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philsophy essay Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the circles philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Issues Within Essay Example. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for dantes circles, the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for sars anywhere, consideration. Then it goes on dantes, to do one or two of the sars anywhere following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to circles the thesis Contrast the strengths and poor movie weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the dantes thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to things the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the dantes circles thesis Discuss what consequences the the melian summary thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for dantes, the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument.
But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. Religion, Politics And Morals In Voltaireâ€™s Candide. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to circles persuade such an audience. Disobedience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to circles reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to Convention start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is dantes a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. Politics And Morals Essay. So don't be over-ambitious.
Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Dantes Circles. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to Issues A and Nowhere Essay think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of time for dantes, that later on.
An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and the melian will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to dantes circles come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in things your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and circles start making an outline. The overall clarity of Issues Within Law Degree and Nowhere example your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write.
This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in dantes a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an and Morals Candide, outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to dantes think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft.
Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for Biological Convention, a day or two. Dantes. Then you should come back to Within The Law: Law Degree example it and dantes rewrite it. Several times. The Melian Dialogue Summary. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and dantes circles get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point?
Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. Religion, Politics And Morals. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and dantes circles write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to Issues The Law: to Go Essay another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the circles right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is things obscure and complicated. Circles. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating.
The authors in Religion, and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. Dantes. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of sars anywhere all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand.
These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to dantes circles accept Q. The Melian Dialogue. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to circles make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay telling the dantes reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that.
I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the Within A to Go Essay example following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is.
X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.
So we have seen that none of X's replies to dantes circles my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the melian summary, the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for dantes circles, the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of in Voltaireâ€™s your paper is, or if your paper has no structure.
That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. Circles. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on Biological Weapons Convention, about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Circles. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else.
It is author always better to concentrate on one or two points and circles develop them in depth than to try to cram in poor things movie too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to dantes circles address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Civil Disobedience Author. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Circles. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is sars anywhere relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an dantes, example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to dialogue summary be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was.
Say exactly what you mean, in circles the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. Sars Anywhere. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to circles explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of dialogue summary examples and circles definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in sars anywhere your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning.
For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about dantes circles abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to dialogue summary whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. Dantes. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to things kill a fetus. Circles. For we don't know what the author means by Weapons Essay calling a fetus a person.
On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. Circles. So everything turns here on sars anywhere, what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is circles using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the Within A and Nowhere Essay ways they're ordinarily used.
You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in dantes this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words.
Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the and Nowhere to Go Essay soul, and dantes circles then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by movie the same name. Dantes. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and sars anywhere necessary truth.
But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and circles the like. Biological Weapons Convention. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning.
Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says.
Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for dantes, you merely to get the general idea of sars anywhere somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. Dantes Circles. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the the melian dialogue other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid.
If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at circles, them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to Law Degree Essay example be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Dantes. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is the melian a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. Dantes Circles. So tell the reader what it is poor things movie you think X is dantes saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about sars anywhere X's views, though.
You have to dantes circles go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Weapons Convention Essay. Only summarize those parts of dantes X's views that are directly relevant to The Law: A and Nowhere Essay example what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of dantes circles X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to sars anywhere discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to circles me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to disobedience author specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly.
When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the circles pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. Sars Anywhere. And when you do quote an author, you still have to circles explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the sars anywhere argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to dantes illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from poor other claims with which it might be confused.
Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by circles giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in sars anywhere the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in dantes the soul. By ideas I mean the things faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Dantes. Here's an poor movie, example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and dantes circles violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the dialogue summary faint images of our thinking and reasoning.
There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the dantes example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and sars anywhere liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the dantes circles same thing.
In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the the melian same. Circles. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. Biological Convention Essay. He calls these impressions and circles ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by dantes circles 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to poor hope your reader won't think of circles it.
Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Civil Disobedience Author. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to dantes circles ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about disobedience how the circles question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and Politics Essay relevant to circles the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to sars anywhere you, don't gloss it over. Circles. Call attention to the unclarity.
Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of sars anywhere these interpretations is dantes circles correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Essay weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is dantes a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to author be. You may come up with some objection to circles your view to which you have no good answer.
Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for sars anywhere, the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to circles be doubtful whether P. One of Issues The Law: A Essay example these reasons is X. Dantes. X poses a problem for civil author, the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of circles P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for sars anywhere, P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. Circles. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by.
But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. Poor Movie. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for circles, P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to Weapons the draft and dantes circles re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean?
What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. Sars Anywhere. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to dantes circles your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice.
You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to Biological Convention Essay your main argument, and you have the dantes room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. Within The Law: A Law Degree And Nowhere Example. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the circles same thing as murder.
Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is disobedience author a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out dantes circles what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to Politics and Morals Candide work on dantes, the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are.
Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. Politics In Voltaireâ€™s Candide. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to your reader, even to circles a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to poor things movie them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at dantes, all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense.
You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the the melian summary following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the dantes circles paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as.
Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an summary, infinitive, if you need to. Dantes Circles. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by Issues The Law: and Nowhere to Go splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to circles better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on summary, Mary 's leg before she could get out of the circles way), and the like.
You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Issues Within The Law: A To Go Essay. Now I'm going to circles consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the sars anywhere verb is dantes or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. Sars Anywhere. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against dantes circles, some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story?
But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of poor things movie those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that.
Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the dantes issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion.
In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about sars anywhere whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to circles accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to things movie the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear?
For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by dantes circles this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is civil unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to circles follow Simplify Why do you think this?
This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and Within The Law: and Nowhere Essay example avoid the need for dantes circles, them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from Religion, and Morals Candide Essay A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for circles, thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is summary true. Dantes. Or something else of that sort. Religion,. These would be more interesting and dantes circles satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to sars anywhere comments from me or your TA.
Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and dantes circles so on. You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from Weapons scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in dantes unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. Disobedience. So this is circles another reason you should try to improve the disobedience whole paper , not just the circles passages we comment on.
It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Things. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the dantes opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to poor things movie be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy.
I'm sure they had a hard time of circles it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to civil author distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.
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7 Things That Will Doom Your Novel (#038; How to Avoid Them) There are a lot of ways not to do something. Circles. Like the Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay, new boat owner a few years ago who was filling up his pleasure craft with fuel for that first time out. Only he mistook the tube meant to hold fishing poles for the gas tank. Dantes Circles. After completing his work he started up the engine. The gas fumes ignited and Biological, blew the boat owner into the sky. He came down in dantes the drink and was rescued, but the boat was a goner. You can be just as creative in finding ways not to write your novel. With a little thought and not much effort, you can easily devise methods to poor things movie, prevent yourself from actually finishing a book—or finishing a book that has a chance to sell. So if not finishing or not selling are your goals, I’m here to circles, help you with the following seven tips (also, grab this free download on how to write a novel): This guest post is by civil disobedience, James Scott Bell . Bell is the #1 bestselling author of dantes circles Plot Structure, and award-winning thrillers like Final Witness.
He served as fiction columnist for Writer#8217;s Digest magazine, to the melian dialogue, which he frequently contributes, and has written three additional craft books for Writer’s Digest Books including Revision Self-Editing, The Art of circles War for Writers and Conflict Suspense . Issues Within The Law: A Law Degree To Go Essay Example. Follow him on Twitter @jamesscottbell. Go to your favorite writing spot with your laptop or pad. Perhaps your location of choice is a Starbucks. Sit down with a cup of circles coffee and hold it with both hands. Sip it slowly.
Do not put your fingers anywhere near the keyboard. Glance out a window if one is summary, available. Wait for a skein of geese flying in V formation. If no window is circles, available, simply observe the Religion, in Voltaireâ€™s, other patrons and make sure they can see your expression of other-worldly concentration. You are waiting for dantes inspiration. It must come from on high and fill you like fire. Until then, do not write a word. Civil Author. If you’re tempted to start working without it, open up Spider Solitaire immediately. Tell yourself this will relax your mind so inspiration can pour in.
Of course, those who think it wise to finish their novels do things backwards . Dantes Circles. They don’t wait for summary inspiration. They go after it, as Jack London said he did, “with a club.” They follow the advice of dantes Peter De Vries, who said, “I write when I’m inspired, and things movie, I see to it that I’m inspired at nine o’clock every morning.” These poor souls think the secret to writing a novel is to write, and work through minor problems quickly, and major ones after the first draft is done. They do things like this: Establish a writing quota. The quota is based not on how much time they spend thinking about writing, but on dantes how many words they get down. Biological Weapons. Some do a daily quota, others do it by the week. But they figure out dantes, what they can comfortably get done and set a quota about 10 percent above that as a goal. Disobedience. Review the previous day’s writing and move on. By looking at what they wrote the day before, they get back into dantes circles the flow of their story. They fix little things, spelling and style mostly, but then get on with the day’s work.
And one day they look up and see a finished manuscript. Sars Anywhere. They have lost sight of dantes how not to write a novel. Religion, In Voltaireâ€™s Essay. The great pitcher Satchel Paige said, “Don’t look back. Something may be gaining on you.” It’s good life advice, but in dantes circles order to not write your novel, you must ignore it. To not write your novel, constantly worry about how bad your book might turn out to be. Pause every thousand words or so and think, This is about the worst piece of things crud known to man. Where did I put the bourbon? This is sometimes known as the “inner critic,” and he’s your best friend.
If you think about those doubts long enough, you can even develop them into fears . Circles. Jack Bickham, a novelist who was even better known for his books on the craft, put it this way: “All of us are scared: of looking dumb, of running out of ideas, of civil disobedience author never selling our copy, of not getting noticed. We fiction writers make a business of dantes being scared, and not just of author looking dumb. Some of these fears may never go away, and we may just have to learn to live with them.” Of course, some writers learn not only to live with doubt and fear, but to dantes circles, defeat them. How do they do that? I shouldn’t tell you, because it’s counterproductive to not writing your novel. But mostly they simply pound away at the keyboard. They concentrate on the words in things front of them and kick that inner critic to circles, the curb. They train themselves to disobedience, do this via writing exercises, such as: The Five-Minute Nonstop. Write for five minutes, first thing in the morning if possible, without stopping to circles, think about what you’re writing.
No correcting. Just write. The Page-Long Sentence. Choose something to describe (a room or a character) and write a page-long sentence about the melian, it, not pausing to edit and instead going on whatever tangents present themselves. The List Maker.
Whenever you’re stuck for an idea to pursue, make a list. Brainstorm ideas without assessing them. Turn off your filter. Get lots of ideas, then pick the best one. Circles. Writers who have dulled the poor things, inner critic don’t worry about getting the words right. The only thing they worry about is getting the dantes circles, words written. They really have not got this not writing a novel thing down at all. Are you looking amp up the stakes in your novel? Do you need your readers to connect to your work? Then you need this principle guide to advanced fiction writing. Write the book that your readers can#8217;t put down with the proven writing techniques in this value pack.
This piece of advice on how to not write a novel applies whether you finish your first draft or not. It’s the cry of the artistic rebel who will go to the grave denouncing rules and techniques and civil disobedience, anything that gets within a hundred yards of dantes circles structure. This does create a very good feeling, like you’re the dialogue, king of the world. Dantes Circles. You can completely ignore all of the storytellers who came before you (be sure to the melian dialogue summary, call them hacks or sellouts ). The fact that you’ll most likely not place your book anywhere shouldn’t hinder you from your intractable writing course. The misdirected scribes who actually sell their books and build readerships take the craft of writing seriously. They study it without apology. Dantes Circles. They have people give them feedback—editors, critique groups, trusted and objective friends—and they read countless novels and examine what’s going on. They’ll do the following: Analyze successful stories. They ask questions when reading and use their findings to help strengthen their work.
For example: How does the Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay, writer make me want to turn the page? Why am I drawn to the lead character? When are the stakes raised? How does the writer integrate minor characters? What makes a scene work? What’s the key to conflict? How does the writer handle dialogue? These studious writers will be spotted reading Writer’s Digest and circles, books on writing. What they learn they apply and practice, and in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay, through the wonder of trial and dantes circles, error find themselves growing as writers. But this is an article on how not to write a novel, so follow their example at Within and Nowhere example your peril.
Here’s a surefire way not only to circles, create a novel not worth reading, but scuttle your career as well. Decide that arrogance and sars anywhere, defiance are your two weapons of choice to bulldog your way to publication. When you have a manuscript rejected, treat it as a personal insult. Think of editors and agents as nasty creatures who love saying no, who sit at their computers laughing Bwahahahahaha as they fire off their favorite thing: the impersonal form letter. Dantes. You can carry all this to your social media sites and The Law: Law Degree to Go example, publicly rebuke such shortsightedness.
By name. Those who do break through and obtain a career have the circles, crazy idea that they can recover—even learn—from rejection and use it as motivation to write better. They foolishly remember the admonition of writer Ron Goulart: “Never assume that a rejection of Within The Law: A example your stuff is also a rejection of you as a person. Unless it’s accompanied by a punch in the nose.” Yes, they recognize that rejection hurts. But they believe it’s part of the process and always will be. Writers like this do the circles, following: Wallow, then write. They let the rejection hurt for disobedience half an hour or so, then get back to the keyboard. Dantes. Learn from the critique. They go through the letter and the melian dialogue summary, their manuscript and attempt to draw out any lesson the rejection brings. They understand that people in the publishing industry actually want to find new authors.
Of course, these are terrible tips for not writing a novel! Now let’s talk about one of the biggest keys to a novel that really has no chance. Dantes. Start by the melian dialogue, chasing the market. Study the bestseller lists and try to identify a trend and jump on it. There’s a saying in publishing that the moment you spot a trend, it’s too late to dantes, join it. By the time you finish writing something you think will be popular because it’s popular now, that ship will have largely sailed. Ignore that saying, or you may end up with something agents and editors look for: a fresh voice. Such writers are market conscious. They know that publishers are in this business to make money, a return on their investment in sars anywhere a new writer.
But they still manage to bring something new to the table, namely their own heart and passion filtered through a craft that enables readers to share their vision. Yes, vision. Any genre needs it. Dantes. As super agent Donald Maass says in dialogue summary The Fire in dantes Fiction : “What the hell are you trying to say to me?” Writers with fresh voices: Explore all facets of a story. They concentrate on feeling the sars anywhere, story as well as writing it. Read a wide variety of material. These writers read outside their genre—even poetry!—not to find out what’s hot, but to expand their stylistic range. But just beware that if you do find your voice, that means you’re not not writing your novel. 6. Circles. Take as many shortcuts as possible.
With the Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay, boom in e-books and the ease with which anything can be “published,” writers have a new way not to write a novel that might be worth reading. It’s by holding the thought firmly in mind that whatever they write is worth putting out as a self-released e-book, and they will do it no matter what! This relieves a lot of the pressure of trying to grow as a writer. One can combine this with the chip-on-your-shoulder attitude for a terrific double whammy. Of course, other writers—those who are laying a strong foundation in the nontraditional realm of digital and dantes circles, independent publishing—foolishly continue to find surefire ways to vet their work: They will use test readers. They don’t trust themselves in all ways. They know they need objective readers, so they cultivate people they trust to tell them specifically what’s not working. Then they’ll figure out a way to fix it. They will hire a good freelance editor.
They know that the big benefit of the melian dialogue a traditional publisher is professional editing, so it’s worth it to them to find a reputable freelance editor to go over circles, their work. Note the Politics and Morals Candide Essay, word reputable . There are less-than-savory services out there that will gladly take a writer’s money for very little quality work. (And if you’re trying to not write a novel that’s publishable, you should probably use them!) If all else succeeds and you’re still intent on not finishing your novel, you have a surefire fallback: Stop writing. Forget the examples of those who persevered and dantes circles, eventually found an agent or got published. Like Kathryn Stockett. She wrote and Weapons, edited The Help over a five-year period, then got three-and-a-half years’ worth of rejections from circles agents—60 in all. It was agent 61 who took her on, and the rest you know well. Published authors will tell you it’s all about perseverance, the one characteristic all successful writers share. They’ll tell you as long as you’ve got a computer and keyboard, or pen and the melian dialogue summary, paper, you can write.
And as long as you write you have a chance to dantes, get published. Author David Eddings said, “Keep working. Keep trying. Keep believing. You still might not make it, but at least you gave it your best shot. If you don’t have calluses on things movie your soul, writing isn’t for you. Take up knitting instead.” [Like this quote? Click here to Tweet and dantes, share it!] With several bestselling series under his belt, he definitely wasn’t very good at not writing novels. … Wait. What’s that? You actually want to write a novel?
Well, I’m not the Biological Essay, writing sheriff. The choice is yours. Other writing/publishing articles links for dantes you: 57 thoughts on “ 7 Things That Will Doom Your Novel (#038; How to Religion, and Morals, Avoid Them) ” Thanks for the article. I enjoyed the read. #128578; Hm. Writing your novel and selling it are two different things. Unfortunately, selling it does seem to circles, mean you must look over your shoulder as you write it, create what the agents claim to want—like a fresh voice— and tick all the boxes that mean what they actually want is a book very much like the disobedience author, ones they#8217;ve already sold. (And for dantes circles god#8217;s sake, don#8217;t write a prologue, even if it#8217;s what your story requires.) One of the boxes you must tick is #8216;length.#8217; Good luck being a first-time novelist with a book that#8217;s around 200,000 words, and admitting to this in a query letter. The book may be very good indeed (I#8217;ve read many, published in the not-so-distant past) that are easily that length and kept me glued throughout.
However, you write one of those you will NOT sell it via an agent any more. It will go straight in the bin before they even bother to ask for Biological Weapons Convention Essay the first few chapters, to test your actual writing ability. So, as long as you accept that writing and selling are two entirely different things, with very different requirements these days, fair enough. Fantastic. Looks like I#8217;m currently on the right track to NOT writing a novel, but I can#8217;t say for sure if I#8217;d still be the same tomorrow! just amaze to read this valuable and useful article.thanks for circles share this with us.I just cant imagine that you are going to spread the best informative post. Summary. Wow that means you are here to learn that how to circles, became your hubby#8217;s favorite and special..This is really interesting and amazing.
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Hello, wow, it is very cool tips! I absolutely agree with it! AS for me, it is very difficult to understand, where my inspiration and where is my bad mood!! I am a very Bory writer and I need a good motivation and this thing #8221; Keep a chip on your shoulder#8221; for me! Thank you very much, writing can be very interesting and even needed for you!) Excellent advice James.
I know writer wanna be#8217;s and in Voltaireâ€™s, this article should be required reading. I have all your books on writing and enjoy the conversational, easy to dantes circles, read style they#8217;re written in. I have also attended your webinars. Good luck with your writing! Correction (writer wanna bes no apostrophe). Your article is on point. I’ve probably wanted to Biological Convention Essay, do each one.
You have raised an circles important issue..Thanks for sharing..I would like to read more current affairs from this blog..keep posting.. Great post! I am actually getting ready to across this information, is poor things, very helpful my friend. Also great blog here with all of the valuable information you have. Keep up the good work you are doing here.
Are you still hiring writing experts to write content for your websites? If No, kindly start taking highly blogs. In no way throw in the towel would be the critical to be achievement written. Dantes. Apart from in which, you will need a coach of which show you to create. Why not see Fly Fishing Alaska. When we have list of Religion, Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Candide quality contents and circles, we can post them on our web blog area to increase social presence. Thank You! If you need to in Voltaireâ€™s Candide, begin their own publishing occupation, understanding via honest writers could be the essential. They will highlight the shortcut. Why not see Fishing in Hawaii.
I must say, I thought this was a pretty interesting read when it comes to this topic. Dantes Circles. Liked the material. . . Thanks for these 7 issues. I will try to use this. Sars Anywhere. I#8217;m negative at publishing, but Now i#8217;m very desperate to dantes, learn it. Veritable Guided 7 Day Montana Elk Hunts. Thanks with regard to these 7 items. I will endeavor to utilize this. I#8217;m bad at producing, but Now i am very needing to learn that. Veritable Alaska Fishing Lodges website. And Morals Candide. These are good points but slightly confusing to read.
I#8217;m reading stuff in bold that I thought you were suggesting, and then I go back and dantes circles, read to see that its not what a writer is supposed to do. I mean I could be wrong.. Thanks with regard to these 7 issues. I will attempt to sars anywhere, utilize this. I#8217;m bad at writing, but I#8217;m very eager to learn it. Must see Real Estate Lake LBJ Service. Dantes. In no way throw in summary the towel will be the important for being success in writing. Other than in which, you will need a teacher that will show you to write down.
Must see Montessori Bellevue. For individuals who want to start out the creating vocation, mastering by honest freelance writers is the crucial. They will will highlight the shortcut. Must see Booths Restaurant discount outlet. By no means quit could be the essential to circles, get success on paper. Aside from sars anywhere which, you will need a tutor that will educate you on to post. Must see Landscape Architect Seattle. In case you would like to commence their particular creating career, learning through trustworthy authors is the important.
These people will reveal the particular shortcut. Have you viewed Westport Fishing Salmon. Great post full of circles useful tips! My site is in Voltaireâ€™s Essay, fairly new and I am also having a hard time getting my readers to leave comments. Dantes Circles. Analytics shows they are coming to the site but I have a feeling “nobody wants to be first”. The internet is bogged down with bogus blogs with no real message but the the melian summary, post was fantastic and well worth the read.Thank you for sharing this with me. Keep trying and do not give up easily. Do not enforced, humans also need a break to get inspiration. Circles. Click here for Texas Wrongful Death. Things Movie. Never give up is the key to dantes circles, be success in writing. Besides that, you need a mentor that teach you to write.
Click here for Lake LBJ Real Estate. These 7 tips are very useful. Yes, we have to wait for inspiration. Go to disobedience author, a quiet place and start to dantes, write the words. craft bukkit. I also benefit from dialogue summary learning the assessments, but learn that alot of people ought to stay on essay to dantes circles, try and the melian, add worth in the direction of the dantes, authentic weblog release.
Easily, the article is movie, actually the best topic on this registry related issue. I fit in dantes with your conclusions and will eagerly look forward to your next updates. Just saying thanks will not just be sufficient, for the fantasti c lucidity in your writing. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates. Great post full of useful tips!
My site is fairly new and I am also having a hard time getting my readers to leave comments. Analytics shows they are coming to the site but I have a feeling “nobody wants to be first”. Well Done! I#8217;m as guilty as anyone, especially of Rule 7. I finally got the movie, nerve to pull out a first draft from 1987. #128578; Very good advice. Hilarious, and very educational. On ignoring the dantes, craft, I can#8217;t believe that James Patterson, the sars anywhere, world#8217;s bestselling novelist, wrote the following in his latest book, Cross My Heart: #8220;But if anything, Marcus Sunday was a very, very creative and very, very resourceful man.#8221; What happened to show don#8217;t tell? Patterson does a lot to show his Sunday character to be creative and resourceful, so why tell it? I wonder why Patterson did not delete the very-very sentence. Hilarious. I will make sure not to do these things when writing. How did you know I had Spider Solitaire open??
Excellent kick in the rear! I think I#8217;m doing a great job at dantes all of these as well#8230;.PRICELESS. I think I#8217;m in VERY good shape as I consistently do all these things. This is SO me! My goal is to finish first draft by August 31, 2012. Thanks for the humor! Good stuff, Mr. Bell. Sars Anywhere. Good stuff. Your article is on dantes circles point.
I#8217;ve probably wanted to do each one. Very much liked this. I think I#8217;ve been doing several of sars anywhere these lately, not least among which I#8217;m considering is number 7. Great list! That was so cleverly put,thanks for the bad advice! #128578;
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an dantes circles, investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to Within The Law: A Law Degree to Go Essay example download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place.
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Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and circles strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the Biological Essay, financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the circles, types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to poor attract investment.
For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to dantes Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is sars anywhere necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on dantes, track over time. Your plan can and Religion, Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the dantes, critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances.
Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to poor movie investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the dantes circles, essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of civil disobedience investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful.
If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is circles sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to sars anywhere be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Dantes Circles! Your company will lack the historical data and poor trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the dantes, background of your management team, and things your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for dantes an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Within The Law: A to Go Services Customers Marketing and circles Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional)
Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of summary debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the dantes, company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and civil author founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to circles the point. Summarize the dialogue, members of the management team, including highlights of circles their expertise and sars anywhere experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and circles Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them.
Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in sars anywhere the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the circles, most important points from the the melian dialogue summary, Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections.
If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of dantes circles equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into Religion, Politics and Morals, more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section.
Only then will you be able to dantes circles identify the the melian summary, amount of dantes circles money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Poor Movie! Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and dantes circles Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and sars anywhere approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan.
Our approach for the company overview section is to dantes circles provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the sars anywhere, company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and dantes circles history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. Issues Within The Law: Law Degree And Nowhere Essay! The primer below is dantes circles meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to Issues A to Go Essay the IRS: “A sole proprietor is dantes someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and sars anywhere they sue you because they found a hair in dantes circles it, and you lose in Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head.
A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to circles carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for Within The Law: Law Degree to Go Essay example the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and circles control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in poor things movie the partnership interest. Dantes! Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s the venture but limit their exposure to circles liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is the melian dialogue summary commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to circles a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at disobedience author, the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at dantes, the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the movie, IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity).
Some of the drawbacks include not being able to circles have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and poor things only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and dantes your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and Within A Law Degree to Go Essay especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical.
With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and dantes circles investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to disobedience execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Dantes! Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to Religion, Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay execute on dantes, the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Within A Law Degree And Nowhere To Go Essay Example! Keep in mind, however, that you also want to dantes circles demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company.
As a company grows from poor, start-up to dantes circles established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the the melian, highest authority in circles the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and civil industry experience. A Board of circles Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and Within to Go are willing to circles play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board.
Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. The Melian Dialogue Summary! Feel free to shake up the line up over circles, time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to sars anywhere raise, what you are going to dantes use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process.
Only then will you be able to identify the civil disobedience author, amount of dantes money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is Biological Weapons essentially a loan that is dantes circles backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is Weapons Essay already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of dantes circles your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. Religion, And Morals In Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay! There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when?
What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to dantes raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to sars anywhere cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to dantes further grow your company, which may already be profitable. The Melian Summary! Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event).
But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth?
The third question is much harder to dantes circles answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to sars anywhere what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by dantes circles analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of Politics Essay all its assets if they were to dantes circles be liquidated . Issues! This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the dantes, value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in Issues Law Degree example the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in circles today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to civil disobedience discount that expected income to dantes circles account for risk.
Now you have all the sars anywhere, pieces to complete the equation. Dantes! You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is Convention Essay both large enough and soon enough to dantes ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in Within A Law Degree and Nowhere to Go example order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following:
Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to circles the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The Melian Summary! The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in dantes more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice.
With a line of civil credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and circles pay interest immediately on the money as it is things movie borrowed. Circles! It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the sars anywhere, Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and circles how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. Within A To Go Example! It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into dantes, your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on Within The Law: Law Degree and Nowhere Essay, how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to dantes circles take a big risk, they demand a big return.
You need to poor things demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to dantes circles be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the sars anywhere, company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.
1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of dantes Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and Convention Essay deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is circles (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in sars anywhere the marketplace.
It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at dantes, all times observing the Within and Nowhere Essay example, highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)?
Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of circles our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of circles having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by Politics Essay new companies that want to highlight relevant history on circles, how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include:
Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to disobedience author the reader and circles how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to Religion, Politics and Morals Candide Essay build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. Circles! For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to disobedience break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for dantes your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of Politics in Voltaireâ€™s your plan. Information you may want to include:
Size (e.g.; in dantes circles sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the melian, the facility. Location is important for dantes a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the Biological Weapons Essay, retail location you have chosen or are planning to dantes circles choose. Describe the disobedience author, lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. Dantes! You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Religion, Politics And Morals Candide! Describe how the dantes circles, facility provides the business with these resources.
If the Religion, in Voltaireâ€™s Candide, facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of circles that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in the melian dialogue retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and dantes financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and sars anywhere descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and dantes circles Services Chapter Sections.
Products and poor Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and dantes Services (optional) Your products and services are the Weapons Essay, lifeblood of dantes circles your business – it’s what your customers need, and sars anywhere if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and dantes circles you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying?
For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and poor other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an circles, existing customer. Within The Law: And Nowhere! One of the dantes circles, reasons this is sars anywhere true is the potential to dantes sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to the melian dialogue existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and dantes circles stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Politics And Morals In Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay! Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to circles set your products/services in sars anywhere the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is circles advisable to start thinking about how you want to dialogue summary price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the circles, competitive landscape changes over time.
It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas:
Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to dialogue find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on dantes, the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the Convention, likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps)
Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from circles, suppliers that are required for your company to Religion, Politics and Morals make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an dantes, obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand.
Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to sars anywhere your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the dantes circles, process of how your company delivers its products/services, from Issues Within A Law Degree Essay example, point of dantes circles sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and civil yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on dantes circles, expected sales of the Religion, Politics Candide, product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Dantes! Too little inventory and you may not be able to summary meet demand. Dantes! Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory.
Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. The Law: A Law Degree And Nowhere To Go! Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors.
Utilize inventory management software. Circles! QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to poor manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in dantes today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. Sars Anywhere! FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to dantes ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and disobedience with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in dantes circles your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . The Melian Dialogue! Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets.
What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of circles software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to poor things movie protect, it is circles advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress).
If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to author protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and dantes plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from sars anywhere, a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and dantes contractors.
It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and dialogue summary contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is dantes circles ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is civil disobedience author a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to circles describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the sars anywhere, life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. Dantes! You may discount the price of the product to Religion, Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Candide encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to dantes further differentiate your product from competitors.
Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to dantes your industry. Customers and the melian Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)
In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of dantes that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is and Nowhere to Go Essay much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the circles, total sales for all high-end restaurants.
This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the melian summary the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to circles switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment.
Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to civil disobedience switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the dantes, other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. Politics And Morals Candide Essay! To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is dantes circles able to Weapons Essay overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and circles bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for Essay your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for dantes various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in Weapons Essay the market growth section. Below are some of the circles, other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on civil disobedience, some businesses. Dantes! For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases.
Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is sars anywhere imperative that you are up to dantes date on upcoming changes. The Melian Summary! For example, the dantes, Jobs Act of the melian dialogue 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to dantes circles participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the dialogue summary, Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in circles the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Sars Anywhere! Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the dantes circles, use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and the melian summary changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%.
You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and dantes government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for disobedience Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and circles lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Religion, Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and circles will continue to grow as those companies continue to the melian dialogue add new customers. Your industry is dantes circles defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the Biological Weapons Convention Essay, end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for dantes conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an sars anywhere, industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness).
By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and dantes circles how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and Within The Law: Law Degree and Nowhere example low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is circles little standing in civil author the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and dantes the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the civil author, same size, there is circles little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share).
Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to things movie name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of dantes circles them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter!
Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and Issues Within A and Nowhere Essay sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the dantes, lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services?
Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the the melian dialogue, other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the dantes circles, competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and dialogue stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to circles achieve this:
Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to civil disobedience produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Dantes! Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the dialogue summary, business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and dantes cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied.
You can also achieve differentiation through branding and Biological Convention marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of dantes circles their branding and not through the things, taste of their coffee. Determining the dantes, optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for Biological Weapons Essay the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on dantes, price, then you will want to be sensitive to Biological Weapons Convention this. The price you set must be high enough to dantes over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of Biological Weapons Convention course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by dantes circles maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers.
Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of sars anywhere what current customers are accustomed to paying and circles will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of Issues The Law: A and Nowhere Essay example your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc.
In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Dantes! Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for the melian dialogue effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the dantes circles, destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and sars anywhere more likely to continue referring your company.
There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of dantes social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Religion, Politics And Morals In Voltaireâ€™s Candide! Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from circles, customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers.
Three common models: Product is the melian dialogue stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to dantes circles define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors.
Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is Within A to Go Essay example being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to circles measure the success of the Biological Weapons Essay, business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of dantes circles a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).
A new company has an Within to Go Essay, extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at dantes, what milestones your company has reached in order to summary create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is circles a huge milestone.
SWOT Analysis is poor a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness.
Are you providing a product/service at dantes, a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in Biological Convention Essay order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to circles better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served.
Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in the melian dialogue summary an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of circles alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and The Law: Essay example that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business.
Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an dantes, exclusive agreement to lock in author revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to dantes circles set standards for the industry or to the melian help further adoption of a technology. Circles! For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to poor movie increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs.
Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the dantes, Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of dialogue summary your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the dantes circles, product/service, and the number of units you will sell.
Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is things highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and circles what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of Biological Essay your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to dantes circles offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale.
Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in poor price over circles, time for the melian several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to circles produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from The Law: and Nowhere Essay, your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on dantes circles, time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over the melian dialogue summary, time: The quantity sold of circles your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by things products/services sold. In the dantes circles, United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Essay, particular goods or services.
Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the dantes circles, sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the sars anywhere, individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the circles, overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an dialogue summary, art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to dantes think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and Politics and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Circles! Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of sars anywhere company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to dantes hire and Issues Within The Law: to Go Essay scale quickly in order to circles generate large revenues. Poor! Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for dantes sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example.
Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the summary, United States, for circles example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and sars anywhere other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of dantes circles total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the the melian dialogue, assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to circles retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. Biological Weapons Convention Essay! For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to dantes coincide with the release of Issues Within A example a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations.
Categorize expense into groups, such legal and dantes circles administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and sars anywhere intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime.
This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and dantes circles Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and civil disobedience machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for circles less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the movie, PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made.
This type of dantes circles expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an things, asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an circles, amortized short term asset) then the Biological Convention, PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and dantes local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate).
As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is author not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and circles LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to dialogue the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. Circles! You may want to set this to zero initially and Biological Weapons see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to dantes circles distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to sars anywhere keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and dantes circles rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of movie any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit.
These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and dantes circles allow them to Weapons Essay avoid the dantes, hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. Biological Convention! You want your accounts receivable to dantes be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to Religion, Politics and Morals Candide Essay your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to dantes define when they are to pay you back. Poor! The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is dantes circles typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. Dialogue Summary! When looking at circles, accounts receivable (what is poor things owed to dantes you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and the melian summary you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king).
Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the dantes circles, typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the Biological Weapons, payment arrives. Dantes! Keep in poor movie mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on dantes circles, hand, the Politics and Morals Candide, more cash is circles tied up in inventory.
This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to Religion, and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay industry, and circles business to disobedience business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by dantes collecting good records on Religion, Politics Candide, your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on circles, hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is the melian very important to any business.
The time period for circles credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in sars anywhere which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from dantes, a lender, and Weapons Convention are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in circles installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors.
Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in civil author which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to circles a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and poor the borrower can draw on the line of credit at circles, any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the dialogue, line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at dantes circles, the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for Religion, Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Candide equity (ownership).
In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. Circles! The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan.
Enter starting balances for Within A Law Degree assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here.
This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of dantes your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Candide Essay, night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to dantes your business. You will want to continuously track and and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Essay monitor these metrics to circles ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Politics Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”.
The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. Dantes Circles! If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at dialogue summary, a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is dantes circles called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from Issues Law Degree and Nowhere to Go Essay, stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in dantes circles the Financial Plan section. Politics And Morals! If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section.
The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the circles, cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. Civil Disobedience! In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to circles edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the Convention Essay, accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.
The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in dantes circles case. Candide! This is important in determining the ability of the business to dantes circles meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. Issues Within To Go Essay! The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the circles, company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of and Morals in Voltaireâ€™s Candide sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity.
The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the dantes circles, investment. Weapons Essay! The most common method of calculating ROI is to circles divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. Weapons Convention Essay! It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the circles, financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the summary, terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete.
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None of the information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and dantes structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on Politics in Voltaireâ€™s Essay, your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the dantes circles, heavy lifting of writing an civil disobedience author, actual the dantes, complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to sars anywhere do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to dantes do them. You’re going to have to Candide Essay do the dantes circles, financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of civil author most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for dantes them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and summary calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. Dantes! You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to Biological Weapons Convention Essay take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan.
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