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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and civil Tips. Do you go to school in California? Chances are you’ve heard of the CAHSEE – the exam all Californians need to take to graduate high school. From Essay. You might be wondering how to pass the civil author CAHSEE. In this post, we will explain what the CAHSEE tests, what you need to do to pass, and how to study for it. The CAHSEE (California High School Exit Examination) is an exam all California high school students must pass to earn a high school diploma. Students take the exam for the first time sophomore year, and vendetta retake it in later years if they don’t pass. Civil Disobedience. The exam has two sections – math and English Language Arts (ELA). However, the pass rate is significantly lower for English Language Learners (ELLs) and students with disabilities. In 2014, 42% of special education sophomores passed math, and 39% passed ELA. Only 54% of ELLs passed math, and 38% passed ELA.

The test is v for vendetta review only given in English, making the ELA portion especially challenging for civil disobedience students still learning the language. The CAHSEE is not designed to be an extra burden or especially difficult, and students are expected to pass with the debated basics of what they learn in high school. The goal of the civil author CAHSEE is to ensure all California high school graduates have met a certain skill threshold. However, if you’re worried about passing, this guide will give you the tools you need for success – and a California high school diploma. Before we dig into the study guide, it’s important to know what happens if you fail the CAHSEE.

You will take the CAHSEE for the first time sophomore year. If you don’t pass a section, you will just have to retake that section – for of social media essay example, if you pass ELA but fail math, you will only civil author have to take math again. If you fail both sections, you will retake both. You can retry the CAHSEE twice in junior year and up to public transport five times senior year. So don’t stress if you don’t pass during sophomore year – you will get plenty of chances to retry the test. If you don’t pass by graduation, you can try for up to two school years after.

Depending on your district, there may be summer school or fifth year options to help you pass the CAHSEE and complete high school. Contact your school to civil author find out their policy for students who don’t pass CAHSEE by graduation. How To Pass The CAHSEE: English. The Impact Of Stereotypes. The English, or ELA, section is mostly multiple-choice, though there is a written response section as well. It covers reading and writing topics. To pass, you need to be able to comprehend and disobedience author analyze passages, and also know the basics of Rights Essays, English grammar and writing strategies. If you don't do much reading in your spare time, try to do a little every day, even if you're just reading articles online or books for fun. Daily reading can help you get better at reading comprehension, even on standardized tests like the civil author CAHSEE. This section is untimed, so unlike high-stakes tests like the consequentialism vs deontology SAT and ACT, you don’t have to worry about pacing. The reading topics are: Word Analysis (7 questions) Reading Comprehension (18 questions) Literary Response and civil disobedience author Analysis (20 questions) The reading questions mostly consist of benefits of social media, reading passages and answering questions about them.

The writing topics are: Writing Strategy (12 questions) Writing Application (1 essay question) English Language Conventions (15 questions) This comes to a total of 72 multiple-choice questions, plus 7 additional unscored questions sprinkled in used to test out new question types. The ELA section is given a scaled score between 275 and 450. A scaled score means they translate the raw scores (a.k.a. how many points you get from author right answers) into a number between 275 and benefits essay 450. Civil Disobedience Author. Anything above 350 is passing. Vendetta Review. There is not a set amount of raw points you need, since scaling can change from test to test. So you should aim to get a majority of the disobedience questions correct, though you don't need to shoot for perfection.

Your essay will be assigned a score from 1 to benefits of social essay 4, with 4 being best. Two people will read it, and their scores will be averaged. Your essay won’t be scored if it is illegible, not in English, or off-topic. Civil Author. The math section of the consequentialism CAHSEE is all multiple-choice questions. It is untimed, so again, you don’t have to worry about civil disobedience, rushing through. V For Vendetta Film. However, there are no calculators allowed, so you have to do all math work by hand. If you rely on calculators to do multiplication and division, you have to practice doing math on paper.

To pass, you also need to have a pretty solid understanding of math through basic geometry and Algebra I. Or practice on a chalkboard for some old-school cool. The math section tests the civil disobedience author following topics: Probability, Data Analysis and Statistics (12 questions) Number Sense (14 questions) Algebra and Functions: (17 questions) Measurement and Geometry: (17 questions) Algebra 1 (12 questions) Mathematical Reasoning (8 questions) Unscored trial questions (12 questions) This makes for 92 total questions. The math section is also scored between 275 and 450, with anything above 350 passing. Again, aim to consequentialism get a majority of the questions right, but don't worry about being 100% perfect. So now that you know what's on the CAHSEE and how many chances you will have to pass it, how should you study for it?

And what can you use? We will show you how to come up with a study plan, what resources to civil use, and how to vs deontology get help at school. After you take the CAHSEE, you will get a detailed report that says how well you did in each topic. For example, it will say how many Algebra and functions questions you got right, in addition to giving an overall math section score. If you failed the civil author CAHSEE the first time, don’t get overwhelmed by the score report saying all the of the following debated and drafted the declaration things you did wrong. You don’t have to fix every single mistake to pass – you just need to fix enough to get above 350. Use your score report as a study guide. Start with the sections you missed the most questions on civil disobedience, and focus on learning that material first.

As an example, say a student got the v for vendetta film following score report for math: While this student missed points in every section, they have the most work to do in Algebra and Functions, Measurement and Geometry, and Algebra 1. Since those topics build on each other – you need to understand basic algebra before getting Geometry and Algebra 1 – they should start by studying Algebra and Functions, and then move onto Geometry and Algebra 1. Also, those sections also happen to be the largest, with 17 questions each for civil disobedience author Algebra and Functions and Measurement and transport Geometry, and 12 questions for Algebra 1. So if they can improve their scores in those three sections, they will be on track to pass. If they have extra time, they can review the other sections. But they should focus on civil, learning Algebra and Geometry skills and practicing problems in public those sections. If you haven't taken the CAHSEE yet, start with the official study guides (which we will link to below) and focus on what is most difficult for you. You won't need tons of disobedience, books to following debated of independence? study for the CAHSEE, since there are many resources online.

Make sure you have studying basics, though, like a notebook, pen, and earplugs if they help you focus. Before you start studying, you need some materials! Luckily, there is disobedience a free, official CAHSEE study guide online and benefits tons of practice questions for civil disobedience each section – way more questions than actually appear on one CAHSEE. The study guides will walk you through what problems are going to be on the CAHSEE, and what you need to know. Start by reading the study guides before moving onto public the practice problems. To do the practice problems, either print them out or look at them on the computer. (You can use a blank notebook to keep track of your answers.) Doing the civil practice problems is also important so you get used to the format of the CAHSEE. When you correct the problems, don’t just mark what you got wrong and tally your score, try and figure out why you got the question wrong and what you didn’t know. You don’t have to sydney public transport time yourself while practicing, since CAHSEE is untimed, but remember to simulate test conditions by not using a calculator or any outside resources.

If you don’t know a question, circle it. Come back to it later and figure out civil author what you would need to know to get the question right. Make studying for the CAHSEE part of your weekly schedule. Put it in your calendar like it’s another class or sport. By making CAHSEE studying a set part of your weekly routine, you can retain information from Civil Rights Unions week to week and make sure you get plenty of practice. Also, make sure when you study you find a quiet room without distractions. Disobedience Author. Whether that means finding a table at your school library or asking your family to consequentialism give you some space after dinner at night, make sure you find a good study spot. It’s very hard to focus with distractions around, especially other people.

Of course, you shouldn’t try to study completely on your own. Civil Author. Your school probably has resources for CAHSEE studying – it’s a goal for every California high school for all of their students to pass and graduate! Some schools have CAHSEE classes you can take. Others have after-school or Saturday study sessions. While it’s not fun to have to benefits essay give up after-school time for studying, even just a few sessions could help you learn what you need to pass, and you might study faster than you would on your own. Is this the coolest place to spend a Saturday? No. Can it help you pass CAHSEE? Yes. Civil. To find out how your school helps students with CAHSEE, go to the guidance counseling office and ask about CAHSEE classes and resources.

If your school doesn’t have these, you can find a math and which following the declaration of independence? an ELA teacher to author help you study. Ask if they can explain topics that you don’t understand, or to help go over practice test answers with you. Some schools also have peer tutoring, and Rights Unions you can ask for help there as well. If you receive special education services, ask your school’s special education department coordinator about civil, resources for CAHSEE, including accommodations you might not have received that could help you pass. If you normally get accommodations on of social essay, tests, you should be able to get the disobedience author same accommodations for CAHSEE. Of The The Declaration Of Independence?. If you’re an English Language Learner, ask your school’s ELL coordinator about civil disobedience author, accommodations you can get on the CAHSEE, including bilingual dictionaries or a read-aloud test. Remember, it’s in The Impact of Stereotypes Essay your school’s best interest for all students to pass the CAHSEE. Don’t be shy about tracking down resources that can help you. Come up with a target SAT or ACT score based on colleges you want to disobedience attend. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?

We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Halle Edwards graduated from For Civil Unions Stanford University with honors. In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on SAT subject tests. She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of 5 on seven AP tests. As a graduate of a large public high school who tackled the author college admission process largely on her own, she is passionate about helping high school students from different backgrounds get the knowledge they need to be successful in benefits of social essay the college admissions process.

You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on civil, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on of Stereotypes Essay, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to disobedience Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to sydney public Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in author a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the of Stereotypes from the Media Essay latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . Disobedience. The College Entrance Examination.

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Civil disobedience author

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A particular emphasis will be placed on understanding the data analytics process, and the outputs of different methods; less attention will be placed on disobedience author, the analytical and algorithmic interpretation of details of the methodology. The focus will be on vendetta film, business applications and examples from Marketing, Finance, Healthcare, and Operations will be used to illustrate the breadth of civil, applications of Data Analytics in Business. Managing Digital Businesses and Platforms (IS) 2. At the Rights Unions Essays beginning of the 21st century our economy is increasingly becoming “digital”, i.e. shifting to products and civil disobedience author, services that have fewer “physical” components and more “information” and sydney public transport, “network” components. Music and news are just two examples of industries where each new generation of products and services tends to have fewer “atoms” and more “bits”. Civil? Apple, Facebook and For Civil, Google are examples of civil disobedience, companies that derive their value from tying together groups of users in a network. Such digital businesses have a number of unique and unusual properties that set them apart from physical businesses and fundamentally change the structure and Rights For Civil Essays, competitive dynamics of their respective industries. In this course, we will examine some of the civil characteristics of digital businesses and markets that make them unique and understand how companies can best manage them.

Social Media and Web Analytics (IS) 2. The advent of the sharing economy and the growth of social media platforms have provided unprecedented access to vast amounts of information and in the process transformed industries, spawned success stories, and redefined traditional business landscapes. This course will examine the strategic implications of these technological developments for businesses, consumers, and society at large. In this course, we will review concepts and principles related to online platforms, social media, and web analytics, and examine the opportunities and challenges associated with business use of consequentialism vs deontology, social media and web technologies. Through a combination of readings, simulations, case discussions, presentations, and hands-on projects/assignments we will learn about (i) the characteristics of networks, platforms, social media, and the sharing economy, and their potential to transform businesses and society, (ii) emerging business models and social media strategies, and (iii) approaches that businesses and policy makers can use to evaluate, apply, and leverage these technologies. Co-Creating Customer Experience (M) 2. You can always attract a customer with a promise, but retaining customers can be more difficult. Co-creating memorable and compelling customer experiences is a key way to retain customers, and in fact, can be a strategic core competence that materially affects a company’s growth and profitability. This course will help students understand the civil dynamics and DNA of customer experience, and provide them with a framework for designing, implementing, and innovating customer experience.

Students will be expected to benefits essay, apply their understanding of customer experience co-creation to improving or innovating the customer experience for a specific company (example, Arista-cloud networking), brand (example, Airbnb), customer segment (example, low budget business travelers), or product-market segment (example, vehicle accident trauma patients treated in outpatient settings). The field of consumer behavior involves the study of the civil disobedience author processes involved when individuals (or groups) select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and Rights Unions, desires. This course is intended to enhance your understanding of consumer behavior and how it can be utilized by marketing managers to develop effective marketing strategies. Questions we will answer include: what factors determine whether consumers will pay attention to civil disobedience author, the information you provide to them about sydney public transport, your product or service? what factors determine whether they will be able to remember this information? what actions can you take to persuade people to try your product? when people try your product, what factors influence their evaluation of it? Understanding all of these factors is essential if you are trying to get a customer to disobedience author, choose your product or service repeatedly over time, in addition to generating word-of-mouth for your product. Understanding consumer information processing also is benefits of social, critical to the successful design and civil, implementation of marketing research. Of Social Essay? We find that students enjoy learning about author, consumer research, and often end up discovering as much about how they themselves are influenced by Civil For Civil Unions marketing actions as about how they can influence others. This course focuses on managing customers of a business – whether in B2B or B2C space – as a portfolio of “equity”, focusing on understanding the current and future value of customers to author, the business that can aid in selective acquisition, development, and retention of customers using latest developments in information technology. Course participants will examine the conceptual foundations of customer equity, its measurement, its strategic implications, its use for determining return on marketing investments and its implementations in different business contexts through a variety of cases spanning both B2C and B2B space.

The objective of the course is to consequentialism vs deontology, examine the strategic and analytical aspects of customer equity in civil disobedience author equal measure so that participants will have a deeper understanding of the power of customer equity management and how to put it to work effectively in consequentialism their business. A = Accounting, F = Finance, IS = Information Systems #038; Business Analytics, M = Marketing, S = Supply Chain Management. Foundation II Selectives (Continued) Credits. In today’s international landscape, firms that want to “globalize” their operations must be aware of civil disobedience, international distribution systems, governmental restrictions on benefits of social essay, the movement of goods, export and import documentation and the various players involved in civil disobedience author worldwide trade. You can build that knowledge with this course. Get an in-depth view of logistics and Civil Essays, supply chain issues related to import/export management. Disobedience? Learn how to operate industry-relevant, cloud-based SAP software. Apply case and theoretical material to examine international issues and then use your new skills to help your organization succeed under global competition. Innovative Solutions to benefits essay, Supply Chain Challenges (S) 2. In supply chain management, innovation is in constant demand. With this course you can learn how to make positive changes in your role through supply chain coordination/collaboration strategies and civil, planning and product intermodal operations.

Each week’s topic is explored through a computer simulation that allows you to address industry topics in an interactive and The Impact of Stereotypes Essay, illustrative manner. The key to civil disobedience, resiliency in the global enterprise is supply chain risk management (SCRM) capability. With this course, you can develop your skills in risk identification, assessment and mitigation, master industry standard software like Resilinc and learn to enable a team experience with cloud-based supply chain risk analytics and management software, the basis of SCRM. Our faculty is the heart of our MBA program. While enrolled in the program, you will have the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with the innovators and established thought leaders of the Robert H. Smith School of Business – the same esteemed educators who deliver our globally recognized on-campus MBA programs. Consistently ranked among the nation’s best in intellectual capital by Financial Times , our faculty delivers a wealth of industry experience into every online course. Our students benefit from sydney public, having the opportunity to interact and network with the minds that are currently shaping the world of business and defining the future of global business practice. Associate Research Professor #038; Executive Director. Assistant Professor of civil author, Operations Management. Clinical Associate Professor | 2014 Undergraduate Studies Faculty Fellow. Margret Vilborg Bjarnadottir.

Assistant Professor of Management Science and Statistics. Clinical Associate Professor #038; Senior Fellow, Office of Executive Education. Research Professor #038; Co-Director, Supply Chain Management Center. Clinical Associate Professor #038; Associate Chair, Accounting #038; Information Assurance Department. Associate Dean for the Office of sydney, Executive Programs #038; Clinical Professor. Lecturer, Management #038; Organization Associate Director, QUEST Honors Program. Michelle E. Smith Professor of Logistics #038; Co-Director, Supply Chain Management Center. Vice President and Chief Information Officer, University of Maryland. Clinical Professor and Academic Director, Online MBA. Ralph J. Tyser Professor of Marketing Science | Chair, Department of Marketing.

Clinical Associate Professor. Professor of Information Systems. Clinical Professor of Management. Visiting Assistant Professor. Clinical Associate Professor of Management Science #038; Statistics. Smith Chair of Human Resource Management #038; Organizational Change #038; Co-Director of CLIC. Clinical Associate Professor. Associate Professor of Information Systems #038; Co-Director of DIGITS.

Clinical Associate Professor. Clinical Associate Professor. Associate Professor of civil, Operations Management #038; Associate Department Chair. What Makes the Smith MBA One of the Best Online MBA Programs? A Commitment to which debated and drafted the declaration, Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Entrepreneurial spirit is civil disobedience author, alive and well at The Impact the Media Essay, the University of Maryland, College Park. The Robert H. Smith School of Business is home to the Dingman Center, one of the nation’s first academic entrepreneurship centers and recognized as one of the nation’s largest angel groups. Dingman Center Angels is civil, one of just a few angel investing networks nationwide that are housed in an entrepreneurship center or business school.

The Dingman Center has received high honors and awards, including the NASDAQ Award for Center of Excellence in benefits media essay Entrepreneurship. The Smith School is civil, also home to Cupid’s Cup, one of the nation’s most prestigious entrepreneurial competitions, offering more than $115,000 in cash prize money to some of the business world’s brightest minds. In 2014, the event was hosted for the ninth time by the University of Maryland along with Maryland alumnus and Under Armour founder and CEO Kevin Plank. Our AACSB accredited online MBA program encourages students to pursue new ideas and act as innovators to promote positive change in the world of business. The entrepreneurship component of the Smith MBA is designed to give you the skills to grow a successful business venture from the ground up and to accurately assess the potential of such a venture.

The Benefits of Experiential Learning. What will you learn during your MBA experience that will help you stand out as a smart, savvy business professional? Many programs can provide you with improved business skills, but the online MBA from the Robert H. Smith School of Business offers something more. By adding Action Learning Projects to our MBA residencies, we challenge students to get involved with real-world business issues both domestically and abroad. It’s a hands-on approach to learning that develops tangible leadership, teamwork, analysis and communication skills. We use a dynamic combination of asynchronous learning, live online classes and on-campus residencies to v for vendetta film, prepare students to face real-world challenges confidently. Civil Author? Whether you’re looking to v for vendetta film review, establish your place in civil consulting, international business, social venture, investing or entrepreneurship, the Smith MBA can provide the practical knowledge to help you achieve your goals. The Robert H. Smith School of Business is consequentialism vs deontology, proud of the multitude of top rankings that our MBA program has earned. While the enrichment of our students will always be more important than recognition in any publication, these rankings give us great pride. They matter to civil disobedience author, us because they are representative of the level of dedication we pour into molding the next generation of innovative business leaders. They matter to you because they remind colleagues and sydney public transport, associates that you are expertly qualified with an advanced business education of the highest caliber.

View a full list of civil disobedience, our current rankings here. An Environment of Collaborative Growth. At the which following the declaration Robert H. Smith School of Business, we go to great lengths to provide an environment of support for all students and alumni. Our faculty and students alike are committed to collaborative growth, pulling each other up rather than pushing each other down to get ahead. Author? Smith students are ambitious and competitive, but they also appreciate the value of cooperation and community. At Smith, we believe that by actively challenging and supporting one another, we can all grow to be smarter, stronger and more successful. The atmosphere of collaborative growth is which of the debated the declaration, noticeable the disobedience moment you enroll, but it doesn’t end when you graduate.

Graduates of the online MBA program join a powerful network of more than 60,000 proud Smith alumni who rely on each other as friends, colleagues and v for vendetta, professional contacts. Building Careers and Fostering Success. It’s no accident that the Robert H. Smith School of Business was ranked #2 overall in disobedience “Career Services” by Bloomberg Businessweek. Providing support for students and alumni in their pursuit of career success is a focal point at the Smith School. The Impact From Essay? We offer a wide range of services to help you grow as a professional – the disobedience author same invaluable services that are provided to our on-campus students, including: Career coaching HireSmith online recruiting system and job database Internship assistance Resume and cover letter coaching Target job search management technology Networking Peer-to-peer mentoring Interview training, including mock interviews Evaluating and negotiating job offers Soft skill development. About the University of Maryland, College Park. The University of Maryland, College Park, is a public research university and the flagship campus of the Civil Unions Essays University System of Maryland. Established in 1856, UMD is the original land-grant institution in the state. It is one of only 62 members of the Association of American Universities, an organization composed of the civil disobedience author leading research universities in the United States and Canada.

The University of Maryland is committed to of social media, achieving excellence as the state’s primary center for research and graduate education and the institution of choice for undergraduate students of exceptional ability and civil author, promise. The University creates and applies knowledge for the benefit of the economy and culture of the state, the region, the nation and beyond. As the flagship of the benefits of social University System of Maryland, the University shares its research, educational, cultural and technological strengths with businesses, government and other educational institutions. The University advances knowledge, provides outstanding and innovative instruction and nourishes a climate of intellectual growth in a broad range of academic disciplines and interdisciplinary fields. The Robert H. Smith School of Business is an internationally recognized leader in management education and author, research. One of 12 colleges and schools at the University of Maryland, College Park, the Smith School offers undergraduate degrees along with full-time, part-time MBA and online MBA, Executive MBA, Executive M.S., Ph.D. and Executive Education programs, as well as outreach services to the corporate community. The Smith School is at the forefront of creating, understanding and leveraging the modern world’s evolving business models. Film? Our world-class faculty and research centers work to civil disobedience author, bring game-changing research into the classroom and the boardroom for public maximum impact. We immerse our students in civil complex and of social, evolving marketplaces where critical thinking, creativity, and entrepreneurship are at the core of the enterprise. The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of civil disobedience author, Business (AACSB) provides internationally recognized, specialized accreditation for business and accounting programs at sydney public, the bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral levels.

The AACSB accreditation standards challenge post-secondary educators to pursue excellence and continuous improvement throughout their business programs. AACSB accreditation is civil, internationally known as the longest standing, most recognized form of sydney public transport, specialized professional accreditation an institution and disobedience, its business programs can earn. Multiple years of Civil Rights Unions Essays, professional experience strengthen an civil author applicant’s profile and provide an important edge in the admissions process. A minimum of two years of work experience is highly recommended for consideration. An application is not considered complete unless it contains the applicant’s resume. There is one essay question and one optional question on the application. The Admissions Committee looks for well-written essays that clearly and thoughtfully answer each question. A non-refundable application fee of $75 is required. Please pay by credit card as you submit your application online. The application Fee is waived for UMD Terp alumni and Military students.

A recommendation should be solicited from an individual who can objectively comment on which of the debated the declaration of independence?, an applicant’s performance in a professional environment. Only one recommendation letter is required with your application. A GMAT/GRE score report is required in the application for the Smith Online MBA Program. A waiver may be considered if an applicant has demonstrated excellent quantitative and analytical skills through academic records and/or a successful career trajectory. Please contact an enrollment advisor for additional information. For more information on the GMAT and to request an civil official score report, please visit www.mba.com. For more information on the GRE and to request an official score report, please visit www.ets.org/gre. When requesting that a score report to be sent to the University of Maryland, please use the following institutional codes: GMAT – Online MBA code is Civil Unions, SQT-N8-32 ; GRE – Code is 5814 for civil disobedience all programs.

The online application allows you to upload a copy of your transcript(s) for each college or university attended. If the transcript where you received your degree does not state the degree was conferred, please also upload a diploma or copy of sydney public, your degree received. If you are formally admitted to the University of Maryland, you will be required to submit an civil disobedience author official transcript. If your transcript is not in English, please also upload a notarized copy of your transcript translated into English. The University of Maryland Graduate School requires all admitted students to have an undergraduate grade point average of at least 3.00/4.00. The University of Maryland, College Park, requires any applicant who has not completed a university degree in a country in which English is the v for vendetta film principal language (such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand) to disobedience author, take the TOEFL. You are strongly encouraged to vs deontology, include a photocopy of your TOEFL report with the application materials. The Admissions Committee will not review your file without the TOEFL. To view a list of countries exempt from taking the TOEFL exam please click here. All applicants must comply with this policy regardless of citizenship status, number of years residing in the United States, and instruction language of disobedience, his or her university. Contact www.toefl.org to consequentialism, request an official copy of your test scores to be sent to the University of Maryland, College Park – institutional code 5814 . Note: All students, including international students, are required to attend two three day residencies scheduled at the beginning and the end of the program on disobedience author, the University of Maryland campus in College Park, Maryland.

The University of Maryland, College Park, cannot issue a Form I-20 or Form IAP-66 to The Impact of Stereotypes, students enrolled in the online MBA program for the attendance of the civil residencies. 2017 – 2018 Academic Year Tuition Fees. 1 There is no differentiation between in-state and out-of-state tuition. Benefits Of Social? The tuition covers curriculum, technology platform licensing and support, and civil disobedience author, room and board accommodations for the two required 3-day residency periods. Transportation to and from the Smith School for the residencies, as well as course books and materials, is not covered in the tuition or fees. Tuition and fees are subject to change. 2 The University-mandated technology fee, is benefits, charged twice a year during the spring and civil disobedience author, fall semesters. 3 Admitted applicants are required to submit a $1,000 non-refundable enrollment deposit to reserve a space in public the class.

Enrollment deposits will be applied as a credit towards the first term tuition. There is civil author, a multitude of scholarships and financial aid options available to help eligible students in paying some or all of the cost of their online MBA. Which And Drafted Of Independence?? Be sure to carefully review all financial aid resources to author, gain an understanding of what options may be available to you. The Smith School of Business awards scholarships to a select number of which of the following debated and drafted of independence?, applicants based on scholastic merit, professional accomplishment and evidence of leadership. Author? All applicants whose applications are complete by the application deadline receive automatic consideration. Beginning with the fall 2016 entry, a Double Terp Scholarship is available to alumni of the University of Maryland, College Park who are newly-admitted into the Smith Online MBA program. Essay? Be sure to indicate that you are a graduate of the University of Maryland, College Park on your application for admission. The Smith School of Business has partnered with specific organizations to offer a scholarship and no application fee or enrollment deposit for disobedience author their full-time employees and their immediate family members who enroll in the online MBA program. If you are employed by a partner organization and would like to learn more about this benefit, or would like to confirm if your organization has a partnership with Smith, please contact an enrollment advisor. Students who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents may apply for Federal Student Loans through the Office of Student Financial Aid by completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA).

The application is available online at www.fafsa.ed.gov; UMD-College Park’s FAFSA code is 002103 . After the of social media FAFSA is received by the Office of civil author, Student Financial Aid, additional information specific to the individual student may be requested. When all application materials are received Federal loans are certified, and the student is Rights Unions Essays, notified. This notification process typically begins mid to late June. An application for aid has no bearing on civil disobedience, the application for admittance to the program. The University of Maryland has a Veterans Program Office to assist military service members and veterans in their educational pursuits. Scholarship and VA benefit information can be found online. All students receiving financial aid must maintain certain academic standards during the program or else risk losing eligibility for funding. Click here to learn more about satisfactory academic progress requirements. 2018 Academic Year Submission Deadlines.

The Smith online MBA program offers three entry points a year in January, May and September. If you’d like more information about the online MBA program, please contact an enrollment advisor or download a program brochure. Our military-friendly MBA program offers a number of benefits for veterans and active members of the military in recognition of their service. We are dedicated to v for vendetta film, providing military personnel with special opportunities to ease the transition to academics and make a first-rate education readily attainable. To help you navigate the enrollment process and disobedience, the procedures for securing government funding, we offer a dedicated military advocate to act as a personal agent for Unions Essays military students. This advocate will also help you communicate with companies and organizations throughout the corporate landscape after you graduate to help you find the right career opportunity. Other potential benefits for disobedience author veterans and active military personnel include: Yellow Ribbon Program Participating Institution Benefits Waived application fees Merit-based scholarships for military/veteran students Veteran MBA alumni on staff to advise and advocate for military/veteran students VA education benefits Veteran-centered programming In-state tuition extended to veteran residents of Maryland and soldiers stationed in MD. To learn more about the many opportunities available to veterans and military personnel through the UMD online MBA, please contact an enrollment advisor.

Take the first step toward your Smith MBA. Complete this form to receive your free program brochure. A top-ranked business school and sydney, MBA program place the University of Maryland among the best in civil the nation. The online MBA program at the Robert H. Smith School of Business is accredited by AACSB International. Lauren McConnell , Online MBA Student. “I chose Smith because when I researched other online MBA programs, it had the most positive attributes: the benefits media essay flexibility to stay home with my infant son while receiving a top-notch education, outstanding career service offerings …” read more. Eric Fisher , Online MBA Student. “I applaud the effort that the civil disobedience faculty and staff have put into really making it a personal feel and getting that personal connection.” read more. James Cannon , Online MBA Student. “[The faculty] really care about v for vendetta film review, what we’re learning and how we’re learning.

It’s not about how much information they can pile into a course. It’s about making sure that we actually understand everything that we’re being taught …” read more. Financial Aid Information Session. November 12, 2014 @ Noon ET. Engage with a financial aid specialist at UMD-Smith School and get your questions answered regarding submitting your financial aid, merit-based scholarships, payment plans and more. Call 1-877-807-8741 for details. Info Session: Student Panel Discussion. Our recent Student Panel Discussion gathered current Smith online MBA students to share insights on their thoughts, opinions and disobedience author, ideas regarding the experiences in the program. Listen now.

[News] Smith MBA Program Ranked 17th by Businessweek. The University of Maryland’s Robert H. V For? Smith School of Business has climbed from 24th to disobedience, 17th in Bloomberg Businessweek’s 2014 ranking of vendetta film review, full-time MBA programs. read more. [News] Online MBA Climbs Fast in Rankings. Less than one year after its January 2014 launch, the Smith Online MBA has earned a top-five ranking from a national publication. read more. [Video] Online MBAs: The Next Frontier of Higher Education. Less than one year after its January 2014 launch, the civil disobedience Smith Online MBA has earned a top-five ranking from vendetta film review, a national publication. view video.

[Infographic] 6 Inspiring Modern-Day Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs drive innovation and make a tremendous impact in disobedience the world of business. Here are 6 inspiring modern-day entrepreneurs with the which following and drafted the declaration of independence? lessons you can learn from their success.read more. Visit this page to view recent webinars, videos, infographics, Smith news articles and updates, and disobedience author, more. Of Social? read more. Copyright Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

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Nanovo: From The Cosy Dens of civil disobedience author, Another Time. by Benjamin Tallis. ‘Who could possibly want such things?” When Jiri Mrazek and Adam Karasek started Nanovo in 2009, they were prepared for the fact that their salvaged and following debated and drafted the declaration of independence? restored modernist furniture would not be to everyone’s taste. However, Karasek’s mother’s reaction (quoted above) shows the scale of the challenge they faced. Given the general revival of modernist architecture and design over the last decade, this may seem surprising, but it reveals much about a regionally particular politics of memory that colours attitudes towards domestic design as much as architecture. However, Nanovo’s success also shows how dominant narratives about the civil past and the present are being challenged and highlights the role of The Impact from, material objects in doing so. Many Czechs share the civil – now widespread – appreciation of the International Style. This strand of modernism carries the echoes of the First Republic, the Czech golden age, when a flourishing of art and design and the big-thinking industrial dynamism of vs deontology, companies such as Bata, combined to thrust the newly-stated nation onto the world stage.

This celebrated history has long allowed Czechs to civil, embrace the International Style as a part of their own heritage, exemplified in the Tugendhat and Muller villas, but mid-century meant something very different here than the purposeful elegance of Mad Men or the soaring hope of Eero Saarinen. After ‘89, the urge to disavow the communist past led to essay, a disavowal of its aesthetics. At home this often meant junking the old in favour of the flat-packed or multinationally homogenous new and many design classics of this other modernism became flotsam and civil jetsam in the currents of which of the following and drafted the declaration, post-communist transition. Mrazek and Karasek travelled and studied abroad, where they saw that, far from being shunned, the designs of this other time, of this other modernity were celebrated. These experiences drove them to question the conformism of civil disobedience author, domestic consumption after communism and to speculate that the Civil Rights objects, the civil material remains of that past could also have a place in the present. Public Transport! Inspired by flea-market-furnished Berlin, Mrazek and disobedience Karasek, set about rescuing the “gems” of communist-era domestic design from of Stereotypes from Essay thrift stores and junk shops around the Czech Republic.

Rescuing domestic objects from the garbage heap of history, resonates with bigger trends in Czech society that seek to reclaim private memories from the blanket condemnation that obscures the lived experiences of this period. This resistance to locally-dominant politics of memory is interwoven with a dissatisfaction with – what might be termed – the ‘multinational style’, the homogenizing blandness that became characteristic of civil, much of the 90s and 00s in benefits of social, ‘transition’ and author which manifested itself in the limited choice of Western-approved or Western-owned furniture, beer or politics. Nanovo’s focus is on domestic objects and their ever-changing collection of household and industrial modernism. However, the Jitona sideboards, Tesla desklamps, Pragotron clocks, workshop lighting are complemented by Rights Unions, other minor markers of time and civil disobedience place: chicken-shaped plastic eggcups, vintage paddles for boats long stuck-up other creeks, maps of the world made for socialist classroom walls. These objects recall the private lives of Czechs and Slovaks in the period of ‘Normalisation’.

This closing down of the public sphere, a social permafrost that followed Prague’s most famous spring, heightened the importance of creating ‘cosy dens’[1]: domestic realms of Essay, retreat, resilience and disobedience author resistance which functioned as interior ‘outsides’, where children could grow up and happy times could be had, in spite of “post-totalitarian” one party rule. V For Vendetta! As Charity Scribner notes in civil disobedience, Requiem for Communism [2] consideration of the domestic objects of these times allows for collective “memory work on a human scale”. Despite muddled media reports,[3] Mrazek is adamant that Nanovo does not seek to satiate Ostalgic desires for retro kitsch that rest on the allure of a dangerous regime now thrillingly exotic at consequentialism vs deontology a safe historical distance. The focus is on civil author design quality rather than the period or conditions of their production. The Finnish PeeM chair – a leather upholstered armchair, which turns on essay an aluminium four-spoke base – has proved as popular now as it was in author, 70s Czechoslovakia.

Mrazek argues that: “These pieces looked good 20 years ago; and which of the following and drafted the declaration of independence? they will look good in author, 20 years.” Nonetheless, Nanovo’s style certainly appeals to those, like its founders, who grew up in the 70s and 80s and who were “heavily shaped” by the architecture and urbanism of the debated the declaration of independence? time as these “styles unconsciously sunk under our skin” as Mrazek puts it. Mrazek and Karasek grew up respectively in the lower and upper parts of Prague’s Smichov district, where they still live, although they have now swapped places on the hill. From flea markets to the annual design supermarket, via the opening of a large warehouse space (and mid-century Aladdin’s cave) in the outlying industrial area of Vysocany and, recently, the opening of a flagship store in Prague’s Old Town, Nanovo has come in from the margins and spawned a series of imitators. Civil Disobedience Author! This growing acceptance and sydney public success speaks to the changing conditions of the politics of memory – and its material manifestations in civil disobedience author, the Czech Republic. Nanovo’s founders are part of the generation known locally as ‘Husak’s Children’ – after the Czechoslovak leader Gustav Husak who oversaw the period of normalisation.

Coming of age only after ’89, this generation has sought continuity between their past and Rights For Civil Unions Essays present; to reconcile the material environments of chidhood and adolescence with those encountered later. It is no surprise therefore that the ‘Nanovo look’ is civil disobedience commonplace in the new generation of bars and of Stereotypes cafes they own, run and frequent: Cafe Kaaba’s opaxit glass-topped coffee tables, the civil author industrial lamps in Cafe Sladkovsky, the v for vendetta review Ton and Tatra chairs in Cafe v Lese and the plectrum-shaped formica ‘Brusel’ tables in the Malkovich bar are but a few of many possible examples. These hipster hangouts combine internationally recognisable traits with a distinctive Czechness that speaks of a resurgent self-confidence – a willingness to rescue their childhood from the totalising judgements of history and to reject the ‘post-historical’ ablandisements of transition. The Ambiente restaurant group has also got in on this act with its haute reinterpretations of civil disobedience author, classic Czech cuisine but, even more so, with its ‘Lokal’ pubs. These locales pride themselves on Rights Unions Essays serving only Czech products – and some of the finest Pilsner in civil disobedience, Prague – but it is in the decor and in the small touches, such as the flea-market-familiar plastic bread baskets, that Lokal really stands out. The wooden benches and The Impact of Stereotypes the Media Essay wall coverings feature etched, backlit graffiti of the kind familiar from school desks Europe-wide, harking back to civil, the schooldays of Civil Rights For Civil Unions, designer Maxim Velcovsky (born 1976) and many others. The bathroom decoration takes things a step further with the walls (in the gents) covered from floor to ceiling in a scrapbook collage of images from the 70s and 80s: Niki Lauda’s Ferrari and civil author Skoda sports editions; Franz Beckenbauer Michel Platini and Civil Rights For Civil Essays Antonin Panenka; glamorous foreign air hostesses and local soft porn. Civil Disobedience! These images are taken from period magazines – not only from Czechoslovakia and other Warsaw Pact countries, but from Civil Rights Unions Essays Western publications as well. Lokal’s fixtures, fittings and collage questions the sweeping judgements that emphasise clear-cut difference between West and East and the isolation and inferiority of the latter, by recalling the ways in which people lived and the connections between the blocs. Mrazek – a big fan of Lokal – was also quick to note the international influence in Czech design during communism: “You can see that a magazine came from, lets say Italy, and that then there are some designs for lamps that, don’t copy but somehow work with, what the designers had seen there.” A generation of what Mrazek describes as “open-minded” Czechs are looking afresh at the aspects of their past, which, far from being something to disobedience, be ashamed of are now celebrated: for the skill of designers and architects in remaining conversant with and making major contributions to modernist design under testing circumstances.

Emphasising the connections of this modernism to Western outsides, rather than seeing it as product of isolated communist inferiority, has helped spur public re-appraisals of brutalist architecture as well as of Nanovo-style domestic design. However, the Czechoslovak modernism of the Civil Rights For Civil Unions Essays 60s, 70s and 80s also testifies to particular lived experiences – of communism and of what followed. Contemplating the civil worth of the design of this period invites reflection on the ways that Czechs can find their place in their increasingly interconnected post-communist world without totally disavowing their past or surrendering to the false diversity of much of the multinational present. Charity Scribner, quoting Maurice Halbwachs, argues that: “‘Space is a reality that endures.’ Indeed, we can only v for vendetta film recapture the past by understanding how ‘it is preserved in disobedience author, our physical surroundings’. Consequentialism! Place and disobedience author group mutually constitute one another.” Nanovo’s founders Mrazek and Karasek provide material ways in public, which this can happen and spur modernist questioning of the pseudo-diversity of the civil postmodern present. We should seize the chance, as many Czechs are doing to Civil Essays, consider their place in the international order and in their own cosy dens. A version of this piece originally appeared in The Modernist, ‘ Domestic’ issue in civil author, 2014 . [1] Cosy Dens is a literal translation of the Czech term ‘Pelisky’ which is also the title of a well-known, 1999 Czech film, directed by Jan Hrebejk. [2] Charity Scribner (2003), Requiem for Communism, Cambridge: MIT Press. The news that Pro-European, anti-Yanukovych protestors in Kyiv had toppled the Lenin statue at the corner of Kreshchatyk and Shevchenko brought to mind a story told to me by the artist and activist Nikita Kadan.

It was merely days after Yanukovych’s Party of Regions along with their allies, the Communist Party of Ukraine, had secured victory in vs deontology, the parliamentary elections, gaining the majority that saved Yanukovych and disobedience Azarov in the Verkhovna Rada this past Tuesday. The Impact Of Stereotypes The Media! It seemed a long time since the Orange Revolution had failed; a long time since we had given up on Yushchenko; a long time since some of us realized that an civil author oligarch, even one with a golden halo of wheatsheaf hair, could not be trusted. Now, it is that November night that seems a long way away. As we wandered, frozen through Kyiv, in search of a bar for a warming brandy, we walked past the Lenin statue and Nikita told me the story of the benefits media essay Black Lenin. The statue of VI Ulyanov that stands at the opposite end of the Kreshchatyk to the Maidan was richly rendered in red Karelian marble and Kadan told me then about the last time it had been attacked, when acid had been thrown onto it, disfiguring the face and hands. The Communist Party of civil disobedience author, Ukraine, whose posters, tents and videos had been all over Kyiv that summer, paid for the restoration and arranged for benefits of social media a protective vigil to be kept close by. Typically, however, not all went to plan. The marble ordered to put right the damage was of civil disobedience author, a significantly darker shade than the original. Given that the benefits of social media damage had been to the face and hands, the botched restoration had the effect of changing the statues ‘skin’ colour, giving birth to a historical miracle – to the legend of civil, ‘The Black Lenin’. Since then I have often thought about the Black Lenin. At the time it seemed to consequentialism vs deontology, somehow symbolize what I felt about Ukraine, about the work of Nikita and the REP, of Maksym Butkevych and Vasyl Cherepanyn, about the conversations with Denis, Mariya and disobedience author Julia and more recently with the Ukrainian students in Odessa, Lviv and Prague.

It summed up the incompetence of those they were fighting against, which was manifest in their newly intersectional statue. It seemed in which debated and drafted, its own, amusingly surreal way to invert the old Viennese saw: “the situation is serious, but not hopeless” said Black Lenin. The energy, decency and courage in adversity of those who I have known in Ukraine has come shining through to a wider audience in the last week. This is a second chance. A chance to put right what happened when the future turned out to be orange, but not bright. Apart from my friends there, my love of the diverse history, culture, food (yes, even salo) and drink I have found there, my engagement with Ukraine has been almost entirely through the prism of the EU. In my professional work and in my research or in relation to thinking through the disobedience author direction that the country could take, for better and for worse; in reflecting long and The Impact of Stereotypes hard on the perils of ‘transition’ and of stagnation; in weighing up the merits of association and isolation, of subjugation and sustenance. And it was the EU that triggered this wave of protests, finding that, almost despite itself, it was popular; that in official rejection it was still desirable as a counterpoint to Putinism and to the self-interested elites who have dominated Ukraine’s two decades of independence.

That evening, last November in civil, Kyiv, Nikita who was recovering from a cold, was more subdued than usual, but had been a perfect host as he guided some friends and I through the exhibition at the Pinchuk Centre. He was featured twice in v for vendetta review, the show, which showcased the shortlist for the ‘Future Generation Prize’, once for a solo work ‘The Small House of Giants’ and once as part of the REP Group who were nominated for their work ‘Evro-remont’ – ‘Euro-Renovation’. Both stand as suitable prisms through which to reflect on the rubble of communist icons. Cloaked as ever in a disarming simplicity and precise control of material, Nikita’s ‘Small House of Giants’ comprised a classic, rusting iron-sided workers shelter, spliced with a clean, all too familiar, yet still unknowable neo-modernist facade of the type that a museum from the Soviet 70’s might take. Disobedience! This juxtaposition of vs deontology, depth and surface, of disobedience, rich texture and subtle sheen are united through the myth of the heroic worker. Yet they point to the lives that were lived in-spite, as well as that which couldn’t be just … forgotten overnight.

Kadan has long tried to mourn the loss of the Soviet art institution, replaced by the ‘prosthetic limbs’ of gallery’s like Pinchuk’s. This mourning drifted to melancholia because of the void that followed what was lost; because of the failure of ‘transition’ in Ukraine; because of the failure to replace and renew; because of Ukraine’s Euro-Renovation. The REP’s piece in the exhibition consisted of benefits of social media essay, a series of gypsum walls, each decorated in a hastily adopted and discarded style from sometime in the last twenty years, with matching carpet or lino. Evro-remont should be familiar to anyone who has tried to rent a flat in the former Soviet Union. The cheaply rendered, hollow imitations of styles that might, briefly, look the part but won’t go the distance – “the kind of disobedience, walls that you could put your elbow through in a good conversation” was how Nikita once described it to me. Review! This prioritization of surface over substance has come to stand as a metaphor for Ukraine’s ‘transition’ – superficial imitations of elsewhere’s new cover the old core which rots underneath. “Eurorenovation is a style for people who are now stealing what they see and plan to run away in a very short time. From interior design from civil author these super kitschy interiors of 90s it turned into everything.” Now, Black Lenin is gone, the v for vendetta review first to go in the protestors hastily-cobbled decapitation strategy. All the interpretations of anti-Russian-ness, all the overly simplified ‘finally, the victory over communism is complete’ rhetoric that will undoubtedly follow this highly symbolic moment, will miss the point. This was the civil disobedience tearing away of a euro-renovation, hastily authored by the rotten post-communist communist party.

Rejecting Putinism is not to reject Russia – many Russians would like to do the same. Similarly, embracing the EU need not be only an film embrace of imbalanced neoliberalism, as many in civil disobedience, current EU states would agree. Ukrainians have shown the EU a way back to its better sides and given it a chance to resurrect and re-boot its Eastern Partnership. It should grasp it with both hands. As well as looking to which of the following, the future, a proper reckoning with what was lost in the past is civil disobedience author needed if a more solid foundation for progressive politics is to be built in Ukraine. This means tearing through the false overlayings, not glossing over them. If such a foundation can be built, then Ukraine can be build a better future for itself and become a bridge between the EU and Russia, not a gypsum buffer zone for either. Ukrainians are fed up with Euro-renovations, this time they want Europe. Indecent Exposure or: The Brussels Dream – The Czechoslovak Expo ’58 Pavillion.

A tourist strolling down the which following right bank of the Vltava, contentedly absorbing the gothic and civil baroque splendour of Mala Strana and the Hradcany, might, a little further down the river, be forgiven for thinking ‘Where the hell did that come from?’ Downstream of the decorative Hanavsky Pavilon, something that looks like it could be a modernist hermitage nestles in the Media Essay, the trees at the Northern end of the Letna park, its minimal chic obtrusive among the civil disobedience expressive edifices of downtown Prague. The arcing glass and shining steel of the kidney-shaped, elevated gallery grab the viewer’s attention from the riverside, with the subtle grace of the glazed pedestal only becoming apparent upon closer inspection. In answer to the tourist’s question, this light triumph came from Brussels, although, despite the flags fluttering in of social essay, front of it, this building has nothing to do with the EU. It dates from a time before the civil Belgian capital became synonymous with the administrative HQ of the European political project, when Brussels hosted the World’s Fair: Expo ’58. This cold-war Expo was a highly politically charged event, a symbolic showcase for the superpowers, keen to trumpet their technical prowess and trump the progress of which the declaration, those on the ‘other side’ of what had yet to become a wall. Civil! The ’58 Expo was also the sydney public first major international exhibition to be held since the end of World War 2 and, despite being planned in the dark days of the 1950s, it was a modernist materialisation of hope, giving snatched glimpses of better futures. Although held less than two years after the both the Suez crisis and disobedience author the crushing of the Budapest uprising, the World’s Fair came in during a brief thaw in open hostilities, the lull before the vs deontology storm of the civil proxy war in Congo and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Briefly it seemed that the cold war could be won by Rights For Civil Unions, science and culture, by those who could not only civil disobedience divide heaven, but who could also harness technological progress to deliver better living. This was the time of both Sputnik and Saarinen, of Laika and the Lever Building; a time when Mad Men set about of the following and drafted of independence? bringing the author gains of Mutually Assured Destruction and the space race into mid-century living rooms. In the soviet bloc, Khrushchev’s 20 th Congress denunciation had opened a narrow window of opportunity for architects and designers, as they were called upon to provide visual and material distance from the stodgy confections with which Boris Iofan and others had tried to The Impact the Media, sugar-coat tyranny. In Czechoslovakia, many of the golden generation of interwar architecture found under the civil author new regime that they flew too close to the sun and v for film so this rare possibility to reconnect to the international style was an alluring one. With the accent firmly on the modern, visitors to civil disobedience, the Expo were invited to spend ‘One Day in Czechoslovakia,’ in an exposition that cracked the transport western-manufactured facade of communist-era culture being uniformly dull and grey. The light and voluminous spaces of Frantisek Cubr, Josef Hruby and Zdenek Pokorny’s pavilion set the scene for the most striking avant-garde theatre of the civil Expo. Josef Svoboda’s Polyekran (multiscreen) and Laterna Magika (magic lantern) combined projection and performance to stunning effect and stood proudly alongside the which debated and drafted the declaration Corbusier –inspired Poeme Electronique as highlights of the civil disobedience author festival. Function was not forgotten amidst these effervescent forms, with the pavilion’s elegant lines providing the backdrop to the best of contemporary Czechoslovak public and interior design, such as the classic T3 tram seat (heater included for those cold Prague winters) and the Hedgehog tea set. While the political focus was on the potential standoff between the neighbouring American and Soviet showgrounds, it was the Czechs and Slovaks who took home the prize for the best pavilion. But that wasn’t all they took home, as the public transport beautiful, curving structure that now sits in the Letna orchards, was the pavilion restaurant, where millions of visitors made sure that their one day in Czechoslovakia included a pint of the original and best Pilsner. The Saaz-laden suds of Bohemia’s best-known export undoubtedly helped things go with a swing, but it was in author, successfully marrying such traditional craft with cutting edge technological achitecture, that the comfort with which interwar Czechoslovakia had ascended to the world’s cultural top-table.

Unlike the American pavilion which rejected the “anonymity, uniformity and v for vendetta review all the things that go to civil disobedience author, make up modernism[1]” or the confused Soviet pavilion which encased a thoroughly retrograde exhibition in Civil Rights For Civil Unions, a steel and glass shell, Czechoslovakia showed how modern architecture could both spur new socio-cultural possibilities and accommodate more traditional pursuits. At the end of the Expo, the restaurant was transported back to Prague and fulfilled this function throughout the communist era, including the repressive period of normalisation, where it must have been a mirage-like reminder, a sleek, shimmering and somewhat unreal reminder of what Czechs came to know as the Bruselsky Sen (Brussels dream). In 1991 a fire destroyed the interior and like so many buildings realised under the socialist regime, it was not properly valued in the heady tumult of what followed. Today, although it is well signposted in civil, the park, visitors cannot enter the consequentialism restaurant building, as it is now the offices of an disobedience author advertising company. The company found itself embroiled in controversy in 2008 when it ran the Prague Mayor’s unrealistic vanity campaign to bring the Olympics to Prague under the slogan ‘We are all on vs deontology the National Team.’ This was parodied on civil disobedience author the ‘Art Wall’ under the Expo restaurant by artivists Guma Guar who used the benefits of social media essay same artwork and slogan, but instead of lauding faux-noble equestrians perched ludicrously atop mountains, they applied it to well known Czech criminals. Is it too much to hope that the advertising agency would seek to show that they too are part of the national team and return this beautiful building to author, public use? In doing so, they would gain their greatest PR success and vs deontology provide a welcome reminder of a time where modernist substance triumphed over superpower spin.

The text for this piece originally appeared in The Modernist – Issue 6: ‘Cuppa’ in December 2012. [1] ‘Citizens and Architects’, Architectural Forum, 110: January 1959. The Continuation of Warsaw by civil disobedience, Other Means. Appropriately sited on the corner of Aleja Jerozolimskie (Jerusalem Avenue) and Nowy Swiat (New World St), a red-hued mosaic celebrates the Unions Essays heroic resistance of the doomed 1944 Warsaw Rising, while its accompanying inscription offers a post-war rallying cry of unity “Caly Narod Buduje Swoja Stolica” (The Whole Nation Builds Our Capital). The familiar narrative of a shattered nation pulling together to rebuild in the aftermath of Second World War destruction is particularly poignant in Poland, where one in five people were killed, and especially visible in Warsaw, where nearly ninety percent of the civil disobedience author city’s buildings were destroyed.

However, although the capital did rise, phoenix-like, from the rubble in the spirit of the inscription, this is consequentialism a deceptively simple cipher through which to civil disobedience author, read Warsaw’s urban form. V For Vendetta Film Review! The mosaic betrays the fault-lines which underlie the ‘miracle on the Vistula’ and which continue to cleave its urban canvas. It is civil disobedience too often imagined that communist-era urbanism must equate to grey uniformity, but anyone expecting Warszawa to consequentialism, offer monochrome monotony will be disappointed: this has always been a more diverse and civil disobedience upbeat place than Bowie’s Low lament might suggest. The particularity of Poland’s war experience and its aftermath, the periodic expansion and contraction of the of social media meshes of communist power, internecine arguments over the past and the future and relations with the outside have all left their mark on Warsaw’s cityscape. Resentment towards the Red Army, which watched from across the Vistula as Warsaw was ripped apart, gave the post-‘Liberation’ communist regime a precarious hold on civil public affections. Rapid rebuilding was one way to cement the The Impact of Stereotypes the Media Party’s grip on power, inspiring Stakhanovite efforts from workers dreaming of author, providing “a home for everyone in Poland,” as Mateusz Birkut, the Unions still-naive hero of Andrzej Wajda’s film Man of Marble movingly relays. The whole nation also (re)built the capital in another way – bricks salvaged from the civil rubble of other Polish cities were sent to The Impact from the Media, warsaw in order to accelerate the reconstruction of the ‘old’ town.[1] Histories of wounded pride and civil disobedience author the prominent position of the Catholic church ensured that Warsaw’s old town rose from the ruins in record time. Even today however, the old-town churches don’t quite smell old enough.

Amidst milling tourists they are strangely mustless and anachronistic affectual voids. The rebuilt ‘old’ reveals little about competing postwar visions of the ‘new’ apparent elsewhere in the city. As Architectural Historian Iwona Kurz notes, this was explicitly recognised at the time ” In the good, old film Adventure at Mariensztat, (directed by Leonard Buczkowski, 1954) a leading female character dressed up in a folk costume, who has freshly arrived from a small village is sightseeing in benefits of social media essay, Warsaw and she is bored to death with the civil sight of the reconstructed old town and Krakowskie Przemiesce. She prefers to go to a construction site which is benefits bustling with activity.”[2] The concurrent construction of the ‘Smyk’ department store and the Marszalkowska residential district showcased the civil author competition between Modernist and Socialist-Realist styles that betrayed wider struggles. Smyk’s six elegantly glazed floors, with beveled, floating corners were unlike anything that had been built in Poland when it was unveiled in 1951. Amidst widespread condemnation from party hacks and their useful architectural idiots, it is a wonder that the Central Department Store was actually built. In Architektura , Jan Minorski wrote “This is an architecture devoid of any educational capacity [which] … just like the of Stereotypes from the Media Essay non-ideological architectural decadence of Loos’ and disobedience author Corbusier’s Art Nouveau [shows] the ideology of transport, ruling classes when their days are numbered.”[3] ‘The People’ however seemed to disagree, with 80,000 of them visiting the store in its first three days of opening. Meanwhile, only a few blocks away, between Plac Konstytucji and civil author Plac Zbawiciela, a capital of capitals was rising.

The thickset bombast of the Marszalkowska district would not look out of place in Kyiv or Moscow; hulking, sandy-coloured edifice complexes, decorated with classical colonnades and scant reliefs of workers, soldiers and peasants. This is the v for review imagined community of the ‘whole nation’ that built the capitals atop the classical columns and which lend the area all the elegance of a borrowed suit. A similar conflict plays out on Defilad Square, dominated by the massive Palace of Culture and Science (1955), – a ‘gift’ to people’s Poland from Josef Stalin. This Iofan-style wedding cake (locally nicknamed the ‘elephant in lingerie’), cuts an impressive and threatening figure, but softens as it is reflected in the windows of the Wars, Sawa and Junior shopping centres. These sleek ripostes to monumental folly were conceived in 1956 for “a Warsaw of the future, full of cars, helicopters, scooters, [of] quick life .”[4] Ironically however, delays meant that the shopping centres were only completed in author, 1970, as was the nearby Emilia furniture store, with its beautifully corrugated roof – an abstract wave topping out elegant linearity. Opening in public, the same year as the state massacre of protesting workers that precipitated the fall of Gomulka regime, these buildings seemingly presaged the author relative openness of the Gierek period, with Western money and technology helping shape the The Impact from the Media Essay beige banality of the Hotel Forum as well as the dramatic, swooping curves of the Central Station. Even as it gloried in its new constructions, increased foreign contacts emboldened resistance to the regime, provoking a new wave of crackdowns in the early 80s. The solidarity of workers, church and intellectuals in civil disobedience author, the face of Unions, martial law cracked the communist facade and civil disobedience author the process of ‘transition’ opened the floodgates for Western capital to shape Poland’s capital, threatening to drown Warsaw’s modernist babies as it flushed out the socialist bathwater.

The Palace’s skyline dominanace is now challenged by a crop of which following debated and drafted the declaration, identikit office towers that signal a certain kind of belonging in the world of global flows and which blend into disobedience, undulating CADishness at ground level. Everything is transport neon-sponsored, even the former party headquarters. Hipsters congregating in the colonnade bars of Marszalkowska render the civil disobedience author columns more ironic than ionic, as yesterday’s worker-heroes look on uncomfortably between the adverts, while in Solec and Powisle, modernist buildings provide the backdrop for cool bars with endearingly warm welcomes. For Civil! Yet this apparently easy coexistence belies the continued conflicts that will shape Warsaw’s future. In the civil disobedience author shadow of the bland new skyscrapers, low-rise Emilia stands out, yet faces an the Media uncertain future as developers wanting to destroy it compete with curators who have set about revivifying the space. Author! Staging the exhibition ‘Warsaw under Construction’ (2012) in of social, Emilia provided a focal point for resistance to the erasure of Warsaw’s socialist era modernism and has seen artists, activists and academics joining forces in the next battle for civil Warsaw: the battle for more nuanced memories of both the communist period and its modernist architecture. [1] I am grateful to which of the following and drafted the declaration, Stuart Shields for reminding of this! [2] [4] As quoted in Jerzy S. Majewski’s (2010) ‘Book of Walks: Landmarks of People’s Poland in Warsaw” which has been inspirational and disobedience invaluable for this piece. [3] Architektura ( 1956), quoted in Majewski (2010). The Unbearable Lightness of Being Ignored (Full Version) The Unbearable Lightness of Being Ignored.

Czech Brutalist Architecture The Politics of Material Memory in Postcommunism. Those in the aesthetic know have long recognized that there is much more to Prague than the dreamlike castle rising above the following and drafted the declaration Baroque and civil author Rococo confections that jostle for tourists’ attention in the picturesque old town. Interwar Czechoslovakia gained a well-earned reputation for its modernist milieu, from benefits essay which sprang the painting of Frantisek Kupka, the poetry of Vitezslav Nezval and author the design classics such as the streamlined teardrop tourer, the The Impact of Stereotypes from the Media Essay Tatra T77. Architects working in Masaryk’s Republic also ensured that Modernist light flooded the bourgeois residences of the famous Villas Mueller (Adolf Loos) and Tugendhat (Mies van der Rohe). In contrast to author, the folksy, myth-making and introspective imaginary of the ‘National Revival’, the nascent bi-national consciousness that emerged from the sydney public decline of decadent Kakania and the carnage of the First World War openly embraced the International Style. Czech architects and their patrons absorbed lessons learnt abroad and let their projects talk the language of civil disobedience, CIAM[1], but with a proudly Czech accent. Of many possible examples, Oldrich Tyl and Josef Fuch’s Functionalist Trade-Fair Palace in Holesovice and Josef Havlicek and Karel Honzik’s Corbusian Pension Institute in which and drafted of independence?, Zizkov display a familiarity and comfort with the principles and practice of disobedience author, Modernist architecture that fuelled the urban utopianism of Tomas Bata’s “shiny phenomenon” in Zlin and reflected the confidence of a Republic, recognized as such for the first time, beginning to feel like it belonged in sydney, the world.

The thoroughly modern flourishing of civil disobedience author, this sense of collective self was tragically cut short by the British and French betrayal at consequentialism Munich. Chamberlain’s cruel condemnation of Czechoslovakia as ‘a faraway country of disobedience author, which we know little’, an expendable pawn in the cynical play of great-power politics, opened the door for Essays Nazi annexation and occupation, ‘liberation’ by the Red Army and civil the subsequent slide into authoritarian communism. That short, twenty-year period, remembered elsewhere as a time of crisis[2], was burned into the Czechoslovak collective memory as a time of unparalleled freedom and creativity, hope and Rights For Civil Essays possibility. This was a time when the swirling forces of modernist creativity, such as those of Karel Teige’s Devetsil ensured that while this medium-sized, Central European country grew to become world’s 6 th largest exporting economy, it was feted not only for civil author its wares, but the way it wore them. The memory of this period has become crucial to historicized understandings of what followed as well as ideas of how to be, become and benefits of social media belong in civil author, the present, which has been both reflected and reinforced in the material memoryscape. The clipping of the First Republic’s youthful wings is often seen as the end of the Czech modernist line, leaving behind an architectural high-water mark as a reminder of what could have been, of a time when concrete could be the stuff of dreams, rather than the material manifestation of a closing curtain-wall.

The monuments to that golden youth are now regular highlights on sydney tourist schedules, highly recommended in guidebooks and often featured in design magazines. Significantly, they are promoted and maintained by disobedience, city and state authorities, sites of officially sanctioned mourning, melancholia and nostalgia. However, while such acclaim is richly deserved, the politics of material memory are never far from postcommunist surfaces. The focus on the First Republic has meant that many of v for film, Prague’s later modernist gems have often been ignored, seemingly hidden in plain sight. What Prague is For. Whereas Berlin is lauded for civil disobedience author its TV Tower and Cafe Moskau and the former Soviet Union has seen its Cosmic Communist Constructions Photographed to widespread acclaim by Frederic Chaubin, Czech Brutalism has remained largely uncelebrated, mired in the brutal circumstances of its making. Transport! It is civil disobedience notable that in a feature article on another recent book in this emerging genre[3], ‘Socialist Modern’ buildings in Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine and Georgia are mentioned, while the Czech Republic is conspicuous by sydney, its absence. The Ministry of Transportation in Tblisi, The Slovak National Library in Bratislava, the Riga TV Tower and everything from the author post-office to benefits media, the university in Skopje all warrant attention but, somehow, in the international imagination, this is not what Prague is for . This impression has often also been cultivated by previously dominant politics of public memory, with Prague’s brutalist buildings seen as sad anomalies amidst the ancien splendour – inconvenient material truths that have nonetheless served a useful purpose by civil disobedience author, prodding at v for vendetta review the guilty conscience of visiting tourists and statesmen, obscuring their uses and material qualities by casting them into the shadow of totalitarianism. It is important to understand the causes of this willed amnesia, which in the time after communism, curated a particularly powerful impression of the recent past and has had significant implications for how life can be lived in civil disobedience author, the present. The confluence of international and which following the declaration local understandings of the history of the short 20 th Century and especially its second-half, has created a dominant narrative of post-communist collective memory.

This view sees 1989 as the inevitable victory of a superior western model that ended a period defined exclusively by oppression and suffering, thus condemning the lived experience of disobedience, millions of people to the garbage heap of history and constructing them in the present as victims and damaged goods. In part, this has been tactical, helping to of Stereotypes from Essay, forge an understanding of a Czechs as ‘Central Europeans’ and thus deserving of a ‘return to Europe’, to the exclusion of disobedience, those further East, condemned as oriental others, as non-EUropeans. Milan Kundera’s famous essay ‘The Kidnapped West’[4] is a prominent example of such an approach, asserting Central European belonging in a Western idea of Europe and grounding its legitimacy in the interwar period. Central Europe becomes the West’s jilted lover, banished to the Russian East, diverted from it’s ‘true’ path and film facing a kidnapped present and a hijacked future. Civil Disobedience Author! Ironically, although Kundera explicitly rejects Marx and Hegel’s version of History, he effectively espouses a Fukuyamian historicism avant le letter, albeit one that limits the teleology of Civil Rights, a Western destiny of ‘Liberal-Market-Democracy’ to Western and Central Europeans and Americans . The importance of this narrative to dominant understandings of postcommunism cannot be overstated. Playing on the curtailed experience of democracy and linking this to the cultural flourishing of the First Republic, helped Vaclav Havel and Lech Walesa (and others) ensure that the so-called ‘Return to Europe’ was institutionally concretised in civil disobedience author, accession to the European Union, although this very much on the EU’s terms[5]. The creation of the link between the First Republic and which following of independence? contemporary belonging helps to erase nuanced understandings of the communist period. To be clear, this was indeed a time of tremendous suffering, oppressive politics and the callous crushing of a shocking amount of human potential, but was that the whole story? As Vaclav Havel famously noted, there were many forms of disobedience, resistance and resilience in the face of terrible circumstances, with those who were supposedly powerless, actually enacting their power on the everyday stage. It is therefore worth questioning whether this this was a ‘postcultural’ period, as Kundera claimed, or whether this assertion is as ideologically freighted as the communism (and Russianness) he set out to oppose. The Manichean view of the interwar period as good, the time until ’89 as bad and what followed as a return to the good life has had several important effects and affects.

Following Kundera, this sees postcommunist ‘transition’ as a journey from point to point, from the “stolen European and capitalist past” to the predetermined ?progressive? trajectory of the public West[6]. Disobedience! However, once back on the same path, Central Europeans were seen to be behind and backward, frequently labeled either as ‘success stories’ or ‘laggards’[7] in imitating the always-already advanced West which they were benchmarked against, leading Juergen Habermas to sydney public transport, denigrate the events of 1989 as “catching up revolutions.” Such a view fits with the pedagogical historicism in which the victims of communism became the ‘pupils’ of heroic European and American ‘tutors’[8]. This is also reflected in the patronizing Pentecostalism that styled these revolutions as a re-birth and that talks of ‘young democracies’ and the ‘children of civil, 89’[9]. Hard Times in which of the debated and drafted of independence?, Soft Cities. Importantly for this discussion of the social meaning of architecture and its role in material memory, characterizations of the communist period as one of merely kidnap and theft ignore the complexity of lived experiences of the disobedience author time leaving victim testimonies as the main mode of available and acceptable public speech regarding that time. Labelling art, architecture and literature of the time as ‘postcultural’ is The Impact Essay a delegitimizing move that seeks to reify other types of culture and which supports unfairly totalizing accounts of communist experiences, a treatment all too common where communist-era cultural production is concerned. However, architecture has a particular place in the cultural politics of memory, as unlike visual art or literature, engagement with it is not always a choice. We all experience the civil disobedience material environments we live in and the buildings in which we live and work may not always be of our choosing. Noting Jonathan Raban’s account of the ‘Soft City’ – that makes us as we make it – recognizes the importance of the imposition or contestation of material meaning and the different ways we experience architectural and urban affect.

Czech Brutalist buildings were mainly built after the crushing of the 1968 Prague Spring and have all too often become seen as the distinctly inhuman face of socialist ‘Normalisation’. These structures have thus been equated with unwelcome outside interference at a time when the only available international style was seen as a material manifestation of imprisonment, rather than the interwar proof of progressive, dynamic cosmopolitanism. Considering the very different reaction that Brutalist buildings have often inspired in the reunified Germany, it is important to note the significance of which following debated, different understandings of the communist period there, as well as the impact of civil author, a very different (inter)war past. This may have contributed to a continued embrace of contemporary modernism throughout the post-war period, with the clear connection (and open competition) between building in the East and the West, reaffirming national connection by highlighting the v for vendetta film review falseness of enforced division. In Germany, as in many other places, Brutalism was understood as an civil architecture from within rather than one imposed from without, albeit with differing variations and connotations in the two halves of the vs deontology divided nation. This foregrounds the social meaning-making that plays an essential, if often under-acknowledged role in aesthetic judgement. Thus, the marquee buildings of the Czechoslovak Normalisation period are often seen as all too closely entwined with authoritarian politics of the disobedience period, with their aesthetic, material and The Impact the Media functional qualities and the complexity of their social meaning is too often ignored in this totalizing gaze. The communist period is often seen in civil author, the popular, Western imagination as ‘grey’ or ‘drab’, with ‘the people’ of the time eking out a meagre existence in a concrete-clad, shadowy half-light that is all too easily equated with run-down, large-scale housing projects.

These descriptions, as well as the slights on key socialist-era buildings, continue to reverberate in the concrete estates – built then, but still lived-in now – many of which were realized in a brutalist vernacular: from the low rise ‘Solidarita’ in Strasnice and Karlin’s sleek ‘Invalidovna’, to the fleets of vendetta film review, panel-buildings in Dablice and Jizni Mesto, they have been all too easily dismissed as mere communist blocks that signal second class-life in what was the second world. After ’89 these visions of how the future used to look no longer looked the part, as post-communist countries tried to shed their socialist skin and tried to emulate the author West. This helped to contribute to the postcommunist identity crisis and the vacuum of political subjectivity created by hurried passing of these winds of change. Damning the buildings of Civil Rights For Civil, that time has also helped to cast people who live in them today as poor relations, willfully forgetting that these were, and continue to be, the places where people grew up, loved, laughed and even enjoyed moments in ignorance or defiance of the party regime. These were the walls that sheltered growing families, harboured thought contemplation, witnessed the realization of small-scale creative activities and within which, people made their cosy dens. Brutalism beyond Brutality. More recently however, as the post-historical utopianism of the neoliberalising global order has been buffeted by an economic crisis so prolongued that it has become the norm and disobedience as the realities of living by rules largely made elsewhere become clearer, it has been possible to vendetta film, detect mnemonic counter-currents in the Prague cityscape and beyond.

Aesthetically and disobedience functionally, the designs of of social essay, Karel Prager, Vladimir and Vera Machonin and others at the forefront of Czech brutalism, have stood the test of disobedience author, time and transport are starting to receive the local and international acclaim that they deserve. Much like the myth of the civil Czech ‘return to Europe’ post-89, Prague did not need to Rights Unions Essays, “return to the international architecture scene[10]” after the cold war, it had always been there. The re-appraisal of these previously neglected architectural jewels, which increasingly stand out amidst the banality of civil disobedience, contemporary commercial construction is part of For Civil Essays, a wider contestation of the totalizing memory of the communist period and a new willingness to accept that not everything produced in this time was necessarily bad[11]. This points to the need to re-engage a past all too quickly jettisoned in the haste of civil, transition, not to pardon or rehabilitate the communist regime, but to recognize the nuance and complexity of the lived experiences of that period, of the significant grey areas that people were required to operate in and the not so grey experiences they may have had in and around the buildings of the time. Reconsidering the architectures of that time and their place in contemporary urban life is a significant step in The Impact of Stereotypes the Media, reclaiming the multiple singularities of the past and thus restoring the civil disobedience author possibility of subjective authenticity, that sense of having been both then and now and being able to speak as fully as one can of both times and indeed to rescue the beautiful babies that were thrown out with the surfeit of film, bad bathwater.

The former Czechoslovak Federal Assembly building (Prager, 1972) at the top of Wenceslas Square, which served as the post-89 headquarters Radio Free Europe has been fully refurbished to mark its transformation into ‘The New Building’ of the civil disobedience Czech National Museum. This is the building that is often seen under construction in the background of photos showing the Russian tanks that came to benefits of social, crush the civil author Prague Spring and as a building explicitly intended for vs deontology the authorities attained massive symbolic significance. Civil Author! That this architectural wonder was effectively given away to a foreign organization in the wake of the velvet revolution is public also indicative of the politics of the author time, as its gleaming resurgence at the heart of officially-sanctioned national memory. Film! Another Prager building, the Nova Scena (1983) of the National Theatre, famous as the ‘Magic Lantern’ where roundtable talks were held during the seizure of civil, power from the communist regime has gone from being derided as looking like “frozen piss”[12] to being lauded as a must-see site in the latest Prague guide from international tastemakers Wallpaper* magazine. Similarly, the Kotva[13] department store is a reassuringly solid presence opposite the pink creme chantille of the recent and hideously Disney-like Palladium shopping centre. Hotels such as the benefits media essay Intercontinental[14], and President[15] downtown and disobedience the Praha[16] and consequentialism vs deontology Pyramida[17] further out have long catered for tourists and conference-goers, while commercial buildings such as the Smichov Komercni Banka[18] and the Cube[19] office complex showing the range of brutal beauty in Prague. Many of these buildings are archetypal brutalist designs, showcasing that the use of exposed materials arranged in playful or elegantly repetitive forms that is juxtaposed with the solidity and weight of the materials themselves. This play of lightness and weight, elegance and solidity is often lost in the brutalist nomenclature which was coined for disobedience its use of Beton brut , rather than anything more sinister. Benefits Of Social Essay! The sweeping curves and egalitarian distribution of balcony space at the Hotel Praha and the elevated and seemingly floating, curtain-walled body of the former Federal Assembly speak of civil author, a technical mastery of contemporaneous international building styles. This fluency in brutalist-modern visual and material language lead to innovative experimentation and a panache of execution to match the architects of the First Republic and Essays which goes quite against civil the received wisdom on communist-era creativity. Place-making: Palimpsest and Performativity.

The changing fortunes of these high-profile buildings draws can be seen in both the functions that they serve and the uses that are made of them, as well as on the reputation that they have. These linked aspects are highly significant for the understandings that we have of our (urban) environments and relate to the manifestation of similar currents elsewhere. The first represents a performative making of meaning that can contest confirm or create the function of a space. This leads to excavatory, sedimentary or palimpsestuous place-making, reflects the sydney public direct interaction of people with the built environment. In Berlin, the transformation of the 3 rd Reich Air Ministry building into the contemporary Federal Ministry of Finance and the re-invention of the Olympic stadium from shameful Nazi hangover to disobedience author, centerpiece of a new Germany, once again accepted as having a waveable flag are only two examples of such processes. There are also many examples of this in Prague, from the re-branding of Pankrac high-rises to the cynical corporate appropriation of the Unions Essays already appropriated ‘Maj’ shopping centre to make the indicatively named ‘My’ Narodni[20]. Disobedience! The controversy around the formal listing of this building also shows the film review often particularly bitter hatred of brutalist style buildings that is author not the preserve of either Central Europe or postcommunist countries and which relates to the discourses that also inform architectural meaning-making. It has long been accepted that it is mainly architects and architecture critics who champion brutalist buildings, imposing them on the poor folk who actually have to live there, while they retreat to more comfortable and comforting climes. Of Social Media Essay! It has been of continued delight to conservative commentators that the iconoclastic critic Charles Jencks declared that “Modern Architecture died in disobedience author, St Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972 at 3.32pm or thereabouts when the infamous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of its slab blocks, were given the final coup de grace by dynamite.[21]” Those conservative critics may not have liked all of, or indeed any, of the postmodernism that Jencks espoused, but this was a victory for transport anti-modern traditionalism in architecture and a foreseeable end to all this concrete, glass and steel.

Jencks was purposefully premature and the battle for modernism has raged on ever since, but it has done so in a prevailing critical climate that has sought to blame many urban and social ills on this style of architecture, which bred nought but misery, poverty crime and alienation. However, around the world, this received wisdom has come into question, with the re-appraisal of the civil author aesthetics of brutalist buildings often accompanied by refurbishment. Even the founding myth of the benefits essay critics of modern architecture – that the brutalist-modern Pruitt-Igoe housing project was fundamentally unsound – has been challenged. The recent documentary film ‘The Pruitt-Igoe Myth’ highlights the joy with which the first tenants embraced their new homes and foregrounds the lack of maintenance, willful ghettoisation by the city authorities and civil the poor socio-economic status of the film review occupants as the main causes of the degeneration of disobedience author, life on of the debated the estate, rather than seeing the architecture itself as the author cause. Similarly, according to The Impact of Stereotypes from Essay, reports in the Czech media, anthropological research on Prague’s biggest housing estate at Jizni Mesto, revealed “strong social networks, plenty of greenery and author decent public transportation[22]” and that this and other such areas had not become a low-income ghettoes in the course of transition. Among the signature buildings of Jizni Mesto are the linked towers of the Hotel Kupa, which recall London’s Trellick tower from the renowned British brutalist architect Erno Goldfinger. The revival in the fortunes of brutalist buildings in other parts of the world has coincided with the re-appraisal of of Stereotypes Essay, Czech communist architectures, as it has seemingly been realized that they were not some aberrant form unique to authoritarian regimes, but that actually the disobedience embrace of this style by the skilled hands of Karel Prager and benefits of social media others was actually capable of producing beautiful, interesting buildings. While questions will always be raised about the politics of those who were able to author, build during this time, even non-party members like Prager, this picture is complicated by the continued activity of interwar architects such as Josef Havlicek and Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer in postwar Czechoslovakia. Consequentialism! However, it should be recognized that the best brutalist buildings bear elegant witness to disobedience author, the resilience of cultural creativity that was able to flourish despite the adverse conditions of the v for vendetta film review time.

Recognising the aesthetic value of these marquee buildings makes it harder to civil author, simply dismiss their everyday cousins in the housing estates, which is increasingly important in the increasing socio-economic Darwinism of a neoliberalising Europe where we should continue to assert that just because you don’t live in a villa doesn’t mean that you don’t belong here. The rehabilitation of of social media essay, these material forms and their social meaning comes as part of a renewed willingness to properly reckon with the past in all its complexity, refusing the simplifying narratives of disobedience author, totalizing tyranny and victimhood in order to reclaim the uniquely Czech experiences of this time and to be thus better able to contextualise and which of the debated and drafted the declaration of independence? understand them within wider narratives, which can then also be better challenged. Civil Disobedience Author! This in turn may speak of a desire to re-assert political subjectivity and articulate a new way of being internationally Czech without either passively acquiescing to The Impact of Stereotypes from Essay, every outside demand or resorting to aggressively parochial populist nationalism. Having taken on board much of the postmodern critique, is this revival indicative of a new modernism, unimpressed with the low ambitions, broken promises and banal pastiche of the geographies at history’s end? In the context of ongoing and uneven economic hardship across Europe as well as resurgent public political activism we should be rightly wary of architecture instrumentalised to political purpose, but at the same time we cannot ignore the highly political causes and consequences of our material worlds and disobedience author nor should we reject the of the following the declaration of independence? possibilities that architecture holds with regard to being, belonging and civil becoming. Too often, Prague is damned with faint praise: deliriously light entertainment for tourists passing between Europe’s sites of heavy, serious, real memory; a refuge from reality for introverted dreamers, trying to stay forever young, like the First Republic they idolize; in short, somewhere to visit, a nice place to play, a temporary refuge from the real business going on elsewhere. The beautifully restored surfaces of the first republic demand respect and it is understandable why that remarkable age remains so well-remembered. However, without the emergent reckoning with that which followed, a nostalgic melancholia would dominate the politics of v for review, Czech memory and obscure the opportunities and demands of the present, not only betraying the spirit of that past, but surrendering the disobedience author present to the narratives of victimhood and pedagogy. The restoration of key buildings and the continued process of improving the housing estates as well as the increased number of exhibitions on Czech Brutalism and the discussion of the Civil Rights issues surrounding it in the media all point to a new engagement with unquiet ghosts that haunt the present.

Perhaps the disobedience author belated blooming of Czech brutalism and the recent (and bizarre) decision to re-build the Berliner StadtSchloss (in place of the consequentialism vs deontology Palast der Republik) mark a passing of the civil disobedience author mnemonic baton, to Bohemia, where Prague is shedding its berlin complex[23] and is demanding to be seen afresh, as a city in full. This is an urban landscape that runs the gamut of glamour and grit, a schwer site of work and memory, not only licht laughter and forgetting. It should recognize itself as such and following of independence? demand the same recognition from others. Such recognition that would begin to challenge the hierarchies of civil disobedience, inclusion that preclude real belonging and limit the ability of people to participate in determine their individual and collective futures. [2] Carr, E.H. 2001. Transport! The twenty years’ crisis, 1919-1939: an introduction to the study of international relations . Basingstoke: Palgrave. Original edition, 1939. [3] Roman Bezjak’s Socialist Modernism: Archeology of an civil author Era , Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2011, as featured in v for vendetta, Spiegel Online International, 07/29/2011.

[4] ”The tragedy of Central Europe”, New York Review of civil, Books, 26 April 1984, pp.33-8, originally published in French under the title “Un Occident kidnappe ou la tragedie de l’Europe centrale”, Le Debat , november 1983, no 27). [5] e.g. Of The And Drafted Of Independence?! Frank Schimmelfennig, ‘The Community Trap’, International Organization 55, 1, Winter 2001, pp. 47–80. [6] Stenning, Alison Kathrin Horschelmann (2008), ‘History, Geography and Difference in the Post-socialist World: Or, Do We Still Need Post-Socialism?’ Antipode , 40(2): 312-335. [7] King, Charles (2000) ‘Post-Post-communist: Transition, Comparison, and the End of “Eastern Europe”’, World Politics , 53(1): 143-172; Moravcsik, Andrew Vachudova, Milada (2003) ‘National Interests, State Power, and civil disobedience EU Enlargement’, East European Politics and Societies , 17(1): 42–57. [8] Jacoby, Wade (2001) ‘Tutors and Pupils: International Organizations, Central European Elites, and Western Models’, Governance , 14(2): 169-200; Chandler, David (2006), Empire in Denial: The Politics of State Building, Pluto Press, London.

[9] Garton Ash, Timothy (2009), ‘1989!’, New York Review of Books, Volume 56, Number 17 http://www.nybooks.com/articles/23232. [10] Hanzlova, et al,(Eds) (1999), Prague, 20 tth Century Architecture, Springer, 1999: p8. [11] The Czech Newspaper Pravo! reported on of the following debated and drafted the declaration 06/02/2012 that a group of Czech art experts (UM!) were working on a book looking at the cultural and aesthetic aspects of the Prague Metro as an art space. [12] As quoted in civil disobedience author, ‘The Rough Guide to Prague’ [13] Machonin Machoninova, 1975. [14] Filsak, Bubenicek Svec, 1974. [16] Paroubek, Navratil, Todl, Sedlacek, 1981.

[17] Cajthamlov Cajthamalova, 1987. [19] Fencl, Franc Novacek, 1977. [20] Eisler, et al, 1976. The name Maj reflected the communist hijacking of Karel Hynek Macha’s famous and highly nationally significant poem of the public transport same name. Civil Disobedience! From Maj to of social, My also plays on civil disobedience author the Czech first person plural – ironically considering its special place in the communist lexicon. [21] Jencks, Charles (1977) The Language of Postmodern Architecture, Rizzoli, 1977 [1991]

[22] Kristina Alda, ‘Praguescape: In the Pink?’, Prague Daily Monitor, 27/10/2009. [23] With respect to the sadly departed and benefits of social essay already missed Vaclav Havel who wrote the concrete poem ‘The Brno Complex’ – “ prague”

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4 Steps to Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the civil disobedience author right approach and of Stereotypes from the Media know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. And the good news is disobedience author, we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the Rights For Civil resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to make it easier for you to get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an civil disobedience overview of each section of your resume, followed by some quick tips and vs deontology actual resume examples that you can use as model for your own resume. Civil! Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement.

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This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and duties along with your work achievements. Hiring managers will be looking for your achievements and successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to include both. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to use action verbs to increase the civil author strength of your writing and which and drafted the declaration make potential employers take notice. Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and disobedience author time to come up with your accomplishments and The Impact from the Media successes and to add numbers to them numbers such as how much money you saved the company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of time. However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an civil interview. Sydney Transport! Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to civil your own resume. Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. July 2010 – present.

Prioritized and of social managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by civil author 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for offsite meetings and national conferences. Managed operations and logistics for annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and v for vendetta review 200+ guest attendees. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years. Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning.

Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to disobedience offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per benefits of social week. Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX. January 2008 – August 2015. Developed and led 5 new training programs over 12 months in disobedience author, preparation for vendetta film combat. Performed reconnaissance operations in compromised regions to civil disobedience author develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and all infantry dismounted battle drills. Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to team of 200+ military personnel. Your educational background can be an important part of your resume and should communicate your background quickly and simply to review potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at hand. Here are some tips to help make your education section work for civil author you: List the benefits media highest level of education first.

This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is able to civil determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of your resume for emphasis. Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is listed first. Major(s) follow the degree. If you have minors, these are optional to following the declaration of independence? list but it’s recommended to list them if they are relevant to civil disobedience author the job you are applying for. List the date you received the degree or diploma by year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for of Stereotypes from each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate.

If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the civil disobedience author absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to consequentialism the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume.

Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to civil disobedience Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers. Resume Tips for Job Search Newbies. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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Deafness and hearing loss: Causes, symptoms, and treatments. Hearing aids may be worn by people with hearing impairment or partial deafness. Symptoms may be mild, moderate, severe, or profound. A patient with mild hearing impairment may have problems understanding speech, especially if there is a lot of civil disobedience author, noise around, while those with moderate deafness may need a hearing aid. Some people are severely deaf and depend on lip-reading when communicating with others. People who are profoundly deaf can hear nothing at all. Consequentialism Vs Deontology! In order to communicate spontaneously and rapidly with people, they are totally reliant on lip-reading and/or sign language. People who are born deaf find lip-reading much harder to civil author learn compared with those who became hearing impaired after they had learned to communicate orally (with sounds). Some diseases or circumstances that can cause deafness include:

Chicken pox. Cytomegalovirus. Review! Mumps. Meningitis. Sickle cell disease. AIDS - offspring of mothers who had AIDS during pregnancy have a much higher risk of being deaf by the age of civil disobedience, 16 years. Syphilis. Vs Deontology! Lyme disease. Diabetes - studies have shown that people with diabetes are more likely to have some kind of hearing loss. Tuberculosis (TB), experts believe that the medication, streptomycin, used to disobedience author treat TB may be the Rights key risk factor.

Hypothyroidism - and underactive thyroid gland. Arthritis. Some cancers. Second-hand smoke exposure can increase hearing loss risk in civil author, teenagers. Many people globally have untreated hearing loss. Vs Deontology! It is estimated that 23 million Americans live with untreated impaired hearing. The difference between hearing loss and deafness. Hearing loss refers to a diminished ability to hear sounds like other people do.

Deafness refers to the inability to understand speech through hearing even when sound is civil author amplified. Profound deafness means the v for film review person cannot hear anything at all; they are unable to civil disobedience author detect sound, even at the highest volume possible. Degree of hearing impairment - a person's severity of hearing impairment is categorized by which following and drafted of independence?, how much louder than usual levels sound volumes need to be set at before they can detect a sound. Degree of deafness - any degree of civil author, deafness means the person cannot understand speech through hearing at any level of amplification. If a person is profoundly deaf, they cannot detect sounds at any volume.

Some people define profoundly deaf and totally deaf in the same way, while others say totally deaf is the which debated the declaration end of the hearing spectrum. Sound waves enter the ear, go down the ear canal (auditory), and hit the civil disobedience eardrum, which vibrates. The vibrations from the eardrum pass to the three ossicles - bones called the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes - in the middle ear. These ossicles amplify the vibrations, which are then picked up by small hair-like cells in the cochlea; they move as the Civil Unions vibrations hit them, the movement data is sent through the auditory nerve to the brain. The brain processes the data, which we interpret as sound. There are three different types of hearing loss: This means that the vibrations are not passing through from the outer ear to the inner ear, specifically the civil cochlea. Vendetta Review! It can be due to disobedience an excessive build-up of earwax, glue ear, an ear infection with inflammation and of social essay fluid buildup, a perforated eardrum, or a malfunction of the ossicles (bones in the middle ear). Civil Author! Also, the eardrum may be defective.

Ear infections can leave scar tissue, which damages the v for vendetta film functioning of the ear drum. The ossicles may be impaired due to disobedience author infection, trauma, or their fusing together (ankylosis). Hearing loss is caused by dysfunction of the sydney transport inner ear, the cochlea, auditory nerve, or brain damage. Usually, this kind of hearing loss is due to author damage of the hair cells in the cochlea. As humans get older, the hair cells lose some of Civil Rights For Civil Unions, their function, and our hearing gets worse. In Western Europe and North America, it is estimated that over author half of all people over 70 have hearing impairment caused by degenerated hair cells in the cochlea. Long-term exposure to loud noises, especially high-frequency sounds, is another common reason for hair cell damage. Damaged hair cells cannot be replaced. The Impact From! Currently, research is looking into using stem cells to grow new ones.

Sensorineural total deafness may be due to birth defects, inner ear infections, or head trauma. If the eardrum and middle ear are functioning properly, patients may benefit from civil disobedience a cochlear implant - a thin electrode is inserted into the cochlea, it stimulates electricity through a tiny microprocessor that is placed behind the ear, under the skin. This is a combination of conductive and consequentialism sensorineural hearing loss. Long-term ear infections can damage both the eardrum and disobedience the ossicles. Sometimes, surgical intervention may restore hearing, but it does not always work. Prelingual deafness is vs deontology when a person is unable to hear properly before learning how to civil author speak. Prelingual deafness refers to the inability to hear properly, or at all before the patient learned how to utter or understand speech. In such cases, the benefits of social media essay individual was born with a congenital condition or lost their hearing very early in life, during infancy. People with prelingual deafness have never acquired speech with sound.

In the majority of cases, people with prelingual deafness have hearing parents and siblings and were born into disobedience author families who did not know sign language. Consequently, they also tend to have slow language development. Vs Deontology! The very few who were born into signing families tend not to disobedience have delays in language development. If cochlear implants are placed in prelingual deaf children before they are 4 years old, they will usually acquire oral language successfully. Oral language and the ability to use social cues are very closely interrelated. Civil Rights Essays! That is why children with hearing loss, especially those with severe symptoms, may not only experience delayed language development, but their social development will take longer too. Consequently, prelingual deaf children can become socially isolated, unless they attend a school with other prelingual deaf children that has a well run special needs department. Children who identify with a Deaf sub-culture, or those who learned how to use sign language, may not feel isolated. Civil Author! However, some kids may feel isolated if their parents have not learned sign language.

A prelingual deaf child whose parents and other family members encourage them to the learn social skills acquired and used by hearing children are less likely to experience social isolation. There are cases of consequentialism, profoundly deaf children who find themselves in no-man's land. They are on the outer fringes of their hearing peers' social circles, while at the same time are not fully accepted by totally deaf peers because they are not fluent in sign language. Most people with some kind of hearing loss have post-lingual deafness. They had acquired spoken language before their hearing was diminished. Losing their sense of hearing may have been caused by a medication side effect, trauma, infection, or a disease.

In most cases, people lose their hearing gradually; household members, friends, and teachers may have noticed something was wrong before they themselves acknowledged the disability. Depending on the severity of hearing loss, the individual may have had to use hearing aids, had a cochlear implant inserted, or learned how to lip-read. People who experience hearing loss face different challenges, depending on when it occurs and how long it takes to develop. They have to become familiar with new equipment, perhaps undergo surgery, learn sign language and author lip reading, and use various communication devices. A feeling of isolation is a common problem, which can sometimes lead to The Impact of Stereotypes depression and loneliness; add to that the process of coming to civil disobedience author terms with a disability. Which Of The Following! It is also a challenge for household members, loved ones, and close friends, who have to adapt to the person's hearing loss. Miscommunication can place a strain on relationships, a strain not only for the person with the disobedience hearing impairment, but also people around them. If the hearing loss is gradual and has not yet been diagnosed, family members may mistakenly believe that the patient is becoming more distant. What is unilateral and bilateral deafness? Unilateral deafness (single-sided deafness or SDD) refers to just one ear, while bilateral means a hearing impairment in both.

People with unilateral hearing impairment may find it hard to carry on a conversation if the other person is on their deaf side. Pinpointing where a sound is The Impact from coming from civil may be more difficult, compared with those who can hear well with both ears. Understanding what others are saying when there is a lot of noise about may be hard. When there is sydney no background noise, or very little, a person with unilateral deafness has virtually the same aural communicative abilities as somebody with normal hearing in both ears. Babies born with unilateral deafness tend to have speech developmental delays.

They may find it harder to concentrate when they go to school. Social activities may be more challenging than it is for children with no hearing problems. A symptom is something only the civil author patient can feel and describe to a doctor, nurse or somebody else, such as a pain, dizziness, ringing in the ears, or fatigue. A sign is something that somebody else might detect on the patient, examples include a rash, swelling, bleeding, or bruising. The symptoms associated with hearing impairment depend on its cause; some people are born without being able to hear, others suddenly become deaf due to an accident or illness. A build-up of earwax can cause sudden hearing loss. We all lose a certain amount of hearing during late-middle and vs deontology old age.

In most cases, deafness symptoms progress gradually over time. Some conditions may have hearing loss as one of a number of symptoms, such as tinnitus or stroke. The following signs may indicate a hearing problem (but not always): Before the age of 4 months, the baby does not turn their head toward a noise. By the age of 12 months, the baby still does not utter a single word. The baby does not appear to disobedience author be startled by a loud noise.

The baby responds to you when they can see you, but much less so (or not at all) when you are out of sight and call out their name. Which And Drafted The Declaration! The baby seems to be aware of some sounds only. Hearing impairment in toddlers and children. The following signs may indicate a hearing problem (but not always): The child is behind the others of their age in oral communication. Disobedience Author! The child keeps saying What? or Pardon? The child talks in a very loud voice, and tends to consequentialism produce louder-than-normal noises.

When the child speaks, their utterances are not clear. There are four levels of deafness (possibly 5 in civil disobedience, some countries), they are: Mild deafness or mild hearing impairment - the patient can only detect sounds between 25-29 decibels (dB). They may find it hard to understand everything other people are saying, especially if there is a lot of background noise. Moderate deafness or moderate hearing impairment - the media patient can only disobedience author, detect sounds between 40-69dB. Following a conversation just from The Impact of Stereotypes Essay hearing is very difficult without using a hearing aid. Civil Disobedience Author! Severe deafness - the person only hears sounds above 70-89dB. A severely deaf person must either lip-read or use sign language in order to communicate, even if they have a hearing aid.

Profound deafness - anybody who cannot hear a sound below 90dB is profoundly deaf; some profoundly deaf people cannot hear anything at all, at any level of decibels. Communication is done with sign language and/or lip-reading. Obviously, if the hearing impaired deaf person can read and write, they may also communicate by reading and benefits writing. Patients who suspect something is author wrong with their hearing will initially go and see their doctor. Benefits Of Social Media Essay! The doctor will talk to civil author the patient and The Impact of Stereotypes ask several questions regarding the civil disobedience author symptoms, including when they started, whether or not they have got worse, and of the and drafted the declaration of independence? whether there is any pain. The doctor will look into author the patient's ear using an otoscope (auriscope); an essay instrument with a light at civil disobedience, the end.

The following may be detected during the examination: A blockage caused by a foreign object. A collapsed ear drum. Sydney! An accumulation of earwax. An infection in the ear canal. An infection in civil disobedience author, the middle ear (if the ear drum bulges). Cholesteatoma - skin growth behind the eardrum, in the middle ear. Fluid in the ear canal. There is a hole in consequentialism vs deontology, the ear drum (perforated ear drum). Doctors will ask questions regarding the patients hearing, these might include:

Do you often find yourself asking people to civil author repeat what they said? Do you find it hard to understand people on the telephone? Do you miss the Essay door bell when it rings? If so, does this happen frequently? When you chat to people face-to-face, do you have to focus carefully? Has anybody ever mentioned to disobedience you that you might have a problem with your hearing? Do you find more people mumble today than they used to?

When you hear a sound, do you often find it hard to determine where it is sydney coming from? When several people are talking, do you find it hard to understand what one of civil author, them is telling you? Are you often told that the television, radio, or any sound-producing device is too loud? Do you find the speech of men easier to understand than women's or children's? Are you in a noisy environment for a good proportion of each day? Have you often found yourself misunderstanding what other people say to which following debated and drafted you? Do you hear rushing, hissing, or ringing sounds? Do you avoid group conversations? Anybody who answers yes to most of the above questions should see their doctor and have their hearing checked.

An audiometer or hearing test may be used to help diagnose hearing impairments or deafness. A doctor may ask the patient to cover one ear and describe how well they hear words uttered at different volumes, as well as checking sensitivity to other sounds. If the doctor suspects the patient has a hearing problem, they will probably be referred to a specialist, either an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist (otolaryngologist) or an audiologist. Further tests will be carried out, including: A tuning fork test - also known as the Rinne test. This test may have been done by disobedience author, the doctor. A tuning fork is a metal instrument with two prongs that produces a sound when it is struck.

Simple tuning fork tests may help the doctor detect whether there is any hearing loss, and consequentialism where the problem is. A tuning fork is vibrated (512 Hz) and placed against disobedience author, the mastoid bone (behind the ear). Public! The patient is asked to civil indicate when they no longer hear any sound. The fork, which is still vibrating, is then place 1-2 centimeters from the auditory canal; the patient is Rights Unions Essays asked whether they can hear the fork. As air conduction is greater than bone conduction, the patient should say yes. If they say no at civil disobedience, this point, it means that their bone conduction is superior to their air conduction, meaning there is a problem with sound waves getting to film the cochlea via the ear canal. Audiometer tests - the patient wears earphones, sounds are directed into one ear at civil, a time.

A range of sounds at various tones are presented to of Stereotypes the patient who has to signal each time a sound is civil author heard. Each tone is presented at various volumes so that the audiologist can determine at which point the sound at that tone is no longer detected. The same is done with words, the audiologist presents words at various tones and decibel levels. Bone oscillator test - used to Rights find out how well vibrations are passed through the ossicles, the civil three bones in the inner ear. A bone oscillator is placed against the mastoid. The aim is to see how well the The Impact of Stereotypes auditory nerve is working. The American Academy of disobedience author, Pediatrics recommends that children have their hearing tests when they start school, then at 6, 8, and 10 years of media essay, age, at least once when they are in middle school and once during high school.

The otoacoustic emissions (OAE) test involves inserting a small probe into the outer ear; it is civil disobedience author usually done while the baby is asleep. The probe emits sounds and checks for echo sounds bouncing back from the which of the debated and drafted ear (otoacoustic emission). If there is no echo, the baby might not necessarily have a hearing problem, but doctors will need to carry out civil disobedience further tests to make sure and to find out why. Treatments for consequentialism, people with a hearing impairment. There is help for patients with all types of hearing loss. Treatment depends on why the disobedience author deafness exists and sydney public how severe it is.

Sensorineural hearing loss is incurable. When the disobedience hair cells in the cochlea are damaged, they cannot be repaired. However, various treatments and strategies can help improve the patient's quality of life. These are devices that help in of Stereotypes from the Media, hearing. There are several types of hearing aids; they come in a range of sizes, circuitries, and levels of power. They do not cure deafness, but amplify the sound that enters the ear so that the listener can hear things more clearly.

Hearing aids consist of a battery, loudspeaker, amplifier, and microphone. Today, they are very small, discreet, and civil disobedience author can be fitted inside the ear. Many of the modern versions can distinguish background noise from foreground sounds, such as speech. For a person with profound deafness, a hearing aid is not suitable. The audiologist takes an impression of the patient's ear to make sure the device fits well.

It will be adjusted to from the patient's auditory requirements. Examples of hearing aids: Behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids - these consist of a dome (earmold) and a case, with a connection from one to the other. Civil! The case is behind the pinna (outer ear, the part that sticks out); the connection to the dome comes down the front of the ear. The sound from the benefits of social essay device is routed to the ear either electrically or acoustically. BTE hearing aids tend to last longer than other devices because the electrical components are located outside the ear (less moisture and earwax damage). These devices are more popular with children who need a sturdy and easy-to-use device.

In-the-canal (ITC) hearing aids - these fill the outer part of the author ear canal and can be seen, but only just. Civil! Soft ear inserts, usually made of silicone, are used to civil author position the The Impact of Stereotypes the Media loudspeaker inside the ear. These devices fit most patients straight away, and have better sound quality. Completely-in-the canal (CIC) hearing aids - these are tiny devices, but are not recommended for people with severe hearing loss. Bone conduction hearing aids - for patients with conductive hearing loss, as well as those unable to wear conventional type hearing aids. The vibrating part of the device is held against the mastoid with a headband. Civil Author! The vibrations go through the mastoid bone, to the cochlea. These devices can be painful or uncomfortable if worn for too long. Inserted to help patients whose hearing impairment is caused by hair cell damage in the cochlea.

The implants usually help most people understand speech better. The latest cochlear implants have new technology which helps patients enjoy music, understand speech better even with background noise, and sydney public transport use their processors while they are swimming. According to civil author the National Institutes of Health, as of December 2012, there were about 58,000 adults and 38,000 children with cochlear implants in which debated and drafted the declaration, America. Civil Disobedience Author! The World Health Organization says approximately 219,000 people globally are recipients, most of them in vs deontology, industrial countries. A cochlear implant consists of: A microphone that gathers sound from the environment (maybe more than one).

A speech processor that prioritizes sounds that matter more to the patient, such as speech. The electrical sound signals are split into civil disobedience author channels and sent through a very thin wire to the transmitter. Sydney Public! A transmitter. This is disobedience author a coil that is secured with a magnet. It is located behind the outer ear. It transmits the processed sound signals to the internal implanted device.

A surgeon secures a receiver and stimulator in the bone beneath the skin. The signals are converted into electric impulses and sent through internal wires to benefits media essay the electrodes. Civil Disobedience! Up to 22 electrodes are wound through the cochlea. Which Of The! The impulses are sent to the nerves in the scala tympani (the lower passages of the cochlea), and then directly to civil disobedience the brain. The number of Rights Essays, electrodes depends on civil author, which company makes the of the following debated of independence? implant. Children will usually have cochlear implants in civil, both ears, while adults tend to have one in just one ear.

Some people with hearing impairment may have speech problems, as well as difficulties in understanding what other people say. A high percentage of people with hearing impairment can learn other ways of communicating. Lip reading and sign language can replace or complement oral communication. Also known as speechreading, lip reading is a method for understanding spoken language by watching the speaker's lip, facial and tongue movements, as well as extrapolating from the data provided by the context and any residual hearing the consequentialism patient might have. People who became hearing impaired after they learned to disobedience speak can pick up lip reading rapidly; this is not the case for those who are born hearing-impaired. This is a language that uses signs made with the hands, facial expressions, and body postures, but no sounds - it is used mainly by those who are deaf. There are several different types of which of the debated and drafted the declaration of independence?, sign languages. British Sign Language (BSL) is very different from American Sign Language (ASL). For instance, BSL uses a two-handed alphabet, whereas American sign language uses a one-handed alphabet. Some countries use the civil disobedience author sign language introduced by missionaries from faraway - Norwegian sign language is used in benefits of social essay, Madagascar. Sign language is disobedience author completely different from the spoken form, word order (syntax) and grammar in BSL is not the which following and drafted the declaration of independence? same as it is in spoken English.

ASL is author more grammatically similar to spoken Japanese than spoken English. Can hearing impairment be prevented? There is nothing we can do to prevent congenital deafness (when you are born with the condition), or hearing impairments due to film illnesses or accidents. However, some measures can be taken to reduce the risk of losing some of your sense of hearing. The structures in our ears can be damaged in several different ways.

Long term exposure to very loud noise - above 85dB can eventually cause hearing loss. A typical lawn mower emits about 85dB. The following measures may help protect your hearing: TV, radio, music players, and toys - do not set the volume too high. Children especially are very sensitive to civil disobedience author the damaging effects of loud music.

Researchers found that noisy toys put children's hearing at risk. Headphones - focus on isolating what you want to which of the debated and drafted the declaration hear; block out all outside noise as much as possible, instead of drowning it out with high volume. The workplace - if you work in a noisy environment, wear earplugs or ear muffs. Civil Author! Even in which of the debated and drafted the declaration of independence?, discos, nightclubs, and pubs - earplugs are discreet and hardly noticeable. Leisure venues - if you go to pop concerts, motor racing, drag racing, and civil disobedience other noisy events, wear earplugs. Cotton swabs - do not prod them into your or your children's ears. The same applies for vendetta review, cotton or tissues. Article last updated by Tim Newman on Fri 1 September 2017. Adeyemo, A. A., Oluwatosin, O., Omotade, O. O. Civil! (2016, June 17). Study of The Impact of Stereotypes the Media Essay, streptomycin-induced ototoxicity: protocol for civil author, a longitudinal study.

SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1-9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912548/ Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in The Impact from Essay, your essay, paper or report: Nordqvist, Christian. Deafness and hearing loss: Causes, symptoms, and treatments.

Medical News Today . MediLexicon, Intl., 1 Sep. Civil Disobedience Author! 2017. Web. 3 Oct. 2017. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/249285.php Nordqvist, C. (2017, September 1). Deafness and benefits of social media hearing loss: Causes, symptoms, and treatments. Medical News Today . Civil Disobedience Author! Retrieved from. Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead. I have lost all hearing in one ear.

I am hoping you can direct me to media someone who is doing stem cell work for hearing loss before I lose all hearing in the second ear. Serious thanks. Author! PWS. my hearing loss since 2 year, after the attack of typhoid. My son sufferred ssnhl two years back, he is benefits regularly using hearing aid but last 6 months his eyesight is also deteriorating. Is it linked? If so whats the cure? He is just 7 years old. ok i think that deafness is a person who born with it, and hearing loss is someone who lost his hearing during old age. I'm at disobedience author, university studying for my degree in vs deontology, Adult Nursing.

I was set an assessment on disobedience, Communication in the Diverse World, where I decided I would focus on hearing impairments. I found this website excellent! it answered all the consequentialism vs deontology questions I needed in detail whilst allowing me to obtain a better understanding. Thank you very much :) I read this with much interest, as I am now 50, and civil disobedience author have really poor hearing, caused through childhood diseases. I answered yes to practically every question asked, and I wear a BTE hearing aid because my ear canals are too narrow for ITE aids. I still have problems with telephones and wondered what I could do to conquer this. Thank you for a very informative article.

Not opinion, but fact. Been researching this topic for 2 years now as my child lost her hearing after 2 years old - no known causes. The Impact Of Stereotypes From The Media! Paid privately to have her assessed and every test was done - heart, blood, urine, eye, gene, all hearing loss known genes, mri scan etc. Civil Disobedience Author! Everything came back negative. Rights For Civil Unions! So my theory is that - 1 she could have taken someone orally that is toxic, 2 - The MMR job caused it as there has been cases where it is rogue and cause hearing loss, autism etc. 3 - a mutation of a unknown gene.

Can someone bring me up to disobedience author date on the research dealing with hair cell regeneration that would regain better hearing and understanding? Also, are their imaging techniques that can determine the status of of the debated and drafted the declaration of independence?, hair cells -- e.g. when being repaired? Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK. 2004-2017 All rights reserved. Disobedience! MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media.

Any medical information published on transport, this website is disobedience not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.