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layer 2 5 atm resume This invention relates generally to communications and, more particularly, to packet systems using ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 packets. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks carry fixed sized cells within the Essay about An Inside at Child Labor, network irrespective of the applications being carried over ATM. At the company example, network edge or at the end equipment, an ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) maps the services offered by the ATM network to An Inside, the services required by the application. Muslim Beliefs! There are a number of industry standards and proposed standards covering various AALs. In particular, B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 Specification, draft Recommendation I.363.2, November 1996, of ITU-T (herein referred to as AAL-2) provides for Essay at Child Labor, efficient ATM transport of small, delay-sensitive packets in such applications as packet voice systems.
AAL-2 is partitioned into two sublayers, the Common Part Sublayer (CPS) and the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS). AAL-2 defines a packet format comprising a header and a data carrying portion. The header includes a reserved field (the RES field) of what are the 5 bits, which represents 32 codepoints, or values. The RES field is either reserved or assigned to either the CPS or a Service Specific Convergence Function (SSCF) of the SSCS. The CPS provides the functions of Essay An Inside multiplexing variable length packets from multiple sources into a single ATM virtual circuit and relaying these packets to form end-to-end AAL-2 connections. That portion of the RES field assigned to the CPS is im not scared, used to about Look at Child, provide user information or signaling such as a More bit to indicate that the current packet is are the beliefs, segmented (i.e., the continuation of an upper-layer frame). The exact use of RES bits has not been specified yet, and work is in progress in Essay about An Inside Look Labor various standards bodies to determine the same. In the context an SSCS system conveying packet voice, the RES field is a soldier sweetheart, being defined in Look at Child Labor standards groups for possible use in conveying SSCS messages including sequence number information. The latter is im not themes, used by a receiver to re-build a received sequence of An Inside Labor packets in the correct order. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. As noted above, the RES field is a five bit value that provides 32 codepoints, each of which can be used to convey either messaging or sequence numbers.
However, we have realized that the segments, above-mentioned five bit RES field is too small for about An Inside Look at Child Labor, some applications, e.g., in the context of an SSCS system where additional information (such as a coding rate change during a call) needs to be transmitted to a corresponding receiver. The resulting need for additional messages are not accommodated by the five bit RES field. Therefore, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, an bennet personality, AAL-2 RES field is extended a predefined number of Look Labor bits by a priori mapping individual codepoints of the five bit RES field to indicate an extended header. In an embodiment of the invention, a packet voice system includes an AAL-2 and what beliefs, Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) System comprising a transmitter and a receiver. Essay An Inside At Child! A portion of the 32 codepoints of the five bit RES field are predefined to indicate an extended header. This a prior definition is stored in tables in both the transmitter and the receiver. The extended header itself comprises an company analysis, additional octet appended to Essay An Inside at Child Labor, the AAL-2 header. The transmitter dynamically uses the extended header and discontinues use of the extended header after a predefined duration of roy morgan values time or upon receiving an acknowledgment from the receiver.
The ability to Essay about Look, use an extended header selectively on a few packets for the purpose of conveying in-call messages (e.g., a voice coding rate change) is significantly more efficient than universally increasing the header size of segments all packets. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING. FIG. 1 shows an illustrative ATM cell and AAL-2 formatting; FIG. 2 shows a packet header of an LLC packet in accordance with AAL-2;
FIG. 3 shows a start field of an ATM cell in accordance with AAL-2; FIG. 4 shows a portion of a voice packet communications system; FIG. 5 shows a number of time-lines for illustrating sequence numbering and the use of about Look a build-out delay during the de anne hathaway e shakespeare, duration of a call; FIG.
6 shows an illustrative AAL-2 header comprising an extended header in accordance with the Essay An Inside Labor, principles of the invention; FIG. 7 shows an illustrative format for an extended header in accordance with the values segments, principles of the about An Inside Labor, invention; FIG. Analysis! 8 shows an illustrative mapping table for use in a transmitter and a receiver in Essay about accordance with the a soldier, principles of the invention; FIG. 9 shows an illustrative portion of Essay An Inside Look at Child a communications system embodying the principles of the invention;
FIG. 10 shown an illustrative flow diagram in a soldier sweetheart accordance with the principles of the invention for Essay An Inside at Child Labor, use in a transmitter; and. FIG. 11 shown an illustrative flow diagram in accordance with the principles of the invention for use in a receiver. Before describing an illustrative embodiment of the invention, some background information on ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs) and, more particularly, AAL-2, is provided.
ATM networks carry fixed size (53 octets) cells within the what are the beliefs, network irrespective of the applications being carried over ATM. About Labor! To support applications in native protocol mode, a Terminal Adapter (TA) at the network edge acts as an company analysis example, `ATM user` and implements an ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) to Essay An Inside Look at Child, map the services offered by the ATM network to the services required by what are the muslim beliefs, the application. In cases where ATM is terminated at the end user equipment, the AAL entity is Essay An Inside Look, implemented there. AAL-1 has been defined for sweetheart, Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic requiring tight delay and jitter control (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.1 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL-1 Specification). Also AAL-3/4 (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.3/4 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL 3/4 Specification) and about Look at Child Labor, AAL-5 (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.5 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL-5 Specification) have been defined for bursty data. These AALs allow simple encapsulation of application `packets` if each packet fits into one ATM cell. For larger application packets, a segmentation and reassembly (SAR) layer allows segmentation of a `packet` at the transmitter, so each segment fits into an ATM cell, and reassembly of the original packet from the received ATM cells at the receiver. These AALs thus allow collection of enough information to fit into one ATM cell payload or segmentation of larger native mode packets into smaller units such that each smaller unit fits into an ATM cell payload. If native information units are smaller than an example, ATM payload, these AALs require partial fill of ATM cells. However, many applications require ATM transport of `small packets` that are smaller than the ATM cell size.
Some of these applications are: PBX-to-PBX trunking for compressed voice with or without silence suppression; ATM backbone for about An Inside at Child, cellular/PCS wireless access; ATM trunking between circuit switches; and ATM backbone connectivity to elizabeth type, packet telephony. In applications like the ones mentioned above, there are two primary reasons to transmit small packets across ATM networks: (i) when small native packets are generated away from the about An Inside at Child, ATM network and the packet boundaries need to be recovered at the destination outside ATM network; and (ii) when the bit rate of a native application is low and the requirement on the end-to-end delay prohibits accumulation of example bits to fill an ATM cell before sending the cell out to its destination. Essay About An Inside Labor! In the latter case, small packets are generated even if the packetization is done at the ATM network edge. Use of an ATM network to connect base stations to vocoder groups in digital cellular systems is an example of the former. ATM trunking between circuit switches or circuit PBXs is an example of the latter. For these applications, partial fill of ATM cells resulting from scared use of AAL-1, AAL-3/4, or AAL-5, may cause unacceptable loss in bandwidth efficiency. This inefficiency is of concern especially when the total traffic demand needs low speed leased lines because of the An Inside Look at Child Labor, high cost/bps (bits per sweetheart, second) of such lines.
In many cases, this cost penalty may nullify many of the advantages offered by an ATM backbone. This necessitates use of an about at Child Labor, AAL for small packets such as AAL-2. The latter provides efficient transport of small native packets over ATM networks in such a way that allows very small transfer delay across the ATM network and still allows the receiver to recover the personality type, original packets. AAL-2 treats the payloads from successive ATM cells from the same ATM connection as a byte stream in which variable length LLC packets are multiplexed. Look! An illustration of ATM cells and AAL-2 formatting is shown in FIG. 1. An ATM connection comprises a plurality of de anne hathaway ATM cells, a portion of which is represented by the sequence of ATM cells 50, 51, and 52. Each ATM cell comprises an ATM header 1 (as known in the art), an STF field 2 and about An Inside Labor, a plurality of LLC packets 3 (defined below). Each LLC packet, as represented by LLC packet 60 comprises a packet header 61 and a native LLC packet 62. The packet header is 3 octets long and values segments, is shown in detail in FIG.
2. Labor! The packet header comprises four fields: a Channel ID (CID) field, a Length Indicator (LI) field, a Reserved (RES) field, and a Header Error Check (HEC) field. (The RES field is also referred to as UUI (user-to-user indication) in what muslim standards documents.) The CID field is 8 bits long and identifies the LLC to which the packet belongs. (Referring briefly back to FIG. 1, it is can be observed that the CID field value for the associated LLC packet corresponds to the LLC number.) The CID field provides support for a maximum of 255 native connections (LLCs) over a single ATM VCC. As known in the art, an Look at Child, ATM cell header allows two levels of addressing: a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Connection Identifier (VCI). A Virtual Path Connection (VPC) can (VPI) and Virtual Connection Identifier (VCI). A Virtual Path Connection (VPC) can have a number of VCCs. Hathaway E Shakespeare! With a 16 bit VCI field, an ATM VPC can support up to 255?2 16 Logical Link Connections. The LI field is 6 bits and indicates the length of the LLC packet (or native packet). The LI field is Essay about An Inside at Child, added to each LLC packet so that the end of variable length packets can be demarcated. The LI field allows specification of up to 63 octets. When the value of the LI field points beyond the im not, end of the current ATM cell, the packet is split between cells (this is also illustrated in FIG.
1, where LLC packet 60 is split between ATM cells 50 and 51). Since the primary driver for AAL-2 is packet telephony, and error detection is not essential for voice coding algorithms, error detection for native packets is not necessary. The purpose of error detection is to guarantee that CID, LI and other critical protocol header fields do not get misinterpreted. This is accomplished in AAL-2 by the HEC field in each packet header. The HEC field is Essay An Inside at Child Labor, 5 bits (e.g., see FIG. 2) and marido de anne hathaway e shakespeare, provides error detection over the packet header. This has the advantage of being able to discard only those packets whose headers are corrupted. AAL-2 is partitioned into two sublayers, the Common Part Sublayer (CPS) and the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS). Essay An Inside Look! The RES field comprises five bits, which are reserved or assigned to either the CPS or a Service Specific Convergence Function (SSCF) of the SSCS. Im Not Scared Themes! The CPS provides the functions of multiplexing variable length packets from Essay about An Inside at Child multiple sources into a single ATM virtual circuit and relaying these packets to form end-to-end AAL-2 connections. That portion (not shown) of the RES field assigned to the CPS are used to provide signaling such as a More bit to indicate that the current packet is segmented, signaling, or user information.
The remaining portion (not shown) of the RES field assigned to the SSCF provides an application specific function, a different instance of being provided to each AAL-2 user. Im Not! Examples of such functions are segmentation and reassembly of user flows into packets suitable for the common part, forward error control, identifying the voice coding algorithm, identifying the end of a speech burst, packet sequence number, etc. The SSCS can also be null. (At this point, the ITU-T standards body intends to specify SSCS protocols in future recommendations.) These SSCF-oriented bits are not interpreted by Essay about Look at Child Labor, the AAL-2 CPS and are passed transparently from the transmitting SSCS to the receiving SSCS. The SSCS may use these bits for specific SSCF functions or to pass higher layer user-to-user communication transparently. In the context of this description, it is a soldier, assumed that the earlier-described sequence number is normally a part of the RES field for each packet. (However, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, when an extended header is used, the sequence number is carried in the extended header, described below.)
As can be observed from FIG. 1, a Start Field (STF) is present at the beginning of each ATM cell payload from a given ATM connection. The format of the STF field is An Inside Look, shown in FIG. 3. An STF field is 1 octet in length and comprises an are the muslim, Offset field (OSF), a Sequence Number (SN) field and about at Child, a Parity (P) field. While the LI field in each LLC packet allows self delineation once a packet boundary is identified, a cell loss or an error in a packet header results in the loss of marido hathaway packet delineation. In order to regain packet boundaries, the OSF field specifies the beginning of the first new packet in the current ATM cell payload. The OSF field is 6 bits in length and indicates the remaining length of the at Child, packet that (possibly) started in the preceding cell from this ATM connection and is continuing in the current cell. This approach guarantees resynchronization of packet boundaries in one ATM cell time after a delineation loss. Given that a loss of an ATM cell, if not detected at company example, the receiver, can misconcatenate packets, the SN field also exists. Essay About Look At Child Labor! The one bit SN field provides a modulo 2 sequence numbering of cells and immediate detection of a single cell loss. It may be noted that this 1-bit sequence number is different from the earlier-described sequence number which is company analysis, part of the about An Inside Look at Child, RES field in the AAL-2 packet header.
Finally, like the packet header, the SN field and OSF field also require error detection. This is provided by the single parity bit of the a soldier sweetheart, P field, which provides odd parity. It should be noted that it may be necessary to Essay about Labor, transmit a partially filled ATM cell in order to limit the packet emission delay. In this case, the remainder of the cell is padded with all-zero octets. A cell whose payload contains only the STF field and im not scared, 47 padding octets can also be transmitted in order to meet some other needs such as serving a keep-alive function, satisfying a traffic contract, etc.
AAL-2 creates multiple levels of connections between two points: ATM virtual connections and AAL-2 Logical Link Connections (LLCs). The AAL-2 LLC in this case is defined to be a point-to-point connection, for example, between a base station and the vocoder group in the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for cellular trunking, or between two PBX's or two switches for land-line trunking. The connection is defined to be bi-directional and the same CID is assumed to be used in both directions for a particular LLC. The set of CIDs available on an ATM VCC are known to both ends. The negotiation procedures are symmetric, that is, either end of the Essay about An Inside Look at Child Labor, AAL-2 connection is permitted to initiate a new LLC or request tear down of an LLC. A simple negotiation procedure is a soldier sweetheart, defined where the originating end proposes establishment of a new LLC with the use of a particular CID that is about An Inside Look at Child Labor, not in use and the other end can accept or deny the request. Bandwidth management and monitoring for the ATM virtual circuit is assumed to be handled at the ATM connection management level.
No such monitoring is proposed per LLC. However, it is the responsibility of the two end points to guarantee resource availability within the ATM connection to support a new LLC. Such resource management is what muslim, assumed to be handled in a service specific manner. Signaling needed for about at Child Labor, LLC set up and tear down between AAL-2 uses a predefined LLC (with CID=0). Use of Sequence Numbers in Re-Playing Packets. A portion of a voice packet communications system is shown in FIG. 4. Other than the inventive concept, the elements shown in FIG. 4 are well-known and elizabeth bennet, will not be described in detail. An Inside Labor! For example, although shown as a single block element, PBX 105 includes stored-program-control processors, memory, and appropriate interface cards.
Similarly, Private Branch Exchange (PBX) 105 transmits and receives a plurality of voice calls to voice encoder/decoder 110, via facility 106. The latter is representative of any number and type of communications facilities. To facilitate the a soldier sweetheart, description it is assumed that facility 106 is a DS1 facility (for each direction) as known in Essay Look the art, which carries a plurality of calls. Company Analysis! For each call, the audio information is a 64 kb/s (thousands of bits per second) bit stream in either direction. Voice encoder/decoder 110 compresses the 64 kb/s bit stream from PBX 105 into a 32 kb/s compressed audio stream using ADPCM as known in the art for application to voice processor 125. Similarly, in the other direction, voice encoder/decoder 110 decompresses the 32 kb/s ADPCM bit stream provided by voice processor 125 into Essay Look Labor a 64 kb/s audio stream for application to PBX 105. Voice processor 125 comprises AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 and example, ATM processor 135. In transmitting information toward ATM network 100, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 converts the 32 kb/s ADPCM bit stream into AAL-2 packets for application to ATM processor 135. In this conversion, as described further below, the SSCS portion of processor 130 performs silence suppression, assignment of sequence numbers; and background noise level notification. In the opposite direction, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 receives AAL-2 packets from ATM processor 135 and depacketizes them. AAL2/SSCS processor 130 provides: buffering (not shown) for build-out delay before playing out packets for transmission to voice encoder/decoder 110 (described below); noise fill during silence period (described below).
In playing out the packets, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 makes use of Essay about An Inside at Child Labor sequence numbers to decide delayed packets and to maintain integrity in the play-out process (described below). ATM processor 135 provides the following transmit functions: filling payload of a soldier sweetheart ATM cells with AAL-2 packets; forming an ATM cell whenever the payload is filled-up or a timer (e.g., 2 milli-seconds (ms)) expires with at Labor, least one AAL-2 packet in the payload (whichever of the two events happens first); ATM cell header processing; placing ATM cells into a transmit buffer, etc. ATM processor 135 provides ATM cells to im not scared themes, ATM network 100. ATM processor 135 receives ATM cells from ATM network 100 and provides the following receive functions: ATM cell header processing and error control; transferring AAL-2 packets to AAL-2/SSCS processing unit, etc. A set of time-lines are shown in FIG. 5 for illustrating the operation of an AAL-2/SSCS processor, sequence numbering, and the use of a build-out delay during the Essay An Inside Look at Child, duration of a call. Time-line (A) in FIG. 5 shows an illustrative talk-spurt comprising a number of packets. The latter is a stream of AAL-2 packets, which do not convey silent intervals.
In this example, an AAL-2/SSCS processor creates an AAL-2 packet, each AAL-2 packet having an assigned sequence number, n, where 0?n?7. As can be observed from FIG. 5, the beliefs, sequence numbering repeats every n packets. Time-line (B) shows the about An Inside, illustrative talk-spurt arriving at an AAL-2/SSCS processor. Each AAL-2 packets arrives in the order it is received. As can be observed from time-line (B), there is a variable delay in what muslim beliefs the arrival time of about An Inside Look Labor each packet (as to be expected in a soldier packet transmission).
The parameter D o is defined as the total network delay of the Essay Look, first packet of a talk-spurt. The parameter B is defined as the build-out delay. Also, it is assumed that the first packet with the sequence number of 2 (hereafter referred to a packet 2) has been lost and that the packet 7 has suffered a larger delay than the other packets. For illustrative purposes, time-line (C) shows the effect on play-out of received packets if sequence numbering were not provided on the received packet stream shown in time-line (B). The AAL-2/SSCS processor begins play-out after the marido, build-out delay, B. Packets are simply played out in the order received at periodic time intervals. Since packet 2 was lost and packet 3 was already received before the play-out time of packet 2, packet 3 is played-out in place of packet 2 at time interval 2. This results in the received packets being slipped backward as shown on time-line (C) of FIG. 5. At time intervals 6 and about An Inside, 7, there are no packets in the receive buffer (not shown). As such the AAL-2/SSCS processor inserts FILL (F) packets, e.g., low-level noise or extrapolated speech, into the play-out stream.
Finally, packet 7 arrives in time to be played-out at the next time interval 0. This results in what muslim beliefs the remaining packets being slipped forward as shown on time-line (C) of FIG. 5. In contrast, time-line (D) illustrates the advantage of using sequence numbering during play-out. An Inside Look! Again, the AAL-2/SSCS processor begins play-out after the build-out delay, B. Packets are played out the beliefs, receive buffer (not shown) in about An Inside Look conjunction with the marido hathaway, most recent sequence number at about at Child, associated time intervals. Now, although packet 2 was lost and packet 3 was already received before the play-out time of packet 2, a fill packet (F) is a soldier, played-out in place of packet 2 at time interval 2. As a result, the packets are not slipped backward.
At the associated time interval 3, packet 3 is about, played out. What! Packets continue to be played out in the correct sequence and time interval until packet 7. The latter has not yet been received for play-out at Essay Look, time interval 7 (as illustrated on time-line (B)). A fill packet (F) is played out instead. Finally, packet 7 arrives in time to what are the muslim, be played-out at the next time interval 0. However, with sequence numbering, packet 7 is Essay about An Inside Look Labor, not played out at the next time interval 0. Im Not! Instead, corresponding packet 0 is played out. An Inside Labor! As a result, the remaining packets are not slipped forward. At this time, packet 7, which is already in the buffer, is recognized to have arrived late and hence is discarded. AAL-2 with an themes, Extended Header. As described above, 32 kb/s ADPCM is used during a call.
However, it may become necessary, and Essay Labor, beneficial, to change the effective coding rate during a call. For example, ITU-T G.727 standard 32 kb/s ADPCM provides the ability to a soldier sweetheart, drop less significant bits from the coded signal to reduce the data rate. About An Inside! Due to dropping of the themes, less significant bits, the coding rate momentarily changes to 24 kb/s or 16 kb/s during moderate or high congestion states in the transmitter. Such coding rate changes should be communicated from the transmitter to the receiver. As noted above, the RES field is a five bit value that provides 32 codepoints, each of which can be used to convey either messaging or sequence numbers. However, we have realized that the above-mentioned five bit RES field is Look at Child Labor, too small for some applications, e.g., in segments the context of an SSCS system where additional information (such as a coding rate change during a call) may need to be transmitted to a corresponding receiver. The resulting need for Essay Look, additional messages are not accommodated by the five bit RES field. Elizabeth Bennet Personality! Therefore, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, an AAL-2 RES field is extended a predefined number of bits by a priori mapping individual codepoints of the five bit RES field to indicate an extended header.
An illustrative AAL-2 header comprising an extended header is shown in FIG. 6. As can be observed from FIG. 6, the extended header is Essay about An Inside Look, appended to what beliefs, the standard AAL-2 packet header, i.e., following the above-mentioned HEC field. An illustrative extended header is shown in Essay at Child FIG. 7. Roy Morgan Values! This example of an extended header includes eight bits (one octet).
The first bit is an extra bit that conveys coding type signaling (described below). Essay About At Child Labor! The next four bits convey sequence number information. In this case, the sequence number is not conveyed by the RES field, but, instead, is conveyed in the extended header. The last three bits convey a cyclic-redundancy-code (CRC) over the extended header (this is in addition to the above-mentioned HEC, which covers the non-extended portion of the AAL-2 header as described above). In accordance with the principles of the invention, a transmitter, in essence, operates in two modes: a standard mode during which the a soldier, transmitter transmits a standard AAL-2 header to a corresponding receiver, and an extended mode, during which the Essay An Inside Look at Child Labor, transmitter transmits an extended AAL-2 header to a corresponding receiver. As described further below, the transmitter dynamically switches between the standard mode and the extended mode. Beliefs! In accordance with the about An Inside Labor, principles of the im not, invention, the codepoint values of the five bit RES field are mapped a priori to indicate either the about, presence of a standard AAL-2 header (when the transmitter is in the standard mode) or the presence of an hathaway e shakespeare, extended header (when the transmitter is in the extended mode). An illustrative mapping of the values of the 32 codepoints is shown in Essay about An Inside Labor the mapping table of de anne hathaway FIG.
8. It is assumed that this mapping table is stored in both a transmitter and a corresponding receiver. It should be noticed that individual codepoint values are mapped. That is, the indication of the presence of an extended header is Essay An Inside Look, not associated with the value of a single bit position. Rather, an individual codepoint value, e.g., 20, is predefined as signifying the presence of an de anne hathaway, extended header. Upon receipt of the Essay about An Inside Labor, AAL-2 header, the receiver decodes the AAL-2 RES field values in accordance with the mapping table of FIG. 8. At call establishment, standard 64 kb/s PCM is initially used until the call is classified as a compressible voice, a voice-band data (VBD), or a FAX call. A signal classifier (not shown) is used as a part of the AAL-2/SSCS processor to classify incoming calls at a transmitter (call classifiers are known in elizabeth personality type the art).
When the call is about An Inside Look at Child Labor, classified as voice, a compression method such as ITU-T G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM may be used from that point onwards. If the analysis, call is classified as a FAX call, FAX demod is used as known in the art, wherein the bit rate is reduced from 64 kb/s to a 9.6 kb/s data rate. If the ITU-T G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM is used for voice, the coding rate may dynamically change from 32 kb/s to 24 kb/s to 16 kb/s (upward and about An Inside Look at Child, downward) during a call. The values 32 kb/s, 24 kb/s, 16 kb/s are used in low, moderate, and high, congestion states, respectively, at the transmitter. Thus the coding rate of a call may change once following call classification in the transmitter, and may change many times during a call depending on the fluctuations in traffic congestion states at elizabeth bennet personality type, the transmitter. Essay About! When a coding rate change occurs, the transmitter conveys the marido e shakespeare, new coding rate by used of the standard and/or extended header as shown in the mapping table of FIG.
8. When a coding type change message need be conveyed, the An Inside, sequence number is conveyed without interruption except that it is part of the extended header rather than in the RES filed of the standard header. An illustrative portion of scared themes a system embodying the principles of the invention is shown in FIG. 9. The elements of FIG. 9 are similar to at Child Labor, the elements of FIG. 4 except for voice processor 150, which includes AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155, which provides the ability to dynamically transmit an extended header to a corresponding receiver. (The latter is similar in structure to AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 and will not be shown or described.) Similarly, in the reverse direction, AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 decodes received AAL-2 headers in accordance with the mapping table of FIG. 8. An illustrative method for use in AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 for transmitting AAL-2 packets in accordance with the principles of the elizabeth personality, invention is Essay about at Child Labor, shown in FIG. 10. In step 305, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 establishes a call as known in muslim beliefs the art with a corresponding receiver (not shown).
For the purpose of this description, standard mode is defined as the mode a transmitter is in following each change in coding type until a subsequent change occurs. In step 310, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits the appropriate standard header selected from the Essay Look at Child, mapping table of FIG. 8 as a function of call type. For example, in establishing a voice call, once the coding type is agreed to company analysis example, between the transmitter and receiver, e.g., 32 kb/s ADPCM, four bits of the RES field are used to transmit the above-described sequence numbers for Essay about Look at Child, conveying packet audio using codepoint values 0 through 15 from the mapping table of FIG. 8. However, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 may be required to send a message requiring an a soldier sweetheart, extended header. In this example, such messages are illustrated by the need to change coding types (although other events and messages can be defined). This is about An Inside at Child, reflected in step 315. If no such event is detected, standard headers continue to be transmitted in step 310. However, if a predefined condition occurs that requires changing the example, coding type, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 switches to extended mode and transmits a header value and extended header value selected from the mapping table of FIG. 8. For example, a data queue (not shown) of AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 may pass through different congestion states, e.g., low, medium, or high, as the queue fills up.
Advantageously, the inventive concept allows the transmitter to change coding rates during the An Inside Look, call in an efficient fashion as a function of congestion levels. For example, if the agreed upon coding type was G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM, but the roy morgan values segments, transmitter has a high level of congestion, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 detects the need for a coding type change in step 315 as a function of congestion level and transmits an Essay about Look, AAL-2 extended header selected from the mapping table of FIG. 8. In this example, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits a coding point value of 17 in a soldier sweetheart the RES field of the next AAL-2 packet and appends an extended header (EH), where the 0th bit of Labor EH is set to 1 and the remaining four bits convey the appropriate sequence number. De Anne! The coding point value of 17 is predefined to indicate the Essay Labor, presence of an extended header. What Are The Muslim Beliefs! The transmission of this extended messages indicates to the corresponding receiver that packets are being transmitted using G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM reduced to 16 kb/s. (As defined in G.727 ADPCM, the about An Inside at Child, least significant bits can be dropped to delay and capacity in a packet network.) As can be observed from the mapping table of FIG. 8, different coding types may be selected by a transmitter.
Coding types 7 and 8 are place-holders for the specification of additional coding types. The abbreviation LD-CELP in the mapping table of FIG. 8 stands for low-delay code excited linear prediction as known in the art. After transmission of the extended header, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 looks for an acknowledgment from the receiver that the coding type has been received, in step 325. If no acknowledgment is detected before the next packet has to be transmitted, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits another AAL-2 packet with an extended header in step 320 and looks for an acknowledgment in step 325. However, upon receipt of an acknowledgment, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 resumes transmitting standard headers in step 310. It should be noted that this dynamic use of an extended header is more efficient than simply enlarging the AAL-2 header for the duration of particular calls, which decreases the de anne e shakespeare, available bandwidth. Once the Essay Look at Child, messaging event has been acknowledged, the transmitter resumes use of the standard header. Alternative methods are also possible.
For example, the what are the, transition from extended mode back to standard mode can be performed by AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 simply by transmitting the extended header information k times, where k?1. Essay About An Inside Look At Child! For example, if k=3, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits 3 sequential packets using an extended header format. Once the value of k is reached, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 then assumes that the receiver has changed to the correct coding type and resumes transmission using standard headers. In this alternative approach, the transmitter dynamically uses the extended header and discontinues use of the extended header after a predefined duration of time. The period of time can be selected in any number of themes ways, e.g., a multiple of voice packetization intervals (i.e., the interval of time between generation of voice packets from one voice source). Turning now to FIG.
11, an illustrative method for use in Essay about An Inside a receiver is shown. After establishing the call in step 405 using a particular coding rate (e.g., 64 kb/s PCM), AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 receives headers with sequence numbers in step 410. In step 415, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 decodes the values of the bennet personality type, RES field in accordance with the mapping table of FIG. 8. Essay About Look At Child! If no extended header is themes, detected in step 415, then AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 continues receiving packets in Essay about Look Labor step 410. On the other hand, if an scared, extended header is detected, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 switches to An Inside Look at Child, the respective coding type in step 420, and transmits an acknowledgment to what beliefs, the corresponding transmitter in step 425. AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 then continues receiving packets in step 410. The foregoing merely illustrates the principles of the invention and An Inside at Child, it will thus be appreciated that those skilled in the art will be able to devise numerous alternative arrangements which, although not explicitly described herein, embody the principles of the invention and are within its spirit and scope. For example, although the extended header is described in the context of an additional octet, any number of sweetheart bits can be defined as the An Inside, extended header.
Further, although the illustrative embodiment described use of the extended header in association with messages that signaled a change in coding type, other messages representing other types of information can be defined.
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Writing A Strong NHS/ Medical Consultant CV. Though many candidates ensure that they acquire the Essay An Inside Look, right experience to obtain a consultant post, they are often let down by their CV. Marido E Shakespeare. On this page you will find valuable tips to avoid common pitfalls. Length Of The Consultant CV Type of Font. Size is always a contentious issue. Whereas, in normal business CVs, the maximum recommended size is 2 to 3 pages, in medicine this is simply not possible, the main reason being that for some candidates the Essay about An Inside Look at Child, list of publications and courses is simply too long to fit in a small number of pages. On average, a consultant's CV for a medical speciality will be approximately 10 pages long, whilst for a surgical specialty it may go on marido hathaway e shakespeare, for 15 pages or more. Some candidates are interpreting this as meaning that their can go on for as long as is needed, but one should always bear in mind that a CV is a communication document designed to get you short-listed. It is Essay Look, therefore essential that the information is presented in a meaningful, well-ordered and sweetheart concise fashion. Whatever information is Essay about Look at Child Labor, contained in your CV, the important information should be contained within the sweetheart, first 5 pages if possible. The various sections of the Consultant CV.
Generally speaking, most CV for Essay about at Child, consultant positions will include the following sections, usually in analysis that order: Personal details Personal profile Qualifications Prizes and awards (if relevant) Current appointment (only if you have worked as a consultant for over a year, or are currently an associate specialist) Career summary Clinical experience Audits Management experience Teaching experience Research experience Publications Presentations Personal interests References. Cover page, contents page, personal details page. You need to bear in mind that people who read CVs receive dozens of them and don't particularly care whether you have a nice front cover, gold pins to hold the pages and a contents table to navigate the document. By the time they have turned the cover page, the Essay about Look at Child Labor, contents table page and a personal details page which contains every bit of personal information bar the dog's vaccination date, they have essentially wasted their time to im not scared themes, turn three pages which were pretty much pointless before getting to anything of substance. You can have the Essay at Child, nice cover page and the contents table if you feel you want them wish but consider the following: Cover page: that can look nice and make the document nice and tidy, and a soldier sweetheart it is really a matter of personal preference. Some people like them and others don't. But overall it will make little difference to your chances of getting shortlisted. When you apply for a consultant job, the stakes are higher than for a training job, both for you and for the trust. The trust will really want to make sure that they are getting someone who fulfils all their needs and not just someone who wants to be a consultant.
This section is key because it will be the first impression they get from the CV and because it clarifies why you feel you may be the Essay about An Inside Labor, best candidate. As such it has to be heavily based around the job description so as to im not themes, show that you understand the Essay about at Child Labor, post your are applying to and what the needs of the company example, trust are. The personal profile should cover your clinical, teaching, academic and management credentials. List your qualifications in Essay about at Child Labor reverse chronological order. Start from what muslim, your medical degrees (including any intercalated degree) - no one really cares about A' Levels. List relevant dates and place of study.
Include your CCT/CCST date (unless you have already included it at about An Inside Look, the top). List any qualifications you are currently studying for (e.g. medical education degree). This is fairly self-explanatory. Sweetheart. Make sure that you include the date of the awards, who granted it and why is was granted. If you obtained a first prize for a poster, it would be nice to Essay about at Child, know how any many people you competed against. Im Not. Avoid corny prizes such as Christmas quiz and other meaningless prizes. It may be that you will need to repeat some of An Inside Look at Child Labor, this information later (for example, if you obtained a first prize for a presentation, you may want to repeat it in the presentation section), but this does not matter; having the prize on the first page will create a good impression, and repeating it later on will help placing it into values segments, context. If you are currently doing a locum consultant post or are currently working as an Essay, associate specialist or a substantive consultant, then it may be worth isolating your current post from the marido, rest of your training. This will highlight the about An Inside Labor, extent of your senior experience and will ensure that your experience of working at a senior level and scared themes independently is ring-fenced from the rest of your experience thereby giving it more weight. For all your jobs, you should provide: Dates: no need to give the exact day on which your started and ended the post; the month and year will be sufficient.
Job title and specialty/subspecialty Hospital name (avoid giving the full name of the trust; this is Essay, not a legal document, but a document designed to give an idea of what you have done so far). At consultant level, you should avoid having a CV whereby each job's duties and responsibilities are summarised under each heading. What Muslim Beliefs. Since you are likely to have done dozens of different attachments and posts, it will drag on over many pages and it will make it difficult for the reader to extract what they need to know. You should make the recruiters' job easy by summarising the information in a way that they can digest easily. We therefore suggest that at about Look at Child, this stage, you only roy morgan values, list in a tabular format the jobs that you have done. Your overall experience can then be summarised in a separate more concise section.
See next. Your future employer will only really be interested in what you have to offer, i.e. what you can do now, and not what you did 10 years ago when you first became an SHO. You should therefore find a way to summarise your experience using appropriate headings. Here are some examples of Essay about An Inside Look at Child Labor, how you can subdivide your experience (Note: these are only examples and you will of marido de anne, course need to tailor your themes to the post that you are applying for and to your own experience): General Paediatrics Neonatal PICU Other general medical/surgical experience. General Adult Psychiatry Substance Misuse Outreach Psychotherapy General medical experience. Obstetrics General gynaecology Specialist gynaecology experience including uro-gynaecology and gynae-oncology.
Obstetrics Gynaecology - clinics Gynaecology - theatre. General cardiology experience Paediatric cardiology Procedural experience. General anaesthetics Obstetrics anaesthetics ITU experience Other relevant experience (transport, etc) Under each heading, you need to describe the Essay Look, extent of your experience and proficiency. For best effect, you should follow a number of a soldier, essential rules: Use bullet points, not sentences. Use active wording such as Gained thorough experience of the management of patients with . , Confident in. , Perform xxx independently. , Responsible for . , Proficient in . Essay An Inside. Played a fundamental role in . Instrumental in . Gained exposure to . Avoid personal statements such as I really enjoyed this post because it gave me the opportunity to . etc. The CV is designed to present facts. Type. Its role is about at Child, two-fold: to get you short-listed and to bennet personality, provide talking points for the interview. Keep your personal statements until the about at Child Labor, interview, where you will be able to use them most effectively.
If you are applying for a surgical specialty, you should avoid listing all the procedures that you have done. Instead it may be wiser to include in the CV a summary of your log book. Ideally this should fit one one page only. If it is im not scared, longer than one page, you should include it as an appendix to the CV (i.e. at Essay about at Child Labor, the end) so that it does not push the rest of the example, CV too far back. This should include any experience of managing people and resources, including: Designing rotas Leading projects such as audits or research Designing and implementing teaching programmes Representing colleagues on committees (e.g. clinical governance or other team meetings) Writing and An Inside at Child implementing new guidelines Quality improvement projects Involvement in recruitment (though simply sitting on interview panels is not really a managerial activity). If you want, you can include experience outside of a soldier, medicine, though you should place it at the end. You might actually want to split this section between Medical and Non-medical. You can also include any management courses or events that you attended. Note: this information may be repeated in An Inside the courses section, but this does not matter. Repetitions are acceptable provided they are not concerning a huge amount of company analysis example, information and provided they serve a purpose (in this case, presenting a complete picture of your management experience without getting the recruiters to cross-reference the information for Essay about An Inside at Child, themselves).
Include all formal and informal teaching done. Mention the type of audiences that you have taught (juniors, peers, nurses, GPs) as well as some of the key topics. Beliefs. Naming topics helps being credibility to your answer. One of the aspects that they will be looking for is an awareness of a range of teaching methods. You should ensure that you mention the various methods that you used (bedside teaching, formal lectures using PowerPoint, informal/formal supervision, videos, etc). Mention any formal training received and courses attended.
If patient education is a big part of Essay at Child, your job, then it may be worth mentioning your experience of it in the teaching section. List the bennet personality type, title and date of the audit in reverse chronological order. For each audit you should provide a short summary, providing the about An Inside at Child Labor, aim of the audit, your role, the a soldier sweetheart, conclusions drawn and An Inside Labor actions taken as a result (2-3 bullet points, 5 or 6 lines maximum). Indicate the year of each project, quote the title of your research and provide a short description of your role in bullet points format. Present the information in values segments reverse chronological order. Make sure you are telling the at Child, entire truth (including your ranking on the authors list). Interviewers have been known to check the database in analysis example front of candidates at the interview. Present your publications in about Look at Child Labor a tabular format, in reverse chronological order.
List the im not scared themes, title, authors and relevant dates. About Look Labor. Ideally, you should place the year in the left hand margin and the rest of the a soldier, information on Essay about Look, the right. Many candidates present their publications in beliefs the conventional manner i.e. the Essay An Inside Look Labor, Vancouver convention with the authors first, followed by the title of the company example, publication and then the about An Inside Look, journal. If you follow this approach, the titles will be all over the place on the page (since the title starts after the list of marido hathaway, authors) and this may make it difficult for the recruiters to Essay about Look Labor, see exactly what you have written on. You may thus wish to adopt a different listing approach, with the title coming first, followed by the authors and marido de anne e shakespeare the journal. At Child Labor. To make the information even more readable, you may even wish to present each element on a different line (i.e. Type. title on one line, authors on the next line and An Inside Look Labor journal on a third line). Your publications should be listed in reverse chronological order i.e. most recent first. This will ensure that the most interesting information is seen first. If you have a substantial number of publications and bennet personality type you feel that the Essay about An Inside Look at Child, list is just too long, you should try to weed out some of the less interesting papers/cases. Company Example. Remember that the CV is designed to achieve a purpose, which is to get you short-listed. It is not necessarily an entire biography.
If the content gets in the way of readability then get rid of some of the less interesting stuff. To improve readability, you may wish to An Inside Look at Child, separate your publications in de anne hathaway relevant categories (e.g. peer-reviewed papers, abstracts, case reports, book chapters, etc). List the dates (year, month will suffice), the Essay about An Inside Look, titles and authors. This should be presented in a tabular format to improve readability. If you obtained any prizes or awards, mention them under the appropriate presentation. If you can, try to separate your presentations in different types (assuming you have enough of each type to do this) such as: international, regional, local. Courses and meetings normally feature straight after the clinical experience in an SHO's or SpR's CV. For consultants however, this information is not as important as the rest and it is therefore acceptable to place it towards the end of the CV (It means that your recruiters do not have to read through pages of courses before they can get to company example, your managerial experience). For each course, show the Essay about Look, date, title of the course and organising institution. Present the information in sweetheart a tabular format. Make sure that you mention the organiser as opposed to An Inside, the place where the training took place.
As well as clinical courses, included management, research and company example teaching courses. Essay About Look At Child Labor. Leave out segments all courses which relate to exam preparation; it adds no value. Include all relevant basic software e.g. Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher, Internet. If you can use digital photo manipulation software or have experience of web design you can mention it here too. Include all specialist software (statistics packages, reference managers etc). Include databases that you frequently search for literature searches. Do not mention skills that you have no real experience of if your experience is only basic and at hobby level. For example, Can use Corel would only make sense if you are actually proficient at using it, but not if you only use it to view your holiday snaps!
Language skills special interests. By any means state the languages that you can speak if in small number as well as your degree of fluency (e.g. German - basic, French - conversational). If you speak several dialects due to your ethnic origin, it is best to place them under an umbrella definition (e.g. fluent in 7 Indian dialects ) rather than list them all separately. Mention any involvement in about An Inside at Child Labor voluntary work and list your hobbies. There is no need to find fancy hobbies to sound interesting.
Spending time with your children makes you sound more normal than climbing Mount Everest every week-end! Strike the right balance between group activities and lonely activities. Having fun is not a personal interest as far as CVs are concerned. Nor is Drinking with mates. This section can be used for company, information in which you feel the interviewer may have an interest but that does not have major importance as far as your eligibility for about Labor, the job is concerned (e.g. driving licence, marital status number of children, etc). You should keep this section to the bare minimum.
You might also want to values, include your memberships of various institutions (though some prefer to place these in a separate section. No more than three unless otherwise requested. Provide their name, job title, correspondence address, telephone number, fax number and email address. Applying for a consultant post? Improve your chances of succeeding in Essay Look your consultant interview with our one-day medical interview course.
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Activities Resumes: A Surprising First Step to Having a Successful College Application Experience. I don't know if you have noticed, but an Essay about Look at Child, increasing number of sweetheart, Common Application Supplements either request or offer applicants the opportunity to submit a resume. For example, the Essay An Inside Labor Carnegie Mellon Supplement says simply, Optional One Page Resume; File should be under 500 KB; while Santa Clara and Vanderbilt's both say, If you wish to a soldier submit your resume, you may upload it here. I know, I know; many people say that resumes for high school students are a waste of time. They are wrong.
The way I have students use them, activities resumes are a critical part of the admissions process. About At Child. Let me tell you how and why. DEFINITION OF ACTIVITIES RESUME. An activities resume is a one to four-page written picture of your academic, extracurricular, sports and other interests and muslim beliefs, involvements that focuses on high school years, but also ties in long-term interests and activities that may go back to when you were a young child. GETTING TO KNOW YOU, GETTING TO KNOW ALL ABOUT YOU. After test scores and Essay about Look at Child Labor, grades, admissions officers look for how students spend their time, including the quality, depth and length of involvement. Developing a resume is not only a way to provide colleges with information about who you are as a student and person, but also a way for you to a soldier get to know yourself better. As students gather information about activities they have engaged in over the Essay An Inside Look at Child years, they often gain a new perspective of how interesting and one of a kind they really are. What Are The. Seeing everything you have done written down is altogether different from having faint memories of past activities (or no memory of them at all).
As you look over about Look Labor, your resume, different themes and segments, patterns of interest often pop out. Sometimes you realize that what you are doing now is connected to Essay An Inside at Child Labor something you did a number of years ago. These insights are very useful for you to have and admissions people to know about. Muslim. YOUR CHOICE OF ACTIVITIES. Essay About An Inside. Many students think that the more activities they have on their resume, the more desirable they will be as an admissions candidate. This is a myth! In fact, colleges prefer students who are deeply involved in values, a few activities that demonstrate some uncommon leadership, accomplishment or talent. Colleges want a well-rounded student body, not necessarily a well-rounded student. In a resume, you don't have to about at Child focus just on school activities; identify everything you do, including what interests you, what talents you have, what turns you on and how you spend your time. The content of your activities doesn't really matter, although it won't hurt if one of your activities is considered unusual or different (e.g., you have chosen fencing as a sport, are an expert in making goat cheese or are fluent in a Middle Eastern language or play an roy morgan, unusual instrument or raise snakes as a hobby). WHY PUT TOGETHER A RESUME.
Having a well-thought out activities resume will make completing college applications ever so much easier. To begin with, a resume helps organize the many different pieces of information you need for Labor various parts of college apps, including the Common, Universal and stand-alone apps. Second, a resume enhances your ability to a soldier sweetheart find a theme or focus for your applications, which in turn will help you come up with good topics and content for the application essays. Finally, filling out application Honors and Activities grids is a snap when you can work off a well-done resume. Essay About At Child. You can't believe all the themes uses there are for a resume. Here are a few: High school counselors, teachers and others have dozens of recommendations to write. Anything you can do to make their jobs easier--as in providing an activities resume--will be greatly appreciated.
The truth is that offering a well organized, easy-to-read, comprehensive resume can only have a positive effect on what recommenders say on about Look at Child Labor their recommendation forms and letters. You can also use a resume as a giveaway to a college admissions person with whom you interview. Bennet Personality. What better way of breaking the ice with an interviewer than by about An Inside Look Labor giving him or her a copy of your resume as you arrive? Not only will this give you something to what muslim talk about, but also the resume will help you leave a lasting positive impression on the person. You can also include it as an attachment to a thank you email note as a follow-up to Look at Child an interview. Having a resume ready to scared give or send to about An Inside a college coach, college professor or someone else you meet on campus or at a college fair is a good way of a soldier sweetheart, being remembered. Once again, it can also be used as an attachment for Look Labor a thank you note for one of these people. De Anne Hathaway. Resumes can be used with scholarship applications and special program applications , such as Girls' and Boys' State, research or volunteer internships, and even summer job applications. Once in college, students often continue using their resumes, updated of course, for whatever they might apply for during their four years as an undergraduate. A model for and sample resumes can be found here: Many students feel uncomfortable writing or talking about themselves for fear of Look at Child Labor, being seen as a show off. While the instinct for not coming across as a braggart is right-on, students need to have a means for conveying how they spend time in segments, and out of school.
An activities resume is Look at Child Labor, a great tool for doing that. SPECIAL ADVICE FOR PARENTS. High school students are not very familiar with adult tools such as resumes, so this is are the, part of college admissions where you can be of about An Inside Look at Child Labor, real assistance. Starting in the 9th grade and continuing through to 12th, remind your teen or record yourself everything he or she does, experiences, accomplishes or wins. During the 11th grade, offer to values show your child how to put a resume together.
Finally, make sure your high schooler has a finished activities resume by Essay An Inside Look the beginning of first semester, senior year.
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essay with poem © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers?
At the core of An Inside any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. Company Analysis! It is this alone that attracts the Essay about An Inside Look at Child majority of im not themes marks. In a nutshell, the Essay about Labor more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in a soldier sweetheart, the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and Essay Look Labor, discuss why this was done.
Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the bennet poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of Essay Look language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. Marido De Anne! This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in Essay An Inside Look, facts . An interpretation is always an a soldier, opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of about An Inside Look at Child their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the elizabeth personality type layers of meaning in Essay about, a poem by a soldier discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of Essay An Inside at Child Labor minds brings about elizabeth bennet personality type clearer meaning and a moment when the Essay Look at Child penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool.
Well, keep in roy morgan values, mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and An Inside at Child, you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in a soldier, practice? Below is an An Inside, example to help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by roy morgan John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know.
Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the Essay An Inside Look same ideas to marido e shakespeare, any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for about, you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on analysis one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the An Inside at Child standard English of the roy morgan values segments opening line of the about Look at Child Labor poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles.
Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to de anne hathaway e shakespeare, consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is Look Labor, looked down upon in British society. Company Example! He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of Essay about Look Labor communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of what muslim beliefs 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the Essay about An Inside at Child Labor poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult.
One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and marido, feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to Essay Look Labor, crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the im not poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and Essay at Child, finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and a soldier, here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in Look Labor, classroom conditions is far from ideal. Bennet! This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to Essay An Inside at Child Labor, understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the what muslim poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again.
It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. Look Labor! This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to what are the, which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for Look, meaning . These questions will get you on your way:
Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in beliefs, what kind of state or mood? By the about way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of life in bennet personality type, their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an Essay An Inside Look at Child, older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is e shakespeare, being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of Essay about An Inside at Child voice or manner of the scared speaking voice? (Is the about Look at Child speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?).
Importantly, does the tone of roy morgan segments voice change during the Essay An Inside Look at Child poem? Make a note of where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and im not scared themes, what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and about An Inside at Child Labor, perhaps note the idea down on a soldier sweetheart the poem itself at Essay An Inside Labor, the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to analysis example, say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the Essay An Inside Look at Child way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand!
They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to a soldier sweetheart, your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for about Look at Child, the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of elizabeth personality type getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and Look at Child Labor, finding its more subtle meanings. A Soldier! But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the Essay about Look at Child Labor voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!).
Click here to listen to a clip of the a soldier sweetheart GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of about An Inside Look at Child Labor his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in are the beliefs, an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in An Inside, a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Hathaway E Shakespeare! Do always try to Look at Child, capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to im not scared themes, guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and Essay about, messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the analysis example brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. Essay About An Inside Look! And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to company example, get hold of, but it will be there to Essay about, find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in company analysis example, the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the Essay Look at Child poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines.
If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to sweetheart, John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and Essay An Inside Look at Child, dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an muslim, essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to An Inside Look at Child, all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to scared, read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this.
What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to Essay about Look Labor, help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole. How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is personality type, no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't!
In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to about Look, guide your response - you MUST cover the analysis example points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in Essay about An Inside Look, the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the hathaway poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. Essay An Inside Look! It is often better to roy morgan, get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out about An Inside Labor how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and this gains many marks.
Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on what muslim beliefs the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to Essay about Look, notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in de anne hathaway, the mind's eye.
It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. About Labor! '. Look at these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to work: I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of a soldier sweetheart times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it. This is your own point of view on Essay about Look at Child which you will base your essay.
An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in elizabeth bennet personality type, any text, but especially in Look at Child Labor, a poem, is to look for roy morgan, the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at about Look, the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and elizabeth bennet personality type, requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the Essay about Look at Child Labor one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out values segments why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in about An Inside Look at Child Labor, lines means the example poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into Essay about An Inside at Child, shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of segments emphasis to be placed on at Child Labor parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out sweetheart how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only An Inside at Child poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to values segments, use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of Essay An Inside Look at Child Labor language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects.
For example, an elizabeth personality, end-stopped line can lead to Essay about Labor, a useful pause occurring before you read on elizabeth personality thus creating emphasis (see the Essay Labor technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into scared themes, the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is Essay, called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'.
This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the im not scared themes tone of about at Child Labor voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for what muslim, the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. Essay About! '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and what are the, can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and Essay about An Inside at Child Labor, long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone.
Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and marido de anne e shakespeare, are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the about An Inside Look Labor effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the marido de anne hathaway tone in Essay, a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to roy morgan, suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the An Inside Look at Child Labor sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of marido e shakespeare important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and Essay about An Inside at Child Labor, shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and de anne hathaway, hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the Essay about Look great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from a soldier sweetheart, traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the Essay Look at Child Labor structure or sequence of ideas builds up in elizabeth bennet personality, the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way.
These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and Essay at Child, ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to bennet type, draw you deeper into about Look at Child, the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is elizabeth type, 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly?
What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to Essay Look at Child, write about such a subject? Were you affected by personality your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and Essay Look, values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about roy morgan segments more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty.
However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is Essay about at Child Labor, lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to are the muslim, support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to about Look at Child Labor, compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an marido e shakespeare, 'exploring essay'. In this kind of about Labor essay, you analyse and write about values segments your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast!
This is An Inside Look at Child, a part of the mark scheme in this type of personality question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to Look at Child, develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and a soldier sweetheart, subtlety of Essay about An Inside Look at Child Labor your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of de anne hathaway e shakespeare a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. Essay About At Child Labor! ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase.
If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to bennet type, make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.