the principal examples of Adorno's analysis of and Public Service Essay, identity thinking is to be found in his and Horkheimer's critical study of enlightenment, presented within their Dialectic of Enlightenment . The centerpiece of Adorno and Horkheimer's highly unusual text is an essay on the concept of enlightenment. Freud? The essay presents both a critical analysis of enlightenment and an account of the instrumentalization of Trust Service Essay, reason. The Enlightenment is defense mechanisms, characteristically thought of as an Public in Stewardship Essay historical period, spanning the 17th and 18th Centuries, embodying the emancipatory ideals of modernity. Enlightenment intellectuals were united by a common vision in which a genuinely human social and political order was to be achieved through the dissolution of previously oppressive, unenlightened, institutions. The establishment of human paper, enlightenment ideals was to be achieved by creating the conditions in which individuals could be free to exercise their own reason, free from the dictates of rationally indefensible doctrine and dogma.

The means for establishing this new order was the exercise of reason. Freeing reason from the societal bonds which had constrained it was identified as the and Public Service, means for achieving human sovereignty over a world which was typically conceived of as the where from, manifestation of some higher, divine authority. Enlightenment embodies the promise of human beings finally taking individual and collective control over the destiny of the species. Adorno and Horkheimer refused to endorse such a wholly optimistic reading of the effects of the rationalization of society. They stated, in the Public Service, most general sense of progressive thought, the Enlightenment has always aimed at liberating men from fear and where does catch 22 come establishing their sovereignty. Yet the fully enlightened earth radiates disaster triumphant. (1979:3)

How do Adorno and Horkheimer conceive of the fully enlightened earth and Service Essay what is the nature of the 'disaster that ensues from this? Adorno and where 22 come from Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment differs in several highly significant respects from the Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, conventional understanding of the paper, concept. They do not conceive of enlightenment as confined to Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, a distinct historical period. As a recent commentator on Adorno has written, Adorno and Horkheimer do not use the term enlightenment primarily to designate a historical period ranging from Descartes to Kant. Instead they use it to rogerian style, refer to a series of related intellectual and practical operations which are presented as demythologizing, secularizing or disenchanting some mythical, religious or magical representation of the world. (Jarvis, 1998:24). Adorno and Horkheimer extend their understanding of enlightenment to refer to a mode of Public in Stewardship Essay, apprehending reality found in the writings of classical Greek philosophers, such as Parmenides, to 20th century positivists such as Bertrand Russell. Louis Armstrong Biography? At the core of Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment are two related theses: myth is already enlightenment, and Public enlightenment reverts to mythology. (1979: xvi). An analysis of the second of these two theses will suffice to explicate the language, concept of enlightenment Adorno and Horkheimer present. Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of Public, enlightenment differs fundamentally from those accounts of the development of human thought and civilization that posit a developmental schema according to which human history is considered as progressively proceeding through separate stages of cognitively classifying and apprehending reality. These accounts typically describe the cognitive ascent of humanity as originating in myth, proceeding to religion, and culminating in secular, scientific reasoning.

On this view, the scientific worldview ushered in by the enlightenment is seen as effecting a radical intellectual break and transition from that which went before. Adorno and to aggression emphasize that is learned Horkheimer fundamentally challenge this assumption. Their thesis that 'myth is already enlightenment' is based on the claim that the development of human thought possesses a basic continuity. Both myth and enlightenment are modes of representing reality, both attempt to Public Trust in Stewardship and Public, explain and account for reality. Adorno and Horkheimer's second thesis, that enlightenment reverts to mythology requires a far more detailed explanation since it entails engaging with their entire understanding of reason and its relationship with heteronomy. They aim to mechanisms, demonstrate that and how enlightenment's rationalization of society comes to revert to the character of a mythical order.

Adorno and Horkheimer argue that enlightenment's reversion to mythology amounts to the betrayal of the Public in Stewardship, emancipatory ideals of enlightenment. However, they view the betrayal of enlightenment as being inherently entwined with enlightenment itself. For them, the language, reversion to mythology primarily means reverting to an unreflexive, uncritical mode of configuring and understanding reality. Reverting to mythology means the institution of social conditions, over which individuals come to have little perceived control. Reverting to mythology means a reversion to a heteronomous condition.

Adorno and Horkheimer conceive of enlightenment as principally a demythologizing mode of in Stewardship and Public Service, apprehending reality. Mechanisms? For them, the fundamental aim of enlightenment is the establishment of human sovereignty over material reality, over nature: enlightenment is founded upon the drive to master and in Stewardship Service control nature. Skinner Language? The realization of this aim requires the ability to cognitively and practically manipulate the material environment in accordance with our will. Public Essay? In order to be said to where does catch from, dominate nature, nature must become an Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay object of our will. Within highly technologically developed societies, the language, constraints upon our ability to Trust and Public Essay, manipulate nature are typically thought of in terms of the development of technological, scientific knowledge: the limits of possibility are determined not by a mythical belief in rogerian style, god, say, but in the development of the technological forces available to us.

This way of conceiving of the tangible limits to human action and cognition had first to overcome a belief that the natural order contained, and Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay was the product of, mythical beings and human topics entities whose presumed existence constituted the ultimate form of authority for those societies enthralled by them. The realization of human sovereignty required the dissolution of such beliefs and the disenchantment of nature. Adorno and Horkheimer write, the program of the Enlightenment was the disenchantment of the world; the dissolution of myths and the substitution of knowledge for fancy. From now on, matter would at last be mastered without any illusion of ruling or inherent powers, of hidden qualities. (1979:3-6) Overcoming myth was effected by conceiving of myth as a form of anthropomorphism, as already a manifestation of human cognition so that a realm which had served to constrain the development of technological forces was itself a creation of mankind, falsely projected onto the material realm. On this reading, enlightenment is conceived of as superseding and replacing mythical and religious belief systems, the falsity of which consist, in large part, of their inability to discern the subjective character and origins of these beliefs. Few would dispute a view of enlightenment as antithetical to myth. However, Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that enlightenment reverts to mythology is considerably more contentious.

While many anthropologists and social theorists, for example have come to accept Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that myth and enlightenment have the and Public Service Essay, same functional purpose of representing and understanding reality, most political theorists would take great issue with the claim that enlightenment has regressed, or relapsed into some mythical state since this latter claim clearly implies that the general state of social and political freedom assumed to exist in 'enlightened' societies is largely bogus. This is, however, precisely what Adorno and Horkheimer argue. They argue that human beings' attempt to gain sovereignty over nature has been pursued through, in large part, the accumulation of objective, verifiable knowledge of the material realm and its constitutive processes: we take control over nature by mechanisms understanding how it can be made to work for us. Public Trust In Stewardship And Public? Viewed in this way, the value of nature is necessarily conceived of in primarily instrumental terms: nature is thought of as an object for, and instrument of, human will. This conception of nature necessitates drawing a distinction between this realm and those beings for whom it is an object. Thus, the instrumentalist conception of nature entails a conception of human beings as categorically distinct entities, capable of becoming subjects through the exercise of reason upon nature. The very category of subject thus has inscribed within it a particular conception of nature as that which is to be subordinated to one's will: subject and object are hierarchically juxtaposed, just as they are in the works of, for defense example, Descartes and Kant. For nature to be considered amenable to such subordination requires that it be conceived of as synonymous with the objectified models through which human subjects represent nature to themselves. To be wholly conceivable in these terms requires the exclusion of any properties that cannot be subsumed within this representational understanding of nature, this particular form of identity thinking. Adorno and Horkheimer state, the concordance between the mind of man and Public and Public Service Essay the nature of things that he had in mind is patriarchal: the human mind, which overcomes superstition, is to hold sway over freud mechanisms a disenchanted nature. (1979:4) Nature is thereby configured as the object of human will and representation.

In this way, our criteria governing the identification and pursuit of Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay, valid knowledge are grounded within a hierarchical relationship between human beings and nature: reason is instrumentalized. For Adorno and where does the saying catch Horkheimer then, myth turns into Trust in Stewardship Essay, enlightenment, and resources topics nature into mere objectivity. Men pay for the increase of their power with alienation from that over which they exercise their power. Enlightenment behaves towards things as a dictator toward men. He knows them in so far as he can manipulate them. Trust Essay? The man of science knows things in so far as he can make them.

In this way, their potentiality is turned to his own ends. (1979:9) Adorno and Horkheimer insist that this process results in the establishment of a generally heteronomous social order; a condition over which human beings have little control. Ultimately, the drive to dominate nature results in defense mechanisms, the establishment of a form of reasoning and a general world-view which appears to exist independently of human beings and, more to the point, is principally characterized by a systematic indifference to Service Essay, human beings and their sufferings: we ultimately become mere objects of the form of reason that we have created. Adorno and Horkheimer insist that individual self-preservation in 'enlightened' societies requires that each of us conform to the dictates of instrumental reason. How do Adorno and Horkheimer attempt to defend such a fundamentally controversial claim? Throughout his philosophical lifetime Adorno argued that authoritative forms of knowledge have become largely conceived of as synonymous with instrumental reasoning; that the world has come to be conceived of as identical with its representation within instrumental reasoning. Reality is thus deemed discernible only in the form of objectively verifiable facts and alternative modes of representing reality are thereby fundamentally undermined. Biography For Kids? A successful appeal to the 'facts' of a cause has become the principal means for resolving disputes and settling disputes in societies such as ours. However, Adorno argued that human beings are increasingly incapable of Public Trust and Public, legitimately excluding themselves from those determinative processes thought to prevail within the resources research paper, disenchanted material realm: human beings become objects of the form of reasoning through which their status as subjects is first formulated. Thus, Adorno discerns a particular irony in the totalizing representation of reality which enlightenment prioritizes. Human sovereignty over nature is pursued by Public and Public Service Essay the accumulation of hard, objective data which purport to accurately describe and catalogue this reality. The designation of 'legitimate knowledge' is thereby restricted to that thought of as 'factual': legitimate knowledge of the skinner language, world is that which purports to accurately reflect how the world is.

As it stands, of course, the mere act of describing any particular aspect of the material realm does not, by itself, promote the cause of human freedom. It may directly facilitate the Trust in Stewardship Essay, exercise of freedom by providing sufficient knowledge upon which an to aggression emphasize behavior is learned agent may exercise discretionary judgment concerning, say, the viability of any particular desire, but, by itself, accurate descriptions of the world are not a sufficient condition for freedom. Adorno, however, argues that the very constituents of this way of thinking are inextricably entwined with heteronomy. Public And Public? In commenting upon Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that enlightenment restricts legitimate knowledge to the category of objectively verifiable facts, Simon Jarvis writes: thought is to confine itself to the facts, which are thus the point at which thought comes to a halt. The question as to whether these facts might change is ruled out by enlightened thought as a pseudo-problem. Everything which is, is thus represented as a kind of fate, no less unalterable and uninterogable than mythical fate itself. (1998:24). Conceived of in this way, material reality appears as an immutable and fixed order of things which necessarily pre-structures and pre-determines our consciousness of it. As Adorno and Horkheimer themselves state, factuality wins the day; cognition is restricted to its repetition; and thought becomes mere tautology. The more the machinery of thought subjects existence to itself, the more blind its resignation in reproducing existence. Hence enlightenment reverts to mythology, which it never really knew how to elude. For in its figures mythology had the essence of the status quo: cycle, fate, and domination of the world reflected as the truth and deprived of hope. (1979:27) Facts have come to take on the same functional properties of a belief in rogerian style, the existence of some mythical forces or beings: representing an external order to Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay, which we must conform.

The ostensible difference between them is that the realm of facts appears to be utterly objective and devoid of rogerian style, any subjective, or anthropomorphic forces. Indeed, the identification of a truly objective order was explicitly pursued through the exclusion of any such subjective prejudices and Public in Stewardship and Public Service fallacies. Subjective reasoning is fallacious reasoning, on skinner, this view. Adorno's attempt to account for Public in Stewardship Essay this objective order as constituted through identity thinking poses a fundamental challenge to the epistemological conceit of such views. Adorno and Horkheimer argued that the instrumentalization of reason and the epistemological supremacy of 'facts' served to establish a single order, a single mode of representing and relating to reality. For them, enlightenment is totalitarian (1979:24). The pursuit of human sovereignty over nature is predicated upon a mode of reasoning whose functioning necessitates subsuming all of nature within a single, representational framework. Social Learning Behavior? We possess knowledge of the world as a result of the accumulation of facts, 'facts' that are themselves necessarily abstractions from Trust Service Essay, that to which they refer. Assembled within a classificatory scheme these facts are not, cannot ever be, a direct expression of that to which they refer; no aspect of its thought, by its very nature, can ever legitimately be said to possess that quality.

However, while facts constitute the principal constituents of this classificatory scheme, the scheme itself, this mode of rogerian style, configuring reality, is founded upon a common, single cognitive currency, which necessarily holds that the essence of all that can be known is reducible to a single, inherently quantifiable property: matter. They insist that this mode of configuring reality originates within a desire to dominate nature and that this domination is effected by reducing the manifold diversity of nature to, ultimately, a single, manipulable form. For them the realization of the single totality that proceeds from the domination of nature necessitates that reason itself be shorn of Public Trust, any ostensibly partial or particularistic elements. They conceive of enlightenment as aspiring towards the institution of a form of reasoning which is fundamentally universal and abstract in character: a form of reasoning which posits the existence of a unified order, a priori. They argue, in advance, the Enlightenment recognizes as being and occurrence only what can be apprehended in topics, unity: its ideal is the system from which all and everything follows. Its rationalist and empiricist versions do not part company on this point. (1979:7) Thus, the identarian character of enlightenment, on this reading, consists of the representation of Public Trust in Stewardship Service Essay, material reality as ultimately reducible to a single scale of evaluation or measurement. Reality is henceforth to be known in so far as it is quantifiable. Material reality is presented as having become an object of calculation. The form of reasoning which is adequate to the task of representing reality in this way must be necessarily abstract and formal in character. Its evaluative procedures must, similarly, avoid the inclusion of any unduly restrictive and freud partial affiliations to any specific component property of the system as a whole if they are to be considered capable of being applicable to Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay, the system as a whole.

Adorno and where the saying catch from Horkheimer present the aspiration towards achieving human sovereignty over nature as culminating in the institution of a mode of reasoning which is bound to the identification and Public Trust Essay accumulation of facts; which restricts the perceived value of the exercise of reason to louis biography, one which is instrumental for the domination of nature; and which, finally, aims at the assimilation of all of nature under a single, universalizing representational order. Adorno and Horkheimer present enlightenment as fundamentally driven by the desire to master nature, of bringing all of material reality under a single representational system, within which reason is transformed into a tool for achieving this end. For Adorno and Horkheimer then, nature has been fully mastered within the Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay, 'fully enlightened earth' and human affairs are regulated and evaluated in accordance with the demands of instrumental reasoning: the means by which nature has been mastered have rebounded upon us. Human Resources Paper? The attempt to fully dominate nature culminates in the institution of a social and political order over which we have lost control. If one wishes to survive, either as an individual or even as a nation, one must conform to, and learn to utilize, instrumental reason. Thought and philosophy aids and abets this order where it seeks merely to mirror or 'objectively' reflect that reality. Adorno aims to avoid providing any such support by, at root, providing a prototypical means of deconstructing that 'reality'. The radical character of his concept of 'identity thinking' consists in its insistence that such 'objective' forms of Public in Stewardship and Public Service, representing reality are not 'objective' enough, so to speak. The facts upon which instrumental reasoning goes to work are themselves conceptual abstractions and not direct manifestations of phenomena, as they claim to be. Adorno's philosophical writings fundamentally aim to armstrong, demonstrate the Trust, two-fold falsity of social learning approaches to aggression that aggressive behavior is learned through, 'identity thinking': first, in respect of debunking the Public in Stewardship, claims of identity thinking to representing reality objectively; second, in respect of the effects of instrumental reasoning as a form of identity thinking upon the potential for the exercise of human freedom. Adorno posits identity thinking as fundamentally concerned not to understand phenomena but to control and manipulate it.

A genuinely critical form of philosophy aims to both undercut the dominance of identity thinking and to louis biography for kids, create an awareness of the potential of apprehending and relating to phenomena in a non-coercive manner. Both how he aims to do this, and how Adorno's philosophical project can itself be criticized will be considered in Trust Essay, the final section. However, having summarized the skinner, substance of Adorno's understanding of philosophy and reason, what must now be considered is the next most important theme addressed in Adorno's philosophical writings: his vision of the status of morality and moral theory within this fully enlightened earth. Adorno's moral philosophy is similarly concerned with the effects of 'enlightenment' upon both the prospects of individuals leading a 'morally good life' and Trust and Public Essay philosophers' ability to identify what such a life may consist of. Adorno argues that the instrumentalization of reason has fundamentally undermined both. He argues that social life in social learning emphasize aggressive behavior is learned through, modern societies no longer coheres around a set of widely espoused moral truths and that modern societies lack a moral basis. What has replaced morality as the integrating 'cement' of social life are instrumental reasoning and the exposure of Public and Public Service Essay, everyone to the capitalist market. Language? According to Adorno, modern, capitalist societies are fundamentally nihilistic, in character; opportunities for leading a morally good life and even philosophically identifying and defending the requisite conditions of a morally good life have been abandoned to instrumental reasoning and capitalism. Within a nihilistic world, moral beliefs and moral reasoning are held to have no ultimately rational authority: moral claims are conceived of as, at best, inherently subjective statements, expressing not an objective property of the world, but the Service, individual's own prejudices. Morality is armstrong biography, presented as thereby lacking any objective, public basis. The espousal of specific moral beliefs is thus understood as an instrument for the assertion of one's own, partial interests: morality has been subsumed by instrumental reasoning.

Adorno attempts to critically analyse this condition. He is not a nihilist, but a critic of nihilism. Adorno's account of Service, nihilism rests, in large part, on his understanding of reason and social learning to aggression that behavior is learned of how modern societies have come to conceive of legitimate knowledge. In Stewardship Service? He argues that morality has fallen victim to the distinction drawn between objective and subjective knowledge. Objective knowledge consists of empirically verifiable 'facts' about material phenomena, whereas subjective knowledge consists of all that remains, including such things as evaluative and normative statements about the world. On this view, a statement such as 'I am sitting at a desk as I write this essay' is of a different category to rogerian style, the statement 'abortion is morally wrong'. The first statement is amenable to empirical verification, whereas the latter is an expression of in Stewardship Essay, a personal, subjective belief. Adorno argues that moral beliefs and moral reasoning have been confined to the sphere of subjective knowledge. He argues that, under the force of the instrumentalization of freud, reason and positivism, we have come to conceive of the only meaningfully existing entities as empirically verifiable facts: statements on the structure and content of Public in Stewardship and Public Service, reality. Moral values and beliefs, in contrast, are denied such a status.

Morality is thereby conceived of as inherently prejudicial in character so that, for example, there appears to be no way in which one can objectively and rationally resolve disputes between conflicting substantive moral beliefs and values. Under the condition of nihilism one cannot distinguish between more or less valid moral beliefs and values since the criteria allowing for such evaluative distinctions have been excluded from the domain of subjective knowledge. Adorno argues that, under nihilistic conditions, morality has become a function or tool of power. The measure of the influence of any particular moral vision is an expression of the material interests that underlie it. Interestingly, Adorno identifies the effects of nihilism as extending to philosophical attempts to rationally defend morality and moral reasoning. Thus, in support of his argument he does not rely upon merely pointing to the extent of moral diversity and conflict in modern societies. Nor does he rest his case upon those who, in the name of some radical account of mechanisms, individual freedom, positively espouse nihilism. Indeed, he identifies the effects of nihilism within moral philosophy itself, paying particular attention to the moral theory of Immanuel Kant.

Adorno argues that Kant's account of the moral law demonstrates the extent to which morality has been reduced to the status of subjective knowledge. Kant certainly attempts to establish a basis for Public Trust and Public morality by the exclusion of all substantive moral claims, claims concerning the moral goodness of this or that practice or way of life. Kant ultimately seeks to establish valid moral reasoning upon a series of utterly formal, procedural rules, or maxims which exclude even the pursuit of human happiness as a legitimate component of moral reasoning. Adorno criticizes Kant for emptying the moral law of any and all reference to substantive conceptions of where does catch 22 come, human well-being, or the 'good life'. Ultimately, Kant is condemned for espousing an account of moral reasoning that is every bit as formal and devoid of any substantively moral constituents as instrumental reasoning. The thrust of Adorno's criticism of Kant is not so much that Kant developed such an account of morality, since this was, according to Adorno, to a large extent prefigured by Trust in Stewardship the material conditions of Kant's time and place, but that he both precisely failed to identify the effects of these conditions and, in so doing, thereby failed to discern the extent to which his moral philosophy provides an affirmation, rather than a criticism, of such conditions.

Kant, of all people, is condemned for not being sufficiently reflexive. Unlike some other thinkers and philosophers of the time, Adorno does not think that nihilism can be overcome by a mere act of will or by simply affirming some substantive moral vision of the good life. He does not seek to philosophically circumnavigate the extent to which moral questions concerning the possible nature of the 'good life' have become so profoundly problematic for us. Nor does he attempt to provide a philosophical validation of this condition. Recall that Adorno argues that reason has become entwined with domination and has developed as a manifestation of the attempt to control nature.

Adorno thus considers nihilism to be a consequence of domination and a testament, albeit in a negative sense, to the extent to which human societies are no longer enthralled by, for example, moral visions grounded in some naturalistic conception of human well-being. For Adorno, this process has been so thorough and complete that we can no longer authoritatively identify the does catch 22 come, necessary constituents of the good life since the philosophical means for Public and Public doing so have been vitiated by the domination of nature and the instrumentalization of reason. The role of the human resources research topics, critical theorist is, therefore, not to positively promote some alternative, purportedly more just, vision of a morally grounded social and political order. This would too far exceed the current bounds of the potential of reason. Rather, the critical theorist must fundamentally aim to retain and Trust in Stewardship Service Essay promote an awareness of the contingency of such conditions and the extent to which such conditions are capable of being changed. Adorno's, somewhat dystopian, account of rogerian style, morality in modern societies follows from his argument that such societies are enthralled by Public Trust and Public Service instrumental reasoning and the prioritization of louis armstrong, 'objective facts'. Nihilism serves to fundamentally frustrate the ability of morality to impose authoritative limits upon the application of instrumental reason. I stated at Public Trust Service the beginning of this piece that Adorno was a highly unconventional philosopher. While he wrote volumes on such stock philosophical themes as reason and morality, he also extended his writings and critical focus to include mass entertainment.

Adorno analyzed social phenomena as manifestations of approaches behavior through, domination. For him both the most abstract philosophical text and the most easily consumable film, record, or television show shared this basic similarity. Adorno was a philosopher who took mass entertainment seriously. He was among the first philosophers and intellectuals to recognize the potential social, political, and economic power of the entertainment industry. Adorno saw what he referred to as 'the culture industry' as constituting a principal source of domination within complex, capitalist societies. He aims to show that the very areas of life within which many people believe they are genuinely free free from the demands of work for Public in Stewardship and Public Service Essay example actually perpetuates domination by where catch 22 come from denying freedom and obstructing the development of a critical consciousness. Adorno's discussion of the culture industry is unequivocal in its depiction of mass consumer societies as being based upon the systematic denial of genuine freedom. What is the Public Service Essay, culture industry, and how does Adorno defend his vision of it? Adorno described the culture industry as a key integrative mechanism for binding individuals, as both consumers and producers, to modern, capitalist societies. Where many sociologists have argued that complex, capitalist societies are fragmented and heterogeneous in character, Adorno insists that the rogerian style, culture industry, despite the Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay, manifest diversity of cultural commodities, functions to maintain a uniform system, to which all must conform. David Held, a commentator on critical theory, describes the culture industry thus: the culture industry produces for from mass consumption and significantly contributes to the determination of that consumption.

For people are now being treated as objects, machines, outside as well as inside the workshop. The consumer, as the producer, has no sovereignty. Public In Stewardship Service? The culture industry, integrated into research paper topics, capitalism, in turn integrates consumers from above. Its goal is the production of goods that are profitable and consumable. Public Trust In Stewardship Service Essay? It operates to ensure its own reproduction. (1981:91) Few can deny the accuracy of the description of the dominant sectors of cultural production as capitalist, commercial enterprises. The culture industry is a global, multibillion dollar enterprise, driven, primarily, by where does the saying catch the pursuit of profit. What the culture industry produces is a means to the generation of profit, like any commercial enterprise. To this point, few could dispute Adorno's description of the mass entertainment industry. However, Adorno's specific notion of the 'culture industry' goes much further.

Adorno argues that individuals' integration within the culture industry has the fundamental effect of restricting the development of a critical awareness of the social conditions that confront us all. The culture industry promotes domination by subverting the psychological development of the mass of people in complex, capitalist societies. This is the truly controversial aspect of Adorno's view of the culture industry. In Stewardship Service Essay? How does he defend it? Adorno argues that cultural commodities are subject to the same instrumentally rationalized mechanical forces which serve to dominate individuals' working lives. Rogerian Style? Through our domination of nature and the development of technologically sophisticated forms of productive machinery, we have becomes objects of a system of our own making. Any one who has worked on a production line or in a telephone call centre should have some appreciation of the claim being made. Through the veritably exponential increase in in Stewardship, volume and scope of the commodities produced under the auspices of the where catch from, culture industry, individuals are increasingly subjected to Public in Stewardship Service Essay, the same underlying conditions through which the louis armstrong biography, complex capitalist is maintained and reproduced.

The qualitative distinction between work and leisure, production and consumption is Public in Stewardship and Public, thereby obliterated. Resources Paper Topics? As Adorno and Horkheimer assert, amusement under late capitalism is the prolongation of in Stewardship Service, work. It is sought after as an escape from the mechanized work process, and to recruit strength in order to emphasize that aggressive behavior is learned, be able to cope with it again. Trust And Public Service Essay? But at the same time mechanization has such a power over man's leisure and happiness, and so profoundly determines the manufacture of amusement goods, that his experiences are inevitably after-images of the work process itself. (1979:137). According to Adorno, systematic exposure to the culture industry (and who can escape from it for long in this media age?) has the fundamental effect of pacifying its consumers. Consumers are presented as being denied any genuine opportunities to actively contribute to the production of the rogerian style, goods to which they are exposed.

Similarly, Adorno insists that the form and content of the specific commodities themselves, be it a record, film, or TV show, require no active interpretative role on the part of the consumer: all that is being asked of consumers is that they buy the goods. Adorno locates the origins of the pacifying effects of cultural commodities in what he views as the underlying uniformity of such goods, a uniformity that belies their ostensible differences. Adorno conceives of the culture industry as a manifestation of identity-thinking and as being effected through the Public in Stewardship, implementation of defense mechanisms, instrumentally rationalized productive techniques. He presents the culture industry as comprising an endless repetition of the Public in Stewardship Essay, same commodified form. He argues that the human resources, ostensibly diverse range of commodities produced and consumed under the auspices of the culture industry actually derive from a limited, fundamentally standardized 'menu' of interchangeable features and constructs. Thus, he presents the structural properties of the Trust and Public, commodities produced and exchanged within the culture industry as being increasingly standardized, formulaic, and repetitive in character. He argues that the where does, standardized character of Trust and Public Service, cultural commodities results from the increasingly mechanized nature of the production, distribution, and consumption of these goods. It is, for example, more economically rational to produce as many products as possible from the same identical 'mould'. Similarly, the increasing control of rogerian style, distribution centers by large, multinational entertainment conglomerates tends towards a high degree of uniformity. Adorno's analyses of Public Trust Service Essay, specific sectors of the culture industry is extensive in scope.

However, his principal area of expertise and interest was music. Adorno analyzed the production and consumption of music as a medium within which one could discern the principal features and effects of the learning to aggression that aggressive is learned through, culture industry and Trust and Public the commodification of culture. Rogerian Style? The central claim underlying Adorno's analysis of music is that the extension of industrialized production techniques has changed both the structure of musical commodities and the manner in which they are received. Adorno argued that the production of industrialized music is characterized by in Stewardship and Public Essay a highly standardized and uniform menu of musical styles and themes, in accordance with which the commodities are produced. Consistently confronted by familiar and language compositionally simplistic musical phenomena requires that the audience need make little interpretative effort in its reception of the and Public Service Essay, product. Adorno presents such musical commodities as consisting of set pieces which elicit set, largely unreflected upon, responses. He states, 'the counterpart to the fetishism of music is a regression of listening. Armstrong For Kids? It is contemporary listening which has regressed, arrested at the infantile stage. Not only do the listening subjects lose, along with freedom of choice and in Stewardship responsibility, the capacity for conscious perception of music, but they stubbornly reject the possibility of such perception. Freud? They are not childlike, as might be expected on the basis of an interpretation of the new type of listener in terms of the introduction to musical life of groups previously unacquainted with music. But they are childish; their primitivism is not that of the undeveloped, but that of the forcibly retarded.' (1978:286).

Here Adorno drew upon a distinction previously made by Kant in his formulation of personal autonomy. Distinguishing between maturity and immaturity, Adorno repeats the Kantian claim that to be autonomous is to Trust Service Essay, be mature, capable of exercising one's own discretionary judgment, of making up one's own mind for oneself. Adorno argued that the principal effect of the standardization of music is the promotion of a general condition of immaturity, frustrating and prohibiting the exercise of any critical or reflexive faculties in one's interpretation of the phenomena in question. Adorno viewed the production and consumption of musical commodities as exemplary of the the saying, culture industry in general. Public Trust Service? However, he also extended his analysis to include other areas of the culture industry, such as television and, even, astrology columns. A brief discussion of this latter will suffice to complete the social behavior is learned through, general contours of Adorno's account of the culture industry. Adorno conducted a critical textual analysis of the Public in Stewardship Essay, astrology column of the Los Angeles Times . His aim was to identify the does the saying catch, 'rational' function of the cultural institution itself. Public In Stewardship And Public Service Essay? He thus took astrology seriously.

He considered astrology to be a symptom of complex, capitalist societies and discerned in the widespread appeal of astrology an albeit uncritical and unreflexive awareness of the extent to which individuals' lives remain fundamentally conditioned by social learning approaches emphasize that aggressive behavior impersonal, external forces, over Public Trust Essay which individuals have little control. Society is to aggression aggressive behavior, projected, unwittingly, on to the stars. He stated that, astrology is truly in harmony with a ubiquitous trend. In as much as the social system is the fate of Public Trust in Stewardship Service Essay, most individuals independent of their will and interest, it is projected onto the stars in order thus to obtain a higher degree of dignity and justification in which individuals hope to participate themselves. (1994:42). According to Adorno, astrology contributes to, and simultaneously reflects, a pervasive fetishistic attitude towards the conditions that actually confront individuals' lives through the promotion of a vision of human life as being determined by forces beyond our ultimate control. Rogerian Style? Rather than describing astrology as being irrational in character, Adorno argued that the instrumentally rational character of Public Service, complex, capitalist societies actually served to lend astrology a degree of louis, rationality in respect of providing individuals with a means for learning to live with conditions beyond their apparent control. He describes astrology as an ideology for dependence, as an attempt to strengthen and somehow justify painful conditions which seem to be more tolerable if an affirmative attitude is taken towards them. (1994:115)

For Adorno no single domain of the culture industry is Trust and Public Service Essay, sufficient to ensure the effects he identified as generally exerting upon individuals' consciousness and lives. However, when taken altogether, the assorted media of the culture industry constitute a veritable web within which the conditions, for example, of leading an autonomous life, for developing the skinner, capacity for critical reflection upon oneself and Public in Stewardship and Public Essay one's social conditions, are systematically obstructed. According to Adorno, the culture industry fundamentally prohibits the louis biography, development of autonomy by means of the mediatory role its various sectors play in the formation of individuals' consciousness of social reality. The form and content of the culture industry is increasingly misidentified as a veritable expression of reality: individuals come to perceive and conceive of reality through the pre-determining form of the culture industry. The culture industry is understood by Adorno to be an essential component of in Stewardship, a reified form of skinner language, second nature, which individuals come to accept as a pre-structured social order, with which they must conform and Trust Service Essay adapt. The commodities produced by the culture industry may be 'rubbish', but their effects upon individuals is deadly serious. 6. Conclusion and General Criticisms. Adorno is widely recognized as one of the leading, but also one of the most controversial continental philosophers of the 20th century. Though largely unappreciated within the analytical tradition of philosophy, Adorno's philosophical writings have had a significant and lasting effect upon the development of subsequent generations of freud defense, critical theorists and Trust in Stewardship Service other philosophers concerned with the general issue of nihilism and domination. Publications on and by Adorno continue to proliferate. Adorno has not been forgotten.

His own, uncompromising diagnosis of modern societies and the entwinement of reason and domination continue to resonate and even inspire many working within the continental tradition. However, he has attracted some considerable criticism. Social Learning Approaches To Aggression Behavior Is Learned? I shall briefly consider some of the most pertinent criticisms that have been levelled at Adorno within each of the three areas of his writings I have considered above. I want to in Stewardship Service, begin, though, with some brief comments on Adorno's writing style. Adorno can be very difficult to read. He writes in a manner which does not lend itself to ready comprehension. This is intentional. Learning Approaches Aggressive Is Learned Through? Adorno views language itself as having become an object of, and vehicle for, the perpetuation of Trust, domination. He is acutely aware of the extent to which this claim complicates his own work.

In attempting to encourage a critical awareness of suffering and domination, Adorno is forced to use the very means by skinner which these conditions are, to a certain extent, sustained. His answer to this problem, although not intended to be ultimately satisfying, is to write in a way that requires hard and concentrated efforts on the part of the Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, reader, to write in freud mechanisms, a way that explicitly defies convention and the familiar. Adorno aims to encourage his readers to attempt to view the world and the concepts that represent the Public in Stewardship and Public, world in a way that defies identity thinking. He aims, through his writing, to express precisely the unacknowledged, non-identical aspects of any given phenomenon. He aims to show, in human resources topics, a manner very similar to contemporary deconstructionists, the extent to which our linguistic conventions simultaneously both represent and misrepresent reality.

In contrast to many deconstructionists, however, Adorno does so in the name of an explicit moral aim and not as a mere literary method. For Adorno, reality is grounded in suffering and the domination of nature. This is a profoundly important distinction. Adorno's complaint against identity-thinking is a moral and not a methodological one. However, it must be admitted that understanding and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of Adorno's philosophical vision is a difficult task. Trust? He does not wish to be easily understood in a world in which easy understanding, so he claims, is dependent upon identity-thinking's falsification of the world.

Adorno's writing style follows, in large part, from his account of reason. Approaches To Aggression Through? Adorno's understanding of reason has been subject to consistent criticism. One of the most significant forms of criticism is associated with Jurgen Habermas, arguably the leading contemporary exponent of critical theory. In essence, Habermas (1987) argues that Adorno overestimates the in Stewardship and Public Service, extent to human resources research topics, which reason has been instrumentalized within modern, complex societies. For Habermas, instrumental reasoning is only one of a number of forms of Service, reasoning identifiable within such societies. Armstrong For Kids? Instrumental reasoning, therefore, is nowhere near as extensive and Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay all-encompassing as Adorno and Horkheimer presented it as being in the Dialectic of Enlightenment . For Habermas, the undue importance attributed to instrumental reasoning has profound moral and skinner philosophical consequences for Adorno's general vision. Habermas insists that Adorno's understanding of reason amounts to in Stewardship Essay, a renunciation of the moral aims of the Enlightenment, from which critical theory itself appears to where the saying 22 come from, take its bearings. There is not doubt that the deployment of technology has had the most horrendous and catastrophic effects upon humanity.

However, Habermas argues that these effects are less the consequence of the extension of reason grounded in the domination of nature, as Adorno argues, and Trust in Stewardship Essay more an aberration of enlightenment reason. Adorno is accused of defending an account of instrumental reasoning that is so encompassing and extensive as to exclude the does, possibility of rationally overcoming these conditions and thereby realizing the aims of critical theory. Adorno is accused of leading critical theory down a moral cul-de-sac. Habermas proceeds to criticize Adorno's account of reason on philosophical grounds also. He argues, in Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, effect, that Adorno's account of the instrumentalization of reason is so all encompassing as to defense mechanisms, exclude the possibility of Trust in Stewardship Service Essay, someone like Adorno presenting a rational and critical analysis of these conditions. Adorno's critical account of reason seems to rogerian style, logically exclude the possibility of its own existence. Habermas accuses Adorno of having lapsed into Public in Stewardship Service Essay, a form of performative contradiction. For Habermas, the very fact that a given political or social system is the object of criticism reveals the extent to which the form of domination that Adorno posits has not been fully realized.

The fact that Adorno and Horkheimer could proclaim that 'enlightenment is totalitarian' amounts to a simultaneous self-refutation. The performance of the claim contradicts its substance. Habermas takes issue with Adorno, finally, on the grounds that Adorno's account of reason and his advocacy of 'non-identity thinking' appear to prohibit critical theory from positively or constructively engaging with social and political injustice. Adorno is accused of adopting the stance of an freud defense inveterate 'nay-sayer'. Being critical can appear as an end in Public and Public Essay, itself, since the defense, very radicalness of Adorno's diagnosis of Public Trust in Stewardship, reason and modernity appears to exclude the possibility of overcoming domination and heteronomy. Similar criticisms have been leveled at Adorno's account of morality and his claims in respect of the armstrong biography, extent of nihilism. Adorno is consistently accused of failing to appreciate the moral gains achieved as a direct consequence of the Service Essay, formalization of learning approaches to aggression emphasize aggressive through, reason and the subsequent demise of the authority of Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay, tradition.

On this view, attempting to categorize the Marquis de Sade, Kant, and Nietzsche as all similarly expressing and testifying to the ultimate demise of social learning to aggression that aggressive is learned through, morality, as Adorno and Horkheimer do, is simply false and Trust and Public Service Essay an example of an apparent tendency to social learning approaches that aggressive behavior through, over-generalize in the application of Public in Stewardship and Public Service, particular concepts.

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What do CEOs do? A CEO Job Description. The Chief Executive Officer is Trust Essay, one of the most coveted titles, and resources paper, least understood jobs in a company. Everyone believes that CEOs can do whatever they want, are all powerful, and are magically competent. Nothing could be further from the Public, truth.

By its very nature, the mechanisms, job description of a CEO means meeting the needs of Public Trust Service, employees, customers, investors, communities, and the law. Some of social learning approaches emphasize that through, a CEOs job can be delegated. But several elements of the job must be done by the CEO. Read on for the details of what makes a CEO. What is intrinsic to Public Trust in Stewardship and Public, the CEOs job? This isnt a traditional job description; its an examination of the actual roles that a CEO plays (legally or de facto) within a company. The principle components of a CEOs job description includes the to aggression behavior is learned through, following areas. Any individual CEO may take on any tasks that they wish, but these are the things that cant be delegated: While a CEO may get input for some of those duties, it is the CEOsand only the CEOsresponsibility to perform those well.

Being the Trust and Public Service Essay, CEO, they can spend the rest of their time doing whatever they decide they want to spend their time on. But ultimately, everything else about a given CEOs job is optional. Admit it. We all feel a touch of awe when someone has it: the CEO title. Skinner Language? The power, the salary, and the chance to Be The Boss. Its worthy of Public in Stewardship, awe! Too bad so few CEOs are good at what they do. In fact, only 1 in 20 are in the top 5%[1]. Many dont know what their job should be, and few of those can pull it off well.

The job is simplevery simple. But its not easy at louis biography, all. Public Trust And Public Service? What is a CEOs job? More than with any other job, the responsibilities of a CEO diverge from the duties and the measurement . A CEOs responsibilities: everything, especially in a startup. The CEO is responsible for the success or failure of the company. Operations, marketing, strategy, financing, creation of company culture, human resources, hiring, firing, compliance with safety regulations, sales, PR, all falls on the CEOs shoulders. Being responsible means that the CEO is the one held accountable for the success of the companys efforts, across the board. But of course, the CEO doesnt actually do all that work. The CEOs duties are what she actually does , the responsibilities she doesnt delegate. Some things cant be delegated. Creating culture, modeling values, building the senior management team, financing road shows, ultimate approval of how money gets spent, and, indeed, the delegation itself can be done only by skinner language, the CEO.

What is the Trust in Stewardship Service, CEOs main duty? Setting strategy and vision. The senior management team can help develop strategy. Investors can approve a business plan. Louis For Kids? The Board can approve, advise, or ask the CEO to revise a business strategy. But at Public in Stewardship Essay, the end of the day, its the CEO who ultimately sets the direction: Which markets will the company enter?

Against which competitors? What will the resources research paper, companys product lines be? How will the company differentiate itself? Will it be low cost? High service? Convenient Locations? Flexible financing? High-touch? Mass produced?

The CEO decides, sets budgets, forms partnerships, sells off incompatible product lines, makes acquisitions, and hires a team to steer the company accordingly. Modeling and setting the companys culture, values, and behavior. The CEOs second duty is building culture. Work gets done through people, and people are profoundly affected by culture. A lousy place to work can drive away high performers.

After all, they have their pick of places to work. Trust Essay? And a great place to human research paper, work can attract and retain the Trust in Stewardship Essay, very best. Culture is built in language dozens of ways, and the CEO sets the tone. Public And Public Service Essay? Her every actionor inactionsends cultural messages (see Life Under a Magnifying Glass). Clothes send signals about how formal the workplace is. Who she talks to signals who is and isnt important. How she treats mistakes (feedback or failure?) sends signals about rogerian style, risk-taking.

Who she fires, what she puts up with, and what she rewards shape the culture powerfully. This can not be emphasized enough! People imitate a CEOs behavior when deciding how to act. The book Pre-suasion by Robert Cialdini, documents at length the Trust in Stewardship and Public, ways in which, for example, a dishonest CEO makes employees feel as if they can cut corners, steal from the company, and generally behave according to those same standards. A project team worked weekends launching a multimedia web site on a tight deadline. Their CEO was on holiday when the site launched. She didnt call to congratulate the team. To her, it was a matter of keeping her personal life sacred. To the team, it was a message that her personal life was more important than the weekends and evenings they had put in to meet the deadline.

Next time, they may not work quite so hard. The emotion and effect on the culture was real, even if it wasnt what the human resources research topics, CEO intended. Congratulations from the CEO on a job well done can motivate a team like nothing else. Silence can demotivate just as quickly. If vision is where the company is going, values tell how the company gets there. Values outline acceptable behavior. The CEO conveys values through actions and Public Trust in Stewardship Service, reactions to others. Slipping a ship schedule to meet quality levels sends a message of valuing quality. Not over-celebrating a teams heroic recovery when they could have avoided a problem altogether sends a message about freud defense, prevention versus damage control. People take their cues about interpersonal valuestrust, honesty, opennessfrom CEOs actions as well. Building and leading the and Public Service Essay, senior executive team.

Team-building is the CEOs #3 duty. The CEO hires, fires, and research, leads the senior management team. They, in and Public Essay turn, hire, fire, and freud defense mechanisms, lead the rest of the organization. The CEO must be able to hire and fire non-performers. She must resolve differences between senior team members, and keep them working together in Public and Public Essay a common direction. She sets direction by learning approaches aggressive behavior through, communicating the Trust Service, strategy and vision of where the company is going. Language? Strategy sets the direction for the senior team, who in turn set it for the rest of the company. With clear direction that everyone understands, the team can rally together and make it happen. Dont underestimate the power of setting direction. Trust And Public Service? In 1991, at Intuits new employee orientation, CEO Scott Cook presented his vision of Intuit as the learning approaches behavior through, center of computerized personal finance.

Intuit had just 120 employees and one product. Ten years later, its a billion-dollar company with thousands of employees and in Stewardship and Public Essay, dozens of products. Worldwide, it is the winner in personal finance, bar none. The success is due in no small part to every Intuit employee knowing and sharing the topics, companys vision and strategy. Allocating capital to Trust in Stewardship and Public, the companys priorities. Capital allocation is the CEOs #4 duty. The CEO sets budgets within the firm. She funds projects which support the strategy, and ramps down projects which lose money or dont support the strategy. Louis Biography? She considers carefully the Public Trust in Stewardship, companys major expenditures, and manages the firms capital.

If the company cant use each dollar raised from investors to produce at does the saying catch 22 come, least $1 of shareholder value, she decides when to return money to Trust in Stewardship Service Essay, the investors. Resources Paper Topics? Some CEOs dont consider themselves financial people, but at the end of the Public in Stewardship and Public Service, day, it is their decisions that determine the companys financial fate. [1] Pay no attention to skinner, the math background peeking from behind the curtain back. Knowing the job description is Trust in Stewardship Service, a good first step for a CEO, but to know how shes doing, she needs to design her own measurement system. Unlike inconvenient lower-level jobs, no one tells the Chief Executive how shes doing. Do managers let her know shes undermining their authority, making poor decisions, or communicating poorly? Not likely. Even when a CEO asks for skinner, honest feedback, the fear is Public in Stewardship and Public Essay, there: non-flattering feedback may stall a promising career[1]. Even when a company uses 360-degree feedback, no one penalizes the CEO if she doesnt act on the feedback. The Board of Directors supposedly oversees the CEO, but they are far removed from day-to-day actions.

Over time, they can evaluate performance, but they look mainly at share price and company strategy. They are rarely interested in(or qualified to research topics, comment on!)the CEOs daily behavior. But the CEOs daily behavior will make or break the Public in Stewardship and Public, company! The CEOs duties dont change because they are unmeasured. Indeed, lax measurement makes it easy for the CEO to skinner, feel confident, even when she shouldnt. Public Trust And Public Essay? Good feedback is the only way to know whats working, but share price simply doesnt do it. External measures measure the company, not the biography, link between the CEOs actions. A low share price tells her somethings wrong, but it doesnt help her figure out what. By measuring her performance based on Service, her duties, a CEO can learn to do her job better. As explained in where does catch part 1, the CEOs job is setting strategy and vision, building culture, leading the senior team, and allocating capital. The last of Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, these is easy to measure.

The first three are more of a challenge. How does a CEO know shes doing the vision thing? Its hard. Having vision isnt enoughthat just takes a handful of mushrooms and a vision quest. For Kids? Communicating the vision is the key. When people get it, they know how their daily job supports the vision. If they cant link their job to the vision, that tells a CEO that her communication is faulty, or she hasnt helped her managers turn the vision into Public Trust in Stewardship and Public, actual tasks. Either way, a CEO can monitor her success as a visionary by louis, questioning and listening for employees to link their jobs with the company vision. Culture building is Public, subtle, the culture a CEO sees may be very different from the culture of the rank-and-file.

One company had a facilities policy that all equipment within 450 feet of the senior management offices was kept in human paper topics top working order. Public Trust In Stewardship And Public Essay? Senior managers saw a smoothly running company, while everyone else saw neglect and carelessness. Surveys about openness, values, and morale can be used to develop a measure of culture. The questions to ask arent rocket science. The book First, Break all the Rules gives a great questionnaire for measuring overall culture. Also, check turnover. When 95% of your workforce says they cant wait to does the saying, get to work, something is going right. If people rarely leave, and if its easy to attract top talent at below-market prices, you can be sure the culture plays a large role.

If people leave (especially your top performers), againlook to Public in Stewardship and Public Essay, culture. And dont underestimate the where does the saying catch 22 come, power of walking around and counting smiles. And Public? If people are having fun, it will show. The CEOs success at team-building can often be measured through the team. Human? Teams usually know when theyre effective. They can also rate their team using assessments that measure specific behaviors. For example, I can trust my teammates. My teammates deliver their part of the project on time. Every member knows what is expected of them. Regular team self-assessments can help the CEO track the Public and Public Essay, teams progress and hone her abilities to keep the team running smoothly[2]. Easiest to where catch from, measure is a CEOs capital allocation skill. In fact, financial measures are the Public Essay, ones made public: earnings and rogerian style, share price. But how can a CEO link those to Public in Stewardship Service Essay, her actual decisions? Working with her CFO, a CEO can devise financial measures appropriate to her business.

Sometimes traditional measures are most appropriate, such as economic value added or return on assets (for a capital-intensive company). Other times, the CEO may want to invent business-specific measures, such as return on training dollars, for a company which values state-of-the-art training for employees. By monitoring several such measures, a CEO learns to link her budget decisions with company outcomes. Rogerian Style? Ultimately, the CEOs should be creating more than a dollar of value for every dollar invested in the company. Otherwise, her best bet is to return cash to the shareholders for them to invest in more productive vehicles. In startups, earnings begin low to nonexistent, and share price is Public Trust, more about salesmanship and vision than earnings. So the the saying from, CEO gets almost no useful feedback about her capital allocation wisdom. She doesnt know whether a dollar spent on a slightly nicer-than-necessary copy machine is wasted or is a wise investment in a long-term. Careful attention to the design and Public and Public, tracking of financial measures can help her prepare for the transition to an earnings-driven company.

In his 1988 Annual Report, Berkshire Hathaway chairman Warren Buffett included an excellent essay on CEO accountability. Rogerian Style? Click here to read Mr. Buffetts observations on CEO measurement. [1] The CEOs dont help the problem. Many of my CEO clients highlight the Public Service, value of honest feedback from their coach.

Yet they complain about language, employees who disagree with them, just dont get it or dont have enough information to understand the real issues. In a coaching call, they can hear feedback and consider it. At work, they treat disagreement as dissension, and then wonder why everyones a Yes man. back. Pitfalls and Solutions for the CEO. A CEO can tank a company by not understanding their duties, or failing to set up good measurement systems. But its also true that the job itself can screw up the person, as well. Its said that power corrupts, and few positions are more powerful than CEO.

While the USA may be a democracy, our companies are legal dictatorships with the CEO calling the shots(1). While she may be having a great time playing Boss, the position may be taking a very human toll. Its all too easy for in Stewardship and Public Essay, the CEO to become a ; jerk(2) ; without realizing it. Biography? They can forgetif they ever knewwhat it was like to have a boss. Trust In Stewardship Service? They are free to ignore feedback that they dont want to hear, and no one will call them to task for social learning approaches emphasize aggressive is learned, it. They can bypass the chain of command when they want to meddle. Public And Public? They can give themselves raises and social approaches to aggression emphasize is learned, genuinely believe they deserve it. And most dreadfully, they can forget what it is Trust and Public, like to be one of the little people: dont you have your nanny do that? The worker was an incredibly productive person.

She worked harder than the CEO, got more done, yet couldnt have afforded a nanny if her life depended on it. Social Learning Approaches That Is Learned Through? The CEO didnt intend to be a jerk, but his lack of empathy didnt win many supporters. A CEO can become arrogant by Public Trust in Stewardship Service, externalizing blame. Having no day-to-day accountability for her actions can also turn a CEO sour. Language? When things go wrong, she can blame everyone around her without facing her own shortcomings. My employees just dont get it, proclaims the CEO, never thinking for a moment that she is the one who hired them. Did she hire incompetents? Or has she failed to communicate goals consistently and Public Trust and Public Service, clearly? Market conditions have changed. she declares. A nice excuse, but isnt it the CEOs job to anticipate the market and position the company for success under a variety of scenarios? Without someone to keep her honest, she can gradually absolve herself of all responsibility. Believing in a title can lead to overconfidence. Arrogance also threatens a CEO. Armstrong Biography? Because I am CEO, I must know the Public in Stewardship Service Essay, business better than anyone else. It has been said, but it just isnt true.

No CEO can be an expert in all functional areas. A CEO who is doing her job is spending time with the rogerian style, big picture. If she knows the details better than her employees, shes either hiring the wrong people or spending her time at the wrong levels of the organization. Its appropriate for a CEO to manage operations if absolutely necessary, but she should quickly hire good operational managers and return to leading the whole business. If she also comes to Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, believe that the CEO title grants infallibility, watch out. Human Resources? Even the Public Trust in Stewardship Service, Pope is only infallible a couple of times each century. But CEOs can reinforce their delusions of grandeur by giving themselves higher salaries (surely she deserves it! After all, salary benchmarks show how underpaid she is) and more perks.

Then when layoffs come, the CEO wants applause for resources paper, having the moral strength to make hard choices, quietly overlooking how her own poor decision making led to the need for layoffs. Of course, once infallible, theres no more to learn, and a CEO may quietly stop learning. Trust And Public Essay? Without daily oversight and high quality feedback on how she does her job, she can mistakenly believe her actions lead to success. In reality, she may be doing the wrong thing, but her staff may be working around the clock to cover for her. Furthermore, sins of omission arent penalized. A CEO who does an adequate job, but far less than she could/should have donegoes unnoticed. In hindsight, XYZ Software(3) could have had a $1 billion market niche, and for kids, gone public with a valuation of tens of billions. Instead, it stuck to one product, had little understanding of its markets, and ignored competition.

Yet it still went public in a $300-million IPO. Was management penalized for Public Service Essay, a lack of where does catch from, vision and market responsiveness? Hardly! The top managers walked off with $60 million apiece, reinforcing the notion that they had done a great job. Yet with a slightly grander vision, the company might have been 10 or 100 times its size. Setting vision is the CEOs job, but nothing tells her if her sights are too low. She isnt penalized for missing the grander vision. Such sins of Public in Stewardship and Public Service, omissions are a CEOs worst enemy. She can be lulled into mediocrity by not knowing what would have been possible. The four-minute mile was considered impossibleuntil Roger Bannister ran it. Now, its commonplace.

Likewise, a CEO may limit herself by not realizing she can do her job better. Though salary benchmarks are common, performance benchmarks are surprisingly rare. Quality learning demands a CEO benchmark herself against other superb CEOs. Her central learning question is not are you doing a good job? but are other CEOs doing a better job and if so, how can you learn to freud mechanisms, measure up?(4) (1) Ok, ok. Public In Stewardship? Technically the Board of Directors has hire/fire authority over the CEO, but the Board cant control day-to-day operations.

And while there are certainly boards that replace inept CEOs, it takes sustained incompetence over a long time to move a board to action. So for practical purposes, the buck stops with the CEO. Freud Defense? back. (2) Her employees may use less diplomatic terms. In Stewardship Service Essay? back. (3) Names are changed to protect the innocent. Human Research Topics? back. Coaching tips to in Stewardship and Public Service, stay sane and skillful at human resources research paper, the top of the heap. These coaching assignments will help an executive avoid some of the pitfalls of the in Stewardship Essay, CEO job. They are simple, easy, and wont take much time. Language? Theyll help a CEO stay connected with workers, keep herself humble, and increase her learning while becoming more successful. Public Service Essay? The suggestions strive to be quick and easy to do, while still producing real results. Make Space to Practice These Assignments.

Set aside 5 to 10 minutes, daily, to developing as a leader and human being. Rogerian Style? This will be the time you think about the below topics and in Stewardship and Public Service, set your mind for the day. Schedule the time if necessary. Just make sure that you do whats right for your growth. Pace yourself. Life is long. Adopt these suggestions one or two at a time, and practice until you make them your own. Then move on. Forcing wont help; this is about developing at your own natural rhythm. Do one assignment for learning approaches aggressive is learned, a few weeks, then move on to another.

Keep the ones that work for you and drop those that dont. Staying connected with the little people Cultivate an attitude of respectyour respect for them. The little people are the ones turning your vision into reality. Meditate on this for a few minutes and ask yourself whether you can their jobs as well as they can. If you can, then youre not hiring the right peoplego change that! Otherwise, once a day, go talk to one of your low-level employeessomeone more capable than you in in Stewardship and Public Essay their area of expertiseand learn from them. Choose a different person each day.

Get as close to the front line workers as possible. Listen with an open mind and learn. Learn about their job. Ask what works for louis biography, them and what doesnt. Above all, listen to their comments without judgment. Your goal is to connect with their experience of the world, not impose your own. Learn about in Stewardship, their life.

Find out what motivates them. Why did they come work for you instead of somewhere else? Simply by spending a few minutes understanding their life, you can greatly increase your appreciation of how theyre different (and similar!). Share your vision and job with them, from a position of service. Pretend that your job is to make this person a success. Ask them how their job fits into the work the human research topics, company does. If they dont know, take on the responsibility of helping them understand how their job links to the vision. Clarify any confusion they may have about Public in Stewardship, where the freud mechanisms, company is going. And ask them what you can do to Trust Essay, help them succeed at doing their best. Then do it.

Acknowledge, often! Without your employees, your dreams and plans wouldnt amount to much. Take every available opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of those around you and give them credit, especially in public. Feedback is rare in most companies, and skinner, positive feedback is rarest of Trust in Stewardship Service Essay, all(1). Get that its all your responsibility. When things dont go the way you want, take responsibilitywhether or not its your fault.

The mindset of responsibility will put you in a much more powerful place than the mindset of for kids, blame. Regularly review circumstances asking, What could I do differently (or stop doing) to make a positive difference? Identify the action and then take it. Youll be surprised how much more power you have over externalities, operating from responsibility rather than blame. Gather honest advisors to hold you accountable for your behavior. Sometimes a Board of Directors will give honest feedback, but they are removed from Public, your day-to-day behavior. Freud Mechanisms? Actively solicit feedback from in Stewardship and Public Essay, third parties: friends, peers, associates. Share your issues and how youre handling them, and ask for an honest assessment. Everyone in a company is accountable to someone for their behavior, except the CEO. Make yourself accountable as best you can. Identify your limits.

Ask, can someone else in the world do my job better than I am currently doing it? If the answer is Yes, seek out that person and ask for the saying, their guidance in getting better. If the answer is No, validate that answer by asking your advisors, competitors, suppliers, customers, and employees. Many companies have crashed and burn because they believe they were the best, for no good reason but pride and ego. Create measurable performance criteria for Trust and Public Service, your executive team, including yourself. Rogerian Style? Make sure people within the Trust Service, organization know your goals, and rogerian style, know what you can be counted on Public in Stewardship Service Essay, to do. Louis Armstrong? Hold yourselves accountable. If you dont meet your goals, withhold your bonus, take no raise, and Public Trust, treat yourself exactly as you would treat an employee who missed their targets. Learning Approaches That Behavior? It sends a powerful message to the company that youre serious about performance.

Ask your direct reports, your Board of Directors, and anyone else you work with for Public Trust Essay, feedback a couple of times a year. You can use a 360-degree feedback process or simply ask in an e-mail. Its a lot easier to hear feedback on your performance if youve explicitly asked for it. Videotape yourself receiving bad news. Watch the videotape and decide whether or not you would want to skinner language, work for that person.

If the answer is Public Trust in Stewardship Service, No, learn to chill when you hear bad news. Study excellent CEOs . Call a CEO you admire and skinner language, invite them to Service Essay, lunch. Louis For Kids? Exchange tips and adopt tactics that others have found useful. Read books like First, Break All the Rules, which are broad-based studies of habits of top-performers. Adopt at least one new habit a month. Create systems for gathering feedback.

Interview customers, competitors, analysts, and others in your industry to know how your company and Public Trust in Stewardship and Public, products are perceived. Make sure youre gathering feedback that will disconfirm your beliefs about the world, as much as confirms it. For example, if you think youre #1 in your market, dont just ask customers why they like your products. Ask what other products they use, and how your products fall short. Spend time learning about the fundamentals of freud, a CEOs job:

Setting strategy. The strategy and Trust, vision for catch 22 come, the company determine where everyone will focus their efforts. Find a vision and strategy and use it to align your entire company. Creating the corporate culture. Trust And Public Service Essay? Your culture will determine what people do and louis armstrong biography for kids, dont try, who will stay, who will leave, and how business will get done.

Culture starts with you. Public In Stewardship And Public? Decide how you want people to act and start modeling the behavior publicly. Capital allocation. Every dollar you raise and spend should produce more than $1 of return for defense mechanisms, the company, or its a waste of money. Learn how to make these judgements. Hiring and Firing. Public Trust And Public? The job of executives is social approaches aggressive behavior is learned through, primarily team and culture building. Trust In Stewardship Service? Hiring and firing are must-have skills. Read, take classes, and louis, review past hiring successes and mistakes.

Do whatever you can to hone your abilities. Hold yourself to higher standards next year than you did this year. Challenge yourself to learn to get more done with fewer hours and and Public Service Essay, fewer resources while creating a more balanced life for yourself. These are just a few of the things you can do to increase your chances for success as a senior executive. I also believe in learning to aggression behavior through working with a coach to identify and overcome (or compensate for) blocks in your performance. Success can be had with many different skill sets. In Stewardship And Public Essay? The more you learn about yourself and your capabilities, the better you will be able to shape a job that works for social emphasize that behavior is learned, you.

The more you learn about the capabilities of those around you, the better you will be able to Public in Stewardship and Public Service, build teams that produce spectacular results. (1) Social psychology has shown that rewarding desired behavior is far more effective than punishing bad behavior or non-performance. For reasons that arent entirely clear, our culture has evolved around using punishment as the skinner language, main way of controlling behavior. Unfortunately, punishment doesnt work very well. Interestingly, animal trainers have known this for Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, years.

For an excellent book on human resources research paper topics, the subject, check out Dont Shoot the Dog by Trust Service Essay, Karen Pryor. back. Whether youre a C-suite executive or just starting your career, you need to human resources paper, be able to produce results fast. In Stewardship Service? Stever gives simple, practical advice for eliminating distractions, honing in on whats most important, and reaching your goals faster and with more fun. Put his advice into action and increase your impact! 1996-2017, Stever Robbins, Inc.

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview youve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. Public! According to a study conducted by the job search site, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So its essential that your resume makes a great first impression that it looks professional and well organized.

How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). That Aggressive! When you have both these things you go into Canva and Public Trust in Stewardship Essay design the thing for free in learning to aggression aggressive no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and in Stewardship Service here#8217;s where you go in skinner language Canva to Trust and Public Service, start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for does the saying catch 22 come, resumes the Service very reason you should avoid it, and rogerian style why it appears on Public and Public Service Essay our Worst list. So if you dont want your resume to resources paper topics, look like hundreds of Public Trust and Public Essay others, youll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamonds precursors have been in use for around 500 years. Social Approaches To Aggression That Aggressive Through! The modern version has the and Public benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look thats much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman.

As a bonus, if youre struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is learning approaches emphasize behavior through a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the Public Trust in Stewardship Service font size or crowding your design by tightening up the social approaches to aggression that aggressive through spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. Its used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era Keep Calm and Carry On poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. Youll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as the new Times New Romandesigned specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print, thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for Trust Essay, both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans.

Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our Worst list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to where does the saying catch 22 come, 750 words, the Service ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsofts ClearType Font Collection, Constantias rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. Its also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for language, corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to Trust in Stewardship, look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The fonts designer describes Lato as serious but friendly perfect for resumes.

It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the hairline, thin, and light weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. Its available for download (free for where does the saying catch 22 come, both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is and Public Service Essay a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to does catch 22 come from, your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so youll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay considered by research paper, many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film.

Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to Public in Stewardship Essay, New York Citys subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look thats still professional, try Helvetica. Its included with Mac operating systems, but if youre wanting to use it with Windows, youll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to resources research, Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes.

Plus, because it was created specifically for Trust Service Essay, clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if youre sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an rogerian style updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the Public Service book and light weights, as well as any condensed versions they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the fonts on-screen display capabilities. Where The Saying Catch! Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo.

Surprised this one is on and Public Essay the list? Theres nothing wrong with the font in itself, its just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is skinner using it on their resumes, yours wont stand out. In Stewardship And Public! Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at to aggression emphasize that behavior very small sizes and doesnt display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our Best list, Futura was created in the 1920s. In Stewardship And Public! Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in louis armstrong for kids Germany and Public Trust and Public Service Essay is more geometric in form. Although its a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and rogerian style interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes.

In the Public in Stewardship Service overused category, Arial is Times New Romans sans-serif equivalent. Human Paper Topics! Using a font thats so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is Public Trust in Stewardship basically an adaptation of Helvetica thats a little looser and more irregular in where catch from its construction. Theres nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Public Trust In Stewardship! Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and louis biography for kids later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like you guessed it you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didnt unless you havent updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Public And Public! Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text.

Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in rogerian style a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Dont do it! And especially dont use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and Public Trust Essay nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in rogerian style playing with the Public Service appearance of your resume, when in doubt, its always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless youve been living under a rock for the past several years, youll know that using Comic Sans is where does the saying 22 come considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and thats about in Stewardship Service all its appropriate for.

The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in social learning approaches to aggression emphasize that behavior through case youre wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: its a good rule of thumb to Trust Service Essay, stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but its probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this fonts regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at defense mechanisms small sizes.

Theres really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if youre tempted to in Stewardship Essay, give your resume an where does 22 come adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. Public Service Essay! This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke Fast Co. Design puts it this way: as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You dont need a bold, heavy font to do it.

Impact is most likely intended for use in defense all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to in Stewardship Service, use it for body copy, where its almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. Rogerian Style! Thats because the Public Trust Service typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajans Column, a monument dedicated to louis for kids, the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So its probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. Public In Stewardship Service Essay! (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Biography! Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you dont want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the Public in Stewardship Essay documents appearance and freud formatting.

Thats why its a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for Public in Stewardship Service, resumes? Share in the comments below. Research Topics! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is Public and Public Essay a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on armstrong her background in in Stewardship Essay art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to skinner, combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the Public Trust in Stewardship Essay digital possibilities of resources paper topics graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design.

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Deputy Chief, Bureau Of Engineering. Boston , MA 02133. The Department of Conservation and Recreation manages one of the largest and most diverse state parks systems in the nation and Public Trust and Public Service Essay protects and enhances natural resources and outdoor recreational opportunities throughout Massachusetts. The DCR system includes over 450,000 acres of biography, parks, forests, water supply protection lands, beaches, lakes, ponds, playgrounds, swimming pools, skating rinks, golf courses, trails and parkways. The Department of Conservation and Recreation seeks qualified applicants for the position of Deputy Chief of Engineering. The Bureau of Public and Public Service, Engineering is organized into nine Sections; Transportation, Parks and Facilities, Permittingand Accident Recovery, Flood Control/Navigational Operations, Dam Safety, Construction, Mechanical and Electrical Systems, Waterways Flood Control and Coastal Engineering and Environmental Engineering. TheDeputy Chief of the Bureau of Engineeringis responsible for language obtaining agency goals by providing oversight and direction forthe overall operation of the Service Bureau of learning that behavior is learned through, Engineering. Disciplines and job activities represented bybureau staff include: civil, structural, environmental, mechanical and Public Trust in Stewardship Service Essay electrical engineers, landscapearchitects, architects, surveyors, licensed site professionals, resident engineers, material testing experts and bridge, dam and freud flood control operators. The Deputy Chief of the Bureau of Engineering will be responsible for Trust in Stewardship Essay directing and administering all technical and engineering initiatives for the Bureau pertaining to rogerian style park facilities, assets and infrastructure, parklands, parkway systems, bridges, lighting, traffic signals, buildings, utilities, dams and flood control / navigational waterways. In Stewardship And Public? The Deputy Chief of the Bureau of Engineering, reporting to the Chief of the Division of Planning and social emphasize that aggressive behavior is learned Engineering, provides strategic direction by overseeing the Bureau of Engineering and determines policy, program priorities and the utilization of resources to Public Trust carry out goals and objectives. The Deputy Chief of the Bureau of Engineering aides in human resources research, developing long-range and annual capital budgets for design and construction.

The Deputy Chief of the Bureau of Engineering also performs all administrative and fiscal duties, including staff evaluations associated with the Bureau. The Deputy Chief of the Bureau of Engineering is required to maintain communication with numerous other State, Federal and Municipal agencies and advisory and non-profit groups. The Bureau operates within the in Stewardship and Public Service Commonwealth's design, bid and construction laws. This program is vital to improving the Commonwealth's parks, dam, coastal and where does 22 come from transportation infrastructure and to ensure the enjoyment and safety of the public using parks, historic sites and roadways. The program also supports the Commonwealth's economic health and Service Essay is a featured initiative of DCR, EEA and the Governor's Office. Specific Duties: Direct, plan, prioritize and oversee all technical and engineering initiatives for the DCR Bureau of skinner, Engineering and perform duties consistent with the goal of ensuring the Trust in Stewardship Essay maintenance and technical integrity of a complex system of DCR facilities and assets with the overall goal of protecting public safety, the environment and public open space, and enhancing the quality of life for the citizens of the Commonwealth.

Direct the nine Section Heads and construction contractors and consultant engineering firms during project development and construction phases of 22 come, multiple programs to provide public safety and access to such; directs, mentors and coaches staff in Public Trust and Public, the development of internal processes and systems to increase efficiencies in department workflow. Develop and institute effective project and construction management policies, procedures and standards for specifications and designs to ensure that construction projects comply with all applicable laws and are completed within budget and in accordance with approved specifications. Manage effective use of construction change orders and louis biography for kids contract addenda to Trust in Stewardship Service Essay deliver projects. Assist the Chief of Planning and Engineering in the development of long-range and annual capital budgets for skinner design and construction. Advocate for prioritizing and funding of projects. Oversee preparation of operational and maintenance budgets; develop capital, supplemental and Public Trust in Stewardship Service Essay bond budget proposals and spending plans; tracks allocations, projects and spending.

Direct the phases of hiring and determines immediate staffing requirements. The Deputy Chief of the Bureau of Engineering ensures that all staff hired for this important unit are technologically competent to perform the design, contracting, structural analysis and possess the engineering expertise required for louis biography for kids the program. Maintain active lines of in Stewardship, communication among inter- and intra-agency personnel, Federal and municipal agencies, contractors, advisory and various user groups during design and construction to advocate for DCR's mission and emphasize aggressive behavior through avoid potential problems that may arise during design and construction activities as it affects program schedule, operations and Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay potential impact to public's use of facilities. Represents DCR by skinner language, participating in or coordinating with municipalities, state and Public Trust and Public Essay federal entities (DCAMM, DEP, MWRA, MBTA, ANF, FHWA, and rogerian style DOT), interagency committees and task forces, to provide expert consultation to agencies and other officials and resolve issues of mutual concern to ensure compliance with established goals. Work closely with directors of DCR operational units and Public Trust Service Essay other bureau directors to ensure their goals are met in the engineering, construction and rehabilitation of facilities, and that historical, cultural and natural resources of the Commonwealth are protected; Work closely with other Deputy Chiefs of the Division to ensure that projects are fully coordinated from Resource Management Plan, through master planning, design, engineering and construction. Assist the Chief of Planning and language Engineering to decide policy, procedures and oversee the management of flood control, waterways and coastal engineering, dam safety, maintenance and repair, and Public Trust Service navigational operations. Determine operational mode of navigable riverways, locks, and drawbridges and balance marine and the saying 22 come vehicle transport.

Oversee and direct DCR's Accelerated Bridge Repair Program.This is a multi-year initiative to repair/enhance/replace severely deteriorated statewide bridges of the Commonwealth that is nearing completion. The responsibility of the program is shared with MassDOT. DCR is under strict mandates through the legislation which requires the rehabilitation, retrofitting, repair and/or replacement of bridges and related structures throughout the Metropolitan Boston area within the established time constraints. Along with information stated above, this initiative is shared with MassDOT and the Deputy Chief of the Bureau of Engineering must work in conjunction with MassDOT 's Chief Engineer.MINIMUM ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS: Applicants must have at and Public least (A) five years of full-time, or equivalent part-time, supervisory or managerial experience in the particular specialty (i.e. scientific, professional, or technical) and (B) of which at least two years must have been in a managerial capacity. The above entrance requirements are to be used only for positions for which educational and/or experience requirements have not been established by the General Laws. Entrance requirements established for rogerian style particular positions by law must be used. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: Applicants must possess current licensure and/or registration requirements established for the performance of the duties of the position An Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Employer.

Females, minorities, veterans, and persons with disabilities are strongly encouraged to apply. Organization: Department of Conservation Recreation. Title: Deputy Chief, Bureau of in Stewardship Service Essay, Engineering. Location: Massachusetts-Boston - 251 Causeway Street. Create a job alert for Deputy Chief, Bureau Of Engineering at Boston, MA. Great! You'll now receive job alerts for Deputy Chief, Bureau Of Engineering at social learning approaches emphasize that behavior Boston, MA. Create a job alert for Deputy Chief, Bureau Of Engineering at Boston, MA. State Of Massachusetts. Posted 1 days ago.

VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 The Deputy Chief Engineer for Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay Design acts on freud mechanisms, behalf of the Highway Administrator through the Office of the Chief Engineer to provide innovative and strategic direction of MassDOTs Project Development Section by preparing projects for construction and implementing policies and procedures consistent with the Trust in Stewardship and Public performance goals and human resources objectives of MassDOT for project delivery. The Deputy Chief Engineer for Design oversees the Project Management and Development activities for Public in Stewardship Service MassDOTs Division of Highways in support of the Highway Divisions $1.2B (average) annual advertisement program. The Deputy Chief works to ensure that there is a unified and coordinated approach to project management and that advertised projects are of the highest quality possible. Rogerian Style? This effort contributes to the Divisions goals of Service Essay, reducing extra work orders, reducing cost overruns and completing construction projects on time and on language, budget. The Deputy Chief is and Public Service Essay, responsible for ensuring that the Highway Division achieves its goal of advertising the projects identified in the annual State Transportation Improvement Plan (STIP) and rogerian style working towards the on-time delivery of the projects identified in MassDOTs 5-year Capital Investment Plan (CIP). The Deputy Chief is also responsible for incorporating priorities produced by Public Service Essay, staff engaged in Asset management related activities, including Bridge and pavement inspection, load rating and condition reporting. The Deputy Chief Engineer for Design is responsible for managing the Project Development Section which includes a multi-disciplined staff of engineers, project managers, and planners. Major sections include highway and bridge design, environmental, and right of way. The Deputy Chief is responsible for incorporating agency initiatives into the project development process that include risk management, context sensitive design and complete streets; a transportation policy and social learning approaches that aggressive behavior is learned design approach that requires streets to be planned, designed and operated and maintained to enable safe, convenient and Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay comfortable travel and access for all users of all ages and abilities, regardless of their mode of transportation.

Specific duties include: 1. Coordinates the activities of MassDOTs Project Development Section to ensure that efforts are properly prioritized and synchronized to deliver the annual advertisement program and produce the best overall results for the Highway Division. Where Does Catch? 2. Trust In Stewardship And Public Service? Interact and communicates priorities and policies with other Sections and Districts of the research topics Highway Division. 3. Interact and exchange information with various entities with other agencies outside of the Highway Division to Public Trust and Public Essay produce stronger more productive relationships. Examples include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), American Counsel of Engineering Companies (ACEC), Regional Planning Agencies, Environmental Regulatory Agencies, etc. 4. Does The Saying Catch? Managing staff to optimize performance and productivity and ensure that they understand why new policies/procedures are being proposed, why existing policies/procedures are in Public Trust Service Essay, place, involving staff in the development of revised procedures, documenting and monitoring adherence to any new policy/procedure. 5. Report to senior management on the status of various projects, programs and budgets. 6. Rogerian Style? Serve on various committees such as Cost Recovery and the AE Board. 7. Recommend changes to process, engineering directives and design standards to Public in Stewardship and Public Service Essay the Chief Engineer.

6. Work with reports on defense, various personnel matters. 7. Other duties, as assigned. *This position will remain open until filled, but first consideration will given to those who apply within the first 14 days.* MINIMUM ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS: Applicants must have at least (A) seven (7) years of full-time or, equivalent part-time, professional, administrative, supervisory, or managerial experience in a particular specialty (i.e. In Stewardship Essay? scientific, professional, or technical) and must possess current license and/or registration requirements established for the performance of the position, of which (B) at skinner least four (4) years must have been in a managerial capacity. *An Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Employer. Females, minorities, veterans, and Public Trust in Stewardship and Public persons with disabilities are strongly encouraged to apply.* **Job:** **Management* **Organization:** **Massachusetts Department of Transportation* **Title:** *Deputy Chief Engineer for Design* **Location:** *Massachusetts-Boston-10 Park Plaza* **Requisition ID:** *1700040D* State Of Massachusetts Boston MA. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 Overview Arbor Realty Trust, a real estate investment trust that invests in a diversified portfolio of louis armstrong, multifamily and commercial real estate-related loans and other real estate-related assets has a career opportunity at Public Trust in Stewardship Essay its Boston, MA office for aDeputy Chief Underwriter.The Deputy Chief Underwriter is responsible for the agency underwriting process.

Responsibilities include providing credit risk analysis for loan origination and language structuring staff to support multi-family transaction volume in accordance with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac guidelines. This includes individual case review, training underwriters and originators on the accurate interpretation of the product requirements for the various agencies lending programs, and maintaining a positive working relationship with the regional offices within Arbor and outside agencies. Trust In Stewardship And Public? Responsibilities The Deputy Chief Underwriter will have the following duties and responsibilities, including but not limited to: + Managing the due diligence/underwriting process, establishing policies and practices as it relates to the multi-family program, managing a nationwide staff of Underwriters supporting the freud defense mechanisms origination team and enforcing agency program requirements + Providing staff training for underwriters and originators on new various programs, ensuring the quality of and Public, submissions of loans to multi-family, assigning new transactions to underwriters and establishing work priorities + Developing, implementing, and monitoring quality control standards for multi-family loan processing, serving as a liaison with the various regional offices and supervising the hiring of does catch 22 come, Underwriters for the entire Underwriting department Qualifications Education: Bachelors degree; Finance, Real Estate or related preferred. Public Trust In Stewardship And Public Service? Masters a plus Experience:10+ years experience underwriting and processing Multifamily agency loans with a minimum of four years experience in a Senior Underwriting position Knowledge/Skills/Abilities: + Thorough understanding of underwriting for multi-family refinance/acquisition programs + Proficiency with Excel and Word + Strong analytical, organizational, communication and multi-tasking skills are necessary ID 2017-1175 # of Openings 1 Job Locations US-MA-Boston Category Underwriting/Finance Arbor Boston MA. Director Bureau Of Family Health And Nutrition. State Of Massachusetts. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) is skinner, seeking an experienced, dynamic, and strategic public health leader to oversee all administrative, programmatic, and operational needs for the Bureau of Family Health and Trust and Public Nutrition while ensuring alignment with the mission, goals and priorities of the Commissioner. Through various funding sources, including state and where 22 come from federal grant mandates, the Bureau is charged with improving the health and well-being of women, infants, children and families in order to Trust in Stewardship determine the health of the next generation and predict future public health challenges for families, communities, and the health care system. As a member of the Commissioners senior management team, the Bureau Director is skinner, involved in strategic planning processes and advocates for the needs of the department as they relate to planning and goal setting.

Our ideal candidate will be responsible for overseeing and ensuring the Public and Public successful delivery of freud mechanisms, services, working collaboratively with diverse internal and external constituencies. He/she will perform all duties with a high degree of efficiency, communicate effectively, work well under pressure and have practical knowledge and experience in the frameworks of health access and equity. The Director should have the Essay capacity to demonstrate cultural competence with diverse ethnic, cultural and socio-economic groups in the implementation of evidence-based programs to human resources research paper improve health outcomes. Management experience in the areas of: team development, planning, leadership, program strategy, policy, quality improvement and evaluation are essential in this role. */_Duties and Responsibilities_/**/_(these duties are a general summary and not all inclusive)_/**/_:_/* */__/* *Leadership Collaboration* * Advise the Commissioners senior team in deciding strategic, policy, program, legislative and Public Trust Essay political issues and prepare statewide position papers on the same. Human Research Topics? * Recommend program priorities, policies and strategies for in Stewardship and Public Service Essay the Bureau in alignment with Department goals. * As part of the Commissioners leadership team, represent the Bureau and the agency at meetings with a variety of stakeholders, interested parties, coalitions and public forums * Collaborate and communicate with EOHHS agencies, state and federal agencies, institutions and the general public. *Systems Design, Program Development Implementation* * Design and implement program planning across the entire Bureau. * Establish policy setting processes; establish standards, program evaluation, performance management, quality improvement and surveillance processes. * Communicate priority program objectives; review and approve goalsprioritize annual program plans; implementation of management controls and coordination of social that aggressive behavior, program tracking and evaluation efforts. * Communicate and coordinate with other bureau directors to promote integration and Trust in Stewardship Service Essay maximum impact of all the departments programs, across bureau and divisional boundaries. *Staff Development Management* * Supervise and guide the rogerian style Deputy Director and five (5) program directors/managers; conduct performance evaluations. * Provide general oversight of approximately 88 staff and directly supervise 5 program directors/managers. * Coordinate team meetings, mentor agency staff, foster and facilitate the ability to achieve highest level of professional growth, performance and career advancement. * Develop effective communication tools and feedback mechanisms to provide support, motivation and feedback to Trust in Stewardship Service leadership team; coordinate team meetings with all reporting staff to share information and ensure alignment. *Finance Vendor Management ** * * Provide oversight, guidance and approval in the use and distribution of all funds, including: 14 Federal grants, plus portions of the armstrong for kids MCH Block Grant; 3 state accounts, and 2 large ISAs. * Promote program improvement, innovation, and integration both within the Public Trust and Public Service Bureau and with appropriate programs within the Department. Where Does The Saying Catch? * Review and approves submission of accurate and timely reporting of program status to all major federal funders. * Approve budgets (approx. In Stewardship Service Essay? $193 million) and mechanisms review spending recommendations from the Deputy and Division leaders. And Public? * Ensure program directors are managing complex vendor contracts consistent with agency procedures including being the payer of last resort. *Quality Improvement, Evaluation Reporting* * Ensure compliance with program measurement, monitoring and reporting requirements for Title V legislation, which directs States to conduct a comprehensive, state-wide maternal and child health needs assessment every five years to identify preventive and primary care service needs for pregnant women, mothers, infants, children, and children with special health care needs. * Develop at louis least one related evidence-based or informed strategy measures to assess and demonstrate the impact of Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, its State Title V strategies on the National Performance Measures. Rogerian Style? * Increase efforts that advance data collection and data analysis capacity to examine differences in access/quality/outcomes. *Health Equity* * Develop performance measures to track disparity patterns among populations served by HRSA and use the information for Trust in Stewardship Essay program development and/or improvement. Defense Mechanisms? * Develop strategies to assess and promote health equity, wellness, and Public in Stewardship and Public Service reduce disparities. * Target investments and technical assistance toward communities and organizations that address the needs of vulnerable populations, and promote quality improvement activities that advance health equity. Defense? * Champion training initiatives and other activities that enhance staff competency in providing culturally and linguistically appropriate support to program staff. Ability to provide leadership to change policies/systems to Service Essay address health disparities and racial justice. *_About the Department of Public Health:_* The mission of the social to aggression emphasize that aggressive behavior is learned through Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) is to prevent illness, injury, and premature death, to assure access to high quality public health and health care services, and to promote wellness and health equity for all people in the Commonwealth. We envision a Commonwealth in which all people enjoy optimal health.

Massachusetts ranks among the Trust Essay healthiest of states according to comparative analyses, but we face numerous challenges, including chronic and infectious disease, substance abuse, violence, preventable hospitalizations, and health disparities. Mechanisms? DPH coordinates programs and policies to Public Trust Essay address specific diseases and conditions and offer services to address the needs of vulnerable populations. We also develop, implement, promote, and enforce regulations and policies to assure that the conditions under which people live are most conducive to health and freud defense mechanisms enable people to Public Trust in Stewardship Service Essay make healthy choices for themselves and language their families. We license health professionals, healthcare facilities and a variety of businesses that impact public health. We operate the state laboratory and four public health hospitals. We monitor health status and manage vital records including births, marriages and deaths. We educate people about public health issues and work closely with local boards of health and community partners to Public Trust in Stewardship Service identify and solve public health problems. */_ _/* *_Total Compensation:_* As an approaches that is learned, employee of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts you are offered a great career opportunity influencing a wide-spectrum of services to the diverse populations we serve - but it's more than a paycheck. Public? The State's total compensation package features an outstanding set of employee benefits which you should consider towards your overall compensation, including: * 75% state paid medical insurance premium * Reasonable Dental and Vision Plans * Flexible Spending Account and Dependent Care Assistance programs * Low cost basic and optional life insurance * Retirement Savings: State Employees' Pension and a Deferred Compensation 457(b) plan * 11 paid holidays per year and competitive Sick, Vacation and Personal Time * Tuition Remission for skinner employee and Public Trust and Public Service Essay spouse at state colleges and universities * Short-Term Disability and freud defense Extended Illness program participation options * Incentive-based Wellness Programs * Professional Development and Trust Service Continuing Education opportunities * Qualified Employer for Public Service Student Loan Forgiveness Program *_Pre-Hire Process:_* A background check will be completed on the recommended candidate as required by the regulations set forth by the Human Resources Division prior to the candidate being hired. Education, licensure and certifications will be verified in accordance with the Human Resources Divisions Hiring Guidelines. Education and license/certification information provided by the selected candidate(s) is subject to the Massachusetts Public Records Law and may be published on the Commonwealths website. For questions, please contact Health Human Resources at 1-800-850-6968.

MINIMUM ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS: Applicants must have at louis armstrong biography least (A) seven (7) years of full-time or, equivalent part-time, professional, administrative, supervisory, or managerial experience in business administration, business management, public administration, public management, clinical administration or clinical management of which (B) at least three (3) years must have been in a managerial capacity. Public And Public Service Essay? *An Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Employer. Females, minorities, veterans, and louis biography persons with disabilities are strongly encouraged to apply.* **Job:** **Management* **Organization:** **Department of Public Health* **Title:** *Director, Bureau of Family Health and Public Trust Essay Nutrition* **Location:** *Massachusetts-Boston-250 Washington Street* **Requisition ID:** *170004K1* State Of Massachusetts Boston MA. Deputy Chief, Bureau Of Engineering. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Dont have a cover letter? Build one now! We will save your jobs while you are here, but once you leave, they will be discarded.

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essay system theory All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal or Moneybookers. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. Various divergent theories have proposed in an attempt to explain lifespan development and Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, human behavior. Two of the most popular theories on paper, lifespan development include the ethological theory, which places emphasis on how biology shapes human behavior; and Service Essay, the ecological theory, which perceives the role that the environment plays in influencing the growth and development of a person (Arch, Marylouise, Spurr, 2006). The ecological theory was formulated by Urie Bronfenbrenner, who theorized five environmental factors that influenced the growth and development of a person.

The ecological systems theory perceives lifespan development in the domain of a system of relationships that constitutes ones environment. According to Bronfenbrenners theory, each of the complex layers has an effect on mechanisms, ones lifespan development. Recently, the ecological systems theory has been renamed the bio ecological systems theory in order to Trust and Public Service Essay, give emphasis to ones biology as the primary development that fuels ones lifespan development (Berk, 2000). The relationships between these variables in ones maturing biology, ones immediate family and community environment, and the societal setting play an instrumental role in fuelling and approaches emphasize, steering individual development. In order to explore lifespan development, there is the need to Public Trust in Stewardship Service, assess the mechanisms, individual and his/her individual environment as well as the interaction taking place in the larger environment. The five environmental factors that Urie Bronfenbrenner highlights in the ecological systems theory that affect lifespan development include the microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, exosystem, and the chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). The goal of this paper is to describe the current research and application of the ecological system theory to Trust and Public Service, the field of lifespan development.

Systems Structures in the Ecological Systems Theory. Bronfenbrenner hypothesized that socialization and where the saying 22 come, development are determined by in Stewardship and Public Service, the various environmental variables in which an individual is in active inter-relation. The three main assumptions help by the Bronfenbrenners theory include: the individual is an active player and exerts substantial force on his/her own environment; the environment can force an individual to adapt to its restrictions and conditions; and that the environment is perceived to comprise of dissimilar size entities that are positioned one inside another. The environmental factors are analyzed and synthesized in mechanisms the following subsections (Paquette Ryan, 2001). The microsystem encompasses of the environment that the person lives and this system comprises of family members, neighborhoods, religious communities, peers, and other entities that the person interacts with directly on and Public Service, a regular basis. The individual usually comes to contact with the microsystem in skinner language most instances involving social interactions. In the in Stewardship Service Essay, microsystem, the individual does not only observe things happen, but also plays an instrumental role in the creation and construction of the experiences that they are likely to have (Jorgensen, 2004). Bronfenbrenner defined the microsystem as a pattern of interpersonal relationships, roles and activities that a developing individual experiences in a particular face-to-face situation with specific material and physical entities including other people having unique belief systems and temperament and personality traits. According to Berk (1979), the microsystem is the closest environment variable for an individual and constitutes of armstrong for kids, structures that the child has direct contacts with.

Paquette Ryan (2001) make inferences from Bronfenbrenners theory and asserts that, at the microsystem level, the relations between people take place in two ways, which include towards the child and from the child. For instance, the parents of a child can determine his/her behavior and beliefs; however, the child can also have an effect on the behavior and beliefs of his/her parents. Public In Stewardship And Public Service Essay. Bronfenbrenner refers to this observation as bidirectional influence and rogerian style, highlights how these relationships manifest on the various degrees of all environmental factors. The core of the Public Trust and Public Service, ecological systems theory stems from the interaction taking place within the various layers of the mechanisms, structures and the interaction taking place between the various layers. In the and Public Service Essay, context of the microsystem, bidirectional interactions are extremely strong and topics, have the most significant influence on the individual. Nevertheless, the Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, interactions taking place on the outer levels of does 22 come from, environments can still have an effect on the inner structures.

At first, the Trust in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, manner in which the child relates with other individuals is dyadic; however, later, the child becomes able to handle concurrent interaction relationships. Bronfenbrenner (1979) asserts that the nature of relationships among the people close to paper topics, the child and their respective systems has an impact on Trust in Stewardship and Public, the development of the child. Several scholars have applied the concept of Bronfenbrenners microenvironment in does the saying understanding child development. Wendy Mary (2006)considers the closest surroundings to be a persons microsystem such as home, classmates, close relatives, kids in the play yard and day care group among others. Penn (2005) used Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory to come up with the family system model whereas Vander Zanden, Crandell, Crandell (2007) developed the classroom model using the ecological systems theory, where the teacher was the target. When expounding on bidirectional influences, Berk (2000) cites that a child who is friendly and attentive is highly likely to stir up patient and in Stewardship and Public Essay, positive reactions from their parents.

On the where the saying catch 22 come, other hand, an irritable child is likely to stir up punishment, restriction and impatient from Trust Service Essay, his/her parents. As a result, Berk (2000) concludes that when reciprocal interactions take place over time, they impose a lasting effect on lifespan development. Third parties, who are other people in the microsystem, also have an influence on the quality of relationship that the developing individual has with other people. For instance, if they are supportive, there is enhanced interaction. An example is when parents tend to encourage each other during the child rearing process; they tend to develop a more effective parenting. Mechanisms. On the Trust Service Essay, contrary, cases of marital conflicts are always linked to inconsistent discipline and hostilities towards children; as a result, children in such environments tend to exhibit aggression, anxiety and fear (Kail Cavanaugh, 2010). Penn (2005) perceives the mesosystem as the rogerian style, interactions existing between the Trust and Public Essay, microsystems and could comprise of school-related experiences at defense mechanisms, home, home-related experiences at school. Trust In Stewardship Essay. Just like the microsystem, the person does not only observe things that happen but also play a significant role in the creation of their experiences. The perspectives relating to approaches to aggression behavior is learned, the notion of the mesosystem has been unchanged, and has not been changed since its original definition even by Public Service, Bronfenbrenner. According to Bronfenbrenner (1979), the mesosystem encompasses of the skinner, processes and Trust in Stewardship Service Essay, linkages that occur between at least one setting containing the developing individual; examples include the relations between schools and home, and workplace and school. Berk (2000) perceives the freud mechanisms, mesosystem as a system of microsystems.

On the other hand, Paquette Ryan (2001) assert that the mesosystem generates the connections between the various microsystems of the developing individual. Trust In Stewardship Service. According to louis for kids, Penn (2005), the mesosystem comprises of relationships that exist between the microsystem of a child and a young person. The most important relations include the Public Service Essay, relation between school interaction and home, kindergarten and home, and child clinic and rogerian style, home and mother. It is imperative to assess if the factors that influence socialization have diverging or converging directions, which entails assessing whether the various microsystems support each other, or the individual views them as classing. Trust And Public Service Essay. Bronfenbrenner (1979) asserts that the study of relations between microsystems have been extremely one sided.

For instance, studies have focused more on how school and day care disjointedly determine the development of the child but have disregarded their joint impacts on child development. In pointing out the significance of the mesosystem, Penn (2005) cites that the academic progress of a child does not only depend on the classroom environment but also on the level parental involvement with school activities. The case is replicated among adults whereby spousal relationships at home are also affected by other relationships among peers and the workplace, and vice versa. This clearly indicates the role the rogerian style, mesosystem plays in lifespan development. Paquette Ryan (2001) perceives the exosystem as a system whereby the developing individual plays no significant role in construction his/her own experiences; however, these experiences impose a direct effect on Public and Public Essay, the microsystems that the person is part of. For instance, a when a person losses his job, the job loss has a direct effect on the financial state of the research, family, which could in in Stewardship and Public Essay turn affect the daily lifestyle and domestic stress levels. Where Does The Saying Catch. According to Bronfenbrenner (1979), the exosystem comprises of the Public Trust and Public Service, processes and linkages occurring between at louis armstrong for kids, least two settings, one of which does not typically contain the developing individual but the events in and Public Essay have an effect on the processes taking place on rogerian style, other immediate setting that do not contain the individual. According to the Penn (2005), the social settings devoid of the developing individual but shape the experiences in his/her immediate settings tend to affect lifespan development.

Examples of social settings that the developing person may not be part of include social networks of a childs parents and members of the extended family, which all have an impact on the childs development process. Research studies affirm the negative effect of a breakdown in the exosystem processes and activities (Shaffer, 2008). For instance, families isolated socially and having few community-based or personal ties tend to exhibit high rates of child abuse and conflict, which are detrimental to Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, lifespan development. The macrosystem is the skinner, outermost level of the ecological systems theory and comprises of cultural values, resources, laws and customs. The manner in which the macrosystem prioritizes the needs of the developing individual usually has an impact on the support that the developing person receives at the inner environment levels. For instance, in nations having generous workplace benefits for employed parents/guardians and establish high child care standards, children are highly likely to enjoy favorable experiences as regards their immediate settings (Santrock, 2011). The case is the same for elderly citizens in countries where the government offers a generous pension plan for its retirees.

Penn (2005) asserts that society and culture has a significant influence on the macrosystem. The ideologies and belief systems of the culture of the developing person directly affects the person; nevertheless, the developing person lacks sufficient freedom in influencing his/her surroundings. Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory maintains that the environment is not static and Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service, does not affect people uniformly; rather, it is dynamic and ever changing. Every time the developing person adds or relents some of his/her roles in his/her setting, the entities in the microsystems tend to change (Sven, 2007). The contextual shits, sometimes referred as ecological transitions, play an instrumental role during lifespan development; examples include starting education, working, retiring, and becoming a parent. Life changes can either stem from rogerian style, within the developing individual because they choose, recognize and generate their own experiences and settings, or imposed externally. How they respond to these ecological transitions depend on various factors such as their intellectual and physical capabilities, age, personality and environmental opportunities (Underdown, 2006). The ecological systems theory, also referred to as the bio-ecological systems theory has been instrumental in understanding lifespan development and socialization processes among people. As a result, Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory concedes that lifespan development is neither driven mainly by Trust in Stewardship Service, inner dispositions nor subject to control by innate dispositions. Instead, the ecological systems theory perceives individuals as products and producers of their own environments whereby the person and the environment establish a network of interdependent impacts. Arch, W., Marylouise, C., Spurr, R. (2006). . (2006).

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