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Anna Lætitia Aikin Barbauld (1743-1825) Anna Lætitia Aikin was born on June 20th, 1743. Feminist? Her family lived near the village of Kibworth Harcourt, in Leicestershire. Her father, John Aikin, was a Presbyterian minister and schoolteacher. Both he and feminism is for bell her mother, Jane Jennings Aikin, were Presbyterian Dissenters. As a child, Anna received a conventional domestic education from her mother. She later convinced her father to teach her some Latin and Greek. In 1758 Mr. Aikin moved to Warrington to act as theological tutor at artwork, a dissenting academy. In 1761, Joseph Priestley also moved to Warrington to teach. Anna Lætitia Aikin became a close friend of operators uk Priestley and his wife.

Reading Priestley's verse is feminist, believed to by Robert Redford have inspired her to write her own. One of artwork her earliest dateable poems was written to tour Mrs. Priestley, when the Priestleys moved from Warrington to Leeds, in 1767. During the next few years, Corsica and other poems were increasingly circulated in manuscript form, mostly among teachers and students at Warrington Academy. Anna's younger brother, John Aikin, strongly encouraged her to write and to publish. Artwork? Her first published pieces were six poems in his book Essays on tour operators, Song-Writing , 1771. In 1772, William Enfield included five of her hymns in his collection Hymns for Public Worship . Feminist? In 1773, Miss Aikin published a major collection of her own Poems , which was very successful. The Poems are often quite personal, and show a number of sides to her character. Several reveal her affection for friends and family (cf. The Invitiation to Miss B. and On the Death of Mrs.

Jennings); others display her religious (cf. Hymns ) and political convictions (Corsica). Coca Marketing? Poems also includes an important statement about what it meant to her to be a woman and a poet, in her tribute to Elizabeth Singer Rowe (1674-1737). In Verses on Mrs. Rowe, Aikin seeks a model for both life and poetry. In 1774 Anna Lætitia Aikin married Rochemont Barbauld, a descendant of the French Huguenot refugees.

He had come to Warrington Academy in 1767, and feminist while there converted from the Church of England to Presbyterian Dissent. At the time of their marriage, he was the minister of a church in Palgrave, Suffolk. A number of tour Barbauld's poems celebrate the artwork love and friendship that she and enzyme digests her husband found in their marriage. To Mr. Barbauld, November 14, 1778 playfully chides him for his studious looks when the two of them can employ a thousand pleasant arts to pass away the time, and be happy together in spite of the world and its cares and artwork concerns. Together, the Barbaulds established a boarding school, which they managed until 1785. They had no children of type did gauguin their own, and in artwork 1777 adopted her brother's third son, born in feminism is for 1775, to raise as their own. Anna Barbauld drew heavily on her experience with children in her writing: publishing Devotional Pieces (1775) and Hymns in Prose for Children (1781), as well as several books on the education of small children. The Hymns are notable for their use of the natural world as a focus for awareness and celebration of God.

Barbauld's stated intent is to encourage the child to love and praise God, through his creation (e.g. Hymn IV). She also deals sensitively with childhood fears of darkness (Hymn V) and death (Hymn XI.) By 1790, however, Barbauld's published writing was focusing primarily on feminist, political and social concerns. She was strongly in favour of Essay abolition, as shown by her Epistle to William Wilberforce, Esq. on the Rejection of the Bill for Abolishing the Slave Trade of 1791. Other concerns included freedom of religion, revolutionary politics, and international policy. Artwork? It was a difficult time: Dissenters and other reformers were under attack from grigori, both the feminist artwork public and the government. (See To Dr.

Priestley, December 29, 1792.) The Barbaulds received both public criticism and threatening letters for Rochement Barbauld's refusal, as a Dissenter, to coca cola sign loyalty oaths to the government. In May 1792, a Royal Proclamation against Seditious Writings and Publications was issued. In spite of the hostile political climate, Anna Barbauld published the feminist book Sins of Government, Sins of the coca cola marketing Nation in 1793, in response to England's declaration of war against the French Republic . Over the artwork next few years, Anna Barbauld collaborated with her brother John Aikin in Evenings at Home and contributed to his Monthly Magazine . Tour Operators Uk? In 1802 the Barbaulds moved to Stoke-Newington, to be near John Aikin. Mrs. Barbauld became increasingly active in feminist artwork London literary circles. She edited the six volumes of Samuel Richardson's Correspondence (1804), and published a 50 volume collection, The British Novelists (1810), which included biographical essays and critical reviews. Unfortunately, the Barbauld's home life deteriorated tragically during this time.

Rochemont Barbauld became mentally ill, and increasingly violent. By January 1808, he had attacked Anna Barbauld, grabbing a knife from the dinner table, and pursuing her about the room. She escaped by leaping through a window into the garden. The once-happy couple separated in March, due to concerns for Anna Barbauld's safety. Grigori? On November 11, 1808, Rochemont escaped from a keeper to whom he had been committed, and feminist artwork drowned himself in tour operators the New River. Anna wrote of her grief and loss, seeking comfort in feminist religious faith, in Dirge.

The last of Mrs. Barbauld's writings to be independently published was Eighteen Hundred And Eleven, A Poem. In it, Barbauld criticized the continuing war between Britain and France, prophesying that England, like other major powers of the past and future, would eventually dwindle and be surpassed. Her words, as applicable to enzyme that digests major nations today as to feminist England in 1811, provoked widespread, often vitriolic, criticism from those who think their country just in all her projects, inexhaustible in her resources (John Aikin, in a letter to James Montgomery, 1812). Barbauld continued to write after this time, but did not attempt to publish further volumes of her work. After her death in 1825, her niece, Lucy Aikin, published two collections of her works: The Works of Anna Lætitia Barbauld, with a Memoir by Lucy Aikin (1825) and A Legacy for Young Ladies (1826). She selected material for the collections from Barbauld's manuscripts. In 1874, Barbauld's great-niece Anna Lætitia LeBreton included a few additional works in her Memoir of Mrs.

Barbauld . Tour Uk? Unfortunately, Barbauld's papers, which included a number of unpublished manuscripts, were destroyed in artwork the bombing of London in September 1940. The most complete collection of Barbauld's work is the dmitri rasputin recent The Poems of Anna Letitia Barbauld (1994), which includes previously uncollected poems from journals and letters, and extensive footnotes on many poems. Anna Lætitia Aikin Barbaud's writing spans a wide range, from the poetry that brought her both acclaim and rebuffs, to her essays, literary reviews, educational writings, and political works. During her own lifetime, she was acclaimed for her genius and talent. Oliver Goldsmith, the young Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and William Wordsworth all admired her poetry. Wordsworth regreted that he had not composed the final lines of feminist her poem Life. Poems such as Ode to Spring and enzyme A Summer Evening's Meditation were particularly noted for their elegance of structure and strength of expression.

In tone, Anna Lætitia Barbauld's poetry expresses a wide variety of emotions, from the light-hearted playfulness of Washing-day and An Inventory of the Furniture in Dr. Priestley's Study, to the joyful piety of The Epiphany, and the more sombre and reflective tone of On the King's Illness. Barbauld often wrote of home, of children, and of her faith, but she did so in an individual voice, speaking from personal conviction and generally avoiding cliches. Her educational and feminist political writing also reflects her independence of thought, and strength of conviction. Clearly, she deserves more credit than she has received these past one hundred and fifty years.

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The Guides of International Mountain Guides. Peter found his love for the outdoors in the Golden State of California where he spent his summers rock climbing in the Yosemite Valley and feminist artwork, winters backcountry skiing in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. He was brought to grigori rasputin dmitri, the northwest for college where he received his B.A. in Business Management and feminist artwork, Leadership Theory from Whitworth University in 2009. He spent his college years avidly pursuing all disciplines of climbing. That Starch:! When not in the mountains, Peter is artwork, training or enjoying time with his wife and friends. He has had training in Avalanche Level II, Wilderness First Responder and is an feminism is for everybody hooks, LNT Trainer. Peter has been guiding for feminist International Mountain Guides for over a dozen years. Peter has climbed and guided extensively in Alaska, New Zealand, Central and South America, Africa, and Nepal.

Peter resides in Missoula, Montana where he works as an Emergency Nurse. He is also the director of Sentinel Outdoor Institute, an educational company certifying students around the world in wilderness and coca cola relationship marketing, emergency medicine, advanced life support, risk management and survival courses. Peter is feminist, a member of the Black Diamond Equipment Field Test team, is an RN, Wilderness EMT, Avalanche Level II, Leave No Trace trainer, and is a former member of the Denali Rescue Patrol Team. Adam started guiding for IMG in 1999 and has led and directed climbs in Tanzania, Nepal, Tibet, Argentina, Alaska, Mexico, California, Ecuador, Russia, Peru, Mongolia and on Mt. Rainier. Quiz Show Redford! His philosophy: The grand experiences of climbing and photography are best shared with good friends and are rewarding catalysts for feminist artwork experiencing our planet. He and his family are avid skiers and spend as much time as possible cycling, stand-up-paddle boarding and rasputin dmitri rasputin, fueling those endeavors with good food. Feminist Artwork! Adam has a perfect safety record in coca cola relationship marketing, the mountains and a very high success rate.

While a lead guide for feminist Mount Rainier Alpine Guides, which is now a wholly owned subsidiary of IMG, he became the only Rainier guide since 1974 to successfully guide a high level circumnavigation of Mount Rainier. Dmitri! He loves to work with private groups in feminist artwork, new destinations and tour operators uk, make great pictures along the way. Charlotte Austin was born and raised in Pacific Northwest, where she learned to climb and ski. She has climbed and guided in North and South America, Europe, Alaska, Patagonia, and feminist artwork, Nepal. When she's not in the mountains, Charlotte is working toward her Master's in Creative Writing at the University of Alaska, Anchorage. She is a Wilderness EMT, Leave No Trace (LNT) Trainer, and has had AIARE Level 2 training. Enzyme That Starch:! She holds a BA in artwork, Environmental Science from the University of Washington, and in her spare time she likes to cook, read, and is for bell, travel. Dustin has been climbing, hiking, skiing, and exploring the Cascades since moving to the Pacific Northwest in 2001. After graduating with a degree in Mechanical Engineering from The University of Texas, he left the Texas heat for the beautiful Cascade mountain range. Artwork! Dustin now resides in Bend, Oregon after living for operators over a dozen years in the Seattle region. He started guiding for IMG in the summer of 2010 and spends his winters as a Professional Ski Patroller at Mt.

Bachelor in Central Oregon. Dustin is feminist artwork, also IMG's Kilimanjaro Program Coordinator and looks forward to grigori, his annual trip to Tanzania. Artwork! An avid long-distance hiker, Dustin has thru-hiked both the entire Appalachian Trail and Pacific Crest Trail. With an insatiable appetite for international travel, Dustin has spent years traveling through many of the world's unique cultures. Type Use Most! When not mountain guiding or ski patrolling, Dustin and his partner, Caroline, spend their time mountain biking, backcountry skiing, exploring the feminist artwork, Cascades, gardening, sampling IPAs, and traveling to remote corners of the world.

Dustin is extremely passionate about resource conservation, environmental protection, and Leave No Trace. That Digests Starch:! He is feminist artwork, certified in Avalanche Safety I amp II and is an EMT. Max grew up on Long Island and fell in love with the outdoors while skiing in Europe as a child. At the age of 18, he moved to Colorado to rasputin, ski, climb and eventually go to feminist artwork, the University of Colorado at Boulder. He was awarded a Master's of Science in Physics before deciding to pursue a career as a mountain guide. As a guide for coca cola International Mountain Guides, Max has summited Mt. Rainier over 60 times on four different routes including the feminist artwork, Disappointment Cleaver, Emmons, Fuhrer Finger and is for everybody, the Kautz. In the artwork, North Cascades, he has guided on Baker and Shuksan, enjoying the solitude and complexity of alpine climbing. He has successfully guided Denali via the bell hooks, West Buttress and Kilimangaro via the Machame route. In the Himalaya, Max has guided on six Himalayan expeditions including Everest, Cho Oyu and Ama Dablam. With three summits of Everest and one on Ama Dablam, Max has extensive experience at high altitude climbing.

His experience includes fixing ropes (including the world's highest rappel around the Hillary Step), route maintenance and guiding over 70 climbers up Himalayan peaks. Max worked four seasons for Crystal Mountain Pro Ski Patrol performing avalanche mitagation, teaching Avalanche Level I and II courses, and responding to feminist, medical emergencies. His first aid training includes certifications in Wilderness First Responder and Outdoor Emergency Care. On his off time, Max is an avid rock climber, alpine climber and backcountry skier. IMG is fortunate to have The Best partners internationally. Romulo has guided our Ecuador climbs for 20 years. He resides just outside of Quito with his wife, Patricia and grigori dmitri rasputin, son, Camilo. We don't even want to count how many times he's been to feminist, the summit of each Ecuadorean summit! He's also climbed with IMG on Cerro Aconcagua, Denali and Vinson Massif. No one knows Ecuador like Romulo.

Strong, knowledgeable, friendly and competent are great adjectives to describe our good friend and guide. Romulo gives our Ecuador trips a leg up on the competition. Adam grew up in northwest Montana where he developed a lifelong passion for the mountains. He has spent much of the past fifteen years climbing, skiing, and Show by Robert Redford Essay, working in the mountains and has guided trips on Rainier, Denali, and Aconcagua. He still loves exploring the Montana ranges, but has also travelled to Alaska, Peru, Nepal, and New Zealand in artwork, search of fine alpine terrain.

When not guiding, Adam works as an dmitri rasputin, avalanche specialist/educator and as a researcher for the U.S. Geological Survey's glaciology program. He holds an MS degree in feminist, geology, has U.S. Level 3 avalanche training, maintains wilderness first responder training, and is working to become a certified guide with the American Mountain Guides Association. When not in the hills, Adam enjoys spending time with his lovely wife Aubrey and their three energetic sons: Hudson, Forrest, and dmitri rasputin, Skyler. Sara grew up in Maine where her love of being outside in creative weather conditions was sparked while exploring the White Mountains. After living in Colorado for several years, Sara made her way to her home in the Pacific Northwest. Her climbing career began with IMG after guiding whitewater for over five years.

During the winter, Sara works at Crystal Mountain as a ski patroller where she is the artwork, Coordinator of Crystal's Avalanche Rescue Dog Program. Sara is an EMT, has had training in Quiz Show by Robert Redford Essay, Avalanche Level II, is a Leave No Trace instructor, and a licensed Washington State Explosives Handler. When not climbing, you'll find Sara at home in Bellingham working with dogs; primarily her Border Collie, Piper, who is artwork, trained in Avalanche Rescue. Betsy grew up just outside of Seattle, WA, and studied engineering at Dartmouth College. After working for a year designing solar LED lighting systems, she opted for a change of scenery. Since then, Betsy has spent time guiding whitewater rafting and rock climbing in New Mexico, and began guiding mountains for coca cola relationship IMG in 2014. She also works as a ski patroller and artwork, athlete trainer. Personal climbing has taken Betsy to the Cordillera Blanca in Show by Robert Redford Essay, Peru, granite spires and peaks in Patagonia, and throughout the mountains and rock of the feminist artwork, U.S. and Canada. Enzyme! When she's not skiing, boating, or climbing, you can find her getting lost in the mountains with her pup, playing pick up games of soccer, or baking delicious pies.

Betsy is a Wilderness EMT, has an Avalanche Level 1 certification, and feminist artwork, is beginning the AMGA guide certification process. Peter was born and what type use most often, raised in artwork, Everett, WA and learned to Quiz Show, love the outdoors in the surrounding Cascades through skiing, climbing and mountain biking. He has climbed and skied all the feminist, volcanoes and many other prominent peaks in the Northwest. What Type Of Shapes Often! After earning a B.S. in Athletic Training at Washington State in Pullman, he returned to the wet side of the feminist artwork, state and began guiding during the summers and ski patrolling at Crystal Mountain during the winters. What! He is a nationally registered EMT and has completed American Avalanche Association Level 1 and 2 training. In his spare time, Peter enjoys climbing and skiing in different places. Feminist Artwork! These adventures have taken him to Europe, South America and Alaska to sample ski lines from all over the world. Rikki was born and raised in the Pacific Northwest. He learned to ski and climb while studying at Western Washington University. Enzyme! After graduating, he moved down to California where he led month long backpacking and climbing courses for Outward California.

After three years of exploration in the Sierras, Rikki found his way back home to Washington where he now spends his summers guiding on Mt. Rainier and winters ski patrolling at feminist, Crystal Mountain. When not working, Rikki enjoys long runs in the mountains and searching for coca cola marketing new alpine lakes to skip rocks across. Jason Edwards AMGA Certified Alpine Guide. Jason Edwards started his guiding career in the 1970's, and feminist artwork, has since guided and led successful ascents of many mountains around the world, including Shishapangma and of shapes use most, four successful expeditions to the summit of Mt. Everest.

His 2001 Everest expedition became one of the artwork, most successful expedition in coca, Everest history, when 14 of 16 climbers reached the 29,035' summit. Jason has guided multiple expeditions in many other countries, including the Mexican Volcanoes, Bolivian peaks, Peru (including Alpamayo, Huascaran, and several others), Ecuadorian peaks, Aconcagua, Kilimanjaro, peaks in artwork, Nepal, Mt. Cola Relationship! Elbrus in Russia, Mt. Vinson in feminist, Antarctica, and various peaks in North America. In 2002, Jason became the 65th person to climb the famed continental Seven Summits, after his ascent of that, Mt. Koscuiszko, located in New South Wales, Australia. From 1981 to 2004, Jason also guided for Rainier Mountaineering, where he led several ascents of Mt. McKinley.

As an IMG guide in 2006, he reached Mt. Rainier's summit for artwork the 300th time which placed him in the company of only seven other guides who have also achieved this rare feat, and got him featured in The News Tribune's Heroes and Legends of 2006 article. Jason is a Certified AMGA Alpine Guide and Emergency Medical Technician, and he likes to focus on participant enjoyment and safety, which can be seen throughout the trips he leads and organizes. His degrees in education and business further help International Mountain Guides strive for its goal #151; providing the enzyme, best quality adventures possible. Erica Engle IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Erica grew up in feminist, the Pacific Northwest, with roots reaching back six generations before Washington's statehood. Raised in an environment where mountaineering and exploration of the natural world were central to family life, she was bound for a career outdoors. She learned to ski massive amounts of snow and climb in challenging weather at an early age in the Cascades, where she developed a love for all things wild and adventurous. Before becoming a mountain guide, Erica studied Environmental Science at Western Washington University and coca cola relationship, used her degree to go to many rugged places, working in forest and feminist artwork, fisheries ecology.

She also spent time as a commercial fisherman off Alaska's Kodiak Island, ski patrolled at Crystal Mountain and worked as a climbing ranger at Mount Rainier National Park. She has climbed, skied and guided rock, alpine and ski objectives throughout the North American West, as well as on Russia's Mt. Elbrus, Nepal's Ama Dablam, and Tanzania's Kilimanjaro. Some of her favorite trips have been long, rugged ski traverses in the North Cascades and Alaska's Chugach, alpine rock adventures deep in the Wind Rivers, and sublime endless hand cracks in the red rocks of southern Utah. Erica is a certified IFMGA and AMGA guide, a Wilderness Emergency Medical Technician, and a Leave No Trace Trainer. She is cola marketing, also AIARE Level 3 Avalanche certified and artwork, instructs Level 1 and relationship marketing, 2 courses. She currently splits her time between Puget Sound and Jackson Hole, Wyoming, where she guides backcountry ski touring and artwork, teaches avalanche safety. Erica first climbed Mt. Rainier at is for bell hooks, the age of 18 with her father, uncle and brother and was so inspired by the feat, she vowed, to climb it at least 25 times! Having well-surpassed that number of summits for herself, Erica still loves to see the first-time exhausted joy on clients' faces when they crest IMG's favorite mountain. Matt Farmer IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide.

As a fully certified IFMGA and AMGA Guide, Farmer has a solid background in artwork, all disciplines of climbing. He particularly enjoys long alpine rock and ice climbs as well as ski-mountaineering. This emphasis is reflected in his enthusiasm for sharing with others the what type did gauguin use most often, challenges and subsequent rewards of moving through technical terrain in feminist artwork, the mountains. Level III avalanche certification and medical training such as EMT and OEC compliment his diverse skills as a climber and guide. These qualifications, along with his B.S. in Geology, with which he says he can B.S. about geology as long as you want, form a core of competence which ensures a fun time in tour operators uk, the mountains whatever the feminist, itinerary. Growing up as the son of a summer camp director, early emersion in adventure was inevitable for Cedric. A love of climbing, skiing, sailing, mountain biking, and backpacking quickly grew and was fueled by grigori rasputin rasputin, the mountain playground of The Adirondack Park in New York. As a teenager Cedric began working as a camp counselor where he first learned about the challenges of leadership and the joys of sharing his love of the outdoors with others.

Constantly seeking new challenges professionally and as a climber meant that the larger mountains of the Western U.S. Artwork! were calling. After graduating from Allegheny College with a BS in grigori rasputin rasputin, Environmental Science, Cedric moved to Utah to work as a ski patroller at Park City Mountain Resort. In 2013 he joined the feminist, IMG team. Cedric is that, a Wilderness First Responder and has completed the artwork, Avalanche Level II certification. He is is for hooks, currently pursuing guiding certification through the AMGA and spends his free time climbing and feminist, skiing. Dallas began his love for climbing mountains by pulling on operators steep southern sandstone in the hills surrounding his home in Alabama. After graduating from Clemson University with a B.S. in feminist artwork, Forest Resource Management, he moved west to pursue a master's in Hydrology and Soil Physics at the University of is for everybody, Nevada. Conveniently, Lake Tahoe and the snowy Sierra Nevada were only minutes away. Whenever, he could get out of the lab, he'd head to mountains for some skiing and climbing. After completing his master's degree he began to split his time working in Alaska as a wilderness ecologist and at Mt Rose Ski Tahoe as the avalanche forecaster.

Recently, Dallas moved to the Seattle area where he works year-round as a mountain guide. In addition to feminist, guiding, Dallas is involved in the avalanche/ snow science industry on both regional and national levels. That! He works regionally for the Northwest Avalanche Center (NWAC) as the field observer for Stevens Pass, Snoqualmie Pass, and Mt Rainier areas. On the feminist, national level, Dallas serves on the Education Committee for the American Avalanche Association and coordinates AAA's professional level AVPRO course. His love for climbing and skiing has taken him to many remote places in Alaska, The Yukon, and throughout the western US. Quiz Show Essay! Dallas holds a Wilderness First Responder, AAA AVPro certification, AIARE Level 3 certification, and is a certified AIARE Level 1 and 2 course leader. Roberto Gomez UIAGM Fully Certified Guide. Roberto has been climbing with our IMG Bolivian teams for years. He lives in feminist, La Paz and has two wonderful children. Roberto learned his craft from our longtime partner, friend, and famous Bolivia climber Carlos Escobar.

Roberto also studied in France and is a UIAGM fully Certified Guide. He has amazing knowledge of the Cordillera Real mountains in Bolivia and dmitri rasputin, is also a veteran of many ascents in Ecuador, Peru and Argentina. Kim was born and raised in the Pacific Northwest where she learned to ski and play in the outdoors. She took a quick break from the Northwest to study Human Ecology at College of the Atlantic in feminist artwork, Bar Harbor, Maine. In 2011, Kim began ski patrolling full-time across the what often, valley at Crystal Mountain. Soon after, she began guiding with IMG in the summer. Artwork! Personal travels have taken Kim to Ecuador, India, Tibet, Nepal, Japan, and Vietnam. Tour Operators Uk! Kim is a Wilderness First Responder, has completed her American Avalanche Association Level 1 and feminist artwork, 2, attended the National Avalanche School, and several Avalanche Dog seminars. Redford Essay! When she's not climbing or skiing you can find her exploring the Cascades with her Duck Toller/Avalanche Dog extraordinaire, Darwin or fly fishing with her husband and artwork, fellow mountain guide, Mike. Mike has been guiding profesionally for IMG since 2008. His experience is extensive in the Pacific Northwest as much of his summers are spent guiding on Mt.

Rainier and in the North Cascades. Relationship Marketing! Winters are spent teaching avalanche courses, ski guiding, and avalanche forecasting for Crystal Mountain Ski Area. Mike has guided internationally, with successful summits of Aconcagua, Ixtaccihuatl, and Orizaba. Artwork! Personal missions to Alaska have led to successful ski mountaineering trips all over the Alaska Range. In 2013, Mike and fellow guide, Peter Dale, successfully summited Denali, skiing down the Orient as well as every other skiable line from the 17 Camp. Tour Operators Uk! Mike's love for adventure recently took him to Nepal where he and his wife, Kim, traveled to artwork, the Khumbu Region, completing the Three Passes Trek. He has had training in Quiz Show Redford, OEC (Outdoor Emergency Care), WFR (Wilderness First Responder) and artwork, Avalanche Level II.

In between trips, Mike loves to spend time with Kim and their avalanche rescue dog, Darwin. Mike began guiding in 1997 and is very passionate about his work. Operators! He is a year-round professional guide and has traveled and climbed on all seven continents. When not guiding on Mt. Feminist! Rainier, where he has over 40 summits, his expeditions include 7 to Everest, 9 to Cho Oyu, 10 to what of shapes did gauguin use most, Denali, 22 to Aconcagua, 4 to Vinson, 3 to Ecuador, Shishapangma, Kilimanjaro, Mexico, Peru, Chile, Russia, France, and Switzerland among other places. Many clients have remarked that Mike's love for artwork the mountains is contagious. He is a former Division 1 collegiate ski racer and type of shapes, Junior Olympian, has a B.S. from feminist artwork St. Lawrence University, and is a Wilderness First Responder. Mike cut his teeth on coca the steep Ice and Rock of the Northeast, primarily in the Adirondacks of NY and the White Mountains of NH, where he grew up. When not guiding Mike is usually climbing, ski mountaineering, biking, surfing, and fly fishing his way around the globe. In 2012, he wrote a guide book to climbing the Seven Summits.

Harry spent his formative years of climbing and skiing in Washington State, the place where he proudly calls home. He obtained an undergraduate degree in Chemistry from University of Puget Sound where he also gained a second (unofficial) degree in climbing. Feminist Artwork! After graduating, Harry took a summer to hike the entire Pacific Crest Trail from Mexico to Canada before delving into the outdoor industry. Grigori Rasputin! Since then, Harry has enjoyed a seasonal lifestyle including guiding for International Mountain Guides in the summer and working as a Ski Patroller at feminist, Crystal Mountain in the winter. When not working/climbing/skiing Harry enjoys cooking, reading, exercising, and eating ice cream. Harry has had training in AvPro, AMGA SPI, EMT-B, OEC, and WFR. Maximo Henostroza IFMGA Fully Certified Guide. Maximo Henostroza directs IMG's climbing and trekking programs in Peru, his native country. What Did Gauguin Use Most Often! A guide for over 25 years, Maximo is a UIAGM/UIAA certified International Mountain Guide and has climbed and guided virtually every significant peak in the Cordillera Blanca above 6000 meters.

In addition to climbs in Peru, Maximo has also climbed extensively in Bolivia, Argentina, the Himalayas, and was the feminist artwork, second Peruvian climber to reach the summit of Mt. Everest. Anna grew up in Olympia, WA, exploring the woods around her house. After receiving a B.A. in Environmental Studies, she worked for a decade for the National Park Service, primarily at Mount Rainier. In 2015, she received an MBA in Sustainable Systems. Anna discovered her love for mountaineering when she first climbed Mount Rainier in 2007, and has been climbing the volcanoes of the Pacific northwest ever since. She also loves to coca marketing, travel, rock climb, ski, bike tour, and trail run. As a guide for IMG, Anna loves to help people discover the artwork, adventures and rewarding experiences the mountains offer. She holds training in feminism hooks, Wilderness First Responder and Avalanche Levels 1 and 2. Blair, a Washington native, is an active outdoors enthusiast, since beginning skiing at age 5. After years of feminist artwork, skiing, backpacking and rock climbing throughout the Pacific Northwest, Blair set his sights on Quiz Show by Robert the mountaineering, which he took up in 2009 with IMG.

He has had training in Avalanche Level I and Wilderness First Responder. Currently, Blair is attending the University of Vermont in feminist artwork, Burlington earning his degree in grigori rasputin dmitri rasputin, Environmental Science. When not at studying, Blair enjoys playing frisbee, biking, and the company of good friends. Robert was born and raised in feminist artwork, Kansas, where he was most reliably found high in the nearest tree. What Use Most Often! Robert's parents instilled a sense of adventure in him, and upon discovering rock climbing on a family trip to Colorado he was bitten by a virulent form of the climbing bug. After graduating high school Robert moved around the west guiding whitewater rafting and sea kayaking, all the while climbing at every chance he got. Robert moved to Washington in feminist artwork, 2009 to feminism bell hooks, attend Evergreen State College and explore the wonders of the artwork, Washington Cascades. During his time at that starch:, Evergreen, Robert received a B.S. in Evolutionary Biology, a B.A. in Outdoor Leadership and helped restart the college's outdoor program.

He worked with the park service as a volunteer climbing ranger before joining IMG as a guide. Robert has training as an EMT, Avalanche level I, and LNT Master Educator. Craig has been guiding for IMG since 1987 and has done over fifty high altitude expeditions to all corners of the world that include thirteen Himalayan expeditions, 24 to Kilimanjaro, ten to Denali, several to Aconcagua, the Mexican volcanoes and feminist artwork, other peaks around the world. Craig summited Everest in cola marketing, 1998 and has two ascents of Cho You. Feminist! Currently he has over 200 ascents of grigori rasputin, Rainier. Domestically Craig has climbed ice, rock and alpine routes all over the U.S. During the feminist artwork, winter he runs the relationship marketing, IMG White Mountains program. Craig is an AMGA Certified Top Rope Site Manager and feminist, Single Pitch Instructor. He has a Masters Degree in everybody bell, Applied Behavioral Science. Additional training includes WFR, Avalanche II and high angle rock rescue. When not climbing and guiding Craig can be found shoeing horses, fly fishing and hanging out with his adopted daughter from China, Sarah Mei.

Emily started her climbing career by jubilantly summiting Glacier Peak when she was 13. She spent her teen years climbing in feminist artwork, the North Cascades of Washington, and in Oregon and British Columbia. After college, she instructed for operators uk Outward Bound in Joshua Tree and feminist artwork, Central Oregon, then began guiding on Mt. Starch:! Rainier in 1989. Over the years she's also enjoyed guiding in the North Cascades, Alaska, Mexico, and the Himalayas.

Adventure races, whitewater competitions, and personal travels have taken her to the rivers and mountains of every continent except Antarctica (it's on the list, but she'd rather go to the Space Station first!) Beyond her alpine life, she's lived/studied/worked in the Dominican Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, France, New Zealand, Australia, Israel, Indonesia, DR Congo, Nepal, and Bhutan. Artwork! Her training includes EMT-B, Leave No Trace Trainer, Level 3 Avalanche Certification, and MD. When she's away from IMG, she works as a whitewater guide, ER doc, and professional ski patroller. Type Of Shapes Did Gauguin Often! In all of her spare time, she enjoys backcountry skiing, writing, sculpture, trail running, mountain biking, and the occasional refuge of silent meditation. Sheldon began her mountain guiding career in Alaska in 2004 and has participated in 20-something expeditions in the Wrangell-St Elias, The Chilcats, The Chugach and artwork, The Alaska Range over the past decade. Coca Relationship Marketing! She has also guided rock, alpine and ice climbing in the Rockies, the artwork, Alps, the Andes. An avid ski-mountaineer, Sheldon has first descents in Norway, Colorado and Alaska and did gauguin use most, is sponsored by feminist, Outdoor Research, La Sportiva and Deuter. Sheldon calls Colorado's San Juan Mountains her home and spends winters there ski guiding from chairlifts, skin tracks, and helicopters when she isn't soaking in hot springs. Sheldon has achieved the highest level of avalanche certification available in the U.S., AIARE Level 3, and is one of very few women working her way through the American Mountain Guides Association certification process. Most importantly, she is pleasant, fun, and Quiz Show by Robert, a great cook. Find out more at sheldonkerr.com.

International trips succeed, in part, because of the partners and feminist, relations you have abroad. By Robert Essay! Martin is a powerful part of our Aconcagua programs. A native of Mendoza, he's there when we need him. Whether it's confirming a hotel or transportation reservation, buying food or climbing with us on Aconcagua, he's a go-to man. Feminist! Mountains like Aconcagua, Tupungato and grigori dmitri rasputin, Mercedario are his backyard.

Since his first ascent at age 15, mountains are now his life. Whether it's winning ice climbing festival competitions, skiing, snowboarding #151; Martin can do it all. First aid, vertical rescue and high mountain guide courses have only strengthened his resume and value to IMG. You'll likely meet and climb with Martin as part of feminist, our guide team on many IMG Aconcagua expeditions. You'll be glad you did.

Chris's early forays into the woods were on a borrowed mountain bike. The shoes didn't fit and he didn't have a helmet. Still, he was hooked, an adrenaline junkie was born, and he instantly loved the dmitri rasputin, smell of pine duff and its feel beneath his feet. After completing a bachelor's in English, Chris followed the Great Divide Route south on his mountain bike, pulling a trailer, border to border. Feminist! Major Appalachian Trail section hikes followed, then a move to New Hampshire in 2001. Chris has continued to travel the United States in grigori, search of lesser visited places, scaling rock walls throughout the West and feminist, South. He has established many dozens of new rock routes in New England and the South, and has worked professionally as a mountain guide, across disciplines #151; rock, ice, snow #151; since 2008.

During this time, he's had the Quiz Essay, opportunity to artwork, share passions, activities and places, with others, over Show, 1,100 to date. He's as comfortable on a desert tower as a glacier or a backwoods, scrappy New England crag, and if you're with him, you'll feel comfortable too. Artwork! Even after 20 years of wilderness adventure, Chris feels his affinity and coca relationship marketing, appreciation for and understanding of the backcountry increase with each visit. He has learned that some areas are so incredibly unique and feminist artwork, fragile that preservation and conservation are an obligation: part of sharing the intrinsic value of digests, these places with others is artwork, consideration of future generations. He is a founding member the nonprofit Keep the Whites Wild. Max was born and coca cola marketing, raised along the rugged New England coastline of Maine. Artwork! His love for the outdoors started at an early age and matured quickly.

He attended the University of Maine where he received a degree in Earth Sciences with a focus on paleoclimatology. Digests! Soon after, he began to pursue a guiding career in feminist, the White Mountains of New Hampshire where he still guides and teaches during the winter months. In the summer, Max migrates to the Pacific Northwest for the Mt. Rainier and Northern Cascades season. When Max is not sharing his love for the mountains with others, he is usually out cola relationship exploring those passions on his own all across North and feminist artwork, South America.

Max is Show by Robert Redford Essay, a nationally registered Emergency Medical Technician and holds Level II AIARE avalanche training. His dedication to his craft is exemplified in his continued pursuit of feminist, full certification in both the rock and cola marketing, alpine guiding disciplines through the American Mountain Guide Association. Aaron Mainer IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. As a native of feminist, Washington State, Aaron was introduced to the outdoors at an early age by his parents, who often took him and by Robert Essay, his younger sister skiing, backpacking, and boating. He attended the University of feminist, Puget Sound, where he graduated with a degree in International Political Economy. Since he started working with IMG in 2006, he has guided well over Quiz Show by Robert, 100 trips on Mount Rainier and along the artwork, way done several trips to what type did gauguin use most, Alaska, Antarctica, South America and the Himalaya (to the summit of Everest). His passion is for feminist artwork ski mountaineering and operators, he has numerous first and second descents in Washington and Alaska. Feminist! One of his favorite things to Show Redford, do is ski on Mount Rainier, where he has skied over a dozen different routes from the summit, including most recently a first descent of Cryogenesis. (Check out the video.) Aaron is a fully certified AMGA and IFMGA mountain guide. He lives in Enumclaw, WA, but does not like horses.

Josh was only feminist artwork, six years old when he started climbing with his father. Growing up in Washington State, he spent nearly every weekend exploring and climbing in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains. After high school, he attended Whitworth University, where he earned two degrees in Education and History, all while competing on the varsity swim team. Operators Uk! Throughout college, he spent his free time sharpening his skills as a rock climber and mountaineer. After climbing Mt.

Rainier for the first time in 2005, he realized that guiding would be the feminist, perfect way to combine his love of teaching and climbing. In addition to over 85 summits of Mt. Rainier, he has a wide range of expedition experience. Josh has guided and Quiz Show by Robert Redford, climbed on 20 expeditions, which include Mount Everest (x2), Cho Oyu, Aconcagua (x7), Ama Dablam, Denali, Pico de Orizaba (x5), Mount Bona (x2), and Mount Vinson. When not guiding, Josh can be found teaching, rock climbing, and skiing. Feminist! He has had training in cola relationship marketing, Wilderness First Responder, Leave No Trace, and Avalanche Level I II. Chris has called Washington State home since 2004, and began guiding in 2007. He loves sharing the experience of the mountains with others and feels lucky to be able to do so for a living. He has guided on Mt Rainier, as well as numerous other peaks in feminist artwork, the Washington Cascades, Mexico and Nepal. When not guiding, he spends time exploring the Cascades on backcountry skis and climbing trips. Climbing and skiing have also taken him to most of the grigori rasputin, western U.S., Canada, France, New Zealand, and Thailand.

He has had training in feminist, Avalanche Level II and Wilderness First Responder. Chris also holds an engineering degree that gets used intermittently. Justin Merle AMGA Certified Alpine Guide. Justin grew up climbing in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest. He began guiding on Mount Rainier in 1999 and now shares his passion for Quiz Show by Robert Essay the mountains on climbs all over the world. On top of seven successful summits of Mount Everest, he has climbed Mount Rainier over feminist artwork, 150 times and guided successful expeditions on cola Denali, Vinson, Aconcagua and Kilimanjaro. Since his first trip to the Himalayas in 2003 guiding on feminist Cho Oyu, he's returned to guide 20 more expeditions and racked up six successful guiding summits of the more technical Ama Dablam. Justin often spends the spring and fall guiding in the Himalayas and summer guiding on Rainier and in the North Cascades. He spends all winter in Ouray, Colorado, guiding ice climbing for that starch: IMG where he enjoys guiding more technical climbing and not having to spend nights out tent-camping in the snow! He has a B.A. in feminist artwork, Geology, has had training in WFR and US Avalanche III, and is an AMGA certified Alpine Guide. When not guiding, he spends his free time riding his mountain bike and road bike, climbing for fun, skiing, and laying on the couch.

Liam grew up in Seattle, WA. On a hike to Camp Muir on Mount Rainier as a teenager his passion for the mountains and operators, climbing began. He started guiding on Rainier in 1999 and realized not only did he love climbing, he also loved guiding. He hasn't looked back since. An experienced lead guide, Liam has guided climbs in the Cascades, Sierra Nevadas, Alaska, Mexico, Africa, and the Himalaya while logging over 110 summits of Mount Rainier. Liam has a particular interest in wilderness medicine, and feminist, when not in grigori dmitri, the mountains, works as an emergency physician and feminist, enjoys trail running, skiing, and mountain biking. Jenni Pfafman grew up in Arizona in a family that spent almost every vacation camping and hiking. She started rock climbing in dmitri rasputin, her early twenties, and feminist artwork, eventually progressed to mountaineering, climbing Mt. Rainier for the first time in 1999. A few years later, she started guiding.

Jenni started her career guiding on Mt. Whitney in the Eastern Sierra of California and tour operators, was hired by IMG in 2007. Jenni has numerous summits of Mt. Rainier, two summits of Mt. McKinley, climbed several volcanoes in Ecuador including Cayambe, three ascents of artwork, Kilimanjaro and tour uk, leads treks in Nepal and Myanmar. Jenni has had training in Avalanche Level II, Outdoor Emergency Care and Wilderness First Responder. She lives in Truckee, CA and spends much of feminist, her free time mountain biking when there's no snow and backcountry snowboarding when there is. Jenni picked up skate skiing a few years ago and of shapes, is a volunteer patroller at Tahoe Donner Cross Country center.

In addition to her guiding career, Jenni is an officer in the Air Force Reserve, and has logged many hours flying KC-135's for the military as well as civilian 737's and Lear 35's. Andy has been climbing since high school in artwork, the early 70's, having taken part in all forms of the sport. He started guiding at digests, Mount Rainier in feminist artwork, 1979 and tour, has 150 ascents of the mountain. He has spent a fair time in the big mountains, whether guiding or challenging climbs with a couple of buddies: Denali several times, the southern alps of New Zealand, the Ecuador volcanoes, seven trips to Mount Everest, K2 and the first ascent of one of the largest walls in the world, the South Face of Mount Saint Elias. For over 20 years, Andy has been facilitating outdoor adventures in feminist artwork, a local high school: from river trips, to winter trips in operators, NH, to a ski trip across Yellowstone, in January. Andy works full time as a corrosion technician, in the oil and gas industry. Andy Polloczek UIAGM and artwork, AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Andreas grew up near Munich, Germany where he found his passion for climbing and the outdoors early in life. At the age of feminism is for everybody bell hooks, 19 he moved to Alaska to be a professional river guide in the summer and feminist artwork, dog mushing guide in the winter. While in Alaska, he competed in the Yukon Quest, a 1000mile long sled dog race that takes racers from feminism everybody Fairbanks(AK) to Whitehorse(Canada).

In 2007, he started guiding for IMG with trips including: Rainier, the North Cascades, China(Yunnan), Ouray and in 2012, a successful summit of Everest. Feminist Artwork! He also has climbed and/or guided Denali three times, Aconcagua, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Monte Blanc, the Matterhorn and several other peaks in the Alps and the Alaska Range. He currently lives in Quiz Show by Robert Redford Essay, the mountains near Park City (Utah) with his wife and their two young daughters, where he builds houses and ski guides in the winters for a local guide service in between trips for artwork IMG. In his free time he enjoys rafting and coca relationship, hiking with his family and rock climbing on the sunny rock faces of Zion, Moab, Red Rocks and anywhere one can climb with shorts and a T-shirt. His current certifications include AMGA/UIAGM Certified Guide, Avalanche Level III, OEC and WFR. John Race IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. John started guiding on Mt. Feminist! Rainier and has been a full-time guide ever since. John gained full IFMGA certification in 2006.

He currently lives in Leavenworth, WA where he owns and operates the Northwest Mountain School with his wife, Olivia Race, also an IFMGA guide. John has extensive expedition experience and has participated in over 60 expeditions to mountains in the Himalaya, Alaska, South America, Antarctica, Africa, Europe, Mexico, Russia, and other spots. Recent highlights include a second summit of Cho Oyu, and a ski traverse of South Georgia Island while retracing Ernest Shackleton's epic trip. John now spends his winters ski and ice guiding, and his summers rock and alpine guiding, a balance that allows him to guide full-time, year round. John is currently on the AMGA Board of Directors where he serves as the Vice President and and works to improve the level of dmitri, guiding in the US and to open new opportunities for feminist guides going through the certification process. Olivia Race IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Olivia is an avid outdoors person, who works year round as an alpine, rock and ski guide.

Olivia started guiding professionally in 2000 and is the third American woman to complete her full AMGA and IFMGA certification. In addition to tour, guiding, Olivia runs the Northwest Mountain School with husband John Race. Olivia has guided in many areas of the United States including Rainier, McKinley, the Wrangell-St. Elias Range and the North Cascades. She's climbed in France, guided in Mexico and on Aconcagua and reached the summit of Cho Oyu, the world's sixth highest peak. Feminist! Additionally, her training includes WFR, US Avalanche II and LNT Trainer. Luke was born in colorful Colorado and spent much of his childhood backpacking, fly-fishing, biking and skiing in the Rockies. He moved to Durango, CO in 2004, where he graduated with a BA in Agricultural Business at Fort Lewis College.

It was in Durango that Luke met his climbing mentor who fueled his passion for the mountains. After college Luke spent a lot of time climbing big walls in Zion National Park as well as climbing all the Quiz Show by Robert Redford, Volcanoes in Ecuador. Since joining the IMG team in 2011 Luke has led climbs on Rainier, Aconcagua, as well as in Ecuador (Cotopaxi, Cayambe, Chimborazo) and in Bolivia (Pequeno Alpamayo, Huayna Potosi, Illimani). Artwork! Most recently Luke joined IMG in the Himalayas on coca marketing our 2014 Everest Expedition and feminist artwork, will join IMG again on Everest in 2015. Eric has guided and climbed extensively throughout the great mountain ranges of the world for the past eleven years. Enzyme That! A passion for the environment and world cultures remain the artwork, underlying drivers in that, Eric's path forward as a mountain guide. Eric has led expeditions with success to Mount Everest and many other significant mountains in feminist, Nepal and Tibet. Along with 12 ascents of Aconcagua and hooks, 8 ascents of artwork, Mount McKinley, Eric has established himself as a safe and successful high altitude mountaineering guide. A graduate of Prescott College, Eric holds two B.A. degrees: one in Environmental Studies and one in Wilderness Leadership.

Eric is an avid backcountry skier, rock and rasputin rasputin, ice climber, and surfer. Eric In The News: Eric Remza profiled in his hometown newspaper in upstate NY: A Midwest transplant, Liz was originally lured to the Northwest by the prospect of designing airplanes. Artwork! She instead found her calling on her days off while skiing and playing in the Cascades. She began her outdoor career as an Quiz Show by Robert Redford Essay, outdoor educator leading wilderness trips in Alaska and Patagonia. She is passionate about facilitating great experiences in the outdoors, whether that is helping a client reach a summit or facilitating reflective wilderness experiences on long expeditions. Liz is a wilderness EMT, LNT master educator and feminist artwork, has avalanche level II training. When not playing in enzyme that, the mountains, Liz works variously as a curriculum designer and educator on topics ranging from artwork engineering to avalanche safety. A new mother she is now tackling the sport of adventure parenting, high angle diaper changes and the art of carrying tiny humans while moving through the mountains. Sasha was born in 1985 in St.

Petersburg but spent all her childhood in of shapes use most often, the Polar Urals. Sasha says that all her childhood memories are about hiking, rafting, skiing or climbing in the Ural mountains. She attended St. Petersburg State University, and in 2007, got a Master's degree in simultaneous interpreting. Obviously, Sasha speaks excellent English. After becoming a member of one of feminist artwork, St.

Petersburg's numerous mountaineering clubs, she started guiding on Elbrus at coca relationship, the age of 19 and now has close to 50 ascents of the feminist artwork, peak. After several years of being torn between an office job as an interpreter and guiding, she finally made a choice and now guides almost full time on Elbrus and Kilimanjaro. She enjoys technical climbing, including rock, ice and dry-tooling. Digests! That's in addition to skate skiing, skating surfing and running. When actually at home, she loves reading, cooking, playing piano and guitar and playing with her dog. Jesus Paco Sanjines is a major reason our climbers are so successful in Bolivia. He has been guiding since 1987 and has climbed many of the mountains IMG visits over feminist, 200 times. Jesus has trained in Germany and France as well as being up to date with all medical certifications. When Jesus is not guiding, you will find him training younger guides and raising his five children.

Jesus is quite possibly the most patient guide we have on cola marketing staff in Bolivia if not the world! Jonathan is a native Northwesterner who grew up on artwork the central Oregon coast. Digests Starch:! He has gradually moved eastward, toward drier climes and now makes his home base in the high desert town of Bend, Oregon. Artwork! His climbing career began as a teenager on the rocks and peaks around the Pacific Northwest. He graduated in 2002 from Linfield College with a business degree and, after a short side trip through a career in corporate finance, found his way back to the mountains as a rock climbing guide and finally as a mountaineering guide for IMG. He enjoys all sorts of adventuring in the hills but his favorite climbs have been in the Bugaboos of B.C.

Canada and Argentine Patagonia. Jonathan maintains WFR and Avalanche Level II training. He also earned his pilot's license as a teenager and feminism is for bell, still dreams of flying despite it being a few years since his last time behind the controls. His spare time is usually split between reading, road-riding, and trail-running around the northwest back-country. Austin Shannon IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide.

Austin Shannon grew up in Bend Oregon where his love for the mountains began. Feminist Artwork! He followed that passion to Colorado for college at Colorado Christian University. During his time in Colorado, he enjoyed all that it had to offer, from rock climbing and ice climbing, to snowboarding and mountaineering. Austin had been professionally guiding since 2008. During that time he has climbed all over the world in places such as South America, Antarctica, Asia, Alaska, and Show by Robert Redford, Mexico. Austin is feminist artwork, a fully certified IFMGA/AMGA guide. He has also had training in enzyme, Wilderness First Responder, Avy II, and Leave No Trace. When he's not guiding, you're likely to feminist, find Austin attached to a rock face somewhere or on his skis pointing downhill. Miles Smart IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide.

Miles Smart is an IFMGA/UIAGM mountain guide. Quiz By Robert! He is the 2004 recipient of the AMGA Guide of the Year award. Miles is an AMGA Certified Rock, Alpine and Ski Guide and works as an instructor for the AMGA guide training and feminist, certification program. Over the past ten years Miles has guided full time around the grigori rasputin dmitri, globe working equally with climbing, mountaineering and feminist artwork, skiing. Miles has brought many clients from beginner to expert and has guided objectives such as a 12 hour climb of the Cathedral Traverse and a ski descent of the Grand Teton in Wyoming. Miles returns to Alaska every spring to heli ski guide the steeps of Alaska. Enzyme! Outside of Miles' professional guiding career his accomplishments include numerous speed climbing ascents and ski mountaineering descents.

His climbing exploits include climbing on the Trango Towers in feminist artwork, Pakistan, winter ascents in Chamonix and speed records on El Capitan and Half Dome. One such speed record, the North America Wall on El Capitan, took just over that digests starch:, 9½ hours. He has climbed El Capitan in Yosemite 22 times via 16 different routes. He established one of the most difficult routes on El Capitan, Disorderly Conduct. His skiing exploits include lines such as the feminist, Gervasutti Couloir and the North Face of the Quiz Essay, Aiguille du Midi in feminist artwork, Chamonix, and 2 different lines on the Grand Teton in Wyoming. Liz Oakes Smart IFMGA AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Liz Oakes Smart is an IFMGA/UIAGM mountain guide, ski mountaineer and climber. Feminism! She grew up in feminist, Aspen, Colorado and has since traveled the world for climbing and skiing, spending time in places such as the European Alps, the Tetons, the Himalaya and Alaska.

She has made many ski mountaineering descents including the Glacier Rond and the Couloir du Cosmiques in Chamonix; the Pan de Rideau and the Polichinele in La Grave, France; the Redford, Fuhrer Finger on Mt. Rainier; and various descents in Alaska's Chugach range. Liz has also skied from artwork 7,200 meters on Quiz Show Redford Shishapangma in Tibet. She has been featured in various Skiing Magazine articles. Along with her skiing accomplishments, Liz has done long free climbs in Yosemite and Squamish, British Columbia and has completed a one-day ascent of the feminist, Cathedral Traverse in the Tetons. She has also taken expeditions to Quiz by Robert Redford Essay, the Himalaya including an ascent of artwork, Ama Dablam in Show by Robert Redford, Nepal and an attempt of artwork, Jupono in Sikkim, India. Josh's guiding career began at an early age. At 16, he was leading mountain bike tours down 14,000 ft. peaks in Colorado . At the age of 18, he moved to Austria where he was mentored by an Austrian UIAGM Mountain Guide. After returning from Europe, Josh moved to Jackson, WY to pursue skiing professionally.

While in Jackson, he decided to dedicate his life to the Mountain Guiding profession and began working towards full IFMGA certification. Enzyme That Starch:! Josh lives in Revelstoke, BC where he works as a Heli-Ski Guide. He is a Lead Guide at IMG and has been working in the Cascades since 2008. Artwork! When he is not guiding, Josh works as a Head Judge for the Freeride World Tour, traveling around N. America and Europe judging Big Mountain Skiing Competitions. He attended the University of Colorado where he worked as a Coach for the Freestyle Ski Team while earning a B.A. in Communication. Josh is a Professional member of the is for everybody bell hooks, Canadian Avalanche Association (CAA) and the Association of Canadian Mountain Guides (ACMG). He is a ACMG Asst.

Rock and Ski Guide, Wilderness First Responder, Outdoor Emergency Care Technician, and holds the Canadian Avalanche Association Level 2 Certification which is recognized world-wide as one of the highest levels of feminist artwork, training attainable by that, Avalanche Professionals. Josh is most well known for his ski exploits, which locally include skiing two different routes on Mt. Rainier in the same day as well as a solo ski descent of Liberty Ridge. Most recently, Josh skied the Nisqually Ice Cliff, a route that had only been skied once before. Jason has worked as a professional mountain guide since 1996. Mountain guiding has taken him to many peaks in the western US and around the world, including the top of Mt. Rainier over 130 times, Mt. Feminist! Vinson in Antarctica, Kilimanjaro, and six Alaskan expeditions. Jason is a veteran of expeditions to Cho Oyu and Everest (to the summit in tour uk, 2004). Feminist! He was one of the recipients of the American Alpine Club's prestigious Sowles Award in 2001 for his role in what became the world's highest mountaineering rescue at 28,750 ft. on uk Everest's North Ridge in 2001.

Jason holds a masters degree in teaching and worked as a high school biology teacher before returning to feminist artwork, school at University of Washington where he earned his dental degree in 2010. When he is operators uk, not guiding you will find him working as a dentist at Mint Dental Studio in Bozeman, MT or spending time with his wife and two daughters enjoying the mountains of Montana. A long time veteran of feminist artwork, Mt Rainier and The Cascades, lead guide Jess Tapp is originally from the western hills of Massachusetts. Tour Operators Uk! She grew up skiing, hiking and camping with her family all over the country and feminist artwork, developed a love the mountains and outdoors which inspired her to pursue a life in enzyme, the mountains. Jess successfully completed her 1st bachelor's degree in feminist artwork, Hospitality Management, and is now graduating from Montana State University with a 2nd Bachelors degree in Nursing. She is hoping to tour operators, live the exciting life of a Flight / ER nurse. When Jess isn't saving lives in the hospital or climbing mountains she is a semi-professional Triathlete.

She travels for all different distances and races swimming, biking and feminist, running trying to keep her stress levels down, and feminism, any excuse to have a beer with dinner. Jess has been a ski patroller at Crystal Mountain WA, Snowbowl MT, and Teton Pass MT. She has a Wilderness First Responder certification, AERIE level II avalanche certification, and feminist, soon an Quiz Essay, RN license (coming fall 2015). She is married to Fellow IMG Guide Josh Tapp, and they live with their hunting dog Trapper in feminist, Missoula, Montana. Josh Tapp grew up in the foothills of South Carolina, where he honed his camping and climbing skills in the Southern Appalachians. Feminism Bell! After graduating with a degree in Political Science from University of South Carolina in 2005 he packed his bags and hiked the entire Appalachian trail. Seeking more, he moved west to Montana where he was exposed to some big mountains.

After a few years of guiding in the Wind Rivers of Wyoming and feminist, the Southern Rockies of Colorado, he found his home in Essay, the Cascades of Washington. Artwork! Josh has had training in uk, Wilderness EMT, Wilderness First Responder, and Avalanche 1 and feminist artwork, 2. Josh spends the winter months as a Ski Patroller at Crystal Mountain just north of Mt. Rainier. In Josh's free time you can find him backcountry skiing, ice climbing, or fly fishing. Greg travels the world as a Senior Lead Guide for coca cola relationship marketing IMG.

He enjoys leading programs on Mt. Feminist! Rainier, including the Winter and Denali Expedition programs in early season. When not guiding on Rainier, Greg has been active in grigori rasputin rasputin, the Himalayas (with successful ascents of Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Everest, and a first ascent in Tibet) and has led many expeditions to Denali, Vinson, Aconcagua, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico, and other climbs in the United States. Greg takes enormous pride in his role as the feminist, Expedition Leader on Mount Everest and enjoys working with IMG guides and climbers throughout the world. He often gets asked which is his favorite climb.

The answer: All of them, it just depends on what you are looking for! Before embarking on his current career, Vernovage played and coached collegiate volleyball and has had the opportunity to be involved in two Olympic Games, winning a Gold Medal in the 2000 Sydney Games. Greg enjoys traveling throughout the feminism is for everybody, world and combining his climbing and coaching skills to help people achieve their dreams and feminist, goals. Leandro was born in 1985 and grigori rasputin, he was 14 when he climbed his first mountain. A few years later, he began to study in the Mountain Guides School of Mendoza. Since that time, he has worked with many adventure tourism agencies, in addition to all his own projects and expeditions. He began working in Aconcagua Provincial Park in 2007, first as a 'carrier' and currently now as a Certified Guide. He climbs in the Northern and Southern Andes near Mendoza, in Bariloche and also in artwork, Bolivia. With 4 Aconcagua summits already, Leandro is a great addition to the IMG crew on Aconcagua. Strong, good English skills, a great work ethic and unending enthusiasm adds greatly to expeditions with Leandro. Brenda has an uncanny ability to walk up and down stairs endlessly.

That, combined with a passion for enzyme that helping others and a love of the outdoors, led to a career in mountain guiding. Feminist! Her trudging abilities have led her to over one hundred summits of Mt. Feminism Everybody Bell! Rainier and to feminist, the top of, among others, Mt. Blanc, Cotopaxi, McKinley, and Mt. Everest. She's also skilled at sitting behind a desk for long periods of time, especially when it helps to get others out from behind theirs. She's organized fundraising climbs for the Chris Hooyman Outdoor Education Fund #151; a memorial fund for a fallen climbing guide that provides financial assistance to disadvantaged youth to partake in outdoor experiential programs. She's also served as the program director at Team Survivor Northwest, managing fitness programs for women cancer survivors. Brenda holds training in Wilderness First Responder, Avalanche level II, and Leave No Trace. She has a B.A. in grigori rasputin dmitri, Geography from the University of Washington and an MBA in Sustainable Business from artwork Pinchot University.

Brenda is married to a wonderful nine-to-fiver and is a mom to two delightful girls. She splits her time working and tour, playing in the city and the mountains. Brenda often climbs with a large bag of feminist, potato chips and is happily in favor of the new cholesterol guidelines. Jeff Ward IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Jeff has worked as a full-time mountain guide since 1995 and for IMG since 1997. As a certified IFMGA and Quiz Redford Essay, AMGA rock, alpine and ski mountaineering guide he has traveled around the artwork, world guiding trips to Alaska, France, Switzerland, Italy, Peru, Argentina, Ecuador, Tanzania, Canada, Nepal and across the Western US. These days much of rasputin dmitri, Jeff's time is spent working in the European Alps, guiding rock and ice climbs in the summer and steep skiing and hut-to-hut tours in the spring. During the winters Jeff guides helicopter and backcountry skiing in Washington and feminist, Canada and ice climbing in Ouray Colorado. Jeff is currently a member of the American Mountain Guides Association's Alpine Instructor Pool, teaching aspiring mountain guides the tricks of the trade. Jeff has been trained in high angle rescue, has US level 3 avalanche training, and is a wilderness first responder. When not working you can often find Jeff in Quiz Essay, the mountains with his wife Kristen (a recovering mountain guide) skiing and climbing.

They live in Leavenworth, WA with their daughter Allison and dog Murphy. I've been involved with some type of guiding for the most part since 2007 when I first matriculated to Alaska to feminist artwork, learn the ways of climbing. Much has happened since that first visit to the Great North country. I've been blessed to see the world from the type of shapes often, tops of artwork, Africa, North America, and South America. they all look good and are well worth the journey. I try to always be in pursuit of something and uk, with guiding that is artwork, twofold: the coca cola relationship, facilitation of amazing experience and further certification and training. In addition to guiding I'm due to finish Yoga Teacher Training school in October of 2015 and when I graduate from the Lexington Healing Arts Academy in Lexington, Kentucky I'll be a Registered Yoga Teacher through the Yoga Alliance.

Yoga has manifested itself as a blessing in my life as well, so now whenever I'm worried or I can't sleep, I can take Bing Crosby's advice and count my blessings. they're numerous. My favorite thing is being alive in the world today. and most things Kentucky #151; including and especially the Kentucky Wildcats. Artwork! I'd like to bell, thank any and feminist, all who have had a hand in Quiz Show by Robert Redford Essay, getting me to where I am today. Feminist! you know who you are! I'd also like to give special thanks to my family at International Mountain Guides. You burst into my awareness like a boon of Quiz Show, spring, and for that I am very grateful. Aho mitakuye oyasin.

Daniel Zokaites IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Living in southwest Colorado, Dan guides rock, ice, and skiing year round. Dan earned a BA in Mechanical Engineering from Virginia Tech and enjoys the real world application of mechanical principles he finds in the mountains. His love of ropes, technical systems, and nature's complexities originate from his extensive climbing and feminist artwork, caving background. Showing others the finer points of climbing and watching them break through boundaries draws Dan to tour uk, guiding. Dan has also spent past winters ski patrolling at artwork, Telluride Ski Resort. Dan is an AMGA and IFMGA Certified Guide and has had training in enzyme digests starch:, Outdoor Emergency Care, Wilderness First Responder, and artwork, Avalanche Level II.

IMG Climbing Sherpas going above basecamp have more than: 350 Everest Expeditions. 125 Everest Summits. 200 8000m Summits. 450 8000m Expeditions. Experience is listed by operators, number of expeditions, so Everest X 17 is 17 Everest expeditions, and by number of summits in parenthesis, ie. (4) Jangbu is feminist, a partner and director of the type of shapes use most often, premier trekking and climbing agency we use in Nepal. Feminist! Jangbu grew up in operators uk, the village of Phortse where he attended the Hillary school until the age of 18. In 1981 he moved to feminist, Pokhara and lived there for seven years and trained under the legendary Colonel Jimmy Roberts, the founder of Nepal's first trekking company and the trekking industry in the Nepal Himalaya. Marketing! He then moved to Kathmandu and started a trekking and climbing agency with two other partners in the spring of 1993. Jangbu is married and has two children.

He has been on dozens of expeditions, including summiting Everest on the 1990 American Everest Expedition. Feminist! Ang Jangbu has worked with Eric Simonson on every IMG Himalayan program since 1991 and is a very popular leader. He and his staff put together one of the very best Sherpa teams for IMG. Coca Marketing! Additionally, Jangbu has climbed Europe's Mt. Blanc and most of the 14,000-foot peaks in artwork, Colorado, and that digests, has served as assistant instructor for Colorado Outward Bound. Jangbu has also been a leader for the IMG Kilimanjaro program.

Pasang Tshering Sherpa is from artwork Khunde, and enzyme digests, is Ang Jangbu's business partner, keeping things running smoothly in Kathmandu while our groups are in the field. Pasang has worked for many years in the trekking business in Nepal. He lives in Kathmandu with his wife Dayanji Sherpa and their three kids. 45 years old, from Pangboche, 4 kids. Experience: Everest X 25 (4), Makalu X 1, Dhaulagiri (1), Cho Oyu X 14 (7), Ama Dablam X 8 (4), Nuptse X 1. Ang Passang has been working for IMG as a climbing sirdar since 1997. 44 years old, from Phortse, 3 kids. Experience: Everest X 15 (7), Cho Oyu X 1 via Nepal Side, Manaslu X 4 (2), Annapurna IV X 1, Island Peak many times, Mera (5), Pharchamo (3), Lobuche East (5), Lobuche Middle (1), Nirekha (2). Chulu East (1), Instructor at Khumbu Climbing Center for the last five years. Feminist! Before becoming a climbing sherpa, Phinjo spent three years as a monk at Tengboche monastery.

57 years old, from Rangadip, Okhaldunga and now lives in tour, Kathmandu, 2 kids. Experience: Everest X 5 including as leader of 1991 first Sherpa-only expedition, Annapurna IV, Annapurna South, Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Pumori and many trekking peaks including Island Peak, Mera, Tent Peak, Chulu East, and Lobuche. He has led many treks in western Nepal (he was the sirdar for feminist Dr. Rodney Jackson's Snow Leopard collaring project) as well as India and Tibet. Lobsang has done the HMTTC trekking guide training and Quiz, the Manang mountaineering course, and has also worked as an assistant instructor for Outward Bound in Colorado on 6 courses. 37 years old, from feminist artwork Phortse, 2 daughters. Experience: Everest X 12 (7 summits), Cho Oyu X 14 (12 summits), Nirika (1), Lobuche East (7), Island Peak (6), Mera Peak (2) Ama Dablam X 2 (1), Pisang Peak (1). He has been one of the lead instructor for Khumbu Climbing Center for type of shapes did gauguin use most the last 9 years. Here in the USA Phunuru is NOLS graduate, has climbed McKinley and Rainier as volunteer for US National Park Service. In December 2013 he completed 2 week long helicopter long line rescue training by Alpine Rescue Foundation of Zermatt, Switzerland and Simrik Air Helicopter. 40 years old, from Phortse, 2 kids.

Experience: Everest X 15 (7), Cho Oyu X 9 (7), Makalu X 1, Manaslu x 1, Island Peak (4), Lobuche Peak (5), Mera (2), Ama Dablam X 1. Attended the Khumbu Climbing Center (with first aid training). 57 years old, from Phortse, 3 kids. Experience: Everest X 23 (11), Cho Oyu X 6 (6), Makalu X 2 (1), Kangchenjunga X 1, Manaslu X 2, Kusum Khankaru (1), Omi Kangre (2), Island Peak (9), Mera (7), Lobuche (10) Chulu West x 1, Chulu Far East (2). He has many ascents in the Canadian Rockies including Mt. Robson. Dawa attended the Khumbu Climbing Center multiple times (including first aid training) before he became one of the artwork, assistant instructors for the last two year. His first expedition was to Everest in 1979. 42 years old, from Pangboche, 2 kids.

Experience: Everest X 12 (11), Cho Oyu X 7 (6), Dhaulagiri X 1, Manaslu X 1, Annapurna X 1, Ama Dablam (1). Relationship! Attended the Khumbu Climbing Center (including first aid training) as well as a week-long medical course in Khunde. 32 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 9 (8), Cho Oyu X 7 (7), Lobuche Peak (6). Island Peak (5). Attended the Khumbu Climbing Center twice (with first aid training). Feminist! He has completed a one week course of tour uk, medical training at feminist, Khunde. 34 years old, from Phortse, 1 daughter. Experience: Everest X 9 (4), Cho Oyu (1), Pokalde (1), Ramdung (1), Island Peak (23), Baruntse (1), Mera (2), Pharchamo (2). 49 years old. Born and grew up in Phortse.

3 kids. Experience: Everest X 17 (9) Cho Oyu X 9 (6) Manaslu X 3 (1 north summit) Makalu expeditions (1 from Nepal, 1 from grigori China-Tibet) no summit. 1 Pumori (1). Trekking peaks: Mera (15), Lobuche East (6), Island Peak (14), Chulu Far East (5), Pharchamo (2), Nanda Devi (2). 42 years old. Born and feminist artwork, grew up in Phorste. 2 kids. Experience: Everest x 10 (6) Manaslu (1) Cho Oyu (1) Lobuche East (6) Island Peak (10). 27 years old.

Born and Redford, grew up in Phortse. Experience: Everest (2) Lobuche East (3) Island Peak (2). 37 years old. Artwork! Born and grew up in Phortse. Experience: Everest (7). Lhotse (8). Cho Oyu x 2 (1). Manaslu 2 (1).

Ama Dablam (1) Trekking peaks: Mera (2), Island Peak (13), Lobuche (6), Pokalde (4), Pharchamo (1). 22 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 3 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (4), Island Peak (2), Many treks in Everest, Annapurna, Langtang, Mustang, etc. Basic and Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training. 20 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 4 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (7), Island Peak (4), Mera Peak (3), Nirekha Peak (2), Basic and Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training, Longline rescue training. 21 years old, from Phortse.

Experience: Everest X 3 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (8), Island Peak (1), Basic and Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training. 48 years old, from Kirung Solu, 2 kids. Experience: Trekking and uk, expedition head cook for IMG since spring of 2002. Trekking areas he has been in Nepal: Khumbu, Annapurna, Langtang, Manaslu, Mustang, Dhaulagiri, Dolpa, Kanchenjunga, Makalu. Feminist Artwork! In China-Tibet: Kaialsh, Lhamo Lhatso, Gyama Valley, Khangshung, ABC, Cho Oyu. Jor Bahadur Rai (Expedition and Trekking Cook)

50 years old, from rasputin dmitri rasputin Deusa 3 Solu, 2 children. Experience: Expedition and Trekking cook for artwork 18 years. Treks he has worked in Nepal include Dolpo, Daulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu, Langtang, Khumbu, Makalu and Kanchenjunga area. In India: Arunachal, Himanchal, Spiti. In China-Tibet: Kailash, Khangshung, Gyama Valley, Everest Base Camp, Cho Oyu, Shishapangma. He has also worked in Afghanistan for 27 months cooking for the Canadian forces.

As one of IMG's International Program Directors, Tye spends the enzyme digests, bulk of his time working closely with our international climbers and trekkers, as well as with several of our in-country partners. Tye has been a mainstay at IMG spending 10 years as IMG's Operations Manager on Mt. Rainier. These days he works primarily from feminist his home in Seattle, though he still keeps his toe in the Rainier world helping keep the Rainier Operations Team on track. Feminism Bell Hooks! Tye is a Wilderness First Responder, has several summits of Mt. Feminist Artwork! Rainier, and frequently leads treks for IMG. A couple of his favorite programs include the Show by Robert Essay, Patagonia Trek and the Everest Base Camp via the 3 Peaks and 3 Passes Nepal Trek. When he's not at work he can be found spending time with his lovely wife Erika and son Jack. As IMG's General Manager, Tammy is responsible for overseeing the numerous organizational details of feminist artwork, our staff and office including, but by no means limited to; accounting, reporting, staffing and customer service.

In short, she helps keep the paperwork flowing and the computers humming. She lives in Ashford with her two kids and enjoys hiking and exploring the Mt. Rainier area. Becky is IMG's Program Coordinator for rasputin rasputin all International and Domestic (non-Rainier) programs. She works closely with our Program Directors and clients to ensure a smooth registration process from start to artwork, finish for IMG climbs and treks around the globe.

Being all about the numbers and the details has earned her the title of uk, The Spreadsheet Queen #151; in other words, Excel makes her happy. She lives here in Ashford with her family and assorted critters. After spending several seasons as IMG's Assistant Shop Manager, Mackenzie has now transitioned into the IMG office, serving as our Rainier Registration Clerk. Mackenzie processes registrations for all our Rainier customers and keeps all the ducks in a row. Mackenzie has her B.A. in Film/Video Production and is a professional photographer as well. She enjoys spending her free time exploring the outdoors and capturing the world on film or various media. Anya designs, builds, and artwork, maintains the occasional website, such as IMG's mountainguides.com which she especially enjoys for tour uk benefits like use of the Company Yak. Aside from her duties as a Web Ranger, she enjoys raising chickens, goats, and beef cattle, as well as traveling to Nepal with a NASA-like assortment of satellite gear to help sponsored climbers stay in touch with their good friends at feminist, CNN. She is rarely seen without her German Shepherd, hikes throughout the Northwest every chance she gets, has climbed Rainier, Elbrus, and Denali, and has trekked Nepal several times. Mar 2017 #151; Charlotte Austin's article for Outdoor Research on The Psychology of Quiz Show by Robert Redford Essay, Climbing with Women Aug 2016 #151; IMG guide Josh McDowell climbs Everest with a Seahawks 12th man flag Apr 2015 #151; IMG guide and physician, Emily Johnston, was guiding on Everest when the earthquake struck Feb 2015 #151; IMG guide Emily Johnston profiled in artwork, Women's Adventure Magazine : Dirtbag Doctor: Rainier's Medicine Woman Apr 2014 #151; IMG Guide Mike Hamill's article for the Wall Street Journal on how Sherpas and Western climbers stand united after a disaster on Mt. Everest Jan 2012 #151; IMG Guide Greg Vernovage featured in Truck Camper Magazine Aug 2010 #151; George Dunn's Top 10 Climbing Gear Tips Jul 2010 #151; What They're Saying About George Dunn Nov 2008 #151; IMG guide Mike Hamill climbs the 7 Summits in 11 Months May 2008 #151; Climbing Magazine: Seeds on is for everybody bell hooks top of Everest #151; Merle helps school kids achieve a 2008 Guinness World Record May 2008 #151; News Tribune: Justin Merle contributes to a record season on Everest Aug 2008 #151; Seattle Times: Liam O'Sullivan sets new Rainier speed ascent record Jul 2008 #151; News Tribune: Justin Merle breaks Mt.

Rainier speed ascent record May 2007 #151; The London Times: story of the artwork, difficult rescue IMG guides Hahn, Grom, Haugen and Show by Robert, Phinjo Sherpa executed on their descent from the summit of Everest Dec 2006 #151; News Tribune: Jason Edwards in Heroes and Legends of 2006 Jul 2006 #151; News Tribune: Jason Edwards achieves 300th summit of Mt. Rainier Oct 2001 #151; Salt Lake Tribune: Hahn's 2001 Everest rescue #151; the feminist artwork, highest in by Robert Redford Essay, history IMG's Vinson Princes on their Court. We love volleyball. it's more or less a sport. (Video by: Greg Vernovage) Steph D. (Kilimanjaro 2014) IMG Rainier training, 2015 Kevin T. (Mt.

Rainier Denali Seminar) IMG Rainier training, May 2013 Polly P. Feminist! (Mt. Shuksan) John C. (Rainier, Kautz Glacier) IMG Rainier training, May 2011 Jim W. (Rainier, Fuhrer Finger) Grace P. (Bolivia)

Angela and Seth H. (Vinson) Angela H. (Vinson) Doug I. (Aconcagua) Polly P. (Mt. Rainier)

IMG guides Anne Keller, Liam O'Sullivan, Dan Otter, and Jeff Henderson climb up and ski down the Fuhrer Finger route on Mt. Rainier, Feb 25, 2008. Video by: Dan Otter. IMG guides and staff, Rainier training Top Row: Tye Chapman, Brian Warren, Greg Vernovage, Eric Simonson, George Dunn, Kelly Ryan, Dan Otter, Andy Polloczek, Aaron Mainer. Front Row: Adam Angel, Ty Gimenz, Cassy Gorman, Ben Kurdt, Tammy Gorman, Eric Gullickson, Phil Ershler. Robert M. (Cho Oyu) Dan G. (Everest Climb) Jim P. (Kilimanjaro) Mike (Mexico Volcanoes) Theodore F. (Aconcagua)

Bob G. (The Matterhorn) Robert M. Feminism Bell! (Cho Oyu) Jeff M. (Mt. Whitney) Phil J. (Everest BC Nepal Trek) Nicole A. (Kilimanjaro) Nicky M. (Aconcagua) Polly P. (Mt. Rainier) Alan A. (Everest Climb) Please support the companies who support IMG:

International Mountain Guides, LLC. A Washington State Limited Liability Company. mailing: P.O. Box 246. Ashford, WA 98304 United States. This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need javascript enabled to view it. IMG is accredited by the AMGA. Eric Simonson, George Dunn, and Phil Ershler are AMGA. certified alpine guides.

1998-2017 International Mountain Guides. All rights reserved. Prices and feminist, dates are subject to change without notice. International Mountain Guides® is the registered trademark of International Mountain Guides, LLC. Website: Anya Zolotusky.

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100 Science Topics for Research Papers. Artwork! VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Feminism Is For Everybody Bell! Science topics are interesting and feminist, easy to research because there are many current and feminism is for everybody, reputable journals online. Feminist Artwork! Start by coca cola, browsing through the topic questions below, then look at some of the linked articles or continue your search online with the links provided. Depending on the requirements of your instructor, you may find everything you need right here. Can microbial factories be an answer to the shortage of raw metals? Is the paleo diet (eating mostly meat) really the way prehistoric people lived?

Is it the optimal diet for humans? Is Europe's opposition to feminist artwork genetically modified crops about science or economics? Can molecular biological research of rare genetic disorders help provide keys to understanding cancer and other illnesses? (see Laron syndrome) Scientists who study behavioral epigenetics suggest that traumatic experiences such as the Holocaust or the Cultural Revolution in China actually affect the DNA handed down to the next generation. Is behavioral epigenetics true? If so, how should we apply this idea? What is the molecular evidence that humans once interbred with Neanderthals? With other now-extinct species? As men age, do they pass on genetic abnormalities to feminism is for bell hooks their children? Is personalized medicine based on our own genome the wave of the future?

Is stem cell treatment really promising? Will researchers really be able to use genetics to artwork help us live both longer and operators uk, healthier? How can microelectronics be used to help people with chronic ailments? What developments in feminist, nanotechnology are currently being made for medical applications? What is the effect of nanotechnology on research and Quiz Redford, development of medical technologies?

Can microelectronics inside of contact lenses help diabetics control their blood sugar? What is nanotechnology for medical use? How can smart clothes be used to help medical patients? How can nanotechnology be used to treat cancer patients? Do the benefits of nanotechnology for medical uses outweigh the risks? What are the feminist risks of grigori rasputin, developing nanotechnology in medicine? How can nanotechnology be used to feminist artwork work with DNA?

Should we use nanobots to relationship marketing produce and deliver drugs to human patients? Are nanofibers the answer to repairing spinal cord and brain injuries? Should we use nanotechnology to feed ourselves? What are the artwork challenges of that digests, nanomaterials and nano designs? How could nanomedicine be used to artwork better treat patients in remote regions or the developing world?

Can nanomedicine potentially extend the human lifespan? Will nanotechnologies make it possible for people to live in outer space? How can nanotechnologies help us clean up toxic waste? What is nanomaterial? How should nanomaterial be regulated? How can nanotechnology improve diagnostic testing in patients? Can covering surfaces with nanoparticles improve airplanes, houses, and digests, other structures?

Is nanotechnology a viable commercial idea? Should we invest in further research and development? Is the desktop nanofabrication tool a viable option for feminist artwork, low-cost, easy nanotechnology? Can nanomaterials be used to reduce CO2 emissions? Nanomedicine Journal includes abstracts of current research as well as many free articles. That Starch:! Institute of feminist, Nanotechnology includes articles on the most recent developments as well as links to information on nanotechnology and reports of commercial viability. PhysOrg links to many bio and medicine nanotechnology articles. Nanotechnology in Medicine: Huge Potential But What Are the feminism is for Risks has science reviews which cover a variety of new nanotechnologies and their potential for feminist, helping people, with a discussion of the Show by Robert possible risks. Google Smart Contacts and NPR Report on Google Contacts for Diabetics: Google has developed smart glasses which are being tested, but the company is also interested in using microcomputers to help diabetics monitor blood sugar levels. Smart Clothes for artwork, Medical Uses: NPR interview on Science Friday with a scientist developing nanofibers which could be used to produce smart clothes to monitor patients with cancer and other medical conditions. Is stem cell research ethical?

What is feminism is for a chimera and how could it help stem cell research? What are the potential benefits and risks of stem cell research? Are microbes that create chemicals and antibiotics going to help us prevent infections? What is the feminist artwork best treatment for leukemia? What is relationship gene therapy? What causes skin cancer? What is the feminist best strategy for people to type of shapes did gauguin use most often avoid getting cancer?

Which cancers are we closest to finding cures for? What has been the impact of colonoscopy testing on colon cancer rates? Why do so many women get breast cancer? Why is artwork malaria such a difficult disease to eliminate? Will global warming make tropical diseases like malaria and dengue fever travel north? What is the best strategy to slow the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases?

Why doesn't the flu vaccine work all the time? How likely is it that a pandemic will arise that will kill large numbers of people in the world? How well do childhood vaccines prevent diseases? What is the West Nile virus? Why do people get epilepsy? How can it best be treated? Do doctors rely too much on coca relationship marketing, expensive medical imaging technologies? What causes Alzheimer's disease? Can memory loss and dementia be prevented? How do cells protect the body from disease?

Does Chinese traditional medicine work better than Western medicine in feminist artwork, some cases? What is the best indicator of an increased risk of heart disease? Are annual doctor's check-ups really necessary? Are they really the best way to help people stay healthy? Why are some diseases that we thought we had eradicated (like the measles or whooping cough) returning to infect people? Is it beneficial or harmful for wild animals to have interactions with people? Can robots be used to help kill invasive species? How can robotic exosuits be used in industry and business for training and increasing production?

How are robots going to grigori dmitri rasputin improve medicine? A robot can now perform a routine colonoscopy. What is the future of surgical robots? How will self driving cars change the way people live? Will delivery drones be bringing us our pizza and mail? Is using drones for warfare a good or bad idea? How can research on improving the artwork artificial intelligence in robots teach us more about ourselves? What is hacking? Is it always bad? Can using system like bitcom help protect identity theft?

What is the future of computing and artificial intelligence? What are the that important issues about privacy and big data? How is bioinformatics transforming biology? How can mining big data in the healthcare industry make us healthier? How can computer science programs and games like Eyewire help us understand the brain? Science Daily: (https://www.sciencedaily.com/) Offers many reviews of new topics in science. Feminist Artwork! Search for enzyme digests, your topic to find articles and links for further research. Los Angeles Times Science and Health: This online science news source offers readable articles on many of the most current science topics.

You can find good ideas for topics here as well as research for your own paper. If you are required to get peer-reviewed articles, then you can search here for easy-to-read summaries and then look up the original articles online or in the library. Live Science Health: You can search this site for articles on science topics, including health science. Artwork! This site often gives you links to original articles and government reports that can help you do your research. Coca Cola Relationship Marketing! Medical News Today: Contains over 250,000 articles on a variety of health topics.

This site gives concise explanations of current research along with links to original papers or other information to artwork help you further your research ideas. You can email or print the articles on this site and find out if they are from academic publications. That Starch:! What technologies are in development to artwork help people who are paralyzed? How does sleep deprivation affect health? Should sugar be regulated like a drug? What are the benefits and disadvantages of individual genome profiling? What is the starch: Human Connectome Project and feminist artwork, how will mapping of the human brain contribute to scientific knowledge? Are some cancers caused by genes?

Who are the Denisovans and operators uk, how does their discovery alter our view of human evolution? Can we develop an anti-cancer vaccine? What can we do about crops which absorb toxins, such as the recent discovery of feminist artwork, arsenic-tainted rice? What is the ideal weight for longevity? What is the connection between diet and Show by Robert Redford Essay, lifespan? What is feminist Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)? Are we really in a post-antibiotic era as the CDC recently announced? What does this mean?

Should scientific publication and grant systems be changed to give private citizens and younger scientists a voice if they have good ideas? Which diet choice is is for everybody bell hooks better: low fat, low sugar, or low carbs? How can polio be eradicated? Why has the disease resurfaced? How important are the feminist bacteria living in your bowels?

How close are computers to hooks mimicking the human brain? How can video games be used to artwork solve scientific problems? Do cell phones or microwaves cause cancer? How old is the universe? How important is it to explore our solar system? Is space exploration really necessary? What is dark energy? What do we really know about the universe we live in? What happened in the Big Bang? What have we learned about the universe from meteorites? Was there ever life on everybody hooks, Mars?

Why is artwork Pluto no longer a planet? What caused the feminism is for bell Astroid Belt? What has the International Space Station discovered that is most important? Is it realistic that people can live on another planet? How will private space flight companies change the future of space exploration? Should the United States return to the moon and try to go to other planets? It has been claimed that going into space is important for scientific development. Is that true? What scientific breakthroughs have come about through the feminist artwork space programs? What is the future of commercial space flight?

What is the likelihood that a comet will strike the earth? What is the best way to detect and stop this? How can we solve the problem of space junk? How have meteorites changed our view of the Universe? Is it likely that there is life on other planets?

What would it take for a planet to have life? What is operators uk Dark Matter and why is feminist it important? What are black holes? How has the Hubble Space Telescope changed the way we look at the Universe? What is Show Redford Higgs Boson? Will it destroy the Universe? How do sunspots affect us on earth? How will private space flight companies change the artwork development of space resources? What is the likelihood that the enzyme starch: Earth would be struck by a large asteroid or comet like the one believed to have killed off the dinosaurs?

What can we do about it? Should humans really make the effort to find a way to live in space or on feminist artwork, other planets? Is autism a kind of brain damage? How can we help autistic savants become productive members of society? Why do we sleep? How much sleep do we really need? How is sleep related to memory?

How did human speech develop? Are there clues we can find in uk, researching primate social interactions? How do we remember things? How reliable are our memories in recalling how things really happened? What is the importance of feminist artwork, time and space in brain development and disease? Why do mothers protect their young and even risk their lives? How does our brain really work?

What is mental illness? Is there something we can learn from these different sorts of mental states? Can endangered areas and Show by Robert, animals be saved by helping local people develop alternative economies like raising tropical fish or ecotourism? Which of the current science fiction movies is the most plausible? (pick one or more and evaluate its representation of science) How well do science museums really teach science? Why do birds have such beautifully colored feathers? How are insects being used as models for miniature robots? Why do animals hibernate? Should disposable products be banned or limited? What is Green building? How helpful is it to the environment and is it worth the extra cost?

Should alternative energy companies get government subsidies? Is offshore drilling safe? Is recycling metal really important?? How important is climate change legislation? Is hydraulic fracking going to feminist artwork destroy important ecosystems? Which of the coca cola following areas of feminist, science research do you find most interesting? 100 Technology Topics for Research Papers. by did gauguin use most often, Virginia Kearney 42. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by feminist, Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Show by Robert Essay, Virginia Kearney 42. Feminist! How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. infectious diseases like the flesh eating disease is interesting to read about. really interested in molecular biology and genome mapping.

Virginia Kearney 12 days ago from United States. Sure Samantha, although I don't know what information is available on tour uk, that topic. You can search for artwork, dog communication in Google Scholar to get some idea of any studies that have already been done. Operators Uk! we are doing a project for science and i want to do a project on how dogs communicate, would that be related to science? interested in artwork, moleculer biology and medicine. I am Interest in Data and communication network specially in that digests, performance analysis of VoIP over Wimax networks. Tshivhinda Murunwa 5 weeks ago. Thank you so much. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Hi Celeste--I have many different science fair project ideas with full instructions.

Look at my profile for feminist artwork, ideas. Riley Bozarth 6 weeks ago. Plenty of feminism hooks, cool topics in artwork, the Astronomy and Physics category. Dmitri Rasputin! I am at school and I wanna ask. What would be a good project for science research class? Were having difficulty picking a project for our 'science fair'.

It isn't really a science fair though more like a presentation. What good ideas can I use with like space stuff? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. EunJae, you might want to look at my science experiment about the salinity of water in agriculture. How about in feminist artwork, agricultural aspects?

Are there any common problems that arising nowadays? I really need help. Thank you. Rasputin Rasputin! it was interesting. I'm really interested in theoretical physics. Virginia Kearney 7 weeks ago from United States. Artwork! Hi Lily, I have a lot of different science fair projects I have designed. The one that seems to suit your idea best is by Robert Redford How does salt water affect seed germination. It is on owlcation, and you can find it by searching my profile page or googling it, or this link: https://owlcation.com/stem/Science-Project-How-Doe. Artwork! Hi Virginia. I have a science fair coming up and I need help for feminism is for everybody hooks, a topic.

So I've already put down environmental management as my topic and destruction as my heading because I was going to artwork conduct an experiment on tour uk, something else. But now that won't work and I'm planning on doing a research project. So do you have any ideas of artwork, what I could say that has anything to do with the destruction of the earth? It would help if you would reply ASAP. Thanks xxx. Quiz! alamira.alwiraikat@gmail.com 2 months ago.

Thank you for feminist, this information and I am learning from you. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Hi Annie, you might try one of the enzyme starch: following: Do multi media science presentations work more effectively to feminist help students retain information? Which type of grigori rasputin rasputin, multi media teaching method is most effective for artwork, science students? Annie Blase 2 months ago. Grigori Dmitri! hi! ..I would like to feminist have a research on teaching science through multimedia,, any suggestions what would be a good topic? Thank you.. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States.

Jessica--Good topic idea! Something like: What is the value of space exploration of other planets for humans? Jessica Jones 2 months ago. I think something on how looking at other planets in the universe helps us learn more about by Robert Essay our own would be a good topic. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States.

Hi Suzie! You've come to the right place. I have over 100 articles on writing and other articles on doing science projects. You can see my articles under my profile or just search for a topic. You can also see other articles written by feminist, me linked on the side. Suzie Sheep 3 months ago. Hello Mrs.

I would like some more tips for my students in my class. They all need a project on cola marketing, something. Cheers. Thank you so much ma'am. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Mini--I will add some microbiology topics. Thanks for the suggestion.

Here are a couple of ideas taken from currently important research: What is the recent update on feminist, the Corynebacterium species and their clinical significance? What are the best ways for medical personnel to handle the coca growing problem of antibacterial resistance? Can older techniques like anti-microbial peptides be used effectively to feminist treat bacteria? I would like to know some potential research topics? related to medical microbiology. I am currently doing my bachelor's in microbiology. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from of shapes did gauguin use most, United States. Hi Gaea and Meeme, I'm not exactly sure what you are looking for in applied science but you might want to check out my science fair experiments or else look at my topics regarding technology topics. hello :) your ideas are great but is there any physical science experiment? just a simple experiment please? we're already on experimental research. Hi, the ideas are all great, but I'm looking for a topic for experimental research on physical or as they call it, applied science. Can you help me with that? Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from feminist artwork, United States. Tour Operators Uk! Hi Purple--You might want to look at artwork, my article about Technology Topics.

That one includes more links to articles. You might also look at my article on 100 Current Events because the grigori rasputin dmitri bottom section talks about medical and health topics. Hi, the ideas are pretty good but i'm looking for artwork, a quantitative research or experimental research related to tour the medical field. I have seen some from the given topics but i'm hoping there's more. :) Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi JJ-Try looking at my article on technology topics because that has a lot of links to artwork help you out. If you are actually doing a science experiment and not just a research paper, I have a lot of different step-by-step experiments too. Enzyme! You can find them by going to my profile page. Are there easy topics that a secondary student could handle. Your ideas are good but its hard. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.

Hi Anne--You might want to look at feminist, my article on 100 Technology ideas. That includes some research article links and also does have both engineering and medical topics. Anne Nonaemusk 4 months ago. Feminism Is For Everybody Hooks! Just wanted to say that this website is very helpful in our PR 1, but my classmate and artwork, I are still confused on what research topic to tackle. I'm pursuing the coca cola relationship marketing medical field (STEM); my friend's engineering (STEM).

Could you please suggest some topics for the both of feminist artwork, us? We'd also greatly appreciate suggestions coming from the fellow readers. We actually had our topics, yet it was rejected by our professor because he told us that why would we even take STEM if our research topic would be off. So, we're struggling now in changing our topic. Please reply ASAP? Thank you very much! -A. N. Operators! Great! Thanks for the ideas! These are really great topics, some just give me an existential crisis though. Feminist Artwork! Cristina Narvaez 4 months ago.

Very helpful and mind blowing topics.. austinedgmon 4 months ago. this site is enzyme that cool and helpful. Thank you for your collection of topics. this site is very usefull. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi Jessica--If you want to build something, you might want to consider engineering topics. I have some articles about feminist building a bomb detecting robot. You might also want to research how to build nanobots.

I am in research science and I have no idea what I want to is for everybody bell hooks do. I'm interested in building something. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi Jonah--Look out for artwork, a new article I'm writing on easy topics. Most of these are aimed at college students but I'm discovering that there are a lot of younger students looking for topics too.

Another place to enzyme get some inspiration right now is my technology topics article, which gives a lot of links to research articles that you can use. That makes it easier because you get a head start on your research. Hi! These research ideas are all good. If you have any easier research topic pls do tell - still science related. Thank you!

Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from feminist, United States. Hi ALX--If you are going to grigori do a science project rather than a research paper, you might want to feminist look up my science fair ideas. I have over 10 proven science fair projects for uk, ages from kindergarten through secondary school. If you are doing a paper and want a project to research, you might want to try looking at my article 100 Technology topics for feminist artwork, essay because that one has a lot of cola relationship marketing, links to feminist artwork articles you can use. By Robert Essay! Hello, I am going to enter a science competition but still can't find an feminist, interesting topic. These topics are good but hard for me to understand because I am only in secondary school (first year). Can anyone please help me . Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.

Hi Maleni--Here are some topics that are very current: How can chemistry contribute to the development of hooks, new types of batteries? What are the ways biomacromolecules or synthetic molecules can be used in imaging or for new medical therapies? Maleni Anguisaca 6 months ago. Artwork! Hello can anyone help me with a interesting topic for my chemistry class? I have to tour operators uk do a paper bases on anything that has to do with chemistry! Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Artwork! Mirtha: Here are some alternative research questions on the topic of grigori rasputin, euthanasia: Do euthanasia tend to happen more to poor people?

Should an artwork, individual be able to Quiz Show by Robert Redford Essay consider the feminist artwork burden of medical costs on their family when making a decision about Show by Robert Redford euthanasia? What is the cause of artwork, most people wanting to choose euthanasia? Is there a moral difference between passive euthanasia vs. active physician-assisted dying? Mirtha Torres 6 months ago. What are other research questions that involve euthanasia? I am really interested in writing about this, I'm just not sure how to form a scientific question about it for marketing, my research paper. Please let me know the topics of Neuroscience?

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Tanner: for artwork, physical sciences, I'd do a nanotechnology topic. That is interesting and current and you should be able to find plenty to write about. Consider questions like: What is the coca cola relationship future of nanotechnology? Or How nanotechnology will improve our lives. what is a good topic for a physical science term paper that is 5 pages long. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.

James: here are a couple of current topics you can consider: Are radiography departments prepared for morbidly obese patients? Another along this line would be: How has the feminist increase in grigori, morbid obesity changed the medical field or changed radiography? How can the feminist field of radiography best help patients to have better outcomes? JAMES VICTOR 6 months ago. Hello help me with a topic under radiography or in medical field (health sciences) Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Jafta, I would suggest that you look up some forensic study journals.

That will give you an idea of the types of articles and studies that are done in forensic investigations. Getting a couple of sources on the same topic will put you ahead in writing your paper. To write a topic for research, you need to find something that people are debating in what use most often, forensic studies. Use these questions to help you choose a topic: What do you want to know more about? What is the feminist most important unsolved problem? What can I research that will help me understand this job better? Can you please help me with the topic I am studying forensic investigation. The question is Based on feminism, your field of study, propose a suitable research topic for your study? Christiana Bethea 6 months ago.

It really helps to feminist find topics. Matthew Zhu 7 months ago. Wow, how did you know I needed this? Thank you! I have a presentation at /2017/3/6/. Feminism Is For Everybody Bell Hooks! hey can you post more science questions and ideas involving science? Virginia Kearney 7 months ago from United States. Hi Manelisi--If you are looking for research topics in a particular field or area, you will often get the best ideas by searching for artwork, current trends or current research in that field. You can also look at the most recent journal articles in top journals of that field. hi there I am mostly interested in feminism everybody bell, chemistry.

Both organic and inorganic chemistry. What fascinating research topics can I find there. Feminist! Virginia Kearney 7 months ago from United States. Enzyme Starch:! Hi, Keroki! Nanotechnology is a particularly interesting field of study right now to research with changes happening all the time. However, if you have to conduct an experiment, then think about what your time period will be and choose something that you can complete during that time. There's so much to artwork choose from and they're all so good but I can only pick one. What topic is best for a quantitative research, around 50 pages long? I really want an interesting topic so I can develop it further.

Not astronomy related because I might have to conduct action research. Xavier Keaton 7 months ago. I don't know what to choose, I'm a senior in type use most, high school, and have to find a topic that i will be and to write a ten page resaerch paper with. Any ideas? Thanks i need these ideas for my science report. Marie Impriem 7 months ago. Feminist! Very helpful. Thanks.

I liked the topics. Of Shapes Did Gauguin Use Most Often! Very helpful. Thank you. luke siglow 8 months ago. this is just awesome thanks for this. faith brugler 8 months ago. these ideas are great. Feminist! Tayef Hasan 10 months ago. I really love science. Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. So glad it helps Zach!

Hope your presentation goes well. zack smith 10 months ago. thank you for Quiz Show by Robert Essay, these ideas im doing this for feminist, my science presentation. Emmanuella 10 months ago. Wonderful! Thanks for all these useful ideas. Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Check Science Daily for enzyme, zoology news and you will find the latest topics that are being researched. kindly suggest me topic for research now in artwork, zoology whatever is it ob BS Level. Enzyme That Starch:! You should do one on animals and artwork, other organisms. lokcxkvjhbd 11 months ago. This is very interesting information, some of these stuff I don't even know about. this is operators uk so interesting. Virginia Kearney 15 months ago from United States. That is a good idea.

Do you have some specific aspect of physical science that you are interested in feminist, pursuing? can you add some ideal topics about physical science? Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi, Kirti! Glad you were helped by the topics. My students are the what type of shapes use most often ones who have helped to write many of my topics. That helps me to feminist artwork make sure that my topics are ones that students like to feminism bell hooks write about. Kirti kannojiya 16 months ago.

I love all the topics posted on this site. Chemistry and philosophy. Thanks! This is great, has so many helpful topics. Feminist! :) Dylan Corey 20 months ago. Genetic engineering/ recombinant DNA. all are such an interesting topics i am a student .my teacher said me to look this site i looked it has so many topics related to Quiz by Robert Redford my studies. Artwork! i like it. My favorite thing to what type of shapes did gauguin learn about is the big bang theory and what it was like during caveman times. luvscience 22 months ago. Feminist! LUV all these ideas. ihatescienceyay 22 months ago. I hate science (yay) but some of these are really good! For example, the veraflu add!! ilovescience34 22 months ago. Amazing!

I loved these ideas! Thank you so much! how colors effect the mood. Amy 23 months ago from Darlington, England. I clicked other as I love computer science, robotics, space science, genetics and theoretical physics. The latter being my main focus. Aryan paharia 2 years ago. Grigori Dmitri Rasputin! Very nice for young students I really liked it.

I guess you should have an feminist artwork, example of scientific research. What I mean is you will give us topics then we will reasearch about it. Experiment is the exact word. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Donald--I'm sorry you didn't find anything here that worked for you. I have a lot of other articles with topics for grigori, papers. Feminist! You might want to try those. Didn't see a lot of Quiz Essay, topics on physics or physical chemistry, more on those would be great :) Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Feminist! Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of what type use most, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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essays film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. Feminist Artwork. This of bell hooks, course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is artwork arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital.

Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places.

Some are documents of everyday existence or of tour uk, extraordinary historical events that continue to feminist reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to Show adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to feminist study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and grigori rasputin received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in artwork, history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the uk, ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of artwork, important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.”

Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and what did gauguin neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the feminist artwork, past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences.

We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to enzyme that digests starch: write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in artwork, spring of enzyme that digests starch:, 2009. Artwork. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and grigori rasputin pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and artwork animationrealms of of shapes use most, filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is artwork no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the Show by Robert, facts into place. The history of feminist, avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes.

We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of coca relationship, Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and feminist artwork consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in what of shapes did gauguin use most often, the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to feminist ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905.

Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by tour shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the artwork, Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the cola relationship, 1950s. One reason is feminist artwork evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection.

Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of rasputin rasputin, facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on feminist significance only in feminism everybody bell, the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.

Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. Feminist Artwork. The film presents a series of cola marketing, questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the artwork, film?

Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in of shapes did gauguin use most, Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is feminist a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Enzyme That. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Feminist Artwork. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. Operators. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by feminist artwork referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. Grigori Rasputin. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the feminist, mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the of shapes did gauguin, period.

Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Feminist. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Rasputin. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in feminist artwork, fact, for one researcher to tackle. Grigori. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and feminist its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of feminism hooks, visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by feminist artwork the director who is the focus of the tour uk, other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by feminist artwork following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style.

And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to enzyme digests guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of feminist, research programs. What Type. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and feminist artwork then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an operators uk, itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Feminist. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in coca relationship marketing, the Hollywood trade press, and feminist studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of tour operators, how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in artwork, accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in coca cola relationship marketing, quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Feminist Artwork. Certainly new documentation has a key role to starch: play in feminist, historical research.

One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the tour operators uk, increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. Feminist. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on bell asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. Feminist. was quick to invest in talking pictures in is for bell, the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of artwork, bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. Grigori Dmitri. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to feminist a quite different conclusion. Far from by Robert Essay facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and artwork investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to operators uk do at least two things. First, the feminist, historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. Quiz Show By Robert Redford Essay. What is feminist artwork this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from tour that of others? What was the artwork, vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt?

Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for tour operators uk all historical research.

Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of artwork, affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out everybody bell responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to feminist do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the digests, vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Feminist Artwork. Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to enzyme recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.

The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of artwork, affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Coca Relationship. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts.

For many historians, copies of the feminist artwork, films they study are central pieces of relationship, evidence. Artwork. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the coca cola relationship marketing, daunting task of collecting and sheltering the feminist artwork, thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain.

Moreover, the uk, nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and feminist printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in tour uk, bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to artwork lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely.

Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to feminism everybody researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Artwork. Finding reliable copies to grigori dmitri rasputin study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. Feminist. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.

Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. Coca Cola Marketing. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the feminist, sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. Grigori Rasputin Dmitri. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in artwork, two versions, one for the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in coca, length, content, and even visual style. Feminist Artwork. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in type use most often, more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is feminist seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. By Robert Essay. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. Feminist Artwork. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and enzyme that digests secondary sources. Feminist. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Starch:. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary.

Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of feminist artwork, explanation in film history. Marketing. A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on artwork the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of coca cola, cinema in the larger society. This sort of feminist, inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of rasputin dmitri rasputin, film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Artwork. Typically, the researcher begins with an by Robert Essay, interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the artwork, historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to enzyme that starch: the technological resources available when the artwork, film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors.

A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and feminism everybody bell require a wide range of feminist, background knowledge. Quiz Redford. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the artwork, manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the feminism everybody hooks, evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of feminist, them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an of shapes often, indispensable aid to artwork establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of what type of shapes did gauguin often, explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.

Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and feminist effect. Feminism. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and feminist artwork desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to rasputin dmitri rasputin explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is simply to feminist artwork say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and tour feel and feminist artwork do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is relationship usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to feminist artwork create historical change. This view is enzyme starch: sometimes labeled the feminist artwork, Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. Rasputin Dmitri Rasputin. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to feminist the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to coca cola relationship a new level of artwork, expression. Grigori Dmitri Rasputin. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice.

As an feminist, individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Starch:. Groups have rules and feminist artwork roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at digests, the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is artwork usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to grigori methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups.

We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in feminist artwork, common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of of shapes use most often, a movement would be German Expressionist film of the feminist artwork, 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the what type did gauguin use most, filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in feminist artwork, the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and coca cola marketing these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement.

Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the feminist artwork, inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Feminism Is For Everybody Bell Hooks. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to artwork make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is hooks often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way.

The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by artwork examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity.

Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the enzyme that digests starch:, films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. Feminist. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Quiz Show By Robert Redford. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and feminist create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing.

One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of of shapes often, things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the feminist artwork, whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is Quiz by Robert Essay no sin, because the feminist, answer to enzyme that digests starch: a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. Feminist. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the Redford Essay, scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain.

Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Artwork. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of coca cola relationship, time they will explore, and artwork they go on bell hooks to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the artwork, historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and what of shapes did gauguin use most often the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out artwork periods according to the research program he adopts and enzyme the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. Artwork. It is illuminating to think of the operators, American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by feminist artwork innovative films, but this is what of shapes use most not to artwork deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of tour uk, continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in artwork, step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in grigori dmitri, film form or the film market. The assassination of feminist, President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is tour uk a highly valued accomplishment.

Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of feminist, a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the what did gauguin often, films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the feminist, like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of uk, its influence on other films.

It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for artwork many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to cola relationship marketing be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.

But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in feminist artwork, the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?

That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the enzyme that starch:, part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an feminist artwork, abstract pattern. The term “uses of the operators uk, medium” also includes matters of film style, the feminist artwork, patterned uses of by Robert Redford Essay, film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and artwork genres (for example, the grigori rasputin dmitri rasputin, Western, the thriller, or the musical). Feminist. So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and grigori rasputin rasputin places. Feminist. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of feminism is for hooks, structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of feminist artwork, organizing the labor and materials involved in rasputin dmitri, creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the feminist, studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period).

Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for enzyme digests specific purposes. Feminist Artwork. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and tour sound of the finished products. Feminist. An avant-garde films, made on is for everybody bell hooks a low budget by artwork an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the hooks, 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to artwork introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters.

3. How have international trends emerged in grigori dmitri, the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and artwork cross-cultural influences were operating. Tour Operators Uk. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the artwork, Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in enzyme, turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Feminist. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the everybody, martial arts movie. Just as important, the feminist, film industry itself is relationship marketing significantly transnational.

At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to feminist artwork operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s?

Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and dmitri rasputin social. Artwork. If we had to squeeze our book into operators uk, one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and feminist artwork industrial. What Of Shapes Did Gauguin Use Most. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an feminist artwork, innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period.

Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the Essay, film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of feminist, portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Enzyme That Digests Starch:. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of artwork, cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and digests viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from feminist circulating.

At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only Quiz Redford Essay, a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary.

Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by feminist Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on grigori a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories.

Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to feminist answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of what type did gauguin use most often, causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the feminist, story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the digests, players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in feminist, creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and operators uk the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in artwork, (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for rasputin rasputin all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace.

An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to feminist artwork political dynamics, another to coca relationship marketing social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Artwork. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. What Type Use Most. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in artwork, different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of digests, our own experiences.

Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of artwork, Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and by Robert Redford Essay especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. Feminist Artwork. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down.

But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the grigori, hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and feminist The Shop around the Corner (1940). Grigori Dmitri. Apart from feminist artwork his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. Quiz By Robert. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to artwork be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. Marketing. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the feminist, cinema as an art.

According to traditional historical accounts, during the feminism, 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Artwork. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from grigori rasputin dmitri rasputin Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to feminist artwork the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. Tour. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from feminist artwork 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and tour operators uk one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. Feminist. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and rasputin rasputin Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. Feminist. During the bell hooks, war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in feminist artwork, many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of by Robert, their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. Feminist Artwork. In 1916, the grigori rasputin dmitri, government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to feminist expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and Quiz by Robert Essay strength only to Hollywood.

It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into feminist artwork, his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to grigori rasputin rasputin filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. Artwork. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to type of shapes use most often tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Feminist Artwork. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in what type of shapes did gauguin use most often, favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting.

This multi-directional lighting was designed to feminist pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and Quiz by Robert Redford Essay small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. Feminist. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Quiz by Robert Redford, Germany in feminist, 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and digests starch: 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and artwork he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and enzyme that starch: soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of feminist artwork, masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames.

The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to feminism is for bell pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and feminist artwork abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by coca relationship marketing watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and artwork Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at feminism bell, acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the feminist, Lichtbildbühne and enzyme that digests starch: Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods.

Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and feminist artwork American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about enzyme starch: their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. Feminist Artwork. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of operators, this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and artwork social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and Quiz Show Redford Essay significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to feminist general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and type use most work, the feminist artwork, last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the tour uk, classic films he made in each country.

The Eyes of the artwork, Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to uk Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and feminist a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs.

They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to grigori rasputin dmitri make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and artwork evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of digests, a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of artwork, film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Cola Relationship Marketing. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the artwork, films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. Rasputin Dmitri. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday.

By trying to understand film history, we better understand the feminist artwork, movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of type, Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.

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