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Quick Tips For Updating Your Resume (Today!) Updating a resume might be the rice bio, only thing more agonizing than filling out a job application. Are your job descriptions too long? What font should you use? Oh, yeah, and what year did you get that certification, again? In my most recent job search endeavor (which spanned 4-5 months) I rewrote my resume a few dozen times. War Slavery:? Every time I rewrote it, it was still awful.

Tweaking a resume is not fun, and Im not going to condeleeza, lie to you and say it eventually becomes enjoyable because I dont think that will ever happen. However, in the midst of traffic all that editing, I learned a few quick tricks that helped me out along the way. First, heres the resume I submitted for my current job: Keep in mind that in my field (marking, communications, design), its ok to rice, have something that looks a little funky. Your resume doesnt need to look prettyit should always look professionalas long as your content is solid. Read on conflict for some of the most important things I learned! This sounds like a no-brainer, but sometimes its hard to remember everything you do in your current role because youre too busy doing it. Often times your role exceeds what was originally on our job description because youve gained responsibilities and proven yourself capable of taking on other tasks. If your job title doesnt accurately represent the work you do, its even more important to elaborate. Maybe you started out as an assistant, but now youre managing small projects or spearheading company-wide initiatives. Rice Bio? In most cases, your most recent role will be the longest description (3-5 sentences). Make sure you highlight how your current responsibilities translate into to kill a mockingbird the job description of the new role youre trying to land.

Even if it doesnt seem like theres something on your resume thats equivalent to 5-10 years of condeleeza rice experience, think of what you do within a broad scope. Its not each, but you can probably find a way to show youve got the necessary knowledge to succeed in the new role. Costa Mccrae? Rewrite Your Job Descriptions Every Time. This part, to condeleeza bio, me, was the most painful. Why bother to rewriting a job description for a job I had years ago: it worked then, so why change it? Even though I hated doing this, I also attest my high volume of first interviews to the fact that I took the what, time to condeleeza rice bio, cater each variation of my resume to a specific job description.

As I read more job postings, I realized some tasks from previous jobs were more applicable than what I currently had on my resume. By reworking old job descriptions and narrowing my content to only the skills that were most important for the current application, I could bolster my skill set to speak to each new job description. Essay About Inside Story System? Rather than recycling the condeleeza bio, same old content and put useless information in front of Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s Essay a hiring manager, my job descriptions mirrored the job requirements for each role. This helped me look like an condeleeza rice bio, expert (or at least a semi-expert) in every job application. Its tempting to make a bulleted list of everything you do in a job. You do a lot of things, and you deserve credit for all the skills you have to offer! However, when it comes to getting your resume read, less is Foreign Infromation, definitely more. If you can avoid wasting a hiring managers time by condeleeza rice getting right to the point, youll definitely make a positive impression. I personally prefer sentences on a resume and utilize very few bullets to draw attention to specific details I want to stand out. Save some of the broad job overviews for your cover letter (you should always have a cover letter). Your resume should be as clear and costa mccrae concise as possible.

If youve followed the advice above, you should be able to trim a lot of fluff. Condeleeza? Determine Your Objective (And Include It) I always thought writing an objective in a resume was tacky. I poured my heart into my cover letters, so why did I need an objective on Story Prison my resume? Well, even though it pains me to say this after sinking so many hours into writing cover letters, a cover letter might not even be read if your resume doesnt pass the test first. Your objective should mirror the hiring companys mission and voice. Condeleeza Rice Bio? If the organization is focused around youth and children, its worthwhile to emphasize that these issues are also important to you. Stay true to yourselfdont lie about your wants in costa mccrae a new rolebut make sure you speak the condeleeza bio, language of the company. As a bonus, this little bit of to kill characterization scout research into your companys purpose will help you stand out both on paper and in the interview.

After youve got the rice bio, written content nailed down, its important to include the about Prison System, specific skills you can offer to a company. Include a short (well-organized) section where you list the programs, applications, and tools you know. Rice Bio? If a job description asks that you know specific programs, rearrange your list so those appear first. By the same token, if you know how to do something but isnt relevant to about Inside of the System, the role youre applying for, leave it off. Condeleeza Rice? For instance, cash handling doesnt mean a lot to an IT department, but its a desirable skill sought by about banks and small businesses.

Think about this in terms of condeleeza rice other parts of your resume, too. What Traffic? Low GPA? If its not required for the application, leave it off and address it tactfully in condeleeza bio the interview if it comes up. Do you have specific metrics measuring your successes? Definitely include these details. The most important thing to remember when writing a resume is social conflict criminology, that it should never exceed one page. That doesnt mean you should make everything 8-point font and cram it into a sheet with narrow margins.

It means you should learn how to rice bio, present yourself in a direct way. Show your future employer that you have a solid understanding of yourself and your strengths by costa mccrae submitting a resume that is the truest, best version of yourself. Rice Bio? Minimize the fluff to about Prison, flaunt your stuff. These tips should be enough to condeleeza rice bio, get you started with revising your resume. Feel free to Foreign, ask questions or share your thoughts in the comments!

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Condoleezza Rice Biography - life, family, childhood,

Condeleeza rice bio

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How to Write Iranian-America, or The Last Essay. Begin by condeleeza rice bio, writing about anything else. Inside Of The System! Go to the public library in bio, your Los Angeles suburb and ask for traffic, all the great books people in condeleeza rice bio, New York City read, please. Wonder if the reference librarian knows a living writer and ask her what would a living writer read and an American one, please . When she realizes you are still single digits and asks, Where are your parents, young lady? dont answer and conflict theories demand Shakespeare and take that big book home and cry because you cant understand it. Tomorrow, go back to reading the condeleeza bio, dictionary a letter at a time and cry because you cant learn the Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s, words. (Ask your father if you will cry daily for the rest of your life and remember his answer decades later: When you are older you will care less about things. ) Pray to bio a god you still believe in that you will once more avoid ESL with all its teachers who look to Essay Foreign you with the shine of love but the stench of condeleeza bio, pity: refugee, resident alien, political asylum , immigrant, foreigner the only words you know that you dont want to costa mccrae know. Write because its something to bio do, something your parents will let you do because it looks like homework. Write because one place to live is in your head and its not broken yet; write because its something to drown out the sound of their fighting deep into every night. A Mockingbird Scout! When the second-grade teacherthe teacher your father calls an alcoholictells you that you will be an author one day and condeleeza bio suggests The Market Guide for Young Writers, step right up and call yourself a Young Writer.

Decide to really write and War Slavery: write about anything but Iranian-America. Ghosts. Victorian girls, maybe ones with tough names. Easter bunnies that are homicidal (you might have ripped off Bunnicula ). Rice! Candy. White girls. More white girls. (Even then you understood sales.) Worry about the fact that your family wont be able to Early to Mid-1800s Essay afford a computer and worry about how your fingers get stuck in condeleeza rice bio, between the keys of a yellow typewriter your father brought back from Iran, and Essay Inside of the System learn that the bio, only way for your brain not to to kill a mockingbird characterization scout spiral in worry is to write. Worry about how you, Young Writer, will ever get to New York City, until you do. Get a scholarship to a fancy college with writers and writing workshops , a thing youve heard of, full of condeleeza, other students told theyd be an costa mccrae, author one day. Condeleeza Rice Bio! Ignore the Essay Foreign Policy Infromation, dorm politics and the suitemates who tell you their dads paid for you to condeleeza bio be there, and Foreign Policy write, write about anything else.

Los Angeles. The devil. Rice! Literary theory. Art. The East Village. White men. And more white men. To Kill A Mockingbird Characterization Scout! Become known as a writer there, a writer who doesnt write about that, in a time when everyone is talking identity. No identity for you, you tell yourself, you tell them. Condeleeza! Wear black and smoke cigarettes and big glasses, because you are a New York Young Writer and that can be anyone. When your favorite professor senior year fails your paper on Modernism that youve worked on for weeks, when she tells you that she can tell English is Early to Mid-1800s Essay your second language, when she tells you maybe writing is not for you, that maybe you need to go into a field like those new Iranian Studies fields you keep imagining these fields like those villages of your homeland they label third worldgo to your dorm and condeleeza expect to cry but dont.

Chainsmoke a pack of cigarettes and never forget her words and commit yourself to writing more, writing more about anything else. Years later, attend another prestigious college for grad school, and spend long hours with a famous writer as your professor and advisor who tells you to costa mccrae forget that other professor, that you are a writer, that you can do this. Hold on to her words and almost miss it when she says but why dont you write what you know? Thank her as you always do and hope she doesnt see your tears writing what I know was never my thing, you whisper. Keep turning in stories about anything else. Math. Rice! Chaos theory. To Kill A Mockingbird! Rape. (The time you were raped but in a sci-fi premise; the time you were raped in a fantasy premise; the time you were raped in something they call metafiction.) Dogs. Suicidal people.

Suicidal people with dogs. 9/11 , which gets a little too close to writing what you know, but keep reminding them it was because you were a New Yorker, not because you were a Middle Easterner, that you felt the trauma; keep reminding them the hijackers were not Iranian. Condeleeza Rice Bio! When they tell you they dont know what you are anyway, dont say a word, just keep working harder than they ever will and social theories criminology tell yourself you will beat the ones who hurt you most for that fellowship for another year. Get the fellowship and avoid all their eyes. When your advisor suggests you work on rice a novelthat you are, after all, a novelisthear novel like a curse: an arranged marriage and a death sentence, all that unknown potential for devotion to writing anything else. Until suddenly you cant write about anything else. Sit in your first apartment without a roommate and realize you have nothing else to Essay about of the Prison System write about for the span of a novel. Hate yourself and it and then go ahead and write it, your Iranian-America, because no one else will see it. This is your first real novel and what do you know.

You are a fellow at the most famous university in Baltimore which doesnt pay you enough to teach, so you add on being a hostess at a bistro where the parents of your students go, sometimes with the tenured professors of your department who pretend they dont see you as they kiss and hug the owner who sexually harasses you every day. Why would a word you write matter? Quit smoking, start smoking, quit again, start again. And watch it come out, more and more in bio, every draft: anger with your parents, frustration with your blood, anxieties surrounding the somehow still-new landall that is Iranian-America. Let your truth come out a mockingbird scout hard and fast and untranslatable because no one else will see it anyway. Until they do. Four years later, after all sorts of troubles, it is your first novel and condeleeza bio it is published and you are Miss Literary Iranian-America , a friend jokes. First Iranian-American novelist , a journalist mistakenly writes, while another calls your debut novel the on U.S. Foreign, first work that is entirely Iranian-American, all diaspora with no Iran setting, which gets closer to condeleeza the truth but you want to think still not close enough.

Who can even tally who they ignored before you? When they ask you to represent the Iranian diaspora in Los Angeles, start by explaining you grew up a half hour and many realities away from Tehrangeles, that your family could never afford those areas, that you were raised in a tiny apartment in conflict theories, the low-income district of rice bio, a small suburb, with no Iranian people. When they ask you to a mockingbird scout do it anyway, go through with it. Regret quitting smoking. Try to condeleeza speak of other things. But about causes traffic, Iranian-Americans , they always go, and a friend who is condeleeza bio tired of your sighs tells you, Look, you did that to what causes congestion yourself, its all in your novel . Say fair enough and start smoking again. Around Persian New Year, months after your first novel comes out, start to run out of money again. Old problem but maybe now a new solution, you think. Ask friends if they know someone at the most respected newspaper of the rice, countrythe venerable paper where they gave you a very good review of your debut novel. Pitch a piece on Iranians celebrating Persian New Year that 2008.

Your angle: being Iranian in Foreign Policy, a bad time to be Iranian. Rice Bio! Think to yourself when was there ever a good time to Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s be Iranian here and condeleeza pitch it anyway. On U.S.! Hear nothing back and tell yourself you and your Iranian-America are not yet worthy of that newspaper. Be more shocked than gracious a few months later, when out of rice bio, nowhere, an editor at another section of that very paper writes you and mentions he is a fan of your work and would you like to contribute an Early to Mid-1800s Essay, essay to this author series on summer? You cant believe itthis editor has acknowledged your novel and yet is not asking you to rice write a particular thing about Iranian-America.

But when you sit down to write, surprise yourself: Its about criminology, your mother and you and so its about Iranian-America. Feel slightly defeated writing what I know was never my thing, you know you used to whisperbut a part of you anticipates they will want this and they do. Behold the condeleeza rice bio, awe of everyone around you, behold your own awe: You are in a mockingbird characterization, your dream paper, an essayist suddenly. Condeleeza Rice Bio! Editors who never heard of you or your novel start asking for your essays of Iranian-America. Soon, you are back in that same paper with another essay about, of all things, Barbies fiftieth anniversary and somehow you make it also about Iranian-America. Youve learned to interview your parents and dig up whatever they will give you from their past and social theories criminology add that to messy memories of your childhood and glue it all together: an essay on Iranian-America! Be amazed at how your formula sometimes helps you work out some things, be amazed at condeleeza bio, how it sometimes seems to help others. Remind yourself this cant last. Iranian-Americans from all over the country write you and thank you, and you tell everyone this was a nice runyou did your partand now you will go back to what you were meant to write: anything else. Except you dont.

They ask and you keep writing it. Tell yourself this is your new life every time an War Slavery: Essay, essay comes out in that venerable paper of yoursyou start to rice call it yours , because three-figure checks must mean love if two-figure checks mean like, or so you tell yourself. Occasionally try to remind them you were a journalist before all this, a writer who wrote about music and art and fashion and books but no one remembers or cares anymore. Editors start asking for a collection of essays, but you think, Ive just begun. Tell them in 2009 youre just entering your thirties, what do you know? Know youre an essayist and know you cant back out now.

During an interview someone asks you why essays, and you remind them you write fiction and they ask again why essays, and Pre-Civil Early Essay you joke about them finding you, and condeleeza they ask again why essays, and you stumble on another answer: service . That somehow your people are not visible, these three decades of what, being in condeleeza, the US, and people have needed you and while you cant speak for everyone, you can speak some part of this truth. Service? Service. Afterwards, bum the congestion, few cigarettes the rice, interviewer offers and smoke through a silence you did your best to create. Start to wish other Iranian-Americans would write essays; even try to costa mccrae introduce the few who seem interested to editors but the rice, editors always ask for Essay Foreign Policy Infromation, more essays from you. How many essays can you write, you wonder, but every time one comes out you start to condeleeza rice see how they see it, and Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s you see more. Step back from yourself and spin absolutely everything from the lens of Iranian-Americana. Bio! An Iranian-American sensibility, an congestion, Iranian-American outfit, an Iranian-American state of mind, Iranian-American flora and fauna, an Iranian-American bowl of goddamn fruit. Watch yourself pitch the editor at condeleeza bio, the venerable publication an essay on the hit TV show Thirtysomething , a show you loved, and because in 2009 its a big deal that its out on DVD and it seems like something to watch it in Essay about Inside Story of the Prison, your thirties now. Hear the condeleeza rice, editor in your head long before your real editor asks you if you can include your Iranian-American family in it, and catch yourself saying yes of course , and do it, and costa mccrae never imagine years later you will teach that own essay of rice bio, yours as a mistake. War Slavery: Essay! Consider later that maybe you knew and didnt care, you knew the condeleeza bio, service and moreover you knew your function: You were not just writing Iranian-America, maybe you were helping them create it.

Write the Persian New Year piece you once wanted though its no reported piece, but a personal essaythats what they want and thats what you deliver. Early! By this point your parents know why you are asking when you call, by this point they have gotten used to the fact that you will write about rice bio, them and anything else Iranian-America. When friends and family begin to marvel at criminology, all this, Miss Literary Iranian-America, dont you deny itsmile and be grateful and lie that this is exactly what you dreamed of condeleeza rice, one day. When another section editor of that same paper emails you (a section that pays a lot moreif three is love, four figures must mean marriage), accept their request for a new essay, knowing that you can write an Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s, essay on condeleeza bio absolutely anything for these people, provided its about Iranian-Americawhich it will be. Muslim reality TV the first time , Iranian reality TV the second time , but were big fans of your essays, so can you make it an theories criminology, essay not a review ? They want feelings, not facts, you know this by now. Write the bio, first and write the second and duck all the conflict theories criminology, love hurdling itself at you, a love you cant feel, a love you might fear. Writing Iranian-America turns out to have some downsides, but you think you know how to handle it. When Iranians write you and say you are not Iranian enough for them, thank them, and when others say you are too Iranian for them, thank them too. Too pro-IRI and too Royalist, too anti-Iranian and too nationalistic, too relatable and not relatable enough, maybe neo-con and maybe communistand where is your name from? Are you really Iranian?

Why are you not married? Are both your parents really Iranian? Why do you say Iranian and not Persian? Why are you embarrassing us? Why are you not writing happy things? Why are there so many jokes?

What do you think of us? Are we good or bad? Are you good or bad? Why do you call us brown? Why are we not brown to them? Why do you not look more white? Why do you look so white? What god is your god? Why cant you write in condeleeza bio, a way I can understand? Why do you write at all?

Why dont you stop writing? Why dont you stop smoking? When you get those messages, learn to let them say what they need to say. Social Conflict! Occasionally engage, and often dont. Bio! Service . Learn to social conflict criminology live with hating yourself.

Learn to live with hating Iranian-America. Imagine the hell of dying in America while your parents envision the rice bio, beauty of dying in Iran, and to kill a mockingbird characterization you wonder if there was ever anything in between for you. When your editors leave the section where they first published you and condeleeza rice when the paper experiences horrible layoffs, think this is causes it, what youve been waiting foryour run is bio over. Tell everyone you know its been great, four years as an essayist of costa mccrae, Iranian-America! Imagine all the condeleeza bio, topics you were supposed to write about but you cant quite remember what.

Try to remember and fail. Hip hop? White girls? Bars? Wars? Try to to kill remember and fail. When a few years later, new editors are back in that old first section of that venerable paper that made you Young Essayist, pause at the first line of their email to you. Rice Bio! A pitch in the greeting, a story you know of: An Iranian band in Brooklyn has been the victim of Pre-Civil, a murder-suicide. For days youve considered reporting on this, thinking of the right venue, but now here is the op-ed section again wanting a personal essay. It seems to condeleeza rice me like there might be something interesting to say, about the Iranian expat community, the American dream betrayed, or something along those lines. Think about her take for costa mccrae, a moment and think about how you cant: how this story has nothing to do with assimilation but is about a deranged person from your part of the world who shot some people from your part of the world but is much more about gun control and America and its dream not betrayed at all.

Ask her if you can face America here not just Iranian-America in condeleeza, the only piece you can write, pitch this to her and know the answer. Remind yourself that you have been chronically ill for many years and buying cigarettes is no longer an option. Write for other sections of that paperthe book review, where you sometimes wonder why they dont give you topics relating to Iranian-Americauntil once again, in 2017, another editor from Story of the System, that section writes you, this time with a name that is definitely of condeleeza bio, Iranian-America. When she says she wants a Persian New Year piece, a sweet nostalgia piece, remind her that four years ago, many editors ago, you wrote one. Tell her you have nothing happy to write this year and you werent going to write this and causes traffic tell her your idea of New Year in the time of the Trump Administrations Muslim Ban. Remember your first Persian New Year pitch to this paper : being Iranian in condeleeza rice, a bad time to about be Iranian, and now a decade later witness that same silence with awe. When she writes, I know were not looking for something excessively political and angry for our token Nowruz piece, know that you will take this piece elsewhere and it will live.

Try to condeleeza rice bio put away any disappointment you have for her, your fellow Iranian-American, because ultimately both you and theories criminology her are microscopic cogs in condeleeza rice bio, the venerable papers unfathomable machinery. Both you and her have come this far, both you and her might never know exactly why. Observe others writing about Iranian-America. Essay Infromation! Encourage and amplify the many voices and viewpoints of your people, now nearly four decades a minority in condeleeza, this America, finally with their own stories surfacing too. Enjoy reading their accounts, until readers warn you against your own enthusiasm. I feel like theyre ripping you off, go messages from the concerned and you dont know what to make of it.

Against your better judgment, read more closely. Decide you will pretend not to notice. Pretend you are better than this competitive game they have set up for all of you to costa mccrae destroy yourselves in. Pretend so hard that you wonder if you ever even knew how that game works to play anyway. Pretend to chainsmoke a couple packs of cigarettes, killing hours in bottomless depressionpretend youre all smoke and ashes, let it burn right through youand pretend Iranian-America is all theirs, whoever wants this wreckage. Tell yourself this is The Last Essay, but remind yourself of all the other Last Essays. Condeleeza Bio! Wonder how much more of this you can take.

Count that out of seventy pieces of nonfiction youve written since your first book came out in 2007, forty-eight have had to do with Iranian-America. Ask yourself if its too much or too little given where America is costa mccrae at, still at. Condeleeza Rice Bio! Watch the news and marvel at how your entire life they obsessed over social conflict theories, your country of bio, origin, and continue to. Wonder if you and causes traffic your family will end up in condeleeza bio, Muslim Camp after all. When people look at you with the pity and the regret again refugee, resident alien, political asylum , immigrant, foreigner let them have it, and let yourself take it. What has changed but nothing at costa mccrae, all? Write about it and make sure you keep writing about it. Plan out three more books and call it the end; each and every one is condeleeza rice about Iranian-America.

Write all the secrets like every essay is a suicide note: one that reveals your Zoroastrian name is a fraud and you are a Muslim and watch everyone applaud it, from all sorts of people online to your own father who gave you your name. Essay Infromation! Wonder if anyone is reading properly. Put Iranian American refugee in your Twitter profile, the way all the other refugees are doing. Question if this is empowering. Imagine youve been throwing yourself off a cliff every time youve been writing, but its hard to know if you are killing yourself or trying to fly. Condeleeza Rice Bio! Wonder if a cliche like that is all youve got. Essay Foreign! Wonder if the death youve been imagining is rice bio just you becoming a bad writer. Watch yourself making posts on Facebook and Twitter more than ever in 2017. Watch Americans at first dive into it and then over time walk away from it, until you start to Inside Story Prison find yourself asking white people to condeleeza bio repost or echo the same sentiment, so your ideas can get heard.

Watch white Americans listen to one another but suddenly they are not so sure about your words. Remind them that you know Iranian-America and that they seemed to love reading youquote your own pieces, send them the links, remind them they knew youbut watch them slowly back away. Watch other friends tell you you are reading into this, its not happening. Watch yourself worry about every word. Policy! Watch yourself apologize for things no one understands. Watch yourself think only in Farsi, like thisAmericanever happened. Watch yourself burn out on the worry and remind yourself of bio, where this essay started: Begin by writing about anything else.

End by thinking about anything yourself , you tell yourself, but look at how youre all out of jokes about smoking. Be a little astonished that there is still one more section of The Last Essay which is not The Last Essay, you and your editor and whoever is still here must know by now. Notice youve learned a few things about essays in this decade, like the ones you must write will write themselves for causes, you. Remind yourself that when the performance is honest two things happen: The essay will feel like its killing you and the ending will not be what you thought it might be. Learn to respect more than resent those parallel planes of living and bio the rendering of living. Note that youre not thinking about this when you read and then reread an email you receive late one night a few weeks after this first Persian New Year of the Trump administration, from an Iranian-American aspiring writer who tells you your work has saved her life, a woman twenty years your junior who asks if you have any words of advice. You thank her and Essay Inside of the System feel embarrassed for your discomfort in reading her praise, and you try to channel her joy and enthusiasm and condeleeza rice bio you fail, and you draft an what traffic, email where you tell her to bio run but dont say which way.

One word: Run. Run with everything you got, dear reader. Delete the email and start over, and watch weeks and Essay Story Prison weeks go by. One day open the draft and see the rice bio, word love. Try to delete it but it wont go away. Tell yourself your delete key is broken and get it fixed and still try. Love. Tell yourself it was sent to you for about Story of the, a reasonlaugh at the audacity, the idiocy, the clicheand one day, many years into rice a version of scout, a future you might get, go as far as to grow into it again. Thank you, the young woman writes. Condeleeza Rice! I think I know what to do.

You wait for more, but thats it. Porochista Khakpour is the author of the forthcoming memoir Sick (Harper Perennial, May 2018), and the novels The Last Illusion (Bloomsbury, 2014)a 2014 Best Book of the Essay, Year according to NPR, Kirkus, Buzzfeed, Popmatters, Electric Literature, and more and Sons and Other Flammable Objects (Grove, 2007)the 2007 California Book Award winner in First Fiction, a Chicago Tribunes Falls Best, and a New York Times Editors Choice. She is currently writer-in-residence at Bard College, adjunct faculty at Columbia University, and condeleeza bio visiting faculty at VCFA's MFA program. We stayed inside for days painting papier-mache objects. Outside, Kashmir had come to a standstill. Finding the Words: on writing and Pre-Civil War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay amnesia. I sit quietly.

I tell myself, Youve done this before. Is it ever too late to live some version of your dreams? You have flagged this story. We'll look into your complaint and take it down if it violates our community guidelines.

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Why Is Microsoft Ceo Steve Ballmer Stepping Down? Why is Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer stepping down? | Strategic Management BUS4040 Assignment 1 | Two months ago (August 23, 2013), there was an announcement from Steve Ballmer, the CEO of Microsoft, declared that he would retire in the next 12 months, which had attracted much public attention because of its sudden. It was neither planned nor as smooth as portrayed. The interview with many people inside and condeleeza, outside the company indicate that Ballmer had not aimed to leave this soon and especially after the recent restructuring of the Essay Foreign Policy company that he had intensely planned. However, Ballmers timeline had been moved up drastically. The nine-member board, including his longtime partner and Microsoft co-founder and rice bio, chairman Bill Gates all agreed that it was best if he left sooner than later.

It seems that it was due to conflict a number of increasingly problematic issues on the immediate horizon, including a potentially nasty proxy fight, continued business performance declines, and rice bio, Ballmers leadership was becoming a very obvious problem. In this report, I will analyze this issue by the following aspects, which includes the background of Steve Ballmer, the to kill characterization development of condeleeza rice, Microsoft these years and current situation about the company. Ballmer, 57, who came to Microsoft in 1980 as its first business manager, was the first CEO after founder Bill Gates left the post in 2000. Steve Ballmer was born in Detroit, and about Inside Story of the System, he grew up in the community of rice bio, Farmington Hills, Michigan. To Kill Characterization Scout? In 1977, he graduated from Harvard University with an A.B. in applied mathematics and economics. Steve Ballmer joined Microsoft in condeleeza bio 1980, the first business manager hired by Bill Gates. During college, Ballmer had outstanding performance. He managed the football team, worked on The Harvard Crimson newspaper as.

. can always look at the old invoices to check how the invoice should be made. After creating the New Monthly invoices the invoices should be sent out as follow. 1. Miklos/Lynx Scan the Invoice send as a PDF File. Then email to Cheryl White CC the email to Ray 2. Jumar/Lowes Scan the Invoice send as a PDF File. Then Email To 'Kevin Tate' CC the email to Ray, Don Pooley, 'Vanessa Trueman' 3. GDIT General Dynamics Scan the Invoice Send as a PDF File. Then Email To 'Tetterton, Susan' CC the email to Ray 4. Pragmatics Fax the invoice. Look in Microsoft word for Pre-Civil War Slavery: Essay, Fax cover sheet. the Fax # 1-703-761-4089, To Accounts Payable, Company: Pragmatics. Bio? Then Attach the Fax Verification report to social conflict invoice. 5. BPS Business Performance Systems Scan the Invoice send as a PDF File. then email to David Isaac CC to Ray 6. SRA US Marshalls Doesnt get sent out, the invoice is for are records.

Bi Weekly Billing The Only Bi Weekly Billing is rice For Project SAIC (SAIC-DHS-EA-FAS) After Creating the Invoice for SAIC, Scan The Invoice Send as a PDF File. Then Email To 'Porcaro, Stacey W.' CC the email to Ray, Dittmar Cynthia C, Bailey, Patricia E.' Weekly Billing There are three projects that are billed every week. 1. Lockheed Martin (CLOCS) After putting the time expenses into VIP for Don Langguth print out Essay Story reports from Journyx, VIP, QuickBooks then give. Words: 2910 - Pages: 12. . Condeleeza Rice Bio? up your options and Essay about Inside of the System, join the condeleeza rice bio Peace Corps?[42] The target of his outburst then had to defend the Essay on U.S. Policy proposal in detail until, hopefully, Gates was fully convinced.[41] When subordinates appeared to be procrastinating, he was known to remark sarcastically, I'll do it over the weekend.[43][44][45] Gates's role at Microsoft for most of its history was primarily a management and condeleeza, executive role. However, he was an Foreign Infromation, active software developer in the early years, particularly on the company's programming language products. Bio? He has not officially been on a development team since working on the TRS-80 Model 100,[46] but wrote code as late as 1989 that shipped in social conflict theories the company's products.[44] On June 15, 2006, Gates announced that he would transition out of his day-to-day role over the next two years to dedicate more time to philanthropy. He divided his responsibilities between two successors, placing Ray Ozzie in charge of day-to-day management and Craig Mundie in rice bio charge of what congestion, long-term product strategy.[47] Control is basic to Gates's nature and his management practice. He has an obsession with detail and with checking up (he even used to sign expenses for condeleeza rice bio, his right-hand man, Steve Ballmer). The obsession is so well-known that few believed Gates's evidence in costa mccrae the Microsoft anti-trust trial.

For astonishing example, when asked if he had ever read the complaint in the case, Gates said no. But did he know if the rice bio complaint made any allegations about a meeting between Microsoft and Story, Netscape. Words: 1975 - Pages: 8. . ------------------------------------------------- Microsoft Office Microsoft Office is an office suite of desktop applications, servers and condeleeza bio, services for the Microsoft Windows and OS X operating systems, introduced by Microsoft on August 1, 1989. Initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications, the first version of costa mccrae, Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and condeleeza bio, Microsoft PowerPoint. War Slavery: Early? Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Microsoft Visual Basic for Applicationsscripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. Office is condeleeza rice reported to now be used by over a billion people worldwide. To Kill? ------------------------------------------------- Components Desktop applications Word Microsoft Word is a word processor and was previously considered the main program in Office.

Its proprietary DOC format is considered a de factostandard, although Word 2007 can also use a new XML-based, Microsoft Office-optimized format called .DOCX, which has been standardized by Ecma International as Office Open XML and its SP2 update supports PDF and a limited ODF.[8] Word is also available in some editions of Microsoft Works. It is available for the Windows and OS X platforms. The first version of Word, released in the autumn of. Words: 497 - Pages: 2. . Rice Bio? starts connecting it to her laptops internal, wired NIC and explaining the steps. Conflict? 1. What type of condeleeza, network is Kim trying to connect to? a. WAN b. LAN c. Essay Story Prison System? PAN 2. Condeleeza Bio? To verify that Kims NIC (network interface card) works, Michael pings 127.0.0.1, which is known as the: a. loopback address b. dynamic address c. static address When troubleshooting network connections, use ping and ipcon?g. Costa Mccrae? 3. Condeleeza Rice Bio? A NIC is to a LAN as: a. lyrics are to a song b. a key is to a door c. a movie is to a TV Understand local area networks (LANs) 7 Answers 1. Kim is trying to connect to the schools: b. LAN. A LAN is characterization a Local Area Network. 2. To test Kims NIC Michael pings the: a. Bio? loopback address. The loopback address is what causes 127.0.0.1 and a successful ping verifies that the NIC works.

3. Condeleeza Rice Bio? A NIC is to a LAN as: b. a key is to a door. A key provides access through a door just as a computer is Essay Story of the required to condeleeza bio have a NIC to access a LAN. Essential details LANs connect local computers together in a small geographical area. Perimeter networks provide an extra layer of security for a companys internal network. Computers connect to a LAN through a NIC (network interface card). The loopback address is traffic congestion a reserved, static address of 127.0.0.1. In Microsoft Windows 7, right-click Network and select Properties to view your network configuration. FAST TR ACK HELP http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows7/ Why-can-t-I-connect-to-a-network http://support.microsoft.com/kb. Words: 12317 - Pages: 50. . In the late 1990s, Microsoft became so inconceivably rich and mighty that the U.S. government hauled the company into court and condeleeza, threatened to social theories break it up over anti-trust violations.

Microsoft agreed to end its unlawful monopolistic practices after the condeleeza rice bio Department of Justice charged that the company used one-sided contracts that stifled competition and costa mccrae, maintained its monopoly position. Microsoft was accused of condeleeza bio, constructing a barrier of exclusionary and excessively limiting licensing agreements to Essay Infromation prevent others an opening to develop and market competing products. Bio? The Department charged that Microsoft used the following unfair practices: * Exclusionary Per Processor Licenses * Unreasonably Long Licenses * Restrictive Non-Disclosure Agreements The settlement ends these exercises and what, will help to correct the effects of Microsoft's past illegal behavior, is effective immediately and will be in effect for six and a half years. Since 1988, Microsoft's share of the market has never dropped below 70 percent. Condeleeza Rice? However, Microsoft's loss of control has long been evident. The stock is Pre-Civil War Slavery: Essay still exchanging at about half the level it reached at the height of the tech boom 13 years ago. The change in personal computing device adoption has drastically weakened the rule of the Windows operating system platform. As recently as three years ago, Microsoft's Windows was still completely dominantthe platform ran 70% of personal computing devices.

Now, thanks to condeleeza rice bio the rise of Google's. Words: 312 - Pages: 2. . Essay Outline: Introductory Paragraph: * Topic Sentence: One of the most debated topics in War Slavery: Essay Canadas relatively short existence is whether this country lacks a concrete national identity. * Briefly defining National Identity: A nations identity primarily consists of common points which the majority of citizens within that specific country can relate with * Point #1: the two cultures (the English and the French) that help create the foundation of rice, this nation have been involved in a conflict with each other though out the history of the what causes traffic congestion country. * Events such as the 1837 Rebellion, the Quiet Revolution and the late 20th century referendums all prove the negative tension between the 2 dominant cultures of Canada. * Point #2: the multiculturalism Canada is known for turns out to be one of the condeleeza primary reasons why Canada hasnt yet developed a strong national identity. * Thesis Statement: The combination of Canadas cultural roots failing to coexist through its history and the significant amount of multiculturalism this country possesses makes it impossible for Canada to have one true national identity. * Closing sentence: the effects of these factors shows today, as the majority of people both inside and outside of costa mccrae, Canada fail to recognize a consensual concept within the rice country, that could be concretely characterized as Canadas national identity. Body Paragraph #1: * Topic Sentence: Perhaps one of the most critical reasons why. Words: 1262 - Pages: 6. . edged up 2% to $16.63bn, as sales of costa mccrae, software for rice, corporate computer servers helped offset an 8% drop in to kill revenue for PC software.

The results missed Wall Street's forecast for earnings of 49c a share on sales of condeleeza bio, $17.08bn. Microsoft said the job cuts would reduce operating costs by $1.5bn as it prepares for lower revenue and earnings in the second half of the year. While we are not immune to the effects of the economy, I am confident in the strength of our product portfolio and soundness of our approach, said Steve Ballmer, the Microsoft CEO, in a statement. To Kill Characterization Scout? Microsoft redundancies will include UK jobs Kat Baker Wednesday 06 May 2009 10:52 Microsoft has confirmed up to 150 UK jobs will be among the 5,000 positions lost globally as the software giant reduces its workforce by 5%. A spokesman for condeleeza rice bio, Microsoft told Personnel Today it was too early to Essay about System say which areas of the UK workforce would be affected, but he could not rule out cuts in back-office functions, including HR. The redundancies the bio first in the company's 34-year history will reduce its 2,880-strong UK workforce by 5%, and will take effect by June 2010.

The Microsoft UK spokesman said: As part of the plan we announced in January to reduce costs and increase efficiencies, today Microsoft is commencing consultation to remove additional positions across several areas of the company. A number of UK positions are affected, representing about 5% of the 2,880 people currently based in the UK. We are. Words: 1515 - Pages: 7. Why Is Microsoft Ceo Steve Ballmer Stepping Down? . Characterization? | Why is Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer stepping down? | Strategic Management BUS4040 Assignment 1 | | | ??10302001432013/10/15 | | Introduction Two months ago (August 23, 2013), there was an announcement from condeleeza rice, Steve Ballmer, the CEO of Microsoft, declared that he would retire in congestion the next 12 months, which had attracted much public attention because of rice, its sudden.

It was neither planned nor as smooth as portrayed. The interview with many people inside and social conflict theories, outside the company indicate that Ballmer had not aimed to leave this soon and rice, especially after the recent restructuring of the company that he had intensely planned. However, Ballmers timeline had been moved up drastically. The nine-member board, including his longtime partner and Microsoft co-founder and chairman Bill Gates all agreed that it was best if he left sooner than later. It seems that it was due to Essay on U.S. a number of increasingly problematic issues on the immediate horizon, including a potentially nasty proxy fight, continued business performance declines, and condeleeza rice, Ballmers leadership was becoming a very obvious problem. In this report, I will analyze this issue by the following aspects, which includes the background of Steve Ballmer, the development of Microsoft these years and Essay Policy, current situation about the bio company. Background of Steve Ballmer Ballmer, 57, who came to Microsoft in causes traffic 1980 as its first business manager, was the first CEO after founder Bill Gates left the post in 2000.

Steve. Words: 1713 - Pages: 7. . Microsoft dominates the operating system market for microcomputers with its Windows operating system. Discuss the pros and cons this creates for computer users. Does the dominance of Windows make it easier or harder for condeleeza, you to use computers? I have only used Windows operating system on all my computers, therefore I am not familiar with any other operating systems. I would think because Microsoft dominates, that if you used a different operating system, it would be more difficult to find software with the system requirements to social conflict be compatible. Therefore, the opposite would be true if you used the condeleeza Windows operating system, you could find more compatible software.1. Microsoft dominates the operating system market for microcomputers with its Windows operating system. To Kill Characterization Scout? Discuss the condeleeza rice bio pros and social conflict criminology, cons this creates for rice bio, computer users. Does the dominance of about Inside of the System, Windows make it easier or harder for rice bio, you to use computers?

The pros to the dominate Microsoft operating system is that most people that we come into contact with and discuss computers with will be using the same operating system as you. You will not have to Essay explain how it works (simple tasks) and explaining to someone how to do something will be easier. The other big Pro is that as you upgrade or replace you computer, the worst problem you will encounter (with an operating system) is the newer version, i.e. Rice Bio? window XP vs. Vista. from causes traffic, computer to computer they are basicly the rice bio same. I have found it quite helpfull when I go work on a. Words: 837 - Pages: 4. . On U.S. Foreign Policy? William (Bill) H. Gates is chairman of Microsoft Corporation, the worldwide leader in software, services and bio, solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. On June 27, 2008, Gates transitioned out of a day-to-day role in Essay on U.S. Foreign Policy Infromation the company to spend more time on his global health and education work at condeleeza rice the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation. He shares his thoughts about the foundation and other topics on Gates Notes, a Web site launched in January 2010. Gates continues to serve as Microsoft's chairman and as an social, advisor on rice, key development projects. Foreign Policy? In June 2006, Craig Mundie assumed the new title of chief research and strategy officer at Microsoft and is responsible for condeleeza rice bio, the company's research and incubation efforts.

1. Bill Gates early life 1.1 Family Born on Oct. Pre-Civil War Slavery: To Mid-1800s Essay? 28, 1955, Gates grew up in Seattle with his two sisters. Their father, William H. Gates II, is a Seattle attorney. Their late mother, Mary Gates, was a schoolteacher, University of Washington regent, and chairwoman of United Way International. 1.2 Education Gates attended public elementary school and the private Lakeside School. There, he discovered his interest in software and began programming computers at age 13. In 1973, Gates entered Harvard University as a freshman, where he lived down the hall from bio, Steve Ballmer, now Microsoft's chief executive officer.

While at Harvard, Gates developed a version of the programming language BASIC for the first microcomputer - the MITS Altair. 1.3. Words: 7316 - Pages: 30. . employees along functional lines between the Windows operating system companies and the Applications company would presumably follow the existing business units and a mockingbird characterization, be relatively straightforward. Rice Bio? Dividing the to kill a mockingbird scout operating system employees among the three Windows companies in an equitable manner might be more difficult. Assuming it has the right incentives, Microsoft is in the best position to determine how best to create equivalent groups of employees. One promising method would be to choose team leaders and condeleeza bio, let them sequentially choose employees. Another method would follow the costa mccrae divide-and-choose or cake-cutting model, in condeleeza rice bio which the person responsible for dividing a unit into equal pieces chooses his piece last. For example, Steve Ballmer could divide up Microsofts employees into groups, but the company in which he retains a financial interest would get the last choice of the social conflict theories criminology groups. This would provide an condeleeza, incentive to create equivalent groups of employees.

With Windows 2000 scheduled for release in February 2000, the division of Windows employees into three groups would come at a good time. What Causes? Current staffing levels for the initial release some 4800 developers will not be needed going forward. Many of these developers would have to be released or shifted to other projects. Rice Bio? The availability of these additional developers makes it easier to staff three competing Windows companies without having to hire additional employees. Indeed, the creation of three. Words: 15664 - Pages: 63. . Performance | Benefits | Drawbacks | Personal Observations | * Get firsthand knowledge * Information isnt filtered * Intensive coverage of what traffic, work activities | * Subject to personal biases * Time-consuming * Obtrusive | Statistical Reports | * Easy to visualize * Effective for showing relationships | * Provide limited information * Ignore subjective factors | Oral Reports | * Fast way to get information * Allow for verbal and nonverbal feedback | * Information is condeleeza filtered * Information cant be documented | Written Reports | * Comprehensive * Formal * Easy to file and retrieve | * Take more time to prepare | What We Measure What is measured is probably more critical to the control process than how its measured.

Why? Because selecting the wrong criteria can create serious problems. Besides, what is measured often determines what employees will do.8 What control criteria might managers use? Some control criteria can be used for any management situation. For instance, all managers deal with people, so criteria such as employee satisfaction or turnover and absenteeism rates can be measured. Keeping costs within budget is Inside Story Prison also a fairly common control measure. Other control criteria should recognize the different activities that managers supervise.

For instance, a manager at a pizza delivery location might use measures such as number of pizzas delivered per day, average delivery time, or number of coupons redeemed. A. Words: 1214 - Pages: 5. . the Mark: Five Reasons Why Target Failed in Canada. The Globe and Mail. January 15, 2015.

Accessed January 15, 2015. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/missing-the-mark-5-reasons-why-target-failed-in-canad/article22459819/. Canadians along the border find it cheaper to buy Target products across the broder. Citation: Peterson, Hayley. 5 Reasons Target Failed In Canada. Business Insider. January 15, 2015. Accessed January 15, 2015. http://www.businessinsider.com/why-target-canada-failed-2015-1#ixzz3R5fwxqzJ. Condeleeza Bio? Business management have many responsibilities, they can single handily lead to to kill characterization the business's success and failure. Condeleeza Rice? Target Canada's management is an example of how bad managing can lead to a business's failure. Target Canada's management faced a number of problems when they tried to what launch in Canada and because the bio management was not able to make good decisions, it lead to Target Canada having to close all of their stores in Canada.

Some of the bad decisions that Target Canada's management team made were. Words: 374 - Pages: 2. . Steve Sakar CRJ 303 9/27/2015 Hans Rosling presented a powerful presentation on War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay, our societies old mindset of social classes, as well as, the bio overall meaning of we and them. Rosling started off the TED talk by Essay about Inside of the System introducing how his students talked about the difference between we and them. The students classified the condeleeza rice we, as the Western World, and the them as the Developing world.

Our old mindset about the Western world, was the western countries consisted of small families who lived long lives. Furthermore, our mindset on the developing world, was the Essay on U.S. Policy third world countries consisted of larger families who lived short lives. Throughout the video Rosling presents a variety of data sets about our mindsets. For example, Rosling presents scatterplots about income and health, income and child mortality, as well as, life expectancy per condeleeza rice bio family size. He uses the scatterplots to show us, over time that the West is conflict no longer the big super power people once thought the west was. Condeleeza Rice Bio? Also, Rosling described we shouldnt differentiate developing and developed countries based, on family size, income, life expectancy, or health, because their is no longer a difference between developing and to kill a mockingbird scout, developed countries, as the third world countries have caught up to condeleeza bio the Western countries. The video did end up changing my mindset on the worlds classification of we and them. Criminology? I never displayed a deeper knowledge on the outside world, and how the other countries. Words: 575 - Pages: 3. . Microsoft Company Analysis Kevin Roberts Matthew Ponder Joseph Horton Strategic Management Arkansas State University Introduction Microsoft is a company centered around todays constantly growing and evolving technology field.

From company servers, to Laptops, even tablets and smartphones. Microsoft is expanding its horizons to keep pace with, or even out perform its competitors. Microsofts corporate strategy centers around their product being accessible to customers in many different ways. Condeleeza Bio? This access based strategy differentiates itself from other companies in the same industry, like IBM, Apple, Google, Oracle, and the like. This industry, that most people would just consider technology or computers, is divided up into several sectors.

Microsoft obtains most of its profits from the sale of its enterprise software and licenses, making this their primary industry, while secondaries include, but are not limited to, smartphone manufacturing, Nokia, PC manufacturing, the Surface, Gaming, the Xbox 36 and social conflict, Xbox One, and other software products. Microsoft is a corporate giant covering many major countries, but no company is completely flawless. They are actually projecting to condeleeza bio have reduced profits over the next few years. This along with the software industry moving to cloud-based computing, open-source software becoming more popular, Windows mobile devices not taking off as expected, and to Mid-1800s, hacker threats to their Operating Systems, are issues that.

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8 Applicant Tracking System Secrets You Need to Know. What if I said you could triple your chances of getting a job interview with almost no effort. At Jobscan, weve found that job seekers who use applicant tracking system keywords within their resumes can triple their chances of bio getting an interview. This post includes what you need to know about Essay Foreign Policy, ATS systems and rice bio writing a resume that#8217;s ready for ATS. If you have a specific job in costa mccrae mind, you can start by trying our tool for free right here. Raise your hand if this sounds familiar: youve found the perfect job, youve spent days injecting your resume with high-impact action verbs and condeleeza bio evidence-backed accomplishments, and to kill youre confident about your chances. Ready to put your best foot forward, you loop back to the job posting in search of the recruiters email address, only to find a blue apply now button in its place. Condeleeza Bio. You take the baityouve come this far, after alland realize youve run full speed into job hunter purgatory: the social theories applicant tracking system. The key to understanding applicant tracking systems rests in understanding the rice bio hiring process itself. This is causes traffic actually a pretty common scenario: For most of rice bio us, the applicant tracking system doesnt cross our mind until its staring us right in Policy Infromation the face. But heres the rice bio scary part: In the scenario above, what you do next has the chance to make or break your chances of getting a job interview.

Thats right: career progression, chances of landing your dream job, that potentially huge salary boost#8230;they all depend on your ATS resume strategy. Throw caution to the wind and move ahead with your application, as-is. Spend a few minutes or hours perfecting any required application questions, and then submit the same resume to the application tracking system. Hit the Inside of the Prison pause button and think about condeleeza rice, how to beat applicant tracking systems; cross-reference your resume with the original job description using Jobscan; and re-work the social theories criminology details just to be safe. Bio. If were honest, most of us will probably choose Option 1 or 2. Heck, Im a former recruiter, and Ive done it before! The problem? Option 1 and 2 negatively impact your chances of getting an interview. Its like spending your entire life training for the Olympics, finally qualifying, and costa mccrae then getting denied at the airport check-in counter because you forgot to book a plane ticket. The thing is, with a bit of time, a little knowledge, and rice bio the right tools, you can make a massive difference in your job search. As in, triple your chances of Essay on U.S. Foreign Policy Infromation getting an interview massive. Have I got your attention?

Good. Here are all the things you need to know about writing your resume for an applicant tracking system. Secret 1: Writing an condeleeza rice bio, ATS resume takes planning. To Kill A Mockingbird. Remember back in the daythink Don Draper and bio Mad Men when you had to get past the secretary if you wanted a meeting with the executive? Well, in 2015, you have to get past the criminology applicant tracking system if you want an interview with the recruiter. And sadly, applicant tracking systems cant be bought with martinis and rice bio flowers. Pre-Civil To Mid-1800s Essay. Brushing off the importance of applicant tracking puts you at a massive disadvantage in rice a job search. While things like your LinkedIn profile, social media presence, personal brand, and cover letter all matter, if your resume ends up bouncing around in the ATS system black hole, the recruiter is never going to know you exist, let alone see your latest post about leadership over on Medium. So what does planning mean, exactly? Secret 2: Applicant tracking system keywords and causes congestion resume SEO matter.

As a former recruiter, I get a #8220;friends and family#8221; resume question at rice bio least once a week, and my #1 tip is always the Essay on U.S. Infromation same: Before you start writing your resume, make a list of the keywords that are important to your industry and function. Before you start writing, plan your applicant tracking system keywords. This is good advice if youre writing for an actual human being. After all, recruitment is a time-crunch industry, and recruiters rarely read resumes in detail. Bio. Beyond that, keywords are critical to writing an ATS resume. You may have heard of search engine optimization (SEO). Its the careful mix of keywords that writers, marketers, and website designers use to a mockingbird characterization scout tell search engines what their website is all about.

In 2016, resumes need SEO, too. The keywords you use throughout your resume are what the rice bio applicant tracking system uses to assess whether your experience matches the costa mccrae job. Condeleeza Bio. Secret 3: Not all ATS resume keywords are created equal. When youre writing a resume for costa mccrae ATS recognition, any old keyword wont do. You need to condeleeza rice use the exact same keywords listed in the job description. ATS systems are smart, but at Pre-Civil the end of the day, they only find what theyve been told to look for, and thats a list of keywords from the hiring manager. Consider these three examples of how an ATS can get tripped up: Some ATS cant distinguish between front-end and front end. Many ATS cant distinguish between Master of Business Administration , Masters of Business Administration , Masters of Business Administration and MBA. Some companies use different titles and rice keywords to mean something similar. For example, Project Manager vs.

Program Manager. The only way to get around this is to use the exact same language and punctuation as in the job description. And when it comes to abbreviations and acronyms, use the Pre-Civil Early Essay full term first, followed by the shortened term. For example: #8220;Master of Business Administration (MBA).#8221; Secret 4: Keyword placement matters to some applicant tracking systems. When we tested some of the most popular ATS systems out there, we were surprised to find that some applicant tracking systems not only condeleeza rice bio consider what keywords you use, but also where you use them. Lets consider Jenn, a fictional management consultant with 15 years of experience: After a number of what traffic congestion successes in her current role, Jenn feels it#8217;s time to go after her dream job with McKinsey Co. The role she#8217;s looking at requires eight years#8217; consulting experience, and Jenn is confident she#8217;ll be a contender. Jenn is trying to bio decide between two different versions of her resume. Which should she use? A typical consulting resume consisting of summary and key skills sections, experience listed in reverse chronological order, and education.

Jenn has listed consulting in her key skills section, and uses variations of the of the Prison verb consult in her current role, which shes been in for rice three years. For the Essay Foreign Policy remaining 12 years of bio experience, Jenn uses the synonyms advise , counsel , and guide to keep it fresh. Similar to Resume #1, but in this version, Jenn was under a deadline, and didn#8217;t have time to change the verbs, meaning every role she#8217;s ever had includes a variation of consult. This is a simplified and example, and I think you can probably see where this is going: As far as ATS resume optimization is concerned, Resume #2 is a mockingbird far better. In fact, some ATS systems we#8217;ve tested would interpret Resume #1 as meaning Jenn only bio has three years#8217; consulting experience, because the costa mccrae keyword only appeared in her most recent job. Secret 5: Resume keyword stuffing is a huge no-no. As with many things in life, when it comes to writing an rice bio, applicant tracking system (ats) optimized resume, there is such a thing as too much of characterization a good thing. Let me be clear: If you #8220;keyword stuff#8221; your resume, the ATS will red flag it, sending your resume to the black hole of failure. Having keywords appear more frequently in rice bio your resume does translate into a higher ATS rankingup until a point. As a rule, we recommend using a keyword two to three times per resume, taking placement into account. Secret 6: Your job title matters for applicant tracking systems.

This one can be difficult for candidates to get their heads around, because it feels#8230;wrong. But I promise you professional resume writers do it all the time: tweak job titles to fit the costa mccrae role applied for. Small changes to your job titles can make a big difference with an ATS. Lets consider Jenn again. Jenn sticks with the titles on her business cards: Business Advisor; Commercial Development Specialist; and Practice Leader, Commercial Advisory. Jenn streamlines her titles to bio fit the McKinsey Co. Consultant role: Business Advisory Consultant; Commercial Development Consultant; and Foreign Consulting Practice Leader, Commercial Advisory. Can you see how those simple changes could make all the bio difference when it comes to traffic applicant tracking systems that are looking for keywords?

While ATS are intelligent, and becoming more so every year, they still have significant limitations. When it comes to formatting, font, and document type, #8220;keep it simple#8221; is the condeleeza rice bio best rule to follow. Many applicant tracking systems can#8217;t read tables. On U.S. Policy. As such, they#8217;re best avoided. Microsoft Word is the safest format for your resume, although many ATS systems will offer guidelines concerning acceptable formats. Rice. An applicant tracking system might struggle with non-standard section headers, so it#8217;s best to stick with classics, such as #8220;Work Experience#8221; or #8220;Professional Experience,#8221; and avoid creative titles, such as #8220;What I#8217;ve Done.#8221; Id be remiss to end this post without mentioning something thatwhile obviousis easy to forget when youre focused on beating an ATS system: If you do everything right, your resume will be reviewed by social theories a real person. In my mind, writing your resume exclusively for an ATS system is like baking a cake just for its looks. I dont know about you, but I want a cake that looks good and tastes good. And when it comes to your resume, you need it to do double dutyto both get you past an applicant tracking system, and condeleeza appeal to human readers.

While optimizing your resume for an applicant tracking system isn#8217;t rocket science, it does require careful planning. If you#8217;re concerned about your resume, or simply want to see how it will perform in an applicant tracking system, be sure to Essay about of the System test our resume scanning tool.

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essay of world war 1 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Condeleeza Rice. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the a mockingbird characterization war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on rice bio, France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of what congestion Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on condeleeza rice, the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on characterization, 6 August. Condeleeza Rice Bio. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. Essay About Of The System. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of condeleeza Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany.

Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to what traffic congestion Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of rice bio 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Costa Mccrae. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and bio, their prestige.

These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the Essay on U.S. threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and condeleeza bio, humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to to kill a mockingbird characterization their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and bio, humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.

France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the to kill characterization war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values.

Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in bio, August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Essay on U.S. Foreign Infromation Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about bio which side to costa mccrae join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.

The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and condeleeza rice, its rich supplies of wheat and theories, oil did much to keep Germany in rice bio, the war for another two years. About Story Of The. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Rice. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.

They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at Essay about Story of the war not only rice bio, with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and costa mccrae, South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the rice British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the about Inside Story of the System United States but also in that of rice Europe and the world, bringing to Essay about Prison an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by rice the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against Foreign the German army. Here the war became characterized by condeleeza increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of scout machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the condeleeza bio German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. Traffic Congestion. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. Rice. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the Essay Prison System small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to condeleeza retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of theories criminology France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the condeleeza officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of Essay Inside System northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.

It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the rice French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and Essay Inside Story of the, the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.

The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in rice, the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of social theories major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of rice Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at what great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.

The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the rice British line held in front of Essay on U.S. Foreign Infromation Amiens and condeleeza rice, later to the north in front of Ypres. Prison System. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to condeleeza bio the strategic agenda.

It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the Early British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the rice war in the west the Essay Inside Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and condeleeza bio, Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and War Slavery: Essay, cavalry could operate effectively.

This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on condeleeza rice, the Western Front. The war in Essay Story of the, the east was shaped by condeleeza German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the conflict theories Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of condeleeza rice bio Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.

They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against a mockingbird Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and condeleeza bio, national tensions.

By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and Foreign Policy Infromation, desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in condeleeza bio, the spring of Essay on U.S. 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the condeleeza rice bio Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the costa mccrae Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto.

The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and condeleeza, split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the what traffic congestion French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and condeleeza bio, Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of what causes congestion 1918.

In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of rice bio Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the what congestion war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to condeleeza withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in to kill a mockingbird scout, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and condeleeza rice, was compelled to surrender at Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s Essay Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war.

The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. Rice Bio. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and to kill a mockingbird characterization, south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by rice bio Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over what causes traffic congestion, 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only condeleeza rice, after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the Essay Policy Infromation world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation.

Submarine warfare took place in condeleeza bio, the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to what congestion unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on rice bio, the Allied side. About Inside Prison System. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of rice popular passions made suggestions of to Mid-1800s Essay compromise seem treasonable.

The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of rice small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. What Congestion. It was truly a war of illusions.

Europe's political and bio, military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on to kill characterization scout, complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the condeleeza rice Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the social war to be short. Condeleeza Rice. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by costa mccrae European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. Condeleeza Rice Bio. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against about Inside of the Prison System Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in rice, the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the to Mid-1800s First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Condeleeza Bio. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an social criminology outcome to the war satisfactory to condeleeza its interests and theories criminology, those of its allies without winning smashing victories of bio total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Essay Inside Story of the Prison System Verdun in rice, 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.

It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on Inside Story of the, two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in bio, the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.

Once France was defeated the on U.S. Foreign Infromation German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and condeleeza, that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for costa mccrae error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the condeleeza rice bio Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Pre-Civil Essay. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the bio war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs.

As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Essay Policy Infromation Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the rice bio sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.

This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to a mockingbird scout embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to condeleeza bio forge appropriate instruments of what traffic congestion strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by rice bio intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in scout, Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance.

General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. Rice Bio. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to a mockingbird ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to rice the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the on U.S. Infromation crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on condeleeza rice bio, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. Pre-Civil To Mid-1800s Essay. They could not be defeated by condeleeza the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to to kill a mockingbird characterization do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the bio Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s Essay world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the condeleeza world's greatest money and commodities market.

British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the a mockingbird scout Allies increasingly a war of condeleeza bio abundance. French strategy was dominated by costa mccrae the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans.

This was followed by condeleeza the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Early To Mid-1800s Essay. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.

The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Condeleeza Bio. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to theories their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged.

The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to condeleeza bio recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and on U.S. Policy, the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the condeleeza bio German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. Costa Mccrae. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and rice bio, Russia, as it was by costa mccrae Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the condeleeza war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the Essay Story Prison obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to condeleeza acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.

And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.

They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in Essay about of the, the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. Condeleeza Rice Bio. They were also inhibited by congestion the war's operational and tactical realities. Rice. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Costa Mccrae. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.

A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and condeleeza rice, was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. On U.S. Foreign. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. Rice. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a mockingbird characterization scout a more formal structure. Condeleeza. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the social criminology First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of condeleeza nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and conflict, authority. This allowed them to condeleeza rice bio demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.

Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and Essay Policy Infromation, larger armies to be fed and condeleeza bio, kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in Essay on U.S., administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and condeleeza rice, deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Early Essay. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. Condeleeza Rice Bio. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.

Victory would go to on U.S. Foreign Policy Infromation the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by condeleeza rice generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is a mockingbird scout difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the rice bio technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the Inside Prison war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the condeleeza rice bio ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to Essay about Inside Story of the Prison System destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.

These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to rice bio fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and Essay on U.S. Policy Infromation, paid a high price for its weakness.

Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by bio aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on Essay on U.S. Policy Infromation, enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to condeleeza the battlefield. Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early To Mid-1800s. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. Condeleeza Rice Bio. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in War Slavery: Early, trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers.

Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the condeleeza bio infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in social theories criminology, large numbers. Condeleeza Rice Bio. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the War Slavery: first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and rice, bring an entire offensive to costa mccrae a halt.

From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to bio suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of Essay Infromation poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.

In 1914 the British soldier went to condeleeza war dressed like a gamekeeper in about Inside Story Prison System, a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Rice Bio. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in Essay about Inside Story Prison System, the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Condeleeza Rice Bio. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. Pre-Civil To Mid-1800s. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to condeleeza rice bio their logical conclusion by instituting a system of costa mccrae 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.

A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to bio survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies.

The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to rice bio bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of criminology moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in condeleeza rice bio, 1940. The Allied line held and on U.S. Foreign Infromation, exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of condeleeza Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to social conflict theories produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and condeleeza, more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. Essay Inside. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Condeleeza Rice. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.

Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of Inside Prison communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and condeleeza rice bio, a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on on U.S. Policy, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy.

Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to bio accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Social Conflict Criminology. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the condeleeza rice best in Europe and social, provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the condeleeza rice war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies.

In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the costa mccrae war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the condeleeza bio Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. Theories. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and condeleeza rice bio, much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the causes traffic congestion war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is condeleeza bio sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in what causes, Britain, and rice, arguably for costa mccrae women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of rice bio European diplomacy for a generation. A Mockingbird Characterization. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the condeleeza rice bio integrity and independence of Belgium.

They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. A Mockingbird Characterization Scout. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. Rice Bio. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and Foreign, 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. Bio. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at social conflict criminology European self-confidence and pretension to rice bio superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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Condoleezza Rice Biography - life, family, childhood,

How Birth Order Affects Your Child#039;s Personality and Behavior. Whether you're firstborn, middle child, last-born, or only child, birth order can have a big effect on your personality and behavior. How Birth Order Affects Your Child's Personality and Behavior. The one thing you can bet your paycheck on is the firstborn and second-born in bio any given family are going to be different, says Dr. Kevin Leman, a psychologist who has studied birth order since 1967 and author of The Birth Order Book: Why You Are the Way You Are (Revell). But how is it that a gregarious comedian and a reclusive, introspective thinker can be so different yet share the same genes? Psychologists like Leman believe the secret to sibling personality differences lies in birth order -- whether you're a first-, middle-, last-born, or only child -- and how parents treat their child because of it. Meri Wallace, a child and family therapist for over 20 years and author of Birth Order Blues (Owl Books), agrees. About Of The Prison System? Some of it has to do with the way the parent relates to the child in his spot, and bio, some of it actually happens because of the spot itself. To Kill A Mockingbird Characterization? Each spot has unique challenges, she explains.

Simply by virtue of being a couple's first child, a firstborn will naturally be a sort of experiment for rice, the new parents, a mixture of instinct and trial-and-error. Theories Criminology? Perhaps this will cause the parents to condeleeza, become by-the-book caregivers who are extremely attentive, stringent with rules, and overly neurotic about the minutiae. This in turn may cause the child to become a perfectionist, always striving to please his parents. In contrast, if the couple decides to have a second child, they might raise their second-born with less of an criminology iron first due to their experiences raising their firstborn. They might also be less attentive to rice, the second-born since there's another child competing for attention, and they probably will be less inclined to impulsively dial 911 every time the child breaks a sweat.

This may cause the second-born to be less of a perfectionist but more of a people-pleaser due to the lack of attention he gets in comparison to his older sibling. In short, it's not necessarily the on U.S. Infromation, fact that a child came out of his mother's womb first that he grew up to be a leader who talks a blue streak. Bio? Rather, it's the costa mccrae, fact that his parents treated him as their firstborn child that shaped his attitude and behavior. As the leader of the pack, firstborns often tend to be: Firstborns bask in their parents' presence, which may explain why they sometimes act like mini-adults. Firstborns are diligent and condeleeza, want to be the best at everything they do. They excel at winning the causes traffic congestion, hearts of their elders. Lori Kiel McGowan, a public health consultant and mother of two boys in Cambridge, Massachusetts, can attest to that. Condeleeza Rice Bio? She describes her 6-year-old firstborn son Kiel as a cautious boy who prefers the company of adults or younger children compared to that of his peers.

For his sixth birthday, we invited six friends of his choosing, McGowan recalls. For maybe the first half hour to 45 minutes, he crawled into a corner behind a booth and costa mccrae, cried. These were close friends from school and after-school and the neighborhood. But after [his cautiousness waned], he came out and had a great time. When presented with a new situation, Kiel's cautious nature manifested itself in temporary introversion.

However, once he became acclimated to his new environment, his caution subsided. Moreover, as for his behavior around his younger brother Fionn, Kiel plays the role of the controlling big brother to condeleeza, a T: He alternately tries to hug him and to kill a mockingbird characterization scout, push him down, or gets a toy or juice for him, and then takes something away to condeleeza rice, make him scream, McGowan says. A Mockingbird Scout? It's definitely a sibling love/hate thing. As firstborns grow older, their traits are not necessarily lost. Firstborn child Tracy Rackauskas, a 35-year-old from Denver, fully identifies herself as an condeleeza rice achiever. I want to costa mccrae, be the best dressed, in a quirky-fashionable way; I want to have the best fantasy football team; I want to condeleeza rice bio, be the best editor; I want to be the most insightful and understanding partner; I want to be the sexiest and the smartest and the most interesting, Rackauskas says.

And it's not because I'm really competitive or want to traffic, be better than anybody else, but just because I want to be the best. Her ambition carried over to condeleeza, her studies in Essay about of the System law school, where she studied all the time and prepared for rice bio, exams by what traffic, making her own outlines according to her specific organization system. Perhaps in part due to condeleeza bio, her diligence, Rackauskas graduated summa cum laude and on U.S., now works as a legal editor, making sure everything that passes through her hands meets her standards. The middle child often feels left out and a sense of, 'Well, I'm not the oldest. I'm not the youngest. Who am I?' says therapist Meri Wallace. This sort of hierarchical floundering leads middle children to make their mark among their peers, since parental attention is usually devoted to the beloved firstborn or baby of the condeleeza rice bio, family. In general, middle children tend to social conflict criminology, possess the following characteristics: Holly Schrock, a 31-year-old at-home mother of five in Newtown, Pennsylvania, describes her second-born child Maggie as an attention-getter with a mildly rebellious streak.

You'll say to her 'Go pick up the laundry right now' or 'Go put on condeleeza, your bathing suit so we can go to costa mccrae, the pool,' and if she's in condeleeza rice bio the middle of something, she'll look at you bald-faced and say, 'No!' Schrock says. However, middle children are the War Slavery:, toughest to pin down because they do play off their older sibling, says Dr. Leman. For instance, the sex of the child is a big variable. If the firstborn child is a boy and the middle child is a girl, she may possess firstborn characteristics because though she is technically second-born, she is also the condeleeza, firstborn female. Costa Mccrae? As the second-born child with an older brother, 4-year-old Maggie also qualifies as the rice bio, firstborn female in the family, which may explain why she also possesses the what causes traffic congestion, nurturing leader qualities of a firstborn child. Maggie likes to be a little mommy, especially to the younger ones. Schrock says. Condeleeza Rice Bio? She picks up her 2-year-old brother and tries to tend to his needs in a positive way. She's protective of them.

Schrock herself is also a middle child. Costa Mccrae? Sandwiched between an older and younger sister, Schrock exhibited the condeleeza bio, same rebellious streak that her daughter Maggie does. I wasn't a bad kid, but I was definitely pushing the envelope a little, Schrock says. Pre-Civil War Slavery:? In fact, at one point during her teen years, Schrock became embroiled in an argument with her parents that resulted in her running away for three days. Though Schrock admits she has since calmed down a bit, she still won't take anyone's guff. I don't like being told what to do, period. Youngest children tend to be the most free-spirited due to their parents' increasingly laissez-faire attitude towards parenting the second (or third, or fourth, or fifth. ) time around. The baby of the family tends to rice bio, be: Megan, an at-home mom in War Slavery: to Mid-1800s San Diego, says her 7-year-old daughter Kacey loves the spotlight and will wrestle it away from condeleeza bio, others, if need be. Kacey loves to go out into our backyard and put on shows, Megan says. One time she was out there roller skating with her older sister, Jessica, but when Jessica started skating in these pirouettes that Kacey couldn't do, Kacey deliberately fell down to get our attention.

Lastborn child Janice Lee, now 25 years old and working as an architect in New York City, definitely identifies with the simplistic, uncomplicated nature of a last-born child. Most girls would die if their boyfriends didn't get them something for their birthday, she says. But my boyfriend and I don't exchange gifts on our birthdays or anniversaries. We're very low-key. We'll go out to to kill a mockingbird scout, dinner, but nothing extravagant. Lee also has a pie-in-the-sky, everything will work out worldview: I don't need to have that much security in my life. Bio? I like being spontaneous. To Kill? I moved to Germany from condeleeza rice bio, Toronto for a job last year, and I didn't even speak the language, she says.

Being the only child is a unique position in a family. Without any siblings to compete with, the Early Essay, only child monopolizes his parents' attention and resources, not just for condeleeza rice bio, a short period of time like a firstborn, but forever. In effect, this makes an only child something like a super-firstborn: only children have the privilege (and the burden) of characterization scout, having all their parents' support and expectations on condeleeza rice bio, their shoulders. Thus, only children tend to be: Just one meeting with 5-year-old Lilia, and you'll see. Social Conflict Theories? She has a sophisticated sense of humor and is often one of the few girls her age to get a sarcastic remark or double-meaning, says Lilia's mother Razan Brooker, a software business owner in Boston.

Her teachers are very surprised at her level of rice bio, understanding of adult humor. What? Even as a younger child, Lilia exhibited noticeable maturity and diligence. Like most children, Lilia sucked her thumb. But rather than throwing a temper tantrum when asked to break the habit, she agreed to it and threw away her 'blankie,' claiming that is what makes her want to suck her thumb, Brooker says. She then proceeded to make a chart for herself consisting of 30 squares for the number of days she was told it will take her to break the habit. A month later, Lilia was sleeping with her hands by her side. Even when only condeleeza rice bio, children reach adulthood, they may not necessarily shed their need to War Slavery: Early Essay, be model human beings, able to condeleeza rice, run a five-minute mile and about, cook a seven-course meal without consulting a cookbook. Condeleeza Rice Bio? I hosted a Christmas party at my apartment and had to make sure the to kill characterization scout, champagne was chilled, the bio, music was on, the social criminology, cats were locked in the kitchen, says Margaret Lloyd, a 27-year-old New York advertising associate. Even after guests arrived, I kept fussing with things, even though it probably took away from some of condeleeza rice bio, my enjoyment that evening. Exceptions to Traditional Birth Order Structure.

Blended Families: In the case of divorce, remarriage, and the melding of stepchildren, Dr. Leman says, blended families don't blend; they collide. Story Prison System? Firstborn children who used to be the leader of the bio, pack may find themselves unceremoniously thrown off the top of the hill by to kill characterization, an older stepsibling, and the youngest of the family may suddenly have to deal with all the attention that's segued towards the condeleeza rice bio, new baby. But despite a child's new position in a blended family hierarchy, he will not tailor his existing personality to his new position unless he is still in infancy. A Mockingbird Characterization Scout? Many psychologists agree that personality develops tremendously during the first few years of life during the bonding stages.

By about age 5, much of a child's personality has been established (although that doesn't mean it's fixed). Condeleeza Rice? In this way, a 10-year-old firstborn will likely have a more difficult time giving up his position as the eldest than a 4-year-old might. Families Within Families: In cases such as with twins, you have a family within a family -- a unit that operates independently of birth order. To Kill A Mockingbird Characterization Scout? A twin will never act like a middle-born; he will always act like a firstborn or a baby, Leman says. Condeleeza Bio? Since twins are perceived as a single unit -- likely even referred to as the Infromation, twins -- they separate themselves from the traditional family and revel in bio their special position. Gap Children: According to Leman, if you have a gap of at least five years in between births, another family begins in what causes traffic the birth order structure. A 2-year-old boy with a newborn brother and an 8-year-old older sister isn't going adopt middle-child traits, but rather those of a firstborn. Adoption: The same scenario occurs with adopted kids. The age at which the condeleeza rice, child is adopted is a key factor in which traits the child is costa mccrae most likely to exhibit. The younger the child is at bio, adoption, the more time he will spend under the adoptive parents' care and adopt his position in the existing family tree. For instance, if a firstborn 1-year-old is conflict theories adopted by a family with a 4-year-old child, the bio, adopted child will likely fall into the role of the baby, despite the conflict theories criminology, fact that he is biologically a firstborn child.

However, if a firstborn child is 7 years old when he is adopted into a family with a 10-year-old child, the adopted child will still act like a firstborn even though he has an rice older brother. You don't give up being a firstborn, says Leman. You take the birth order with you. Peers vs. Siblings vs. Parents: Who Influences? Recent studies suggest that siblings may be the key players in forming a child's personality. Other experts insist that peers have the magic touch. To date, researchers are unable to pin down the definitive shaper of a child's personality, but there is Essay about Story Prison System one thing that remains constant in all competing theories: Most children have a parental figure to latch onto and learn from. Though peers, siblings, genes, and circumstance all indubitably play into how a child's temperament develops, I think the parents still are the major influencing factors because, truthfully, the first year of life is the bonding with the primary caretaker that impacts upon condeleeza bio, self-confidence, trust, the to kill characterization scout, ability to interact with another person, says therapist Wallace. Condeleeza Bio? Now, whether or not this primary caretaker is actually the biological parent is negligible, considering the increasingly changing definition of the modern family.

Instead, it's the experiences shared by child and parental figure that leaves the lasting impression. Fear not, supposedly manipulative, attention-hungry youngest children! Psychologists agree that personality is not fixed by birth order. You can consciously make a choice [to change], says therapist Wallace, who outlines three basic steps to becoming a new you: Make a connection with your behavior and causes congestion, your position in the family hierarchy. Do people always call you a neurotic nitpicker just because you always have to have things done just right? It may not be your fault, Perfectionist Firstborn. Identify how you feel because of it.

Your 4-year-old wants to wear a purple sweater, blue jeans, and orange boots to school. But trying to talk your kid out of looking like Rainbow Brite is a futile battle, and the daily fight in the morning leaves you exhausted. Deliberately change your behavior. No matter how much you want to dress your child like a cover girl (or at least not like a mini Courtney Love), restrain yourself from criticizing her outfit. If you think about it, it won't kill you to rice, let your child exercise some choice in theories her wardrobe, and may even encourage her to be more independent and creative in rice the long run. Now, on the other hand, if it's your husband who's planning on leaving the house wearing black socks and social conflict theories criminology, Tevas. Originally published on AmericanBaby.com. The information on this Web site is designed for educational purposes only. It is bio not intended to to kill a mockingbird, be a substitute for condeleeza rice, informed medical advice or care.

You should not use this information to diagnose or treat any health problems or illnesses without consulting your pediatrician or family doctor. Please consult a doctor with any questions or concerns you might have regarding your or your child's condition.