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Book Review – Wie schreibt man eine Buchbesprechung? 06:02 min. um dieses Video und seine Ubung freizuschalten. Entschuldige, die Ubungen sind zurzeit nur auf Tablets und Computer verfugbar. Um die Ubungen zu nutzen, logge dich bitte mit einem dieser Gerate ein. um dieses Video und seine Ubung freizuschalten. Mit der Anmeldung stimmst du zu, dass wir dir kostenlos Infos Angebote zu sofatutor zuschicken durfen. Justice! Eine Abmeldung vom Newsletter ist jederzeit moglich. den wir an Assignment at a Park Essay, (andern) geschickt haben. Du kannst jetzt alle Gratis-Inhalte auf sofatutor nutzen! Transkript Book Review – Wie schreibt man eine Buchbesprechung?

Bei einer Buchbesprechung, einer “book review” , geht es darum, Andere uber ein Buch zu informieren, das sie selbst nicht gelesen haben. Naturlich kannst du ihnen dabei nicht das komplette Buch vorlesen, sondern musst den Inhalt und die wichtigsten Aspekte des betrachteten Werkes gezielt zusammenfassen. Hier zeige ich dir nun, wie du bei einer schriftlichen Buchbesprechung Schritt fur Schritt vorgehen solltest: Insgesamt sollte deine ‘book review’ in true vier Teile aufgeteilt sein. Fangen wir mit der Einleitung, der Introduction an. In deiner Einleitung solltest du den Buchtitel , den Namen des Autors , den Erscheinungsort sowie das Erscheinungsjahr nennen.

Hier ein Beispiel: The book ‘The Tortilla Curtain’, written by T.C. In Just Spring! Boyle, was published in true New York in and Time 1995. Bei einer mundlichen Prasentation kannst du deinen Mitschulern an dieser Stelle auch das Buchcover zeigen. Justice! Anschlie?end beschreibst du den Autor etwas genauer. Who is killers, he or she? What has he or she written before? What did he or she publish during his or her career of writing? Das geht zum Beispiel so: Tom Coraghessan Boyle, who is true, better known as T.C. Boyle is an American writer who has published numerous novels and short stories.

During the course of his career he has won many prices. At the dr marietta moment Boyle is true justice, professor of at a Park Essay English at true justice the University of Southern California. In einem zweiten Schritt solltest du das Genre deines betrachteten Buches nennen, also zum Beispiel, ob es sich um eine ‘novel’ , eine ‘adventure story’ oder eine ‘collection of Memory and Time short stories’ handelt. True Justice! Gleichzeitig solltest du an dieser Stelle ebenso die Hauptthemen des Buches beschreiben. Bleiben wir bei ‘Tortilla Curtain’ von Boyle. Assignment Park! Dieses Buch ist eindeutig ein Roman, also eine ‘novel’. True Justice! Wenn du dir hierbei unschlussig bist, lies am besten den Klappentext . Killers! Dort steht in den meisten Fallen geschrieben, welchem Genre das Buch angehort. True Justice! Bezuglich der Hauptthemen von ‘Tortilla Curtain’ konnte man das noch heute gultige Konzept des amerikanischen Traumes sowie das Vorhandensein von faktischen sowie mentalen Mauern und Wanden bezeichnen: ‘Tortilla Curtain’ is a complex novel: it primarily discusses the everlasting idea of the ‘American Dream’ which promises a better life to many immigrants still at the end of the 20th century. Another main theme is the existence of ‘walls’ - both in Observation Assignment Park the literal and in the figurative sense. Justice! Danach folgt eine Zusammenfassung des Inhalts, eine ‘plot summary’. At A Park Essay! Hier solltest du beschreiben, worum es in true justice deinem Buch geht.

Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das ‘setting’ und die ‘main characters’ zu benennen sowie naturlich den ‘plot’ zusammenzufassen. The Power Of Language! Hierbei hangt es von den Vorgaben deiner Lehrer ab, ob du einzelne Kapitel oder den Roman als Ganzes zusammenfassen sollst. Ich zeige dir einmal, wie du mit deiner Zusammenfassung des ersten Kapitels beginnen konntest. Gut ist es, hier mit kurzen Zitaten zu arbeiten, die in deinen Augen eine besondere Bedeutung fur den Fortgang der Handlung haben. Vergiss bitte nicht in deiner ‘plot summary’ das Present Tense zu verwenden. Beispiele zur Zusammenfassung von Kapiteln. Justice! Boyles’ novel is set in a small place called Arroyo Blanco not far away from Los Angeles in dr marietta Southern California.

The major characters of the justice novel are the two couples Mossbacher and Observation Assignment at a Essay, Rincon who are brought together under violent circumstances, namely a car-accident (. ) The last sentence of the true justice first chapter “I told you - he was Mexican.” on The Power, page 15 in the novel, is a powerful quote in true justice many ways. Schizophrenia! This saying clearly shows the true confident character of Delaney Mossbacher. Yet this quotation also has a xenophobic note, because Mossbacher thinks that the man he hit with his car earlier doesn?t need any medical treatment and Memory and Time Essay, that twenty dollars made the problem go away (. True Justice! ) Deine ‘book review’ solltest du damit beenden, dass du deine personliche Meinung zu dem Werk darstellst, die du naturlich begrunden solltest. Memory And Time! Auch kannst du hier erwahnen, ob du das gelesene Buch weiter empfehlen wurdest oder eher nicht. Zu ‘Tortilla Curtain’ konntest du beispielsweise schreiben, dass dir die Lekture aufgrund des hohen Grades an true, Aktualitat besonders gefallen hat und das du es definitiv weiterempfehlen wurdest, weil der Leser darin mit den Schattenseiten des amerikanischen Traums konfrontiert wird. Beispielsatze zum Abschluss der book review. To me Boyle’ s novel ‘Tortilla Curtain’ was a great read, because I liked its up-to-date nature. Therefore I would absolutely recommend it to other students, because the book confronts the reader with the dark side of the Memory and Time Essay American dream. True! Das war es schon, was du bei einer schriftlichen Buchbesprechung beachten musst! Ist doch gar nicht schwer oder? Schauen wir abschlie?end noch einmal auf die vier Schritte, die du unbedingt abarbeiten solltest: 1. Introduction , 2. Schizophrenia! Genre and justice, Topic , 3. Plot Summary , 4. Essay! Personal Opinion . Justice! Na dann: Have fun and The Power Essay, start reviewing!

Bei einer Buchbesprechung, einer Book Review, geht es darum, Leser uber ein Buch zu informieren, ihnen die Entscheidung zu erleichtern, ob sie es selber lesen wollen oder nicht. In diesem Video lernst du, wie du Schritt fur Schritt eine Book Review verfasst. Du erfahrst, aus welchen Teilen sie besteht und was diese Teile jeweils beinhalten mussen. True! Au?erdem werden dir hilfreiche Beispiele vorgestellt, die dir beim Verfassen deiner eigenen Book Review helfen konnen. Observation Essay! O 4.1 / 8 Bewertungen. Du musst eingeloggt sein, um bewerten zu konnen. Thank you very much for true this video. It has been very helpful. Im Vollzugang erhaltst du: Hilfe von Lehrern.

In allen Fachern und Klassenstufen. In Just Spring! Von Experten erstellt und angepasst an die Lehrplane in true justice Osterreich. Wahle deinen Wunschtermin! Einer unserer Plattformexperten ruft dich zuruck.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Epistemology is the study of knowledge. Epistemologists concern themselves with a number of true, tasks, which we might sort into two categories. First, we must determine the nature of knowledge; that is, what does it mean to say that someone knows, or fails to know, something? This is a matter of understanding what knowledge is, and how to distinguish between cases in schizophrenia killers, which someone knows something and cases in true, which someone does not know something.

While there is some general agreement about some aspects of this issue, we shall see that this question is schizophrenia much more difficult than one might imagine. Second, we must determine the extent of human knowledge; that is, how much do we, or can we, know? How can we use our reason, our senses, the testimony of others, and other resources to acquire knowledge? Are there limits to true justice what we can know? For instance, are some things unknowable? Is it possible that we do not know nearly as much as we think we do? Should we have a legitimate worry about skepticism, the view that we do not or cannot know anything at all? While this article provides on overview of the important issues, it leaves the most basic questions unanswered; epistemology will continue to Assignment at a Park be an justice area of philosophical discussion as long as these questions remain. The term “epistemology” comes from the Greek episteme, meaning knowledge, and logos, meaning, roughly, study, or science, of.

Logos is the root of all terms ending in -ology – such as psychology, anthropology – and of logic, and has many other related meanings. The word knowledge and its cognates are used in a variety of ways. One common use of the word know is as an expression of schizophrenia killers, psychological conviction. For instance, we might hear someone say, I just knew it wouldn't rain, but then it did. True Justice! While this may be an appropriate usage, philosophers tend to schizophrenia use the justice, word know in a factive sense, so that one cannot know something that is not the case. (This point is discussed at greater length in section 2b below.) Even if we restrict ourselves to dr marietta factive usages, there are still multiple senses of knowledge, and so we need to distinguish between them. One kind of knowledge is procedural knowledge, sometimes called competence or know-how; for justice, example, one can know how to ride a bicycle, or one can know how to drive from Washington, D.C. to New York. Observation Assignment Essay! Another kind of knowledge is acquaintance knowledge or familiarity; for instance, one can know the department chairperson, or one can know Philadelphia. Epistemologists typically do not focus on procedural or acquaintance knowledge, however, instead preferring to focus on propositional knowledge.

A proposition is something which can be expressed by true justice a declarative sentence, and which purports to describe a fact or a state of affairs, such as Dogs are mammals, 2+2=7, It is wrong to murder innocent people for fun. (Note that a proposition may be true or false; that is, it need not actually express a fact.) Propositional knowledge, then, can be called knowledge-that; statements of propositional knowledge (or the lack thereof) are properly expressed using that-clauses, such as He knows that Houston is in Texas, or She does not know that the square root of dr marietta, 81 is 9. In what follows, we will be concerned only with propositional knowledge. Propositional knowledge, obviously, encompasses knowledge about a wide range of matters: scientific knowledge, geographical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, self-knowledge, and justice, knowledge about in just spring, any field of study whatever. Any truth might, in principle, be knowable, although there might be unknowable truths. One goal of epistemology is to justice determine the of nursing, criteria for knowledge so that we can know what can or cannot be known, in other words, the study of epistemology fundamentally includes the true, study of meta-epistemology (what we can know about knowledge itself). We can also distinguish between different types of propositional knowledge, based on the source of killers, that knowledge. True Justice! Non-empirical or a priori knowledge is possible independently of, or prior to, any experience, and requires only the use of reason; examples include knowledge of logical truths such as the in just spring, law of non-contradiction, as well as knowledge of abstract claims (such as ethical claims or claims about various conceptual matters).

Empirical or a posteriori knowledge is possible only subsequent, or posterior, to justice certain sense experiences (in addition to the use of in just spring, reason); examples include knowledge of the color or shape of a physical object or knowledge of geographical locations. (Some philosophers, called rationalists, believe that all knowledge is justice ultimately grounded upon reason; others, called empiricists, believe that all knowledge is in just spring ultimately grounded upon experience.) A thorough epistemology should, of course, address all kinds of knowledge, although there might be different standards for a priori and a posteriori knowledge. We can also distinguish between individual knowledge and collective knowledge. Social epistemology is the subfield of epistemology that addresses the justice, way that groups, institutions, or other collective bodies might come to acquire knowledge. 2. In Just Spring! The Nature of true, Propositional Knowledge. Having narrowed our focus to propositional knowledge, we must ask ourselves what, exactly, constitutes knowledge. Of Language Essay! What does it mean for someone to know something? What is the true justice, difference between someone who knows something and someone else who does not know it, or between something one knows and something one does not know?

Since the scope of knowledge is so broad, we need a general characterization of Park Essay, knowledge, one which is applicable to any kind of proposition whatsoever. Epistemologists have usually undertaken this task by seeking a correct and complete analysis of the concept of knowledge, in other words a set of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions which determine whether someone knows something. Let us begin with the observation that knowledge is a mental state; that is, knowledge exists in one's mind, and unthinking things cannot know anything. Further, knowledge is a specific kind of mental state. True! While that-clauses can also be used to describe desires and theories of nursing, intentions, these cannot constitute knowledge. Rather, knowledge is a kind of true justice, belief . If one has no beliefs about a particular matter, one cannot have knowledge about it. For instance, suppose that I desire that I be given a raise in salary, and that I intend to do whatever I can to earn one. Suppose further that I am doubtful as to whether I will indeed be given a raise, due to the intricacies of the Essay, university's budget and true justice, such.

Given that I do not believe that I will be given a raise, I cannot be said to know that I will. In Just Spring! Only if I am inclined to believe something can I come to know it. Similarly, thoughts that an individual has never entertained are not among his beliefs, and thus cannot be included in his body of knowledge. Some beliefs, those which the individual is actively entertaining, are called occurrent beliefs. The majority of an individual's beliefs are non-occurrent; these are beliefs that the individual has in justice, the background but is not entertaining at a particular time. Correspondingly, most of our knowledge is non-occurrent, or background, knowledge; only a small amount of Memory and Time, one's knowledge is ever actively on one's mind. Knowledge, then, requires belief. Of course, not all beliefs constitute knowledge. Belief is necessary but not sufficient for knowledge.

We are all sometimes mistaken in what we believe; in other words, while some of our beliefs are true, others are false. As we try to acquire knowledge, then, we are trying to increase our stock of true beliefs (while simultaneously minimizing our false beliefs). We might say that the most typical purpose of beliefs is to describe or capture the way things actually are; that is, when one forms a belief, one is seeking a match between one's mind and the world. (We sometimes, of course, form beliefs for other reasons – to create a positive attitude, to justice deceive ourselves, and so forth – but when we seek knowledge, we are trying to get things right.) And, alas, we sometimes fail to achieve such a match; some of killers, our beliefs do not describe the way things actually are. Note that we are assuming here that there is such a thing as objective truth, so that it is true justice possible for beliefs to match or to fail to match with reality. In Just Spring! That is, in order for justice, someone to know something, there must be something one knows about Assignment at a, . Recall that we are discussing knowledge in true justice, the factive sense; if there are no facts of the matter, then there's nothing to in just spring know (or to fail to know). This assumption is not universally accepted – in particular, it is not shared by true justice some proponents of relativism – but it will not be defended here. However, we can say that truth is a condition of knowledge; that is, if a belief is at a Park Essay not true, it cannot constitute knowledge. Accordingly, if there is no such thing as truth, then there can be no knowledge.

Even if there is such a thing as truth, if there is a domain in which there are no truths, then there can be no knowledge within that domain. (For example, if beauty is in the eye of the beholder, then a belief that something is beautiful cannot be true or false, and thus cannot constitute knowledge.) Knowledge, then, requires factual belief. However, this does not suffice to capture the nature of knowledge. Just as knowledge requires successfully achieving the objective of true belief, it also requires success with regard to the formation of that belief. True Justice! In other words, not all true beliefs constitute knowledge; only true beliefs arrived at in the right way constitute knowledge. What, then, is the right way of arriving at beliefs? In addition to truth, what other properties must a belief have in order to constitute knowledge? We might begin by noting that sound reasoning and solid evidence seem to dr marietta higgs be the way to acquire knowledge. By contrast, a lucky guess cannot constitute knowledge.

Similarly, misinformation and faulty reasoning do not seem like a recipe for knowledge, even if they happen to lead to a true belief. A belief is said to be justified if it is obtained in the right way. Justice! While justification seems, at first glance, to be a matter of higgs, a belief's being based on evidence and reasoning rather than on luck or misinformation, we shall see that there is much disagreement regarding how to spell out the details. The requirement that knowledge involve justification does not necessarily mean that knowledge requires absolute certainty, however. Humans are fallible beings, and fallibilism is the view that it is possible to have knowledge even when one's true belief might have turned out to be false. Between beliefs which were necessarily true and true, those which are true solely by luck lies a spectrum of beliefs with regard to which we had some defeasible reason to believe that they would be true. For instance, if I heard the weatherman say that there is a 90% chance of rain, and as a result I formed the of Language, belief that it would rain, then my true belief that it would rain was not true purely by justice luck. Even though there was some chance that my belief might have been false, there was a sufficient basis for that belief for in just spring, it to constitute knowledge.

This basis is referred to as the justification for that belief. True Justice! We can then say that, to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and of nursing, justified. Note that because of luck, a belief can be unjustified yet true; and because of human fallibility, a belief can be justified yet false. In other words, truth and justification are two independent conditions of beliefs. True! The fact that a belief is true does not tell us whether or not it is Essay justified; that depends on how the belief was arrived at. So, two people might hold the same true belief, but for different reasons, so that one of them is justified and true justice, the other is Memory Essay unjustified. Similarly, the fact that a belief is justified does not tell us whether it's true or false. Justice! Of course, a justified belief will presumably be more likely to Essay be true than to be false, and justified beliefs will presumably be more likely or more probable to true be true than unjustified beliefs. (As we will see in section 3 below, the exact nature of the relationship between truth and justification is dr marietta higgs contentious.) For some time, the justified true belief (JTB) account was widely agreed to capture the nature of knowledge.

However, in 1963, Edmund Gettier published a short but widely influential article which has shaped much subsequent work in justice, epistemology. Higgs! Gettier provided two examples in which someone had a true and true justice, justified belief, but in which we seem to want to deny that the individual has knowledge, because luck still seems to play a role in his belief having turned out to be true. Consider an example. Suppose that the clock on campus (which keeps accurate time and is well maintained) stopped working at 11:56pm last night, and has yet to Observation Assignment Park be repaired. On my way to true my noon class, exactly twelve hours later, I glance at the clock and form the higgs, belief that the time is 11:56. My belief is true, of course, since the time is indeed 11:56. True Justice! And my belief is justified, as I have no reason to doubt that the clock is The Power Essay working, and I cannot be blamed for basing beliefs about the time on what the clock says. True! Nonetheless, it seems evident that I do not know that the time is 11:56.

After all, if I had walked past the clock a bit earlier or a bit later, I would have ended up with a false belief rather than a true one. This example and others like it, while perhaps somewhat far-fetched, seem to show that it is possible for justified true belief to fail to dr marietta higgs constitute knowledge. To put it another way, the justification condition was meant to true justice ensure that knowledge was based on solid evidence rather than on luck or misinformation, but Gettier-type examples seem to show that justified true belief can still involve luck and thus fall short of knowledge. Killers! This problem is referred to as the Gettier problem. To solve this problem, we must either show that all instances of justified true belief do indeed constitute knowledge, or alternatively refine our analysis of knowledge. We might think that there is a simple and straightforward solution to the Gettier problem. Note that my reasoning was tacitly based on my belief that the clock is working properly, and justice, that this belief is false. This seems to explain what has gone wrong in this example. In Just Spring! Accordingly, we might revise our analysis of knowledge by insisting that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be true and justified and justice, must be formed without relying on any false beliefs. In other words, we might say, justification, truth, and belief are all necessary for knowledge, but they are not jointly sufficient for knowledge; there is a fourth condition – namely, that no false beliefs be essentially involved in the reasoning that led to the belief – which is also necessary.

Unfortunately, this will not suffice; we can modify the The Power of Language, example so that my belief is justified and true, and true, is not based on any false beliefs, but still falls short of Memory, knowledge. Suppose, for instance, that I do not have any beliefs about the true, clock's current state, but merely the more general belief that the clock usually is in working order. This belief, which is true, would suffice to justify my belief that the time is now 11:56; of higgs, course, it still seems evident that I do not know the time. However, the no-false-belief condition does not seem to true justice be completely misguided; perhaps we can add some other condition to justification and dr marietta, truth to yield a correct characterization of justice, knowledge. Note that, even if I didn't actively form the belief that the clock is currently working properly, it seems to be implicit in my reasoning, and the fact that it is false is of nursing surely relevant to the problem. After all, if I were asked, at the time that I looked at the clock, whether it is working properly, I would have said that it is. Conversely, if I believed that the justice, clock wasn't working properly, I wouldn't be justified in forming a belief about the time based on what the clock says.

In other words, the proposition that the clock is working properly right now meets the following conditions: it is Memory Essay a false proposition, I do not realize that it is a false proposition, and if I had realized that it is a false proposition, my justification for my belief that it is true justice 11:56 would have been undercut or defeated. If we call propositions such as this defeaters, then we can say that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be true and justified, and there must not be any defeaters to the justification of that belief. In Just Spring! Many epistemologists believe this analysis to true be correct. Rather than modifying the JTB account of knowledge by adding a fourth condition, some epistemologists see the Gettier problem as reason to seek a substantially different alternative. We have noted that knowledge should not involve luck, and that Gettier-type examples are those in which luck plays some role in the formation of a justified true belief.

In typical instances of knowledge, the factors responsible for the justification of a belief are also responsible for its truth. For example, when the clock is working properly, my belief is both true and justified because it's based on the clock, which accurately displays the time. But one feature that all Gettier-type examples have in common is the lack of a clear connection between the truth and the justification of the belief in question. For example, my belief that the time is schizophrenia 11:56 is justified because it's based on the clock, but it's true because I happened to walk by at just the true justice, right moment. Memory And Time! So, we might insist that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and justified, and its truth and justification must be connected somehow. This notion of a connection between the true justice, truth and the justification of a belief turns out to be difficult to formulate precisely, but causal accounts of knowledge seek to The Power capture the spirit of true, this proposal by more significantly altering the analysis of knowledge. Higgs! Such accounts maintain that in order for someone to justice know a proposition, there must be a causal connection between his belief in that proposition and the fact that the proposition encapsulates. This retains the truth condition, since a proposition must be true in order for it to in just spring encapsulate a fact. However, it appears to be incompatible with fallibilism, since it does not allow for the possibility that a belief be justified yet false. (Strictly speaking, causal accounts of knowledge make no reference to justification, although we might attempt to justice reformulate fallibilism in somewhat modified terms in order to state this observation.) While causal accounts of knowledge are no longer thought to be correct, they have engendered reliabilist theories of knowledge, which shall be discussed in section 3b below.

One reason that the Gettier problem is so problematic is Memory and Time Essay that neither Gettier nor anyone who preceded him has offered a sufficiently clear and accurate analysis of justification. True Justice! We have said that justification is a matter of Memory and Time, a belief's having been formed in the right way, but we have yet to say what that amounts to. We must now consider this matter more closely. We have noted that the goal of our belief-forming practices is to obtain truth while avoiding error, and that justification is the feature of beliefs which are formed in such a way as to best pursue this goal. If we think, then, of the goal of our belief-forming practices as an attempt to establish a match between one's mind and the world, and justice, if we also think of the application or withholding of the justification condition as an evaluation of whether this match was arrived at in the right way, then there seem to be two obvious approaches to construing justification: namely, in terms of the believer's mind, or in terms of the world.

Belief is a mental state, and Assignment, belief-formation is a mental process. Accordingly, one might reason, whether or not a belief is justified – whether, that is, it is formed in the right way – can be determined by examining the thought-processes of the believer during its formation. Such a view, which maintains that justification depends solely on factors internal to the believer's mind, is justice called internalism. (The term internalism has different meanings in Memory Essay, other contexts; here, it will be used strictly to true justice refer to this type of view about epistemic justification.) According to Memory and Time internalism, the only factors that are relevant to the determination of whether a belief is true justice justified are the believer's other mental states. After all, an internalist will argue, only an individual's mental states – her beliefs about the world, her sensory inputs (for example, her sense data) and her beliefs about the relations between her various beliefs – can determine what new beliefs she will form, so only an individual's mental states can determine whether any particular belief is justified. In particular, in killers, order to be justified, a belief must be appropriately based upon or supported by justice other mental states. This raises the question of The Power of Language Essay, what constitutes the basing or support relation between a belief and one's other mental states. True Justice! We might want to of Language Essay say that, in order for belief A to true be appropriately based on belief B (or beliefs B1 and B2, or B1, B2, and…Bn), the truth of B must suffice to establish the truth of A, in other words, B must entail A. (We shall consider the relationship between beliefs and sensory inputs below.) However, if we want to theories allow for true justice, our fallibility, we must instead say that the truth of B would give one good reason to believe that A is also true (by making it likely or probable that A is true).

An elaboration of what counts as a good reason for belief, accordingly, is an essential part of any internalist account of justification. However, there is an additional condition that we must add: belief B must itself be justified, since unjustified beliefs cannot confer justification on theories of nursing other beliefs. Justice! Because belief B be must also be justified, must there be some justified belief C upon which B is based? If so, C must itself be justified, and it may derive its justification from some further justified belief, D. This chain of beliefs deriving their justification from other beliefs may continue forever, leading us in an infinite regress. While the idea of an The Power of Language Essay infinite regress might seem troubling, the primary ways of avoiding such a regress may have their own problems as well. This raises the regress problem, which begins from true, observing that there are only four possibilities as to the structure of in just spring, one's justified beliefs: The series of justified beliefs, each based upon the other, continues infinitely. The series of justified beliefs circles back to its beginning (A is based on B, B on justice C, C on D, and D on dr marietta A). The series of justified beliefs begins with an unjustified belief. The series of true, justified beliefs begins with a belief which is Essay justified, but not by virtue of being based on another justified belief.

These alternatives seem to exhaust the possibilities. That is, if one has any justified beliefs, one of true justice, these four possibilities must describe the relationships between those beliefs. As such, a complete internalist account of in just spring, justification must decide among the true, four. Let us, then, consider each of the four possibilities mentioned above. Alternative 1 seems unacceptable because the human mind can contain only finitely many beliefs, and any thought-process that leads to the formation of a new belief must have some starting point. Alternative 2 seems no better, since circular reasoning appears to be fallacious. And alternative 3 has already been ruled out, since it renders the second belief in the series (and, thus, all subsequent beliefs) unjustified.

That leaves alternative 4, which must, by process of at a Essay, elimination, be correct. This line of true, reasoning, which is at a Essay typically known as the regress argument, leads to the conclusion that there are two different kinds of justified beliefs: those which begin a series of justified beliefs, and those which are based on other justified beliefs. The former, called basic beliefs, are able to confer justification on other, non-basic beliefs, without themselves having their justification conferred upon them by other beliefs. As such, there is an true justice asymmetrical relationship between basic and non-basic beliefs. Such a view of the structure of justified belief is known as foundationalism. In general, foundationalism entails that there is an higgs asymmetrical relationship between any two beliefs: if A is based on B, then B cannot be based on A. Accordingly, it follows that at least some beliefs (namely basic beliefs) are justified in true justice, some way other than by way of a relation to other beliefs.

Basic beliefs must be self-justified, or must derive their justification from some non-doxastic source such as sensory inputs; the and Time, exact source of the justification of basic beliefs needs to justice be explained by any complete foundationalist account of justification. Internalists might be dissatisfied with foundationalism, since it allows for the possibility of and Time Essay, beliefs that are justified without being based upon other beliefs. Since it was our solution to the regress problem that led us to foundationalism, and since none of the alternatives seem palatable, we might look for a flaw in the problem itself. Note that the problem is based on justice a pivotal but hitherto unstated assumption: namely, that justification is linear in fashion. That is, the statement of the Observation Park Essay, regress problem assumes that the basing relation parallels a logical argument, with one belief being based on one or more other beliefs in an asymmetrical fashion. So, an internalist who finds foundationalism to be problematic might deny this assumption, maintaining instead that justification is the result of a holistic relationship among beliefs. That is, one might maintain that beliefs derive their justification by inclusion in a set of justice, beliefs which cohere with one another as a whole; a proponent of schizophrenia killers, such a view is called a coherentist. A coherentist, then, sees justification as a relation of true, mutual support among many beliefs, rather than a series of asymmetrical beliefs. A belief derives its justification, according to of nursing coherentism, not by being based on one or more other beliefs, but by virtue of its membership in a set of beliefs that all fit together in the right way. (The coherentist needs to specify what constitutes coherence, of course. It must be something more than logical consistency, since two unrelated beliefs may be consistent.

Rather, there must be some positive support relationship – for justice, instance, some sort of explanatory relationship – between the members of a coherent set in order for the beliefs to be individually justified.) Coherentism is vulnerable to the isolation objection. It seems possible for a set of higgs, beliefs to be coherent, but for justice, all of those beliefs to Observation Assignment at a Park Essay be isolated from justice, reality. Schizophrenia Killers! Consider, for justice, instance, a work of fiction. Of Nursing! All of the statements in the work of fiction might form a coherent set, but presumably believing all and only the statements in a work of fiction will not render one justified. Indeed, any form of internalism seems vulnerable to this objection, and thus a complete internalist account of justification must address it.

Recall that justification requires a match between one's mind and the world, and justice, an inordinate emphasis on the relations between the beliefs in one's mind seems to ignore the question of whether those beliefs match up with the way things actually are. Accordingly, one might think that focusing solely on factors internal to the believer's mind will inevitably lead to a mistaken account of justification. Observation Park! The alternative, then, is that at least some factors external to the believer's mind determine whether or not she is justified. A proponent of such a view is justice called an externalist. According to in just spring externalism, the only way to avoid the isolation objection and ensure that knowledge does not include luck is to consider some factors other than the individual's other beliefs.

Which factors, then, should be considered? The most prominent version of true justice, externalism, called reliabilism, suggests that we consider the source of in just spring, a belief. Beliefs can be formed as a result of many different sources, such as sense experience, reason, testimony, memory. More precisely, we might specify which sense was used, who provided the testimony, what sort of reasoning is used, or how recent the relevant memory is. For every belief, we can indicate the cognitive process that led to its formation. In its simplest and true justice, most straightforward form, reliabilism maintains that whether or not a belief is justified depends upon whether that process is killers a reliable source of true beliefs. Since we are seeking a match between our mind and the world, justified beliefs are those which result from justice, processes which regularly achieve such a match. So, for example, using vision to determine the color of an object which is Observation Essay well-lit and justice, relatively near is a reliable belief-forming process for a person with normal vision, but not for a color-blind person. Forming beliefs on the basis of the testimony of an expert is likely to yield true beliefs, but forming beliefs on schizophrenia killers the basis of the testimony of compulsive liars is not. In general, if a belief is the justice, result of a cognitive process which reliably (most of the time – we still want to leave room for human fallibility) leads to true beliefs, then that belief is justified. The foregoing suggests one immediate challenge for reliabilism.

The formation of Observation at a Essay, a belief is a one-time event, but the reliability of the process depends upon the long-term performance of that process. True! (This can include counterfactual as well as actual events. For instance, a coin which is flipped only Observation Assignment at a Park Essay once and lands on heads nonetheless has a 50% chance of landing on tails, even though its actual performance has yielded heads 100% of the time.) And this requires that we specify which process is being used, so that we can evaluate its performance in true, other instances. However, cognitive processes can be described in more or less general terms: for example, the same belief-forming process might be variously described as sense experience, vision, vision by a normally-sighted person, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight while looking at a tree, vision by in just spring a normally-sighted person in daylight while looking at an elm tree, and justice, so forth. The generality problem notes that some of these descriptions might specify a reliable process but others might specify an unreliable process, so that we cannot know whether a belief is justified or unjustified unless we know the appropriate level of in just spring, generality to use in describing the process. Even if the generality problem can be solved, another problem remains for externalism. Keith Lehrer presents this problem by way of his example of Mr. Justice! Truetemp. Schizophrenia! Truetemp has, unbeknownst to him, had a tempucomp – a device which accurately reads the temperature and causes a spontaneous belief about true, that temperature – implanted in his brain. As a result, he has many true beliefs about the Observation Park Essay, temperature, but he does not know why he has them or what their source is. Lehrer argues that, although Truetemp's belief-forming process is reliable, his ignorance of the true, tempucomp renders his temperature-beliefs unjustified, and dr marietta, thus that a reliable cognitive process cannot yield justification unless the believer is aware of the fact that the process is justice reliable.

In other words, the mere fact that the process is reliable does not suffice, Lehrer concludes, to justify any beliefs which are formed via that process. Given the above characterization of knowledge, there are many ways that one might come to in just spring know something. Knowledge of empirical facts about the physical world will necessarily involve perception, in other words, the use of the senses. Justice! Science, with its collection of data and conducting of dr marietta higgs, experiments, is the paradigm of empirical knowledge. True! However, much of our more mundane knowledge comes from the senses, as we look, listen, smell, touch, and taste the schizophrenia, various objects in justice, our environments. But all knowledge requires some amount of reasoning.

Data collected by scientists must be analyzed before knowledge is yielded, and we draw inferences based on what our senses tell us. And knowledge of abstract or non-empirical facts will exclusively rely upon killers reasoning. In particular, intuition is often believed to be a sort of direct access to justice knowledge of the a priori . Once knowledge is obtained, it can be sustained and passed on to others. Memory allows us to Park Essay know something that we knew in true, the past, even, perhaps, if we no longer remember the original justification. Knowledge can also be transmitted from one individual to another via testimony; that is, my justification for schizophrenia, a particular belief could amount to the fact that some trusted source has told me that it is true. In addition to the nature of knowledge, epistemologists concern themselves with the justice, question of the extent of killers, human knowledge: how much do we, or can we, know? Whatever turns out to be the correct account of the nature of knowledge, there remains the matter of whether we actually have any knowledge.

It has been suggested that we do not, or cannot, know anything, or at true least that we do not know as much as we think we do. Such a view is called skepticism. We can distinguish between a number of different varieties of skepticism. First, one might be a skeptic only schizophrenia killers with regard to certain domains, such as mathematics, morality, or the external world (this is the most well-known variety of skepticism). Such a skeptic is true justice a local skeptic, as contrasted with a global skeptic, who maintains that we cannot know anything at all. Also, since knowledge requires that our beliefs be both true and justified, a skeptic might maintain that none of our beliefs are true or that none of them are justified (the latter is much more common than the in just spring, former).

While it is quite easy to challenge any claim to true knowledge by glibly asking, How do you know?, this does not suffice to show that skepticism is an important position. Like any philosophical stance, skepticism must be supported by Memory an argument. Many arguments have been offered in defense of skepticism, and many responses to those arguments have been offered in return. True! Here, we shall consider two of the most prominent arguments in support of skepticism about the external world. In the first of his Meditations , Rene Descartes offers an argument in support of skepticism, which he then attempts to refute in in just spring, the later Meditations. True Justice! The argument notes that some of our perceptions are inaccurate.

Our senses can trick us; we sometimes mistake a dream for a waking experience, and it is possible that an evil demon is Memory Essay systematically deceiving us. (The modern version of the true, evil demon scenario is that you are a brain-in-a-vat, because scientists have removed your brain from your skull, connected it to a sophisticated computer, and immersed it in a vat of preservative fluid. The computer produces what seem to be genuine sense experiences, and also responds to your brain's output to make it seem that you are able to higgs move about in your environment as you did when your brain was still in true, your body. While this scenario may seem far-fetched, we must admit that it is at least possible.) As a result, some of our beliefs will be false. Schizophrenia Killers! In order to be justified in believing what we do, we must have some way to distinguish between those beliefs which are true (or, at true least, are likely to be true) and those which are not. But just as there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between waking and Observation Park Essay, dreaming, there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between beliefs that are accurate and beliefs which are the true, result of the machinations of an evil demon.

This indistinguishability between trustworthy and and Time, untrustworthy belief, the argument goes, renders all of true, our beliefs unjustified, and thus we cannot know anything. A satisfactory response to this argument, then, must show either that we are indeed able to and Time Essay distinguish between true and false beliefs, or that we need not be able to true justice make such a distinction. According to the indistinguishability skeptic, my senses can tell me how things appear , but not how they actually are. We need to use reason to construct an Observation Essay argument that leads us from beliefs about how things appear to (justified) beliefs about how they are. But even if we are able to true justice trust our perceptions, so that we know that they are accurate, David Hume argues that the specter of skepticism remains. Note that we only perceive a very small part of the Observation Assignment at a Park, universe at justice any given moment, although we think that we have knowledge of the The Power of Language, world beyond that which we are currently perceiving. It follows, then, that the senses alone cannot account for this knowledge, and that reason must supplement the justice, senses in some way in order to account for any such knowledge. Killers! However, Hume argues, reason is incapable of providing justification for justice, any belief about the theories, external world beyond the scope of our current sense perceptions. True! Let us consider two such possible arguments and Hume's critique of Observation at a, them.

i. Numerical vs. Qualitative Identity. We typically believe that the external world is, for the most part, stable. For instance, I believe that my car is parked where I left it this morning, even though I am not currently looking at it. If I were to go peek out the window right now and see my car, I might form the belief that my car has been in true, the same space all day. What is the basis for this belief? If asked to make my reasoning explicit, I might proceed as follows: I have had two sense-experiences of my car: one this morning and one just now.

The two sense-experiences were (more or less) identical. Therefore, it is likely that the objects that caused them are identical. Therefore, a single object – my car – has been in that parking space all day. Similar reasoning would undergird all of our beliefs about the persistence of the external world and all of the objects we perceive. The Power Of Language! But are these beliefs justified? Hume thinks not, since the above argument (and all arguments like it) contains an equivocation. In particular, the first occurrence of identical refers to qualitative identity. The two sense-experiences are not one and the same, but are distinct; when we say that they are identical we mean that one is similar to the other in all of its qualities or properties. But the second occurrence of identical refers to numerical identity. When we say that the objects that caused the two sense-experiences are identical, we mean that there is true justice one object, rather than two, that is responsible for both of them.

This equivocation, Hume argues, renders the argument fallacious; accordingly, we need another argument to theories of nursing support our belief that objects persist even when we are not observing them. ii. Hume's Skepticism about Induction. Suppose that a satisfactory argument could be found in support of our beliefs in justice, the persistence of physical objects. Killers! This would provide us with knowledge that the objects that we have observed have persisted even when we were not observing them. But in addition to believing that these objects have persisted up until now, we believe that they will persist in the future; we also believe that objects we have never observed similarly have persisted and will persist. In other words, we expect the justice, future to be roughly like the past, and the parts of the universe that we have not observed to be roughly like the parts that we have observed. Theories! For example, I believe that my car will persist into the future.

What is the basis for this belief? If asked to make my reasoning explicit, I might proceed as follows: My car has always persisted in the past. Nature is roughly uniform across time and true, space (and thus the future will be roughly like the past). Therefore, my car will persist in the future. Similar reasoning would undergird all of Observation Assignment at a Essay, our beliefs about the future and about the unobserved. Justice! Are such beliefs justified? Again, Hume thinks not, since the above argument, and all arguments like it, contain an unsupported premise, namely the of Language, second premise, which might be called the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature (PUN).

Why should we believe this principle to be true? Hume insists that we provide some reason in support of this belief. Because the above argument is an inductive rather than a deductive argument, the problem of true justice, showing that it is a good argument is theories typically referred to true as the problem of induction. Theories Of Nursing! We might think that there is a simple and straightforward solution to the problem of induction, and true, that we can indeed provide support for our belief that PUN is true. Such an argument would proceed as follows: PUN has always been true in the past. Nature is roughly uniform across time and space (and thus the schizophrenia killers, future will be roughly like the justice, past).

Therefore, PUN will be true in the future. This argument, however, is circular; its second premise is The Power Essay PUN itself! Accordingly, we need another argument to support our belief that PUN is true, and thus to justify our inductive arguments about the future and the unobserved. The study of knowledge is justice one of the most fundamental aspects of philosophical inquiry. Any claim to knowledge must be evaluated to determine whether or not it indeed constitutes knowledge. Such an evaluation essentially requires an understanding of what knowledge is and theories, how much knowledge is possible.

While this article provides on true overview of the important issues, it leaves the most basic questions unanswered; epistemology will continue to be an area of philosophical discussion as long as these questions remain.

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Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in in just spring, je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces. Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. True Justice. Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier. Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. Of Language. Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen. True Justice. Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of of Language, met vreemd vermogen.

Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Dit kan in justice, vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of of Language Essay, bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. True. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of Assignment Park Essay, kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is true justice, een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of Memory, kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. True Justice. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of Observation Essay, durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen.

Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. True. Er is onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. And Time Essay. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of true justice, inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. In Just Spring. Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). True Justice. In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen.

Een balans is theories of nursing, een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of true justice, met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Dus een balans is theories, een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Justice. Dit geeft aan in Memory and Time Essay, hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen.

In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Justice. Het maken van een verkoopprognose is Memory Essay, niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. True. Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is of nursing, om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of justice, verlies. De berekening is killers, simpel.

Het aantal verkochte producten per justice maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. (21%, 6% of 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. In Just Spring. Dat wil in true justice, de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Of Language Essay. Betalen je klanten direct (contact of PIN) zoals in true justice, de detailhandel, of moet je weken op je geld wachten. Observation Assignment At A Park. Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen.

Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. True Justice. Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Of Nursing. Ga je direct in je eerste maand omzet maken, of is true, er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie.

Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Observation. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in te kopen is true, je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. The Power Of Language Essay. De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is true justice, als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten.

Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is higgs, aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. True Justice. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Schizophrenia. Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Justice. Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten.

Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of in just spring, ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. True. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in Assignment, te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. True Justice. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Observation Assignment At A Park Essay. Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Justice. verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per in just spring kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is true, niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in of je bedrijf rendabel is. The Power Of Language. Door de omzet en kosten in een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in justice, een oogopslag zien of je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is dr marietta higgs, de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3).

Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. True Justice. De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Of Nursing. Dit bepaalt of true, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Of Language. Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in true, de vaste activa van je bedrijf.

Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Memory And Time. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Justice. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Theories. Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of true justice, VOF. Observation Assignment At A. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris.

Het salaris is een kostenpost voor de BV. True. De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. In Just Spring. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat.

Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of true justice, door klanten die laat betalen. Memory And Time. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in true, de liquiditeitsbegroting. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering.

De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over dr marietta, het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Zeker in true, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in Essay, de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Justice. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. And Time. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of true justice, je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. And Time. De cashflow berekent vervolgens of true, jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of higgs, er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of true, reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is of Language Essay, de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. True. De cashflow is theories, positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. True. De cashflow is dr marietta, negatief als er per true jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt.

Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. In Just Spring. Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. True Justice. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen.

Een afschrijving is schizophrenia, het in true justice, de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over theories, een bepaalde periode. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of vrachtwagens in justice, de loop van de jaren afnemen. Dr Marietta. De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. True Justice. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in killers, de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Justice. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen.

E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over in just spring, je onderneming. True. Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of in just spring, het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in hun bedrijf. We bieden coaching, kennis in justice, de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert.

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920 Words Essay on the Choice of justice a Career. The selection of a career or profession is higgs, one of the most important things of life. But it is equally difficult. The lack of guiding services, proper counseling and ever increasing unemployment has further complicated the matter. There is cut-throat competition. Therefore, most of the young men and women in search of suitable jobs are a confused, indecisive and frustrated lot. It has generated a deep sense of frustration and indiscipline among the young people. A right choice of a career is fundamental importance. On it does depend one#8217;s success or failure in life.

A correct choice may lead to happy, prosperous and satisfying career and life. True. On the other hand, a wrong selection may result in failure, disappointment and sadness in life. The result of prolonged indecision rimy still proves worse. Image Source : cdn.publishyourarticles.net. Therefore, the problem should be faced and resolved as early as possible. It is in just spring, better if one decides at the school stage itself what career one is justice, going to adopt in future. Of Nursing. But the school-going students are quite young, inexperienced and raw to take a right decision. They cannot be the best judge in the matter. What are needed are proper guidance, counseling, advice, vocational training, encouragement and orientation. And parents, teachers, professional guides and counselors should help them.

They can help the students choose right professions and careers, keeping in mind the aptitude, talent, skills, resources etc., of true each and every student, a prospective professional. This will also go a long way in higgs, solving the problem of unemployment and proper development of our human resources. Life has become all the more complex and competitive. There is justice, a keen struggle and competition in the world of careers and professions. In Just Spring. And only the fittest will survive.

After finishing their school and college education or training, the true, young students are baffled as to which profession to choose. They find themselves groping in the dark. The tough competition and corruption further increase their difficulties. A young man or woman may possess sufficient training, education, orientation and schizophrenia aptitude for a particular job or position and yet he or she may not get it because of various problems. Gone are the days when life was easy, simple, smooth and true justice harmonious, and in the majority of the cases the son followed his ancestral profession or trade, and was trained in the same at home. With the of nursing, rapid change in attitudes, situations and progress in science and true technology, things have radically changed. The entry of and Time women in professions and services has further increased the true justice, complications. In Just Spring. And so, the selection of a right career at a right time has become a very tough job. It needs proper, full and comprehensive consideration. There are professions, careers, trades and jobs in true, plenty. There are a number of professional and training institutions like It#8217;s., polytechnics, engineering colleges etc., which give training in various trades, skills, professions and jobs, such as medicine, engineering, teaching, business, commerce, banking, computer science, advertising, journalism, government services, positions in armed forces, and scores others.

Then one can begin his own workshop, factory or shop, or choose a career in police, films, commercial art etc. And Time Essay. The whole world of careers is true, yours, but each and every profession requires a special aptitude, training, guidance, education and preparation. One may wish to become a doctor or an engineer, but mere wish is not enough. Wishes, without proper and matching qualifications and deeds, result in frustration and failure. There are many factors that go in making a successful and happy career. Besides mental make-up, education, training and skills, the financial resources have also to be taken into consideration.

For example a young man may possess all the training, skills and aptitude for running an industry. But he cannot venture to be an entrepreneur unless he has sufficient financial backing and Observation Assignment Park Essay muscle. In these circumstances, he will have to settle for a less ambitious career. But if he has a strong will power, nothing can prevent him from achieving the goal in the long run. One may start from true justice, scratch and end up as a business tycoon. Observation Park. A career should be chosen at the earliest possible stage but with proper and full deliberation. The help and guidance of teachers, parents, experienced people and professionals should be sought in true, the matter. I am a XII class student and I am- not required to enter into any profession just now. And yet I have decided about my career and killers profession. I have thought long and well over true, the matter with the help and guidance of my parents, teachers, physical training instructor and others well qualified to advise me.

I have decided to become a soldier in of Language Essay, our army. I have robust health, strong determination and sense of strict discipline. I like adventures, bold and daring acts. I have an aptitude for a military career. I have almost made it the mission of my life to serve the country in justice, the military uniform. Theories Of Nursing. Soon I hope to find myself in Defense Academy, Khadakvasla after completion of my education in the Sank school at Belgium and in Quad. My career in armed forces will provide me with a proper opportunity to serve my motherland in the best possible way I can. For me the profession of a soldier is the noblest because it is devoted to the defense of the country#8217;s honour and unity. The call to the duty is super most in my mind and I personally feel that this feeling of true justice mine can find best possible expression in defense service only.

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Essay: ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ and the Victorian Era. Chapter 1. The Victorian Era 3 Chapter 2. Tess, the true, tragedy of an of nursing, unfair existence 14 Chapter 3. Rape or seduction? 27 Chapter 4. Anna Karenina and Tess of the D’Urbervilles, a tragic destiny 41. Chapter 5. Conclusions. The MA dissertation ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles, an unfair existence’ deals with the problematic of Victorian women, analyzed in Thomas Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles. Justice. The project is an attempt to find some answers about the dr marietta, women’s roles in a patriarchal society ruled and true justice, dominated by men. The analysis also focused on Memory and Time the Christian prejudices and the injustice of social law. The theoretical part is structured into three chapters. True Justice. The first one is an introduction into the Victorian Epoch and analyses this period of great changes that brought England to Observation at a Park Essay its highest point of development and true, also the dramatic inequities between men and women. The next chapter concentrates on higgs Tess’s life and tries to true determine why Hardy’s heroine”’ The third chapter tries to investigate if Tess of D’Urbervilles was raped or seduced, if she is an angel or, by contrary, a fallen woman. In the theories, practical part I made a comparison between Tess’ destiny and Anna Karenina’s fall highlighting the fact that the illusion of true love and the social rejection determined the two heroines’ destiny.

The last chapter reports the conclusions that resulted from the analysis made on Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’. The Victorian era. What was the Victorian Era? What changes brought the Victorian Age in England society and literature? How was Thomas Hardy influenced by the Victorian Era? The Victorian era of British history was the true justice, period of Queen Victoria’s reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a very long period with significant changes in Assignment Essay, almost every aspect of politics, law, economics and society.

The Victorian age it was first and foremost a period of evolution. The archaic and agricultural society was transformed into a modern society with the true, reign of democracy and industrialism. In Just Spring. In 1837, when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne, the true justice, majority of England’s people had houses in Memory and Time Essay, the countryside; few of justice, them could read and write, children of five year old worked long days underground in mines or ran deadly machinery in factories. Theories. The political and true, legal power was in schizophrenia, the hands of a few people- men who held land. ‘By the time Queen Victoria died in 1901, the modern world had taken shape. Most of England’s people were town or city dwellers. True Justice. London, the capital of an empire that covered one-fourth of the globe, had subway trains and and Time Essay, electric streetlights; telegraph messages speed around the world in true, minutes; luxurious steamships plied a busy transatlantic trade. Education was compulsory; public hanging of criminals had been abolished; a man’s religion or (lack of in just spring, it) no longer barred him from attending a university or serving in Parliament.’ The Victorian England was dominated by justice the effects of the Memory and Time Essay, Industrial Revolution: the population grew quickly, more and more cities appeared, a broad system of railway was built. England became the glory of the nineteenth century. But the Industrial Revolution had also lots of negative aspects: insalubrious shelters for justice, the workers, the employ of young children in the workforce, unsatisfying work conditions, small wages and theories, lots of true, hours of hard work. There were few laws to Memory and Time improve hours, earnings, safety, job security or working conditions. People worked six day a week. ‘In the true, early years of the industrial revolution, the birth rate was high and theories, many people died before middle age.

More than half the population was children and many were without parents.’ The new technologies of the nineteenth century radically changed people’s lives and perceptions. It was a century of technical innovations, industrial success and economic prosperity. All this opportunities changed the way people thought about the world. It wasn’t any more a dark world; it was a bright one, which could be improved through initiative and hard work. In what concerns the political aspects of the Victorian age it can be said that England was dealing with significant changes: the justice, Parliament became preoccupied with the regularization of the economic conditions, public health, education, and other aspects of social life. ‘By the end of the century, there were public hospitals for Memory and Time Essay, the chronically ill; asylums for the mentally handicapped; schools for blind, deaf, and disabled children; homes for the elderly; and other appropriate public institutions for people incapable of self-support.’ The society was divided into three categories: working class- men and women who performed physical labor being paid daily or weekly- middle class, men performed mental work, being paid monthly or annually and the upper class who didn’t work but had an income came from the inherited property and investments. Justice. This class hierarchy was accepted and of Language Essay, understood by the entire population.

Class had distinctive signs in justice, manners, speech, clothing, education and values. The classes lived in specific areas and thought of themselves as distinct categories with well defined standards and people were expected to conform to the rules for their class. It wasn’t appropriate to have the same behavior like someone for higgs, a class above- or below- your own. What is important to mention is the true justice, fact that the middle class grew in size and importance during the Victorian period. This class was formed of successful industrialists and extremely rich bankers or poor clerks. Schizophrenia Killers. ‘Within the justice, middle class, those with the highest social standing were the killers, professionals (sometimes referred to as the old middle class or upper middle class). They included Church of England clergymen, military and justice, naval officers, men in the higher-status branches of law and medicine, those at the upper levels of governmental service, university professors, and the headmasters of prestigious schools.” Victorian England was a very religious country, the Victorian people being regular churchgoers. The Bible was frequently and widely read by the people of every class and its dogmas were adapted to the everyday life: the individual should live a life filled with energy, tumult and struggles against doubt. Yet, towards the end of Queen Victoria’s reign, the Bible wasn’t accepted any more as literally true and free from errors. Theories. New ways of true justice, thinking developed and the people confronted with a crisis of Observation Assignment Park, faith. True. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes.

They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the in just spring, chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and justice, perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and The Power Essay, mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the true, main characters in theories of nursing, the society. The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. ‘Every man had the right to force his wife into sex and true, childbirth. He could take her children without reason and send them to be raised elsewhere. He could spend his wife’s inheritance on a mistress or on prostitutes.[..] If a woman was unhappy with her situation there was, without exception, nothing she could do about it.’ Women lived in dr marietta higgs, an unfair society which tolerated and encouraged men’s dominance, a society in justice, which women had no chances for emancipation.

This situation was supported by church, law, tradition, history, and seemed to have no solution for retrieval. Signals of dissent were controlled by schizophrenia husbands, fathers and true justice, even brothers. The nineteenth century woman had to enter into a marriage because this step was necessary for of nursing, her survival. True. She was somehow forced to depend on man, to beg for existence and for love. ‘Barred by law and custom from entering trades and professions by which they could support themselves, and of nursing, restricted in the possession of true justice, property, woman had only of Language Essay one means of justice, livelihood, that of marriage.’ In order to be accepted as wife, a woman had to be virgin, pure, and free from any desire of love and sexual thought before the wedding. An indecent behavior was accepted in The Power of Language, men’s case: they could have sexual relationships before and after the marriage without any moral or legal consequences.

Marriage was seen as a duty of women, the complete fulfillment of their personalities, the most important step in their lives, an occasion for entering the society, a way of answering the community’s requests. Giving birth to children was the biggest realization in a couple’s life, the ‘crowning achievement of a woman’s life’ . Unfortunately, this crucial event didn’t raise a woman’s social and familial status, she remained a household manager, a body for his husband, and a protective human being for true justice, the child. Wives were supposed to see the dr marietta, sexual act as a necessity for giving birth to the descendants and not as a source of pleasure. Sex for true justice, another reason than for procreation was seen as dirty and outrageous and of Language, changed the husband’s image over his wife: she was seen like a perverted person without any religious values ‘a mother who lacked religious faith could not instill sexual propriety in her daughter, and thus was unfit to be a mother at all.’ Women weren’t allowed to have any personal opinions: they had to strive with the same goals as their husbands, to stay far away from the social life and to true justice be preoccupied with the house and the children’s raise. The Victorian woman sacrifices herself every day for the husband and children. ‘The pure woman’s life was supposed to of nursing be entirely centered on the home. True Justice. She preserved the higher moral values, guarded her husband’s conscience, guided her children’s training, and helped regenerate society through her daily display of in just spring, Christianity in action.’ The Victorian woman had no power over her life or her children’s: when she was accused of adultery, she was viewed as ‘fallen’ or ‘ruined’ and true, her husband could kidnap and incarcerate her having the backing of the law. The children remained in the man’s custody. Observation Essay. ‘A husband could divorce his wife if she committed adultery, but the woman who wanted a divorce had to prove her husband guilty not only of adultery, but also of incest, bigamy, bestiality, cruelty or desertion. If a man did not commit adultery, he could treat his wife as badly as he liked: cruelty alone was not sufficient for divorce.’ For many, the word ‘Victorian’ is associated with pictures of true, over-dresses woman and Park Essay, arrogant men gathered in salons and reading-rooms. True Justice. In this epoch, the rules of personal conduct were inflexible and Memory and Time, not respected. Victorians won a bed reputation o saying one thing and doing another.

This feebleness will be a major writing theme for the next generations who will criticize it. In the Victorian era the society was transforming fast and lots of true, people could not understand the society’s mechanism. The nobility, in the past at the top of the social pyramid, lost his position and became preoccupied with the agriculture. The middle class was now in the top of England society and used the poor to achieve his goals. Children were working in the mines lots of hours and were a viable force for the society’s- capitalistic middle class- prosperity. Dr Marietta. In what concerns the Victorian literature it can be noticed significant changes.

It’s the beginning of true, a new way of writing prose, the lyric prose, a writing that expresses not only ideas but ideas wrote in theories, a beautiful form. The Victorians need in this period of great disquiet guides to better understand the economical, social and religious changes. Justice. Writers as Thomas Carlyle, John Henry Newman, Matthew Arnold helped England people to The Power of Language Essay better understand the society they lived in. ‘Up the still, glistening beaches, Up the creeks we will hie, Over banks of bright seaweed. The ebb-tide leaves dry. We will gaze, from the sand-hills, At the white, sleeping town; At the church on the hill-side’

And then come back down. Singing: “There dwells a loved one, But cruel is she! She left lonely for ever. The kings of the sea. ‘ Thomas Carlyle was the dominant figure of the Victorian Age. He succeeded to influence every category of Victorian life. He could not accept any spiritual weakness or social destruction. Carlyle hated the social inequalities, conventions and mendacity. He was skeptic about the true, role of democracy benefactions and believed that the population can be governed by a ‘hero’ who can lead the masses to glory.

The spiritual freedom was a value important for Carlyle and he succeeded through his writings to highlight human cost and diseases of manufacturing. Carlyle thought that his role, the role of a writer and a thinker is to denounce the abuse that is prepared by the society. It was the writer’s duty to Memory Essay speak out against the abuses and true justice, inequality of this new and scary world. He saw industrialization and in just spring, the Industrial Revolution as responsible for extermination and also the root for the lost of human characteristics. Writers could not escape any more into fantasy or imagine great worlds with a perfect life knowing that the society they live in true, is ill and killers, is a threat for the humanity. Elizabeth Barrett-Browning’s poem ‘The Cry of the true, Children’ is a criticism against the jobs in mines offered to the young children.

He describes the higgs, conditions in true, the England mines and wrote about the hard life children had to endure in the depth of the mines. In Victorian Age poetry was considered superior than prose and also than novel theatre. Essay. The predominant figure of true justice, this period was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. He wrote about social changes and he raised questions about the veracity of religion. His poetry is romantic in subject but has lots of personal reflections. Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barret Browning were also popular in Observation Assignment at a Park, the Victorian period. Robert Browning is true famous for his dramatic monologues but both succeeded to capture the beauty of theories of nursing, life and the wind of changes. Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, Rudyard Kipling and Lionel Johnson are also famous poetry writers in the Victorian epoch. In the middle of 19th Century, the Pre-Raphaelites guided by the poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti tried to bring to light the values and justice, the principles of the culture and Observation Assignment at a Park, life.

William Morris- designer, inventor, poetry writer, philosopher was the group leader helped by Christina Rossetti and Coventry Patmore. Justice. During the 1890s the decadents are the most important figures in the English literature. The group’s leaders are Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson the most talented and controversial figure being Oscar Wilde. The decadents rejected what they considered banal progress. They argued that art should be judged on the basis of form rather than values and in just spring, this idea is perfectly sustained by the motto ‘art for art’s sake’. They also rejected the idea that literature and true justice, art have to play important ethical roles and literature can offer the reader models of excellence and killers, honor. The Victorian epoch is a great moment for the English novel- pastoral, realistic with a complicated action, with complex characters and long. It was the true, preferred form of writing to describe and analyze the contemporary life and to captivate the Observation Assignment at a Park, middle class.

Charles Dickens writings are full of melodrama, amusement, complex heroes and complicated life situations. Dickens is regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period and one of the creators of the most well-known fictional characters. True. His oeuvre was extremely popular and by the twentieth century has been considered a literary genius by his critics. William Makepeace Thackeray is famous for his novel ‘Vanity Fair’ (1848) a satire upon hypocrisy and avarice. The novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) described ethical conflicts and social concerns. Jane Eyre (1847) and Villette (1853), Charlotte Bront’??s novels respect the conventions but dare in their own way.

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson writes under the dr marietta, pseudonym Lewis Caroll and is the true, author of Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (1865) a complex and sophisticated children’s book. At some point in the Victorian Age the novel has replaced the poetry as the most efficient and in just spring, realistic transmission of art and literature. This change was a valid change accepted by the people and even preferred nowadays. Serial publication in magazines and journals became more and more favored and in true justice, a short period of time these writings were published and sold in of nursing, their complete form. Thomas Hardy was born on June 2, 1840, in a Dorset’s village of Higher Bockhampton. Hardy was a very sick child and true, his parents Thomas and Jemima Hardy thought that he won’t survive. He was kept mostly at home being a sick young. After his completely recovery he started to explore the countryside he lived in observing rural families with their traditions, unwritten laws, believes. Observation At A Park Essay. He adored the church rituals and he was member of Stinsford church musicians, playing the violin and performing traditional dances, described later in justice, ‘Under the Greenwood Tree.’ In the ‘Life’, Hardy describes faithfully the complex routine that shaped his knowledge at this period: ‘To these externals may be added the schizophrenia killers, peculiarities of his inner life, which might almost have been called academic ‘ a triple existence unusual for a young man ‘ what he used to call, in looking back, a life twisted of three strands ‘ the professional life, the true, scholar’s life, and in just spring, the rustic life, combined in the twenty-four hours of justice, one day, as it was with him through these years. The Power Essay. He would be reading the Iliad, the Aeneid, or the Greek Testament from justice six to eight in the morning, would work at Gothic architecture all day, and then in the evening rush off with his fiddle under his arm ‘ sometimes in the company of his father as first violin and uncle as ‘celloist ‘ to play country-dances, reels, and hornpipes at an agriculturalist’s wedding, christening, or Christmas party in a remote dwelling among the fallow fields, not returning sometimes until nearly dawn.’ At the age of eight Thomas Hardy joined the Anglican school recently opened in his village and higgs, later was sent to the school of Dorchester.

After the age of true justice, teen he become more healthy and strong and he could participate to the Greek and Latin classes helped by his mother with money who believed in Thomas ‘dream to attend Cambridge in order to become a bishop. When Hardy was 22 he moved to London and theories of nursing, worked as apprentice architect for Arthur Blomfield, visiting in the same time theatres, museums and galleries, enjoying every journey and true justice, observing attentively all the of nursing, attractions London could offer. ‘In spite of the opportunities for dissipation in the capital, Hardy’s life seems to have remained disciplined and devoted to self-improvement. He visited the International Exhibition at South Kensington (later the Victoria and Albert Museum) for its architectural artefacts and justice, paintings, studied the great masters at the National Gallery during his lunch period, and enrolled for French classes at King’s College. Finding that architecture did not challenge him intellectually, he began reading the work of higgs, John Ruskin, who wrote about the cultural significance of art, and who championed Turner as pre-eminent among European painters.’ In 1863 he starts writing a notebook about ‘Schools of paintings’ because he imagines himself as an art critic. He thought also at a journalistic career as a way of earning money in order to allow him to attend the University and true, enter the church. ‘However, this aim receded as under Moule’s mentorship Hardy was introduced to the writings of a wide range of contemporary thinkers, including the work of The Power of Language Essay, John Henry Newman, the leader of the Oxford Movement, who left the Anglican Church for Roman Catholicism, and true justice, whose Apologia pro Vita Sua was published in 1864, on in just spring which Hardy made quite extensive notes. But Hardy also read John Stuart Mill [85, 121], a seminal philosopher and true justice, economist, who formed the Utilitarian Society, wrote On Liberty (1859), a comprehensive defense of individual freedom, and Utilitarianism (1861) and who, in contrast to Newman, regarded the ideal of Christianity as negative and in just spring, passive.’ Hardy considered Mill as ‘one of the profoundest thinkers of the true, last century’ and dr marietta higgs, he was influenced by his writings. By 1865 Hardy had begun to see himself as a future writer. He published the humorous prose ‘How I Built Myself a House’, anonymously in Chambers’ Journal and he won his first earnings from writing but Hardy returned to true poetry and studied intensively multiple poetry volumes. ‘Determined and methodical, he began keeping a notebook headed ‘Studies, Specimens etc.’, in which he listed quotations, attempted to develop a vocabulary of his own, and recorded observations of people and scenes for possible poems.’ Hardy’s earliest poems were written in 1865 and Observation Assignment Park, 1866 and remained unpublished many years. The critics could not tell exactly why Thomas Hardy wasn’t willing to publish his poetry because any testimony couldn’t be found.

In this time the young writer was involved in a relationship with Eliza Bright Nicholls, relationship described by justice his biographer, Michael Millgate as a weak relation and Hardy was ‘more or less formally engaged from about 1863 until 1867’. ‘ His relationship with Eliza gave rise to the ‘She, to Him’ series of Observation Assignment, poems, and in the Wessex Poems volume in which they appear, on the opposite page is printed Hardy’s drawing of two figures climbing the path that runs up to Clavel Tower overlooking Kimmeridge Bay. The end of the justice, relationship is recorded in the poem, ‘Neutral Tones’.’ Bibliography Chapter One. 1. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 2. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 3. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 4. Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?.

Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 5. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 6. Millgate, M., Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist, London: Macmillan, 1994. 7. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 8. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence. Is Tess a victim or a blemished woman?

Is Tess’s tragedy inevitable’?Tess of the D’Urbervilles is the product of Hardy’s fascination with women of beauty, energy and intelligence who find themselves trapped between these gifts, the aspirations such gifts justify, and their society’s assumption that respectable women must be either submissive or obtrusively and harmlessly aspiring. In Just Spring. With few exceptions, Hardy’s most interesting characters are his unconventional women including Tess who, so unconventional both before and after, is, predictably both the true, conventional ruined maid of fiction and Essay, a ruined maid like no other that has existed in British fiction.’ Tess of d’Urbervilles appears regularly in the literary magazine ‘The Graphic’ thorough the 1891. Justice. This was an original method of Hardy. First, the author published his novels, serialized, in a magazine, and then, the novel is dr marietta higgs published in the book form. The book’s subtitle, ‘A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented ‘is the first evidence that Hardy’s novel will shock his readers. The heroine will definitely reject the Victorian rules and will act independently and not in true, a predictable way as a Victorian heroine. The novel’s readers were certainly impressed by the Hardy’s creation: the The Power, author reveled in a candid manner the true, Tess’s suffering and he is dr marietta full of true, empathy and sympathy for the young girl’s history. It was not easy for Thomas Hardy to find a publisher. The novel’s plot and also the heroine were full of killers, sexiness. Justice. Episodes full of of nursing, passion were described, Tess was too sexy and in spite the rape willingness presented, Thomas Hardy insists that his heroine remains pure.

All these elements made the novel a controversial work difficult to put in print. In 1890, Hardy succeeded to find a magazine willing to publish his novel but he had to censor the true justice, most debatable episodes. ‘Tess of the Durbervilles’ was first published in a censored edition and after a few years in its original form. The author also revised later editions of his novel and was somehow forced to modify or even erase some problematic scenes due to contemporary reviews. The Power. Modern critics admit that the 1891 edition is the closest to the original version of true, Hardy’s novel. Probably the readers are asking themselves why this novel was so important to print for Thomas Hardy and what changes brought this writing in the Victorian age.

After a carefully reading and a harshly analysis the answer can be easily found- Hardy is trying to demonstrate that not all the ‘falling woman’ are prostitutes or ended up having sex outside of theories, marriage. His heroine, Tess, is a victim of an true justice, archaic society which does not accept the woman’s mistakes. This society is entirely dominated by men and accepts only the men’s actions full on injustice, immorality and decadence. Thomas Hardy is trying to raise some questions about the values of the society he lives in. He is a modern writer because has the in just spring, ability to attest the validity of the Victorian age values. Justice. It’s a significant discrepancy between the Observation at a Essay, standards applied to men and the rules the women had to respect in order to avoid the public humiliation and the lack of true, respect. The rape was a sensitive subject in and Time Essay, the epoch and always considered as determined by the woman’s conduct.

No presumption of innocence was given to the poor women who were not involved in a sexual relationship with a man, who was not protected by any legal or natural law. Thomas Hardy has structured his book in seven phases (novel division) which present the justice, short and Memory and Time, tragic life of his heroine, from her childhood to true womanhood. ”Phase’ is an interesting demarcation in and Time, itself. Unlike the customary ‘book’ or ‘part’ or ‘section”each a spatial marker, none temporal”phase’ signi’es a stage of change or development as well as unobtrusively linking Tess’s growth to womanhood with the rhythms of the lunar cycle. Justice. ‘Seven’ is, in turn, redolent of universal meanings: it is given as the Age of Reason, the Seven Ages of Man (Shakespeare), and the Seven Pillars of theories of nursing, Wisdom. And, of course, the seventh day is the Christian Sabbath’the sacred day of true, fulfillment in the Genesis story of Creation; the day of rest from labor and of thanksgiving.’ The seven phases are also divided cyclically and theories, thematically. The novel begins with ‘The Maiden’ which presents the young Tess in a difficult situation, he feels very culpable and also responsible for the death of Prince.

In ‘The Chase’, when she is sexually abused she realizes that she her virginity is lost and she is damned to true live a sadly life, with no respect or understanding from the community she lives in. She knows she is now ‘another girl than the one she had been at home’ A new stage of and Time Essay, Tess’s life starts with The Second Phase, ‘Maiden No More’. Now she is expectant a baby and decides that she can’t stay any more in Trantridge. Justice. Tess has tried to help his parents to resolve the financial problems they had at home and struggled to make Alec understand that she is not in love with him but she has lost his innocence trying to defend it. The heroine does not want a life full of in just spring, lies and a marriage without love and he decides to true justice leave Alec and schizophrenia, the life he can offer her. ‘Of all things, a lie on this thing would do the justice, most good for killers, me now; but I have honour enough left, little as ’tis, not to tell that lie. If I did love you I may have the best o’causes for letting you know it. But I don’t.’ Tess does not accept the marriage with Alec because she cannot be with someone she is not in love with. True Justice. She cannot accept this marriage even though it can be the solution for a misery life, it can be the ‘social salvation’. Analyzing the decision Tess makes it can be concluded that Hardy wants to sacrifice Tess and to offer to his British readers an example of of Language Essay, morality, integrity and honor. Hardy transforms his heroine into a model of perfection knowing that greatness can be achieved but not perfection. ‘Yet, in true, breaking the in just spring, popular stereotype, Hardy was accused by some contemporary critics of misrepresenting womankind.

The ideal was preferable to the real if only to set a good example for the young British person, but Hardy refused to employ his art to such an end. True. ‘ On the Phase the Observation, Third, ‘The Rally’ readers can meet a new Tess who is willing to forget his past and to start a new life. In this phase Tess is enthusiastic and even though her past is still alive in true justice, her soul and her mind she can start over Assignment at a Park Essay full of confidence and hope for the future. The heroine is prepared to embrace the new and unknown and involves in a relationship with Angel Clare. Is for the first time when Tess feels the true love, loves and is loved. Sometimes she does not know how to react when Angel shows her that he is in love. When Angel tried for the first time to take Tess in his arms to kiss her, the girl is very scared and does not know how to react. She starts crying. ‘Why do you cry, my darling’? he said. ‘O’I don’t know!’ she murmured regretfully.

Angel misunderstands his reaction and strongly thinks that he determined this powerful emotion being ‘too quick and unre’ecting’ . Instinctively Tess puts a barrier between her and the man she loves still being traumatized after the true justice, experience she had with Alec. She is not used to be in the arms of a man she has feelings for, the heroine being forced in the past to reject every unwanted embrace offered by her ‘cousin’. After a few minutes of higgs, distance and defense she realizes that in true, Angel’s arms she is safe, she does not have to be afraid anymore because Angel will protect her. Definitely she has to confess Angel the sin that changed her and isolated from the community she lives in but the girl knows that isn’t the right moment. Tess does not know how Angel will react, she knows that is a sensitive subject and she can obtain forgiveness only if Angel has true and of nursing, strong feeling for her. ‘The Consequence’ is the title for the Phase the Fourth. Tess is living a beautiful love story with Angel but her happiness is alloyed because the girl knows that she will have to tell Angel the ugly truth about her past. ‘She makes several attempts but either she is sidetracked or she sidetracks herself’again, psychologically plausible self-protective behavior. And when she ‘nally writes him an true, explanatory note, it accidentally slips under the carpet as she pushes it under his door. The cycle of intention undermined by accident seems unbreakable.

Tess’s resolve is challenged; she feels quite overwhelmed.’ The things are easy neither for Angel nor for Tess. Angel has to face his parents’ attitude, disapproval and to convince them that Tess is the best choice for him and not the young lady who he is supposed to marry with. Even though Angel does not admit directly that he has his own prejudices in what concern the Tess’s situation her soul struggles with his own doubt and his parent’s opposition. ‘Indeed, his idealization of Tess is partly the cause of her failure to confess. The more he elevates her (she is a goddess, she is a pure daughter of Nature), the of nursing, more she freezes at having to tell him that she’s none of these things. On the contrary, she is what his Evangelical family at the parsonage might call a fallen woman (and there are even uglier phrases than that).’ Phase the fifth, ‘The woman pays’ presents another chapter in Tess’s life, an episode full of sorrow and pain. Tess revealed Angel all the truth about her situation, she told the man she loved the truth about the sexual assault, the child she gave birth to, his short live, the baptize and the burial. The truth freed her but from Angel she did not receive understanding or unconditional love, only misery and pain. In Angel’s eyes Tess is another woman, a woman with Tess’s body but with a different story, with different values, a human being that he cannot forgive for his past and justice, have a happy marriage with. Of Nursing. Phase the justice, sixth, ‘The convert’, represents the story of Alec who is now a ‘preacher’ and is religious converted.

The meeting between Alec and Tess is in just spring unwanted by the girl but is justice seen by the man as a cure for his soul. Alec sees Tess, runs after her and tries to persuade her that he is changed, he succeeded to in just spring communicate with the divinity and is now aware of the pain he caused her. He makes Tess promise that she will never tempt him again. In Phase the seventh, ‘Fulfillment’ Alec becomes the man that took Tess’s virginity replacing the true, love for God with a sick love for Tess. The sexually desire is stronger than ever and in just spring, succeeds to transform the man into a sexual exploiter. Angel can now see the truth about the Tess’s personality, he can now distinguish the essences and appearances but is too late. ‘In accordance with the fulfillment of the seventh day of justice, creation, Tess will now rest.

Turning her life around for the very last time, she stands to face her prosecutors with that readiness of will and pure, undaunted spirit from which heroes, not victims, are made. Where Christ’s words were ‘it is Memory Essay done,’ Tess’s words are ‘I am ready’.’ Was Tess the victim of the inevitable fate? Could the heroine change her destiny or was she damned to self-destruction by the society in which she lived? Since the true justice, beginning of the novel, Thomas Hardy, the author, describes Tess as a beautiful and innocent girl, cheery, energy with a big smile on her face: ‘She was a fine and handsome girl- not handsomer than some others, possibly- but her mobile peony mouth and large innocent eyes added eloquence to color and Essay, shape. She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the true justice, only one of the white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment.’ Using the adjectives ‘fine’ and dr marietta higgs, ‘handsome’ the author suggests that Tess is not just a peasant girl who can pass unnoticed, on justice the contrary, she is a charming girl having all the of nursing, necessary physique resources for making a man, a rich man maybe, falling in love with her and true, saving her poor existence. She also seems to be ‘the one’ because is the only one wearing a red ribbon. Tess is the most beautiful heroine Hardy has created. It is the Essay, first novel in which the author describes so deeply the feminine beauty, he is true entirely focused on all the of nursing, femininities the young girl was blessed with and revels all these features step by step. ‘Failures to see Tess rightly are everywhere in the novel, however, for the opportunity to justice look at her is in just spring offered again and again to true one pair of eyes after another, as if it were a test, a measure of value. In Just Spring. Angel’s two brothers, for example, are both short sighted thought they wear the latest fashion in spectacles (XXV, 134). Blindly, they pass right by true justice Tess, on the day she walked fifteen miles to Emminster Vicarage to ask for help from her father in law.

To them, she is invisible.’ ‘Tess herself is almost less a personality than a beautiful portion of nature violated by human selfishness and over intellectualizing. She is the least flawed of Hardy’s protagonists, but also the The Power of Language, least human.’ The mixture between red and white (Tess is wearing a red ribbon and a white dress) used by true justice Thomas Hardy isn’t an accidental choice-it has a deep signification and seems to be the author’s way of saying that this girl won’t have a common destiny, she will have a different existence, a scintillating life. The contrast between white-purity- and red-sexual experience- shows that Tess is not like the other girls, is the author’s warning signal and his modality of saying that his heroine will break down the Victorian society rules. At the Memory and Time, May Day festivities Tess first meets Angel. He stops to true justice dance with the Observation at a Essay, women in the village garden although his brothers want to keep traveling but he doesn’t choose Tess to be his dance partner observing her too late.

This initial event isn’t just an artifice of writing is also the true justice, author’s first sign that Tess and Angel aren’t meant to be together. Angel doesn’t observe Tess even though she’s the prettiest girl from the green garden because he can’t notice the essences, only the appearances. And this is probably the reason for which he cannot forgive Tess after he discovers her big secret and condemn her to self-destruction. Tess’s fate is decided by the men in her life. The first male who has a great word to say about her destiny is Tess’s father.

After he discovers that is the descendant of an ancient and noble family he sends his eldest daughter to claim kin. And this is the beginning of a terrible life for The Power of Language Essay, Hardy’s heroine who doesn’t manage in meeting Mrs. True. D’Urbervilles but chances to meet her debauched son, Alec. ‘Hardy keeps the ‘man against nature’ conflict as central in his novels, yet, he deals with the Victorian theme of of Language Essay, social stratification through ‘man against man’ conflict. With the importance attached to class in the late nineteenth century society, Hardy shows why human altruism cannot be achieved in true justice, the Victorian world. Schizophrenia. In a society in which the true, concept of class has already been established to form the theories, individual relations of conflict and contract, John Durbeyfield is under the illusion that his ‘aristocratic background’ is significant since this background connects him to the rich d’Urbervilles. It is the illusion, the anticipation that causes him to commit the fatal mistake of sending her daughter to the d’Urbervilles.’ About the first meeting between Alec and Tess, Hardy says: ‘She had an true, attribute which amounted to a disadvantage just now; and it was this that caused Alec D’Urbervilles eyes to rivet themselves upon The Power of Language Essay, her. It was a luxuriance of aspect, a fullness of growth, which made her appear more of justice, a woman than she really was.

She had inherited the feature from her mother without the quality it denoted. It had troubled her mind occasionally, till her companions had said that it was a fault which time would cure.’ Later, when Alec runs into Tess again he observes her beautiful mouth and describes it with lot of passion: ‘Surely there never was such a maddening mouth since Eve’s!’ Hardy describes all this physiques details because he wants to demonstrate that Alec’s fascination with Tess is only physical. Alec is higgs fascinated by her ravishing beauty and true justice, ‘As the text progresses, Tess is once again described more than once, by her looks. Schizophrenia Killers. This shows that Tess is being objectified by the author who seems very fascinated by true justice her. He talks about her mouth and her lips as though he wants to The Power of Language kiss her.’ Angel is justice also fascinated by Tess’ physical features: ‘How very lovable her face was to in just spring him. Yet there was nothing ethereal about it; all was real vitality, real warmth, real incarnation. And it was in her mouth that this culminated. True. Eyes almost as deep and speaking he had seen before, and cheeks perhaps as fair; brows as arched, a chin and throat almost as shapely; her mouth he had seen nothing to equal on the face of the dr marietta, earth. To a young man with the least fire in him that little upward life in the middle of her red top lip was distracting, infatuating, maddening.’ For Angel Clare Tess is justice a very beautiful girl, with angelic features, lovable in spite of her beauty and Essay, not because of justice, it. The character sees, in general, the in just spring, metaphysical aspect of the things and true, values the ideal aspect of every action, event, and person. His name, ‘Angel Clare’ is a significant clue of his personality: His last name ‘Clare’ is the English translation for the French word ‘Clair’ and defines a person with a real capability of understanding the world, a person who lives in mind and is preoccupied with the Essay, mystical face of the humanity.

The adjective ‘clare’ is opposed to ‘heat’ and true justice, this opposition is shown in narrator’s confession of Angel’s love for the heroine: “Though not cold-natured, he was rather bright than hot ‘ less Byronic than Shelleyan; could love desperately, but his love more especially inclined to the imaginative and ethereal”. Angel loves Tess, whom he idealizes as a ‘fresh and virginal daughter of Nature’ so deeply that he finally marries Tess without caring about his family’s strong opposition. He particularly appreciates her words: ‘I do know that our souls can be made to go outside our bodies when we are alive’ . When he discusses his marriage with his family, he mentions Tess as ‘ a woman who possessed every qualification to be the helpmate of an agriculture’ , ‘she was a regular church-goer, of simple faith, honest-hearted, receptive, intelligent, graceful to a degree, chaste as a vestal and in personal appearance exceptionally beautiful’ . Memory. Hardy indicates: ‘It was for her that he loved Tess, her soul, her heart, her substance-not for her skill in the dairy, her aptness as his scholar, and certainly not for her simple, formal faith-professions’. Although Angel has liberal visions and is more open minded than his father and justice, his brothers, he is categorical and intransigent. When Tess confesses her sin, Angel is inflexible and can’t forgive the heroine for her only failing: ‘In the name of our love, forgive me! I have forgiven you for theories of nursing, the same! Forgive me as you are forgiven!’ But Angel answered cruelly: ‘Tess, forgiveness does not apply to the case!

You were one person; now you are another.’ ‘I will obey you, like your wretched slave, even if it is to lie down and die.’ ‘You are very good. True Justice. But it strikes me that there is a want of harmony between your present mood of self-preservation.’ At the beginning of the novel Thomas Hardy presents a Tess Durbeyfield who is not aware of higgs, her beauty. She is just a country girl, with little education, living in true justice, the domestic sphere with her parents and Observation at a, brothers. True. Tess lives happily on her native heath and suffers a real shock when is forced to abandon her house. The Power Of Language Essay. When Tess goes to the D’Urbervilles mansion she meets with young Alec who is fascinated by justice her beauty. And this is, probably, the moment which makes Tess aware of her charm perceived by the heroine as a curse and not as a gift from God. Men in schizophrenia killers, Tess’ life have the wrong impression that they own Tess and can change her entirely. Alec reveals his feeling of superiority since the true, very beginning when he proclaims: ‘what am I, to be repulsed so by a mere chit like you!’ Alec is the perfect image of the Victorian oppressor dominated by the ordinary custom and the bourgeois view of Essay, morals. He is a sexual predator without an inner life, having a superficial existence and any moral values. The character is narcissistic, individualistic and true justice, heartless.

Because Thomas Hardy doesn’t mention anything about his childhood, the reader cannot say that Alec’s personality is the result of a sad infancy. The reader is, somehow, forced to internalize the idea that society perverts humankind and human beings pervert any society. ‘Alec, the schizophrenia, archetypal seducer in Victorian melodrama, after his violation of Tess’s virginity, does not realize his sin; what’s more, he blames Tess for tempting him with her beauty. He does the wrong and shifts it onto the victim. True. The social consensus does not condemn or punish Alec. Instead it disdains and hunts Tess wherever she goes. The innocent pays for the guilty; the sinned suffers for the sinner.’ Tess’s badluck is related to male dominance and the idea of male supriority.

The heroine is just an higgs, innocent girl who is traped in a male-centered society. She doesn’t now anything about the world she lives in. She has the pure belief that human beings are kind and can’t hurt honest people. She knows little about love because she has never been in true justice, love. For her love is: ‘patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.’ Tess has a real respect for of Language, her family and true, respects his father’s will and not her own senses when leaves to claim kin. She accepts any job Alec offers to her because knows very well that her family needs a new horse to survive. It can be said that the of nursing, heroine is like an angel for her family, a spotless soul which is damned to live among monsters with human faces.

Alec is the first master of disguises Tess meets. Since the very beginning Tess dislikes Alec but endures his permanent undesirable attention because the girl has a clear purpose: to justice earn money. Essay. Alec calls Tess ‘coz’ (cousin), wanting to worm girl’s confidence but there’s nothing real in this appellative because the libertine young man has dark plans for Hardy’s heroine. Tess is barely answerable for her actions: even though he does not like Alec and does not want a relation with him the obsession the true, man gets for the young girl will destroy her life. Her ‘dumb and vacant fidelity’ to Angel would rather characterize a poor animal than a thoughtful human being. Tess’s sensitivity is obviously the result of emotions and not of judging. Hardy reveals that the theories of nursing, adoration the girl has for Angel is intense maybe extreme, but the author sees in her feelings something pure, emotions that translate generosity, self-sacrifice, forgiveness. The Hardy’s protagonist has a great capacity of true justice, loving and understanding the human beings.

With Alec she discovers that physical beauty can be a weight and not a blessing gave by God. She is Assignment Park a beautiful ‘object’ that Alec wants to add to his collection. He is true not in love with the poor girl, he is attracted by her appearance and is the Observation Park, object of his powerful sexually desire. ‘The wicked inhabitant of the d’Urbervilles hall, the permanently smoking Alec, offers Tess the red roses and the fresh strawberries. He does this, actually, in a very bizarre way; he puts the strawberries directly into the Tess’s mouth and presses the roses onto her breasts. The reader recognises that Alec is haunting Tess physically as well as mentally, he acts as her persecutor, who is gifted by the supreme power of reducing her not only into true justice, tears, but, more importantly, into Memory and Time Essay, the unconscious state.’ Alec personifies the unjust moralities on women and is the reflexion of a society which encourages injustice toward marriage and sexuality. Tess is a pure woman but becomes ‘fallen’ because the Victorian age has a certain opinion about chastity and virginity.

The girl becomes Alec’s obliged mistress and THE murderess who has to die. Even though she was moral oppressed and psysical assaulted, the heroine is the only culpable and has to pay for her mistakes. She can’t live any more in justice, a patriarchal society which only accepts man’s mistakes and condamns women to have a pure conduct and a martyr life. Tess is doomed to tragedy. Higgs. She is trapped in a strange society where social prejudice meets male-dominance. ‘Tess’s story, to some extent, reflects the rigidity of convention, the harshness of true, social law and the prejudice of morality in maledominated patriarchal society. Tess deserves the reputation of ‘the best tragedy’ the highest tragedy’, which is defined by the author. In the worldly view, Tess is a ‘fallen’ woman; however, she is essentially pure and naturally unstained. Tess is a pure woman as Hardy’s subtitle describes. Tess is tragic but pure.’ ‘You ask why Tess should have gone with Clare and theories, ‘live happily ever after.’ Do you not see under any circumstance that they were doomed to unhappiness? A sensitive man like Angel Clare could never have been happy with her.

After the first few months he would inevitably have thrown her failings in true, her face. He did not recoil from her after the in just spring, murder is true. Justice. He was in love with her failings then I suppose; he had not seen her for a long time; with the inconsistency of human nature he forgave the greater sin when he could not pardon the lesser.’ Tess had a tragic fate. All she ever wanted was little happiness, to Essay love and to be loved. Thomas Hardy describes her as a romantic character, with no social aspirations but with a great desire of spiritual fulfillment. She is to a great extent an ignorant human being who will learn that life means injustice, sufferance, male dominance centered on the ‘double moral standard’ of sexuality applied to justice man and woman in the Victorian age. Killers. The heroine’s indecisiveness, her frequent failures to mantain her resolve, condemn her to death. For example, when Tess is watching the peasants of Tantridge dance, she is offered a walk home from Alec but refuses, a decision she will review later. Because she is raped by Alec, Tess swears she may never marry, confessing the true justice, dairymaids she won’t accept Angel’s proposal ‘as I should refuse any man’ , but she marries Angel. When Alec offers to make her his wife she refuse the in just spring, proposal, before consenting to become his mistress.

Tess’ final uncertain decision is true justice related to Angel Clare: when he comes to take her home with him the girl immediately refuse and advice him to ‘keep away’ because is ‘Too late! Too late!’ but, in the end, she murders Alec and Observation at a Essay, runs to embrace her husband. Tess can’t keep her promises and every time she does not truly mean what she says. Bibliography Chapter Two. 1. Blathway, Taymond, A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of true justice, purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 4. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of Arts and schizophrenia killers, Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 5. Freeman, J., Studies in Philology, 1982 University of justice, North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 6. Hardy, T., Tess of the in just spring, D’Urbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983.

7. Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in justice, Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 9. Memory And Time. Rogers, Katharine, The Centennial Review, Vol 19, No. 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 10. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDF. RAPE OR SEDUCTION? Was Tess raped or lied and seduced? Is Angel an ‘angel”?Hardy’s odyssey with Tess had involved five different namings: Love, Cis, Sue, Rose-Mary, and Tess. The various overwritings and textual layerings in justice, the manuscript testify to the indecision and lack of theories, single-minded vision in the author.

Equally, the true, overlaid bowdlerizations testify to media or editorial censorship not only of Tess’s sexuality but also of the controversial issues of illegitimacy and private baptism.’ Tess is a complex character who has an schizophrenia killers, evolutional destiny from her growth to womanhood. She develops over time and according to chance, events, fate, intelligence, risk taking and becomes an example of adaptation. Tess is the object of Alec d’Uberville’s shameful purposes. He uses all the methods to seduce the innocent and naive girl: he compliments her excessively, he helps her family in order to win her appreciation, and the man is true justice annoyed when Tess nonetheless continues to reject him. And because Alec knows very well how to manipulate people around him he succeds to make the poor and ignorant Tess feel unsure about what’s wrong and what’s right. The heroine has deep rooted moral precepts in her poor education. Even though she has little school instruction, she knows that is very important to remain poor and chaste in order to be accepted in a society ruled by of Language Essay males. Justice. And the schizophrenia, girl succeeds to justice achieve this objective until one fatal night when, through Alec’s stratagem, they are lost together in a forest and the man rapes Tess changing her life forever. About this episode of a significant meaning for the entire novel Hardy does not go into detail but rather, he reflects: ‘why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousand years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to schizophrenia killers our sense of true, order.’ Tess becomes pregnant by Alec in that fatal night and her life will be different from Essay now on. ‘Eventually, since Hardy is not one for halfway measures, sorrow turns to violence, and the loss of her virginity leads to Alec’s murder and Tess’s death on justice the gallows. Even without knowledge of the dire consequences Alec’s pursuit of Tess had, however, we can judge Alex’s character to be frivolous, insensitive, and selfish. The question here, however, is whether he is also a rapist.’ We do not know what exactly happened under the tree.

It is higgs very probably that Alec, while Tess slept, took the opportunity to abuse her. And the true justice, fragile girl was unable to defend herself because a girl can’t measure her force with a man’s force. But is also possible that, given Tess’ tiredness and disorientation, he could persuade the poor girl to Essay agree to have sex with him. Alec, possibly, used once more his tricky words he had been using for the past months and succeded to justice convince Tess that she loved him and the scene under the tree was just the expression of that love. ‘This is a question of fact’ insofar as fictional narratives have facts’to which we cannot know the answer. The issue here, however, is whether it makes any difference. […] If physical force or the threat of The Power Essay, physical force is true justice used to get a woman to agree to Essay have sex, that is rape. Justice. If psychological force is used, can that also be rape”?We define verbal sexual coercion as a woman’s consenting to Assignment Park Essay unwanted sexual activity because of a man’s verbal arguments, not including verbal threats of physical force. Men use many types of verbal coercion to obtain sex: threatening to end the relationship or to find someone else to satisfy their sexual needs; telling a woman that her refusal to have sex was changing the way they felt about true justice her; asserting that ‘everybody does it’ or questioning the woman’s sexuality . . . Essay. making the woman feel guilty; . . . calling a woman a name angrily and true, pushing her away when she would not have sex; and in just spring, threatening to do bodily self-harm.’ Although the true, young Tess is of Language dependent economically on Alec and has another social position- she is true a country girl without money and with little education- she has resisted his flirting. The girl was honest with Alec telling him she disliked his way of watching her, his advances, the gifts offered to her family, the attention she didn’t require. Dr Marietta Higgs. She has real moral values and cannot be bought with words or with money. She wants to fall in love with a real gentleman who is true justice able to be patient, to conquer her, in time, with nice gestures and to appreciate and value her. But sometimes she is indecisive in giving an answer to his proposal to treat her as a lover.

She says: ‘ I don’t know- I wish-how can I say yes or no when-” . Is that a flirt, an unconsciously encouraging? It tranlates fear caused by of Language his economic and social power or young Tess has feeling for Alec but she is true justice not aware of them? The writer gives few clues about this situation causing the reader a great confusion. He doesn’t know what to believe about the poor girl, he can’t find her guily for the situation but has doubt about Essay her moral integrity. Is she an angel or a seductive and indecisive woman? Is she in justice, love with the ‘bastardly’ womanizer, the of nursing, man with his crude, full lips, his bold eye and his dark moustache? The weather conditions work against Tess. Justice. The fatal night is a foggy one. Alec loses his way in such circumstances and the moonlights appear only when he returns to higgs Tess who is sleeping, there, in the wood.

Is Tess less rational because she is sleepy and she cannot defend her physical integrity? The reader knows very well Alec’s personality and true, can drop the sad conclusion that the man took sexual advantage of her. Memory And Time Essay. ‘Hardy takes for granted that Tess becomes the target of the victimization simply because she is justice ‘still alive’ and ‘of the female sex.’ Alec puts himself into the position of the wild hunter, who waits till everybody stops dancing to catch Tess and seize his power over her. The following atmosphere resembles the tranquillize state caused by taking some sleeping pills. Alec with Tess on the same horse passes through the Chase. In Just Spring. Tess, feeling tired after the day’s work, quickly disappears in the state of the unconsciousness in the moment when she falls asleep.’ Rather than describe the sexual scene, Thomas Hardy talks about its inevitability, brutality and irrationality : ‘Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissues, sensitive as gossamer and true justice, practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the Essay, coarse appropriates the true justice, finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousands years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to our sense of order.’ The meaning of this paragraph is crystal clear: sometimes people cannot control the fate. Some people are born to suffer, the and Time Essay, universe has strange plans for them. True Justice. They can fight against the destiny but that is a short battle, with no victory.

Hardy uses a fatalistic expression to state the and Time Essay, way destiny functions: ‘ It was to be!’ but he rejects the idea that children are punished for justice, the mistakes of their ancestors ‘ is scorned by average human nature’. When Tess’s mother presents her daughter the dr marietta higgs, idea about true getting Alec to marry her, the The Power Essay, heroine is offended: ‘She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of true, her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile, had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. Dr Marietta Higgs. That was all.’ The Victorian society is cruel with the girl who can’t do nothing to change her fate and has to true face the social rejection. She is seen now as an dr marietta higgs, immoral woman, a sinner who must be punished. She seems to be culpable for breaking society’s rules and religion’s conventions. But Hardy doesn’t agree and says: ‘ It was they that were out of harmony with the actual world, not she. Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence.

But all the while, she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism, she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ Throughout the entire book Hardy speaks about the two types of law: natural versus social/religious. Natural laws are known as ‘a system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of justice, society, or positive law.’ ‘Walking among the sleeping birds in dr marietta higgs, the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. True Justice. But all the while she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ According to the natural laws, what happened to Tess is ‘natural’, in schizophrenia, synchronism with the nature and shouldn’t be regarded as a mistake which leads to the total social rejection.

Hardy associates the social law with convention and focuses on true the riguros Victorian sexual convention which he describes as unnatural and oppressive. Memory. According to the natural laws, Tess is a pure woman. She remain pure because although her body is blotched, her soul continues to be pure. But, is Hardy’s claim valid? If his argument is valid then Alec cannot be accused of rape because, according to these natural laws, the man, as an alpha male, made everything possible to true preserve his species. In conclusion, Hardy’s argument can’t be valid.

Besides the social rejection, Tess’ loss of virginity ‘changed her from simple girl to complex woman. Symbols of reflectiveness passed into her face and a note of tragedy at times into her voice. Memory Essay. Her eyes grew larger and more eloquent. She became what would have been called a fine creature; her aspect was fair and arresting; her souls that of a woman whom the turbulent experiences of the last year or two had quite failed to true demoralize. But for the world’s opinion those experiences would have been simply a liberal education.’ The inevitable meeting between Tess and Alec is predicted from the earliest chapters of Phase the killers, First. True Justice. Hardy gives clues about the imminent encounter using symbols and symbolic events: the colors red and white, the virgins’dance, Alec’s giving Tess strawberries and theories, the death of Prince. This is the true, author’s way of preparing the reader for the terrible event which will change Tess’ life forver. Hardy describes the moment very carrefully: ‘Tess!’ said d’Urberville. There was no answer.

The obscurity was now so great that he could see absolutely nothing but a pale nebulousness at his feet, which represented the white muslin figure he had left upon the dead leaves. Everything else was blackness alike. D’Urberville stooped; and heard a gentle regular breathing. He knelt, and bent lower, till her breath warmed his face, and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers. Schizophrenia Killers. She was sleeping soundly, and upon her eyelashes there lingered tears.’ Analysing the description, William A. Davis, Jr. observes that the true justice, agression upon Tess begins without any verbal communication between Alec and Tess. The heroine is asleep and doesn’t give an answer to Alec’s accost. ‘The silence ruled everywhere around’ says Hardy. The physical contact is at Observation, first kind and caressing ‘her breath warmed his face , and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers’ and justice, this affirmation is followed with the statement that the schizophrenia killers, heroine ‘was sleeping soundly’ . ‘Subsequent descriptive details- the narrator mentions Tess’ absent ‘guardian angel’ , the ‘coarse pattern’ about to be traced upon Tess, ‘the possibility of justice, a retribution lurking in the present catastrophe’ , and the certainty that Tess’ ‘mailed ancestors rollicking home from a fray had dealt the same measure even more ruthlessly towards peasant girls of her time’ – all suggest the violent nature of schizophrenia killers, Alec assault. Justice. To an theories of nursing, alert Victorian reader, however, these details would have confirmed rather than introduced the idea of rape. The rape of Tess actually begins with the passage that describe Tess’ sleep and her lack of verbal response- the passage, in justice, short, that establishes her lack of consent to Alec’s advances.’ ‘Rape is the offence of having unlawful and carnal knowledge of a woman by force, and against theories, her will.’ Mews’ Digest of English Case Law further explains that: ‘to constitute rape, it is not necessary that the connection with the woman should be had against her will; it is sufficient if it is without her consent.’ And also the law specifies that: ‘If the true, woman is Assignment Essay asleep, when the connection takes place, she is true justice incapable of consent, and although no violence is used, the pisoner may be convicted of rape, if he knew that she was asleep.’ Because Alec does not receive any answer to in just spring his address, the reader can say that Tess is not a conscious woman in that crucial moment under the tree. She doesn’t communicate with Alec because she is asleep and the reader can assume that Alec knows that the heroine is sleeping because he hears her breathing and receives no answer to his accost.

Hardy intentionally introduces that episode full of signification at the beginning of the woods scene: he tries, in justice, a subtle manner, to inoculate to his readers the idea that Tess is raped and not seduced. The girl isn’t awake, her consciousness is completely or partially lost. This sleep is crucial for the poor girl because does not allow her to return to her former condition and brings her to a new stage- the girl is Memory obliged to justice start a new chapter in her poor existence. With the beginning of Phase the The Power, Second Hardy gives another signification to true justice the scene under the tree: he seems to replace the idea of rape with the idea of seduction: Tess isn’t any more a victim of Alec’s desire, she is an in just spring, accomplice in a romantic relationship of several months’ duration. ‘In his personal comments on the novel, Hardy tended to emphasize the true, seduction rather than the The Power of Language, sexual assault that prededes it. For example, in a letter written in 1891 to thank Thomas Macquoid for true, his praise of the serial Tess, Hardy refers to of Language the seduction (but not the rape) of Tess in the forthcoming volume edition: ?? Clare’s character [in the serial] suffers owing to true justice a mock mariage having been substituted for the seduction pure #038; simple of the original MS.- which I did for The Power of Language, the sake of the true justice, Young Girl. The true reading will be restored in Memory and Time, the volumes.

Thus, Hardy saw seduction as a major part of the true justice, true reading of Tess.’ Why does Thomas Hardy offer few details about the scene under the tree? The reader cannot tell for sure the reason why , but he can draw the dr marietta, conclusion that this is an artifice of writing used by true justice the author to and Time Essay maintain his readers’ curiosity about Tess’ sexuality and purity. In his readers’ mind will be a fight between two thoughts: Tess is an innocent young girl raped by a beast; Tess is not a pure girl, she fell in love with Alec, had a sexual relationship with the justice, man and higgs, deserves everything that happened to her. ‘As I have suggested, Hardy’s writing (and rewriting) of the first of true, these events- the assault upon Tess in Phase the of nursing, First- grew out of his knowledge of English rape law. The legal premise that a sleeping woman is true justice incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse was routinely upheld in Victorian courts. A sleeping woman’s purity- purity in the sense that she cannot consent to a sexual relationship and her will cannot be known- is dr marietta beyond question in the eyes of the true, law; therefore Hardy turns his attention from rape to seduction and to the more complicated question of Tess’ purity as an Observation Park, apparently consenting woman.’ Alec is a dishonest character, he knows how to true justice manipulate Tess, to play with her mind. In Just Spring. When the girl discover that they are lost in the forest she says: ‘ How can you be so treacherous?….just when I’ve been putting such trust in you’ . Before Alec goes to try to find a way of leaving the wood, he makes ‘a sort of couch or nest for her’ with dead leaves, checking that they are dry. He also tells the girl that he has bought a new horse for her father and her siblings have now toys to play with.

Alec covers her ‘tenderly’ with his coat and goes to find the justice, way. Dr Marietta Higgs. What can the reader notice now is the fact that the entire forest is wrapped in fog. The fog has a deep signification in this episode and translate the fact that Tess is absorbed into the natural environment. Fog symbolizes confusion, danger, and the unseen. True Justice. But here, in the phase two, Maiden no more, the reader can find important clues about the seduction and not the rape of in just spring, Tess. True Justice. The heroine admits that ‘her eyes were a little dazed’ by Alec and that the tragic event was a moment of vulnerability. And this is the first sign that Tess agreed to be involved in a sexual relationship.

She accuses Alec for seducing her and not for an sexual assault. Theories Of Nursing. Writing about true Tess’s drama, Ellen Rooney says that if the reader has no declaration about truth from of nursing Tess herself, he cannot precisely say whether or not she is sexual assaulted or seduced. True. But even though Tess never tells her story entirely, the reader has her thoughts on what she lived with Alec: ‘She had never wholly cared for him, she did not care for Observation Assignment, him now. She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile: had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. That was all. Hate him she did not quite; but he was dust and true, ashes to her, and killers, even for her name’s sake she scarcely wished to marry him.’ ‘Temporarily blinded by his ardent manners’ the heroine’had been stirred to justice confused surrender awhile.’ From Tess’ declaration the reader can draw the conclusion that for a little period of time the girl was superficially attracted to Alec and of nursing, sexually stirred by him. She never ‘wholly’ loved the man and this is a strong reason to justice believe that the heroine could not have consented to have sexual relations with him. When leaving Alec’s house Tess confesses that she now ‘loathe (s) and hate (s) herself for (her) weakness’. But why the girl hates herself and blames her for her weakness if she was raped and not seduced? Why doesn’t she hate Alec for Observation Assignment Park Essay, his cruelty?

When Tess says that she ‘succumbed to adroit advantages Alec took of her helplessness’ , William Davis argues that she refers to the sexual assault of her while she slept. Because a sleeping woman cannot consent to sexual relation, under the Victorian Law this was rape. And surely Thomas Hardy knew about this law and wrote this scene under the influence of such law. To conform Hardy’s intentions to Victorian law on rape, Davis argues that what the author calls ‘seduction pure #038; simple’ was rape followed by seduction. Thomas Hardy does not offer much information about the tragic event from justice that night but he argues that his heroine was very tired that night: ‘She was inexpressibly weary. Memory And Time. She had risen at five o’clock every morning of true justice, that week, had been on foot the theories of nursing, whole of each day, and on this evening had, in addition, walked the three miles to Chaseborough, waited three hours for her neighbours without eating or drinking, her impatience to start them preventing either; she had then walked a mile of the way home, and had undergone the excitement of the quarrel, till, with the true, slow progress of their steed, it was now nearly one o’clock. Only once, however, was she overcome by actual drowsiness. In that moment of oblivion her head sank gently against him.’ Tess of D’Urberville felt offended when Alec tried to take her in his arms.

The girl knows that she is not safe, alone, with this man in the woods but she can do nothing to change this situation: ‘D’Urberville stopped the horse, withdrew his feet from the schizophrenia, stirrups, turned sideways on the saddle, and enclosed her waist with his arm to support her. This immediately put her on the defensive, and with one of those sudden impulses of reprisal to which she was liable she gave him a little push from her. In his ticklish position he nearly lost his balance and only just avoided rolling over into the road, the horse, though a powerful one, being fortunately the quietest he rode.’ Alec D’Urbervilles, the true justice, master of higgs, tricks, embraces Tess although he knows very well that the true, girl has no feeling for him. He isn’t dissapointed that Tess doesn’t love him because Alec doesn’t look for love, he wants to take Tess’ virginity. ‘He settled the Observation Assignment at a Essay, matter by clasping his arm round her as he desired’ and Tess expressed no further negative. Thus they sidled slowly onward till it struck her they had been advancing for an unconscionable time’ far longer than was usually occupied by the short journey from Chaseborough, even at this walking pace, and true justice, that they were no longer on hard road, but in in just spring, a mere trackway.’ After Tess’s fall Hardy asks himself: ‘But, might some say, where was Tess’s guardian angel? where was the Providence of her simple faith? Perhaps, like that other god of whom the ironical Tishbite spoke, he was talking, or he was pursuing, or he was in true, a journey, or he was sleeping and not to be awaked. Why it was that upon of Language, this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man […]’ Due to Tess’s first fall, her sexual experience with Alec, the girl is justice seen as a fallen woman who must be despised and discredited wherever she goes.

When she comes back to Marlott she is gossiped and indirect attacked. In the church ‘the people who had turned their heads turned them again as the of Language Essay, service proceeded; and at true, last observing her they whispered to each other.’ She knows what the people were talking about and feels so hurt that she takes the decision she won’t go to church anymore. Working in her village, on a field, to earn her living Tess still cannot escape from the rumor about schizophrenia killers her sexual relation with Alec and justice, her child is the theories of nursing, real proof of that sin. She is true really unhappy in her village and thinks ‘she might be happy in some nook which had no memories. To escape the past and all that appertained thereto was to annihilate it; and to do that she would have to get away.’ Under the great social pressure Tess is forced to schizophrenia leave her house and to try to start a new life somewhere else. She resembles with the rabbits, hares, rats, mice and snakes ‘retreating inwards as into justice, a fastness, unaware of the The Power Essay, ephemeral nature of their refuge and of the doom that awaited them later.’ ‘She cannot escape the censure and condemnation, which company her like her own shadow. She is hunted everywhere. Hardy’s poem, Tess’s Lament vividly portrays the dilemma Tess is plunged in. I would that folk forgot me quite, Forgot me quite! I would that I could shrink from sight,

And no more see the sun. Would it were time to say farewell, To claim my nook, to true justice need my knell, Time for theories of nursing, them all to stand and tell. When Tess meets Angel Clare the heroine has a certain sexual experience.

The love story lived with Angel, the love confessions they make to each other, the certainty in Angel’s confessions, all these good things in her life determine Tess to accept Angel’s proposal without a better prudence and understanding of the facts. The heroine proved that she is capable of sustaining herself, she is justice fearless and self-determined. Killers. She can live without being married, she can feed herself just with love and true justice, he can live respectiong only the natural laws. ‘Culture alone insists on marriage just as society insists on virginity and the church insists on the subordination of the woman in matrimony.’ In the Memory, bridal night, when Angel confesses his sins Tess has an innocent belief that she will be forgiven. She also has a dishonorable past but she is willing to forgive the man she loves and to live free in a happily marriage. Her mother does not agree with her decision of confessing Angel his past because she is a woman with experience and true justice, knows that in a society dominated by men, in of nursing, a patriarchal society she will be found guilty. ‘Despite her obsessive fear of Angel’s learning her history, Tess is true unrealistically unable to predict his response when he does’improbably na??ve in theories of nursing, her jubilation that her transgression is ‘just the same’ as his’. She will not use sex to win Angel over during their honeymoon, although the narrator tells us that it might have worked.’ Garson tries to determine if Tess is characterized by lack of competence or honesty taken to extreme.

She decides that Tess could act completely different this action having another end but Hardy does not want a happy end for his heroine, he wants to prove that Tess acts having in true, mind her own moral values and not the society’s. Angel confesses to Assignment at a Park Tess his sin, his ‘dissipation with a stranger’ and after listening with great attention the girl concludes that her fall is not bigger than Angel’s mistake and he can obtain forgiveness. True. ‘It can hardly be more serious, dearest,’ says Angel, condescendingly, smilingly. ‘It cannot’O no, it cannot!’ She jumped up joyfully at the hope. ‘No, it cannot be more serious, certainly,’ she cried. ‘I will tell you now.’ She sat down again. Their hands were still joined. The ashes under the grate were lit by the ‘ re vertically, like a torrid waste. Her imagination beheld a Last Day luridness in this red- coaled glow, which fell on in just spring his face and hand, and on hers, peering into the loose hair about her brow, and true justice, ‘ ring the delicate skin underneath. According to Rosemarie Morgan (Student Companion to Thomas Hardy, p.93) in a later version for the 1912 Wessex Edition Hardy writes out Tess’s words. After the statement ‘No, it cannot be more serious,’ he adds, ‘because ’tis just the same!’ Saying these words she tries to convince herself and the man she is in love with that she ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’ be condemned by Memory Essay him because their situation is true justice ‘just the same’. Theories Of Nursing. The repetitions prove that Tess is making a considerable effort to convince Angel and to convince herself that her mistake is not bigger than his.

Tess’ belief that Angel will love her and will forgive her sin is expressed in some words of a great innocence: ‘I thought, Angel, that you loved me’me, my very self! If it is I you do love, O how can it be that you look and speak so? It frightens me! Having begun to love you, I love you forever’in all changes, in all disgraces, because you are yourself. I ask no more. Then how can you, O my own husband, stop loving me’?

Angel has annihilated the image of woman he was in love with- ”the woman I have been loving is not you’ . Tess is justice scared and terrified; ‘Terror was upon her white face’ and her full and beautiful mouth that once charmed Angel and reminded him of ‘roses filled with snow’ is cursed ‘a round little hole’ ‘Angel, to a far greater extent than Tess, is formed and shaped by his past. She, with her rebounding spirits, vibrant sexuality and self-determination, had created herself anew, had risen above her past where Angel is still victim of his. Significantly, the fallen woman is rendered dumb, mute, and in just spring, prone, not by the seducer but by the lawful husband.’ Thomas Hardy’s heroine is not killed by her past but by the man she is married to. Even though her sin is still alive in her soul, Tess succeeded to forgive herself and to start a new life far away from the man who raped her and away from the family that did not succeed to true understand her sorrow and to cure her wounds. In a men’s world, Tess is higgs just a victim who cannot live in a lie and decides to true tell all the truth to the man who convinced her to marry him and who will kill her soul slowly and gently. The heroine is punished because she is a woman in killers, a men’s society and is married to a man caught in Victorian conventions. Justice. How can she be a real human being if the men’s world decides to reduce her to an object”?Thus humanity is schizophrenia killers male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him; she is not regarded as an autonomous being’.she is simply what man decrees’.she is true justice defined and in just spring, differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her. True Justice. She is the incidental, the unessential as opposed to the essential. He is the Subject, he is the in just spring, Absolute- she is the Other.’ Bibliography Chapter Three. 1. Justice. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press.

2. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the dr marietta, D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 3. Davis, W., Thomas Hardy and the law, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and true, and printing corp, 2003. 4. Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text, Oxford University Press, 1991. 5. Hardy, T., Tess of the D’Urbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 6. Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Memory and Time Essay, Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 7. True Justice. Morgan, R., Women and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy, Routledge London and New York, 2006. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2007. 9. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the of nursing, hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 10. True Justice. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans.

H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953, p. xiv. 11. In Just Spring. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’. Anna Karenina and Tess of D’Urberville- a tragic destiny. Anna Karenina is a novel wrote by the russian writer Lev Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1873 to 1877. Since the novel’s publication, Anna Karenina has been seen as ‘every man’s tragedy’ or considered as a Bovarian banality by true justice any masculinist critical view. Iuri Lotman, said: ‘ The plot of Anna Karenina reflects, on the one hand a certain narrow object- the life of the heroine…..We can regard the life of the heroine as a reflection of the life of any woman belonging to a certain epoch and a certain social milieu, any woman, any person. Otherwise, the tragic vicissitudes of Essay, her life would only justice be of local interest.’ Lotman’s affirmation translates once again the idea that men’s problems are more important than the women’s problems. It’s not quite important that a woman is not happy in her marriage, that she does not feel love and affection for the men she lives with, because the most important problems in any society are men’s problems: war, government, etc Once again, also in Anna Karenina as in Tess of D’Urbervilles it can be seen the preoccupation for dr marietta higgs, a society which is dominated by men, is a patriarchal epoch concerned exclusively with men’s situations.

The question regarding the women’s position in society was initially formulated in the Victorian England and later this preoccupation could be also found among the Russian elite after the translation of Mill’s oeuvre, ‘The subjection of women’ in 1869. The beginning of the nineteenth century did not come with major ideas about women’s condition and life, but it can be seen as a start of reconsidering the role of women in a society governed by men and which needs a change. Russian woman’s emancipation had been initially treated in literature- the novels of justice, Ivan Turgenev, the oeuvres of Alexander Druzhinin’s ‘Polinka Saks’ (1847), or the Nikolai Nekrasov’s play, ‘Sasha’. Early Russian writings concerning the Assignment at a Essay, idea of oppressed women were influenced by true justice the novels of George Sand, whose feminine characters suffer because cannot be free in killers, choosing the man they want to love and to be happy with. True. Anna Karenina is a very beautiful, noble, married woman from St. Petersburg who lives a life full of The Power of Language, bitterness because she is true justice married with a man she does not love and she is in love with a young officer. This passion, these strong feelings will be the reason for higgs, his exile from the society she belongs to true justice and will bring her death.

Even though Tess of D’Urbervilles is dr marietta higgs not a rich woman, on the contrary, is true justice a very poor girl with a family that will sign her death conviction- she is sent to claim kin and she is not advised that out there is a big world and she has to be very careful because men might want to harm her and to theories of nursing take advantages of her- the both heroines are guided by the same noble feeling and have the genuine belief that a woman can be happy only through love, loving and be loved. The both characters are very beautiful women- Tess is poor but beautiful, she does not have an elitist education but she cannot be seen as a simple peasant girl; Anna Arkadyevna Karenina is a model of beauty and true, perfection. He has a selective education, she is very intelligent, a big reader of English novels and she also writes books for children. Anna is very elegant and is considered a perfect woman who can make any man fall in love with her. Her life with a cold and passionless government official taught her to play the role of cultivated, noble, perfect wife. She is also a good hostess and plays all these roles with style and refinement. Assignment At A Park Essay. The tragedy of beautiful women comes from the fact that they are considered as a trophy every respectable man must obtain. And if the woman is married then the battle will be more powerful: the competitor will try to conquer someone’s ‘good’ in order to prove to himself that he has the real qualities to win, he is better than the true, husband and he can really understand the killers, heroine’s needs for love and support. Anna is not a simple aristocratic woman who plays the role of the perfect and happy wife who is still in love with her husband, is only preoccupied with the raise of her children and obeys entirely her husband because he is true always right. Anna has an theories, ardent spirit and is determinate to live her life on her own terms. Justice. ‘All the girls in the world were divided into two classes: one class included all the girls in the world except her, and they had all the usual human feelings and were very ordinary girls; while the other class ‘ herself alone- had no weaknesses and was superior to all humanity.’ Tolstoy writes ‘Anna Karenina’ in order to explain the great changes occurring in the Russian society during the late nineteenth century.

The novel presents a battle between the killers, old patriarchal values which characterize the old society, the aristocracy and the new, modern values, the West values. The landowning aristocracy believe in justice, traditions like servitude, and autocratic government, while the West brings values like technology, democracy, rationalism. In Just Spring. This major theme can be seen in the difficulty Levin has with his workers when he tries to true justice introduce a new way of farming. His peasants refuse to implement the new technology having the at a Park Essay, strong belief that the traditional Russian way of farming should not be changed. ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ presents the changes brought in the nineteenth century in the Victorian Age, also the importance of true justice, social class in England and in the same time the complication of defining class in the Victorian England. A proof for this affirmation is offered by the fact that Durbeyfields are no longer considered in theories, the Victorian Age as a dominant symbol as it would have been in the Middle Ages. Alec’s father, Simon Stokes was able to use his money and to buy a very important, aristocratic name, being another proof that in the Victorian period money are more important than the origin and family history. In the true, both novels, ‘Anna Karenina’ and ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles the changes brought in the society are presented by Assignment Essay the main heroines. True. Alexei Karenin, the government official with a weak personality is playing the role of an educated and sophisticated man who is capable to schizophrenia forgive his wife for her infidelity and to offer her the chance at a respectful life despite her adventure with the true justice, young officer. What Karenin does not understand is the power of love that can make people to schizophrenia killers choose the true justice, complicated way and not the simple and known path. Anna Karenina, like Tess, is not just a simple woman, who can leave in conventionalism, she has another perception of live and she wants to love, to be appreciated as a special woman and not just as wife and mother.

She craves for a life of ardent emotion and noble passions. Karenin’s entire life is characterized by dr marietta higgs formalism, he knows which his duties are and true, he respects the professional obligations of theories of nursing, his function. Alexei is a very good government official because this role defines him and in fact is the ratio of his life- a life without grand passion and excitement. Anna and Karenin have a marriage of convenience. There’s a big age gap between the two characters and justice, also different ways of living and seeing the life and life’s values. Assignment Park. Anna craves for true, sentimental devotion and sincerity while Alexei is happy with the monotonous work and family life. ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in higgs, its own way’ is the first line of the Tolstoy’s novel and true, reveals the fact that the novel is concerned with the happiness, is a declaration for Essay, the need of happiness. Is it Anna Karenina happy? Why did the heroine immediately fall in love with Vronsky and renounced to her comfortable and respectful life?

Why is a mother ready to true justice sacrifice her child for a man? These are the questions Tolstoy tries to answer and his explanation is that women are capable of great and powerful feelings. They can live in misery but a domestic one, not a sentimental failure; they can have a conventional marriage but will always crave for the real love and for fervent feelings and when they will meet the higgs, love they will be capable of leaving everything for that noble feeling. Anna Karenina has an unhappy marriage, her husband does not appreciate her as a woman, he can only see the mother Anna and the wife Anna but not the woman Anna who needs love, appreciation, adventure and emotion. Anna is true justice ready to defend her love for Vronsky, she can accept the social rejection, the fact that she will never be respected and she will be seen as a sinful women. Schizophrenia Killers. But that’s the essence: a woman, who has the courage to love and to openly live with a man that is not her husband, is not captive in a formal arrangement that could have offered her protection and could have been the institutionalization of true justice, a lie is what defines a heroine. Tess of D’Urberville is not an unfaithful married woman, she is just an innocent peasant girl who is Park convinced that two people that are meant to be together will meet and will live a beautiful love story like in the novels she used to read. She is not a sinful woman because is not her choice to be raped but is considered by the Victorian society as a decadent human being and justice, convicted to the social rejection. ‘Anna, Eustacia, [Vye], Tess [Durbeyfield] or Sue [Bridehead] – what was there in schizophrenia killers, their position that was necessarily tragic? Necessarily painful it was, but they were not at war with God, only with Society. Yet they were all cowed by the mere judgement of man upon justice, them and all the while by their own souls they were right.

And the judgement of men killed them, not the judgement of their own souls or the judgement of Ethernal God. Lev Tolstoy chose to The Power Essay analyze the “woman question” enclosed in a comparison: He puts in opposition Anna’s search for sense in life with that of Levin, the Tolstoy’s other main character. And Tolstoy chose to do something scandalous for his epoch: He converted Anna in an unfaithful woman- a sensitive character. Anna wasn’t miserable because she disobeyed her unbearable, suffocating husband and had to be punished; she was unhappy because she didn’t find, in Tolstoy’s opinion, meaningful love and the life’s signification. Tolstoy’s belief that true love and happiness could be accomplished only through a love marriage means represents the heroine’s drama. Anna finds for justice, a short period of time happiness outside marriage, in dr marietta, Vronsky’s arms but her lack of true, autonomy and social rejection brought by in just spring a forbidden relationship causes her sorrow. Tolstoy puts in opposition Anna’s story with the story of Levin, an open-minded man who succeeded in his search for meaning in true justice, life by choosing a marriage partner he considered his equal rather than his inferior. Tolstoy also presents the hypocrisy that characterizes the nineteenth society, the fact that men could cheat his partners without punishment whereas women could not.

He also highlights the idea that lots of woman had relationships outside the of Language, marriage including discreet women who blames Anna for true, her actions similar to their own. The Victorian controversy of grand importance in ‘Tess of D’Urberville’ is also ‘the Woman question’ or how woman should be seen and what roles they should play in society. Many writers thought that woman should stay at home and killers, work in the house, being unable to learn and to work for the society. The Victorian women were meant to be ‘an angel in the house’ and also for their husbands and nothing more. Justice. If the woman lost her virginity and honour, before marriage, she was convicted to live a life full of shame and sorrow. If the husband was unfaithful, the society won’t blame him for the sexual behaviour.

R.G. Christian says: ‘It was people not God who threw Anna under the theories, train’ highlighting the power of the society which can determine the true justice, destiny of a human being. Vladimir Nabokov, in his work on at a Russian literature, characterized Anna as ‘a young, handsome, and fundamentally good woman, and a fundamentally doomed woman.’ Nabokov also protects her role as a foreigner of the society she lives in: ‘[Anna] is a woman with a full, compact, important moral nature: everything about true her character is in just spring significant and striking, and this applied as well to her love. She cannot limit herself as another character in the book, Princess Betsy, does, to true an undercover affair. Her truthful and passionate nature makes disguise and secrecy impossible.’ Tolstoy makes Anna almost completely a human being of passion and then allows that passion to kill her. After the heroine meets Vronsky, all of of Language Essay, her actions are concerned with keeping a loving relationship with him. Anna is also ready to renounce to true her existence in order to feel and to enjoy the full love. Schizophrenia Killers. Her passion for Vronsky causes a separation between herself and Kitty and also between herself and the domestic sphere.

After the social rejection also the position of mother is true justice soon denied her, and later she is not enough concerned in developing a relationship with her daughter and make this relationship essential part of her life. Even her outfits limit the character. She wears only black clothing expressing the fact that she is in a profound grief and she seems convicted to die for theories, the fact that she was capable to renounce to her family for living the love story of her life. Tess of true, D’Urberville is not a rich, aristocratic girl, on the contrary, she is put under immense pressure by in just spring her family to improve their economic position and reputation. She grows in a small village being protected from the influence of an aristocratic society with decadent values. She is a genuine young girl who wants to have a happy marriage, to true love and to be loved. She is not interested in having a certain social position because she believes in love as a way of being happy. But the dr marietta higgs, society is justice cruel with the Thomas Hardy’s heroine and signs her conviction to dead.

Even though she cannot be found guilty because she did not consciously commit a mistake she is blamed by in just spring a superficial society which cannot see under the appearances. Anna Karenina is found guilty because she had the justice, courage to admit that her marriage is a formal one and she is not happy. She discovers another Anna when she is with Vronsky and she is very happy. In Just Spring. Her guilty is that she refuses to live a love story outside her marriage in a society in which the relationships outside a marriage are accepted and true, formal alliances are protected. Tess of D’Urberville was found guilty because her family couldn’t protect and defend herself against a world dominated by in just spring men and she had the courage to true tell Angel that she was raped and Observation Assignment, he had a little baby. True. She did not want to killers marry with Alec, to have a formal marriage because the hypocrisy dominated in justice, the Victorian society did not affect her perception about does a marriage mean. Vronsky is a good looking character, rich, and also a charming man who is in just spring as willing as Anna is to renounce to his social status and professional position for justice, finding the real love. His involvement in his hospital-building project shows a carrying person who wants to protect the weak people. In Just Spring. But the true, Tolstoy’s work also shows a Vronsky with defects and blames.

His strange hair, his mistake in calculating the horse race, his ambitions of military fame these entire characteristics make a Vronsky human and not a romantic character. Anna finds Alexei an exceptional man who could make her very happy and could offer her a completely rescue and schizophrenia killers, a burial into a seductive passion. The heroine is justice very disappointed when she discovers that Vronsky’s passion is limited and he is higgs just another man and not THE man. The Tolstoy’s choice to give Vronsky the justice, same name as his husband’s suggests that Anna is doomed to repeat the failure of her first relationship. ‘Anna had been preparing herself for this meeting, had thought what she would say to The Power of Language Essay him, but she did not succeed in saying anything of it; his passion mastered her. Justice. She tried to calm him, to calm herself, but it was too late. His feeling infected her. Her lips trembled so that for a long while she could say nothing.’ Vronsky’s commitment to theories Anna seems to decrease in later chapters of Tolstoy’s novel but the justice, reader cannot be convinced that this is the schizophrenia killers, true situation because he finds out about this wane of devotion from Anna’s confessions which betrays the fear that the man she loves and for whom she has sacrificed her marriage and her social position, becoming a mistress, is not any more in love with the heroine. True. The events related to this episode seem to indicate that Vronsky’s love hasn’t faded: he takes Anna to his country home which is luxurious, elegant, he stays with the heroine and refuses to visit his old friends and even mother, he is still fascinated by her beauty and personality. He occasionally misses the old fame and military glory especially when he meets his old comrades but he does not blame Anna for this situation. Vronsky accepts Anna’s paranoia and her whims but for Tolstoy’s main character these proves are not enough, are just signs of duty and Observation Assignment at a, not actions indicating true love.

The reader cannot decide is right in justice, this situation because Vronsky’s thoughts are not exposed. Angel Clare is in just spring Tess’ Vronsky, the man full of passion who can kidnap the heroine’s present and can project a whole new world outside the mediocrity of an irrational and hypocritical society. When Tess first meets Angel she realizes that she definitely has seen him before, at the May-dance and he did not choose Tess to be his dance partner. Justice. But because the destiny wants to bring together Tess and of Language Essay, Angel and also to determine, Tess’ dead conviction, they meet again at the dairy. The love the both characters feel for each other is genuine, pure, without being jealous or proud. ‘It was then, as has been said, that she impressed him most deeply. She was no longer the milkmaid, but a visionary essence of woman- a whole sex condensed into one physical form. He called her Artemis, Demeter, and other fanciful names half teasingly, which she did not like because she did not understand them. ‘Call me Tess’, she would say askance; and he did. In this quote from the true justice, novel the reader can clearly see that Angel is in in just spring, love with the image of a perfect woman and not exclusively with Tess herself. True. She is Memory and Time compared with the Greek goddesses and that means that she has to justice be the ideal of feminine beauty and perfection in order to be loved by Angel. And Tess is not a goddess, she’s a simply peasant young girl who just wants to love and to be loved.

In the critical essay ‘Why women are oppressed’ Anna Jonasdottir says: ‘Man is in just spring willing to accept woman as an equal, as a man in skirt, as an true, angel, a devil, a baby-face, a machine, an instrument, a bosom, a womb, a pair of legs, a servant, an encyclopaedia, an ideal or an obscenity; the only thing he won’t accept her as is a human being, a real human being of the real sex.’ Angel seems to be a character that wants to be surrounded by Observation Assignment at a Park Essay angels and true, can’t accept that human beings have a past, made mistakes, he cannot forgive and forget even though he asks for forgiveness. He is an example of a fallen angel who couldn’t remain pure and also failed in and Time Essay, being a good Christian by confessing Tess his sin. His mistake is also Tess’s mistake but the true, influence of the Victorian society does not allow him to see clearly and to only after the longue journey he realizes that ‘the beauty or ugliness of a character lay not only in its achievements, but in theories of nursing, its aims and impulses; its true story lay, not among things done, but among thinks willed.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles and Anna share also another pattern-fog, haziness, mystery. When Tess of D’Urbervilles is raped, the scene is surrounded by mist and true justice, the reader does not exactly knows what to think about this situation: ‘She was silent, and the horse ambled along for a consider- able distance, till a faint luminous fog, which had hung in the hollows all the evening, became general and enveloped them. It seemed to hold the moonlight in schizophrenia, suspension, rendering it more pervasive than in clear air. True Justice. Whether on this account, or from absent-mindedness, or from in just spring sleepiness, she did not perceive that they had long ago passed the true, point at Assignment at a Essay, which the lane to Trantridge branched from the highway, and that her conductor had not taken the Trantridge track.’ Anna herself speaks of a certain haze which in associating it with the purity of first love: “I remember that blue haze, like the haze on the mountains in true, Switzerland.

That haze which envelops everything at that blissful time when childhood is just coming to an end and its huge merry circle narrows to a path which one treads gaily yet with dread into life’s corridor” . . Dr Marietta. . Kitty smiled … “How did she go through it? How I should like to know the whole romance of her life!” she thought, recalling the true, unromantic exterior of Observation Assignment Park, Anna’s husband.’ The patter appears again when Kitty realizes the visible sympathy between Anna and Vronsky at the ball and “a mist spread(s) over her soul” Anna and Tess are two heroines who have lots o resemblances but also dissimilarities. Tess of justice, D’Urbervilles is an Memory Essay, innocent peasant girl who takes care of her family being fascinated with the novels she reads. True. She is not selfish, she does not to marry with an aristocratic men and to in just spring be part of the aristocratic society. Anna is justice also intelligent, cultivated, simple, honest, and a devoted mother. But the relationship with Vronsky changes her completely. Tess’s downfall is caused by her lack of education in what concern such a complicated subject for theories of nursing, the society she lives in- sexual relationships and it can be said that her trust in men is determined by reading romantic novels and identifying with their heroines in a specifically sensual and innocent way. Anna, on contrary, is unable to read her novel on her train ride home after flirting with Vronsky. “She was too eager to justice live herself. If she read how the heroine of the novel nursed a sick man, she wanted to be moving about a sickroom with noiseless tread herself”.

When she discovers, it is to make an higgs, instinctual moral perception: ‘The hero of the novel had nearly attained his Englishman’s idea of happiness … and Anna was wishing she could go to the estate with him, when she suddenly felt that he must be feeling ashamed and that she was ashamed for the same reason.’ Anna Karenina and Tess D’Urbervilles are honorable women. Even though Anna has a sexual relationship outside her marriage she does not accept Karenin’s proposal when he decides that they can stay into a formal marriage and forget Anna’s infidelity. True. The heroine is not ashamed that she has a relationship with Vronsky because this relationship represents her entire life-love, fantasy, eternity, nobles. ‘Alexey Alexandrovitch! What is it you want of me”?I want you not to meet that man here, and to Essay conduct yourself so that neither the world nor the servants can reproach you…not to see him. That’s not much, I think. And in return you will enjoy all the privileges of a faithful wife without fulfilling her duties. That’s all I have to say to you.

Now it’s time for true, me to go. Dr Marietta Higgs. I’m not dining at home.’ He got up and true, moved towards the door. Anna got up too. Of Nursing. Bowing in silence, he let her pass before him.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles also refuses Alec’s proposal to be his mistress because she cannot have a relationship with a man she is not in love with, a man who harmed her. ‘Very well,’ he said, laughing; ‘I am sorry to wound you. True. I did wrong’I admit it.’ He dropped into some little bitterness as he continued: ‘Only you needn’t be so everlastingly flinging it in my face. I am ready to pay to the uttermost farthing. You know you need not work in the fields or the dairies again. You know you may clothe yourself with the best, instead of in the bald plain way you have lately affected, as if you couldn’t get a ribbon more than you earn.’ ‘I have said I will not take anything more from you, and I will not’I cannot! I SHOULD be your creature to go on in just spring doing that, and I won’t.’

Bibliography Chapter four. 1. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 2. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994. 3. Lotman, Iuri, ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 4. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question, and the Victorian novel’, The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio State University Press, 1993.

5. Nabocov, V. ‘Lectures on true Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 6. R.G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge 1969. 7. Tolstoy, L. Memory And Time Essay. ‘Anna Karenina’, translated by Louise Shanks #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes. They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. True. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. They were ‘angels in dr marietta, the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society.

The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. 1. Blathway, Taymond, ‘A Chat with the Author of true justice, Tess, Black and White, IV’. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press. 4. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the Observation Assignment at a Park Essay, D’Urbervilles’, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 5. Davis, W., ‘Thomas Hardy and true justice, the law’, Legal Presences in The Power of Language, Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 6. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of justice, Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 7. Freeman, J., ‘Studies in The Power of Language Essay, Philology’, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 8. Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text’, Oxford University Press, 1991.

9. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and true justice, Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Memory Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 10. Hardy, T., ‘Letter to true justice Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. In Just Spring. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 11. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to justice Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 12. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 13.

Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 14. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Life and Park Essay, Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 15. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994. 16. Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 17. Lotman, I. ‘The structure of the justice, artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977.

18. Memory And Time Essay. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question and the Victorian novel’The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio, State University Press, 1993. 19. True Justice. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 20. Millgate, M., ‘Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist’, London: Macmillan, 1994.

21. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 22. Morgan, R., ‘Women and Sexuality in The Power, the novels of Thomas Hardy,’ Routledge London and New York, 2006. 23. Justice. Morgan, R., ‘Student companion to Thomas Hardy’, Greenwood Press, London, 2007.

24. Of Nursing. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 25. Nabokov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 26. R. G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge, 1969. 27. Rogers, Katharine, ‘The Centennial Review’, Vol 19, No. 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press.

28. Simone de Beauvoir, ‘The Second Sex,’ trans. H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953. 29. Justice. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translation by Louise Shanks Maude #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. 30. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDf. 31. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is Memory and Time qualified to a high level in true, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. The Power Of Language Essay. Just complete our simple order form and true justice, you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in and Time Essay, as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: ‘Tess of true justice, D’Urbervilles’ and the Victorian Era . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/english-literature/essay-tess-of-durbervilles-and-the-victorian-era/ [04-10-17]. If you are the Observation Assignment at a Essay, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 28-05-17 - Things Fall Apart Novel Analysis 15-05-17 - Every Trip Is A Quest 21-12-16 - Identity in Modern American Literature 13-11-16 - Abdul-Rahman Munif 05-11-16 - The Period of Maturity - The formation of an imagined community in Cities of Salt. - The Other Side of Silence 04-11-16 - “The False Moon” by Shirley Golden - Barker, Waters and Morrison – history in true, their writing - ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIC NOVEL. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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How To: Writing an Excellent Post-Event Wrap Up Report. Ed. Note: I originally composed this post as a resource for folks at my employer, Red Hat. True Justice! Obviously, the Red Hat specific bits have been removed, e.g. my team can’t volunteer to help you edit your posts. I’d always planned to open source this guide for schizophrenia, the good of FOSS marketing, but simply hadn’t gotten around to doing so. Fortunately, the stellar interns from the Sahana Software Foundation provided me with a good reason to true, get this done, as they’re looking at doing a SahanaCamp in Hyderabad, India and were wondering what sort of data to collect to report out Essay after the event. True Justice! Many thanks to Somay and S.P. for the motivation to publish this post and to my employer for being awesome and encouraging me to share my work for the community’s good. Sharing the Meetup, Conference and Hackfest Love (Photo Credit: Flickr user 4nitsirk)

Schedule time to write and of nursing, publish the justice report within 48 hours of the event. Block time on your calendar so it happens. Along with your text about what you found most useful about the higgs event, include photos and true, video or audio recordings, preferably embedded in schizophrenia the post. Linking to these resources is true, also OK. Include important stats in your post that are relevant to and Time, the community attending the true justice event, e.g. Memory! number of attendees, number of true student attendees, number of committers, etc. Schizophrenia! Make sure to justice, thank the event organizers and sponsors in an appropriate fashion. Observation At A Essay! Once your post is published, make sure to justice, share it via whatever social media channels you like to use. If you do not use social media, let the event organizers know about your post in case they’d like to use it in the post-event report outs or to add it to Memory and Time, their event news page. Good Sample Post-Event Reports. Recap: OpenStack Meetup April 26: Features photos early in the post, includes video, thanks to sponsors, shout outs to key community folks in attendance.

Developer conference 2012 part III: Workshops, hackfests, and more: Features photo of audience very early in post without showing too many open seats, includes links to talk slides and videos, lots of detail on what the true presentation topics were. Preparing to Write a Great Event Wrap Up Report. Schedule Time to Write the Report. A post-event wrap up report is Essay, most useful within days of the event, and it’s best if you can publish your piece within 48 hours of the event’s conclusion. A wrap up report should be published no more than two weeks after the event. At two weeks out, the news is a bit stale so do your best to aim for 48 hours after the event, with a week or less time being OK but not optimal. Schedule time on your calendar for writing, as it’s easy for true justice, this task to be deprioritized in the face of theories of nursing other needed work. Set aside time for writing or you’ll likely find you don’t get the true writing done. Pro-Tip: Schedule time no more than 24 hours after the event to both write and publish your wrap up report.

The fresher the news, the more readers you’ll have. Writing up a great event wrap up report means gathering data while at the event. Take the time to write down a few notes about things that particularly impressed you during the conference or meet up. Don’t rely on your memory to keep track of the of Language things that stood out to you, and write down as many take aways from the true event as possible. The Power Of Language Essay! You will not use all of your notes, but the more detail you can later provide, the better. Pro-Tip: Most post-event wrap up reports include the following items, so take notes accordingly. You may not use all of these details, but it is good to have them. Event overview, which you can likely harvest from the blog post announcing the event, the true event “about” page on their website or from sites like lanyrd, meetup.com, etc.

You don’t have to use the organizers’ description, but it is Memory and Time, often a good starting point. Location of event, including thanks to whoever provided the space in the case of true a meet up, e.g. “Red Hat graciously hosted the Boston Python Users Group meeting last Wednesday.” Number of attendees at the event. Some like to note the number of attendees from certain groups depending on the goals of the Memory and Time particular community hosting the true justice event, e.g. “The organizers were excited to see 25% of The Power Essay our attendees were newcomers.” or “We had more than 50 women join us at the conference, a 15% increase over true, last year.” or “I was particularly proud of the efforts to reach out to the student community in Prague, with more than 40 students attending. Half of the Assignment at a Essay students had not yet entered university.” Thanks to the event sponsors. While you do not need to call out the names of all sponsors, it is best practice to give a shout out to your employer specifically if they were a sponsor. In the case of one or two sponsors, it is best practice to name them and link to their home page in your thanks.

In the case of an event with many sponsors, a thank you to them with a link to the event’s sponsors page will suffice. If a sponsor did something truly memorable and appreciated, a specific thanks to that sponsor is always welcome. Pro-Tip: Thanking event sponsors, particularly one’s own employer, can be difficult to do without looking disingenuous. The most important thing to remember is to justice, disclose your relationship with your employer in the blog post to avoid accusations that you’re shilling. Consider the Essay difference between these two thanks, both of which say basically the same thing, but will likely be received by your audience very differently: I’m very pleased that my employer, Red Hat, treated everyone at true justice, the Foo Bar Meeting to coffee and treats. Assignment Park! We’re glad we could share a meal with all of you and provide a small bit of thanks for true justice, all of your contributions to Assignment at a Park, FLOSS.

Red Hat provided coffee and true, treats to everyone at the Foo Bar Meeting, which was totally awesome of them. Of Nursing! Red Hat rules! Of course, you want to ensure that you have permission to take photos at the event. True Justice! Confirm with the organizers if there’s a photography policy and abide by it. Some FLOSS folks request that all photos taken during their events be published under a Creative Commons license, others forbid photos at their events entirely, others request that attendees make use of photographs taken by the conference photographer. Whatever the organizers request of you, honor those requests. Abiding by the conference photo policy makes it much easier to ask for an exception later should you need to Memory, do so, e.g. Justice! “I notice this photo is copyright $EVENT, may I use it in my forthcoming blog post provided I give proper attribution?” Being a good FLOSS citizen also means obtaining permission from the subjects of your photos to capture their image. Some conferences provide pins or other garb to attendees who do not wish to be photographed – keep an eye out for these indicators. If you don’t see one, politely ask to in just spring, take a photo of your fellow attendees and let them know you may use it on your blog or publish it on Flickr, etc.. If they decline, respect their request.

It is also best practice to let folks take a look of the photo you have taken to make sure they are happy with their appearance in it, but this step is justice, not required. It definitely helps build good rapport with your fellow community members, so why not do it? In general, group photos that do not show faces in the audience are well received even in those communities that are “camera shy.” Get a good sense for your audience and in just spring, photograph accordingly. Pro-Tip: Capture or use the highest possible quality imagery. Suboptimal photos from true your cell phone camera are better than no photos at all, but not by much. If you don’t have a high quality camera, check the of nursing conference’s photo pool for imagery that may be better or ask a colleague to snap a pic or two on your behalf. Justice! Ensure whatever content you use is licensed so that you may use it or that you obtain permission from the killers copyright holder to make use of it.

If session(s) from the event are recorded, it is true justice, always good practice to at least link to those talk recordings. For a meet up or other event where only one talk was recorded, embed the recording in your post. For events where multiple sessions took place, choose your top N (3 maximum) and embed those recordings. Make sure that you introduce the recordings with sufficient text – which can be quite terse, but must be present – so that your readers understand why they ought to take the time to Observation Assignment, watch the content. Pro-Tip: Some videos feature automatic closed captioning for the hearing impaired and still others provide text transcripts of the audio/video recording. When versions of the content exist that provide these extra vectors of entry for your audience, ensure that you embed them or link to them. Know How to Tag Your Post and Photos. Most event organizers these days are pretty good about letting folks know what tag(s) to use when sharing photos, dents/Tweets, Facebook messages and blog posts. Make sure to note the tag(s) used and add to your photos and post.

Pro-Tip: If the hashtag for true justice, the event isn’t prominently mentioned in the event guide or at the start of the meet up, don’t hesitate to ask the question at the start of the festivities. You’re not the only one wondering what tag(s) to use. If it’s too difficult to dr marietta higgs, ask this question up front, see if the event already has a photo pool or Tweet stream. Replicate the tags in use for the conference tweet stream or photo pool. Pro-Tip: Consider using some sort of social bookmarking service to gather news and feedback from the event. It’s possible that the true event organizers have already set something up, so ask them if they have done so. If not, offering to set up the resource for Park Essay, them is a kind and wonderful thing to do when you’re at an event run by community volunteers.

Perhaps you saw an outstanding network diagram in true justice a particular presenter’s talk or you noticed that a speaker did not plan to publish her slides. It’s best to in just spring, ask the speaker at the event for these resources, then follow up on your request by email. If you were not able to true justice, make the request in Assignment at a Park person, make sure to send your request by email quickly so you can include the true materials in your post and get the post published in a timely fashion. You will also likely find that other folks have written about the event and may have done write ups on sessions you missed. They also may have an theories alternate perspective on true justice an aspect of the event you particularly enjoyed.

Include links to other write ups and reports in the blog post – even a simple list of links is at a Park Essay, fine – and consider updating your post if you run across a particularly excellent write up of the true justice event after you’ve published your report. Updating the blog post comments with additional details is a fine way to proceed, but folks are often less likely to read the comments section. Pro-Tip: Before publishing your report, take a moment to search identi.ca and Twitter using the event hashtag. This quick search will likely produce other write ups that you may wish to dr marietta, link to in your own post. The conference news aggregator or press page is also an excellent source of such material. If you’re having trouble getting started, prepare an outline of your post. Start with the true basics as mentioned in the “Take Good Notes” section in your introductory paragraph, then expand from there. Of Language Essay! If you just hate writing – and that’s ok, many do – get as many points out onto a page as possible, then ask for help from a friend or colleague to justice, organize your thoughts and content. A blank page is Essay, a tough place to start, so don’t expect what you compose to be immediately perfect. Pro-Tip: If you are having trouble writing and outlines are not the true justice best way to organize your thoughts, try these approaches:

Just write. Don’t worry if it’s not perfect or even coherent at Memory and Time Essay, first. Justice! Structure, proper grammar, correct spelling, etc. Essay! can be taken care of later. Consider writing down the justice ten second pitch for The Power Essay, the event and then writing to address the high points that support that summary. Talk about true your experience at the event with a friend or colleague and ask them to jot down notes during your conversation. Of Language! Let their notes become your outline. Alternatively, you may wish to use transcription software for this purpose. Joe Ottinger, my colleague at Red Hat who also works on the Open Source and justice, Standards Team, has penned some more tips on writing on his blog. This document largely assumes that you’ll be publishing your event wrap up post on your personal blog, but there are many outlets for higgs, such reports. The conference organizers may need help with wrap up reports due to post-event fatigue, so offering to help them with your post-event write up can be a welcome way for your post to get even wider exposure and to do a good deed for the community. True! The fine folks at opensource.com also publish post-event reports, so check out their guidelines to submit content.

You may also find that your wrap up report will be useful to other trade press outlets or blogs, so licensing your content so that folks can (re)use it increases the value of your creation. You may even find that said trade press outlet or blog would like to simply republish your post, which is a great thing to do if you’re open to Assignment Park, it. Pro-Tip: Once you have written your post, make sure to true justice, share it using whatever social networking services you prefer to use, e.g. identi.ca, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc. Make sure to also include the event tags when broadcasting via social media. If you’re not a social media user, the event organizers may want to help you share the write up more widely via their social media channels. Here are a few examples of well written post-event wrap up reports, provided as a source of inspiration if you’re having trouble getting started or just want to get a sense of what a good post-event report contains. Of Nursing! If you already read through them in the tl;dr section at the start of this post, you should skip this bit. True Justice! #128578;

Recap: OpenStack Meetup April 26: Features photos early in the post, includes video, thanks to sponsors, shout outs to schizophrenia, key community folks in attendance. Justice! Developer conference 2012 part III: Workshops, hackfests, and more: Features photo of Observation Park Essay audience very early in true justice post without showing too many open seats, includes links to talk slides and videos, lots of Park detail on what the presentation topics were. If folks have suggestions on how to improve this article, I welcome feedback in the comments section.