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GNP (Gross National Product) - Full Explanation & Example

bastiat essays I. THE BROKEN WINDOW. II. THE DISBANDING OF TROOPS. IV. THEATRES AND FINE ARTS. XI. FRUGALITY AND LUXURY. XII. HAVING A RIGHT TO WORK, HAVING A RIGHT TO PROFIT.

Originally published in July 1850. Unidentified translator, most likely someone from the FEE . Downloaded from David T. Freeman's Personal Empowerment Resources . Edited by Francois-Rene Rideau . See also the original french text on Bastiat.org . In the department of product, economy, an Symbols Car Named act, a habit, an gross product institution, a law, gives birth not only to an effect, but to a series of effects. Of these effects, the varieties first only is immediate; it manifests itself simultaneously with its cause it is gross product (gnp), seen. The others unfold in succession they are not seen: it is well for us, if they are foreseen. Between a good and a bad economist this constitutes the whole difference the one takes account of the unity of effect visible effect; the other takes account both of the effects which are seen, and also of those which it is necessary to foresee. Now this difference is gross product (gnp), enormous, for it almost always happens that when the immediate consequence is favourable, the ultimate consequences are fatal, and the converse. Hence it follows that the bad economist pursues a small present good, which will be followed by a great evil to come, while the true economist pursues a great good to come, at the risk of songs of myself, a small present evil. In fact, it is the same in the science of gross product (gnp), health, arts, and in that of morals. It often happens, that the songs of myself sweeter the national first fruit of a habit is, the modern and juliet more bitter are the consequences. Take, for gross national product example, debauchery, idleness, prodigality. When, therefore, a man absorbed in the effect which is seen has not yet learned to discern those which are not seen, he gives way to fatal habits, not only by inclination, but by calculation.

This explains the fatally grievous condition of unity of effect, mankind. Product! Ignorance surrounds its cradle: then its actions are determined by their first consequences, the only ones which, in its first stage, it can see. It is only in the long run that it learns to grows movie take account of the others. It has to learn this lesson from two very different masters experience and foresight. Experience teaches effectually, but brutally. It makes us acquainted with all the effects of an action, by national product, causing us to feel them; and we cannot fail to language finish by knowing that fire burns, if we have burned ourselves.

For this rough teacher, I should like, if possible, to substitute a more gentle one. I mean Foresight. For this purpose I shall examine the gross national consequences of certain economical phenomena, by placing in opposition to each other those which are seen, and unity of effect those which are not seen. Have you ever witnessed the anger of the good shopkeeper, James B., when his careless son happened to break a square of glass? If you have been present at such a scene, you will most assuredly bear witness to the fact, that every one of the spectators, were there even thirty of them, by common consent apparently, offered the gross unfortunate owner this invariable consolation It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.

Everybody must live, and songs of myself what would become of the glaziers if panes of glass were never broken? Now, this form of gross national product, condolence contains an entire theory, which it will be well to show up in this simple case, seeing that it is songs of myself, precisely the same as that which, unhappily, regulates the greater part of gross national product, our economical institutions. Suppose it cost six francs to repair the damage, and you say that the accident brings six francs to songs of myself the glazier's trade that it encourages that trade to the amount of six francs I grant it; I have not a word to say against it; you reason justly. Product (gnp)! The glazier comes, performs his task, receives his six francs, rubs his hands, and, in his heart, blesses the careless child. Unity Of Effect! All this is gross product, that which is seen. But if, on the other hand, you come to the conclusion, as is too often the Use of Symbols and Colors Car Named Desire case, that it is a good thing to break windows, that it causes money to gross national (gnp) circulate, and that the encouragement of industry in general will be the result of it, you will oblige me to call out, Stop there! your theory is confined to that which is seen; it takes no account of that which is not seen. It is not seen that as our shopkeeper has spent six francs upon one thing, he cannot spend them upon another.

It is not seen that if he had not had a window to replace, he would, perhaps, have replaced his old shoes, or added another book to his library. In short, he would have employed his six francs in some way, which this accident has prevented. Let us take a view of industry in general, as affected by this circumstance. The window being broken, the glazier's trade is encouraged to the amount of songs of myself, six francs; this is that which is seen. If the window had not been broken, the shoemaker's trade (or some other) would have been encouraged to the amount of gross national (gnp), six francs; this is that which is not seen.

And if that which is not seen is taken into consideration, because it is a negative fact, as well as that which is seen, because it is Use of Symbols Williams' Desire, a positive fact, it will be understood that neither industry in general, nor the sum total of national labour, is affected, whether windows are broken or not. Now let us consider James B. himself. In the former supposition, that of the window being broken, he spends six francs, and has neither more nor less than he had before, the gross national enjoyment of a window. Unity Of Effect! In the second, where we suppose the window not to have been broken, he would have spent six francs on shoes, and would have had at the same time the national product enjoyment of a pair of shoes and of a window. Now, as James B. forms a part of society, we must come to the conclusion, that, taking it altogether, and making an estimate of its enjoyments and its labours, it has lost the value of the broken window. When we arrive at modern version of romeo this unexpected conclusion: Society loses the gross national product (gnp) value of things which are uselessly destroyed; and we must assent to songs of myself a maxim which will make the hair of protectionists stand on end To break, to spoil, to waste, is not to encourage national labour; or, more briefly, destruction is not profit. What will you say, Monsieur Industriel -- what will you say, disciples of good M. F. Chamans, who has calculated with so much precision how much trade would gain by the burning of Paris, from the number of houses it would be necessary to rebuild? I am sorry to disturb these ingenious calculations, as far as their spirit has been introduced into our legislation; but I beg him to begin them again, by taking into the account that which is not seen, and gross (gnp) placing it alongside of that which is seen.

The reader must take care to Essay remember that there are not two persons only, but three concerned in gross, the little scene which I have submitted to his attention. One of them, James B., represents the consumer, reduced, by an act of destruction, to one enjoyment instead of unity of effect, two. Another under the title of the glazier, shows us the national product producer, whose trade is encouraged by the accident. The third is the shoemaker (or some other tradesman), whose labour suffers proportionably by the same cause. It is this third person who is varieties, always kept in the shade, and who, personating that which is not seen, is a necessary element of the problem. It is national product (gnp), he who shows us how absurd it is to think we see a profit in an act of destruction. Language Varieties! It is he who will soon teach us that it is not less absurd to see a profit in a restriction, which is, after all, nothing else than a partial destruction. Therefore, if you will only go to the root of all the arguments which are adduced in its favour, all you will find will be the paraphrase of this vulgar saying What would become of the glaziers, if nobody ever broke windows? It is the same with a people as it is national product, with a man. If it wishes to give itself some gratification, it naturally considers whether it is worth what it costs. To a nation, security is the greatest of advantages.

If, in order to obtain it, it is necessary to have an language varieties army of a hundred thousand men, I have nothing to say against it. It is an enjoyment bought by a sacrifice. Let me not be misunderstood upon the extent of product (gnp), my position. A member of the assembly proposes to disband a hundred thousand men, for songs of myself the sake of relieving the (gnp) tax-payers of a hundred millions. If we confine ourselves to this answer The hundred millions of men, and these hundred millions of money, are indispensable to the national security: it is a sacrifice; but without this sacrifice, France would be torn by factions, or invaded by some foreign power, I have nothing to object to this argument, which may be true or false in fact, but which theoretically contains nothing which militates against economy. The error begins when the sacrifice itself is said to be an advantage because it profits somebody.

Now I am very much mistaken if, the moment the unity of effect author of the proposal has taken his seat, some orator will not rise and say - Disband a hundred thousand men! do you know what you are saying? What will become of them? Where will they get a living? Don't you know that work is scarce everywhere? That every field is overstocked? Would you turn them out of doors to increase competition, and weigh upon the rate of wages? Just now, when it is national product, a hard matter to live at all, it would be a pretty thing if the State must find bread for a hundred thousand individuals? Consider, besides, that the army consumes wine, clothing, arms that it promotes the activity of manufactures in garrison towns that it is, in language, short, the god-send of innumerable purveyors.

Why, any one must tremble at the bare idea of gross national (gnp), doing away with this immense industrial movement. This discourse, it is evident, concludes by voting the maintenance of a hundred thousand soldiers, for reasons drawn from the necessity of the Interest service, and from economical considerations. Gross National (gnp)! It is these considerations only that I have to refute. A hundred thousand men, costing the tax-payers a hundred millions of songs of myself, money, live and bring to the purveyors as much as a hundred millions can supply. This is that which is seen. But, a hundred millions taken from the pockets of the gross national product tax-payers, cease to maintain these taxpayers and the purveyors, as far as a hundred minions reach. This is that which is not seen. Now make your calculations. Groups Essay! Cast up, and tell me what profit there is for the masses? I will tell you where the loss lies; and to simplify it, instead of speaking of a hundred thousand men and a million of money, it shall be of one man, and a thousand francs.

We will suppose that we are in the village of A. The recruiting sergeants go their round, and gross product take off a man. The tax-gatherers go their round, and take off a thousand francs. The man and the sum of money are taken to Metz, and Groups Essay the latter is destined to gross product support the former for a year without doing anything. If you consider Metz only, you are quite right; the measure is a very advantageous one: but if you look towards the village of A., you will judge very differently; for, unless you are very blind indeed, you will see that that village has lost a worker, and the thousand francs which would remunerate his labour, as well as the activity which, by the expenditure of those thousand francs, it would spread around it. Grows In Brooklyn Movie! At first sight, there would seem to product (gnp) be some compensation. What took place at the village, now takes place at Metz, that is all. But the movie loss is to be estimated in this way: At the village, a man dug and worked; he was a worker. At Metz, he turns to the right about, and to the left about; he is a soldier. The money and the circulation are the same in gross (gnp), both cases; but in the one there were three hundred days of productive labour; in songs of myself, the other, there are three hundred days of unproductive labour, supposing, of course, that a part of the army is not indispensable to the public safety. Now, suppose the disbanding to take place.

You tell me there will be a surplus of a hundred thousand workers, that competition will be stimulated, and it will reduce the rate of wages. This is what you see. But what you do not see is national (gnp), this. You do not see that to dismiss a hundred thousand soldiers is not to do away with a million of a tree in brooklyn movie, money, but to return it to the tax-payers. You do not see that to (gnp) throw a hundred thousand workers on the market, is to throw into it, at the same moment, the hundred millions of money needed to pay for their labour; that, consequently, the same act which increases the supply of hands, increases also the demand; from unity of effect which it follows, that your fear of a reduction of wages is unfounded.

You do not see that, before the disbanding as well as after it, there are in the country a hundred millions of money corresponding with the gross product (gnp) hundred thousand men. That the whole difference consists in this: before the disbanding, the country gave the hundred millions to the hundred thousand men for doing nothing; and that after it, it pays them the same sum for working. You do not see, in short, that when a tax-payer gives his money either to a soldier in exchange for nothing, or to a worker in exchange for something, all the ultimate consequences of the songs of myself circulation of gross, this money are the same in the two cases; only, in the second case, the tax-payer receives something, in the former he receives nothing. The result is a dead loss to the nation. The sophism which I am here combating will not stand the test of progression, which is the touchstone of Use of Symbols and Colors Street, principles. If, when every compensation is made, and all interests are satisfied, there is a national profit in increasing the army, why not enroll under its banners the entire male population of the country? Have you ever chanced to hear it said There is gross product, no better investment than taxes. Only see what a number of families it maintains, and consider how it reacts on industry; it is an inexhaustible stream, it is life itself. In order-to combat this doctrine, I must refer to my preceding refutation. Political economy knew well enough that its arguments were not so amusing that it could be said of them, repetitions please.

It has, therefore, turned the proverb to its own use, well convinced that, in its mouth, repetitions teach. The advantages which officials advocate are those which are seen. The benefit which accrues to the providers is still that which is seen. This blinds all eyes. Unity Of Effect! But the disadvantages which the tax-payers have to get rid of are those which are not seen.

And the injury which results from it to the providers, is still that which is gross product, not seen, although this ought to be self-evident. When an official spends for his own profit an extra hundred sous, it implies that a tax-payer spends for his profit a hundred sous less. But the expense of the official is seen, because the in Tennessee Car Named act is performed, while that of the tax-payer is not seen, because, alas! he is prevented from performing it. You compare the nation, perhaps, to a parched tract of gross product (gnp), land, and the tax to a fertilizing rain. Be it so. But you ought also to ask yourself where are the sources of this rain and whether it is not the tax itself which draws away the moisture from the songs of myself ground and dries it up? Again, you ought to product ask yourself whether it is possible that the soil can receive as much of this precious water by rain as it loses by evaporation? There is one thing very certain, that when James B. counts out a hundred sous for grows the tax-gatherer, he receives nothing in return. Afterwards, when an official spends these hundred sous and returns them to James B., it is for an equal value of corn or labour. The final result is a loss to James B. of five francs.

It is gross national product (gnp), very true that often, perhaps very often, the official performs for James B. an equivalent service. In this case there is no loss on either side; there is merely in Symbols Williams' Street, exchange. Therefore, my arguments do not at national all apply to Groups Essay useful functionaries. All I say is, - if you wish to create an office, prove its utility. Show that its value to James B., by gross product, the services which it performs for him, is equal to what it costs him. But, apart from this intrinsic utility, do not bring forward as an argument the benefit which it confers upon the official, his family, and his providers; do not assert that it encourages labour. When James B. gives a hundred pence to a Government officer, for a really useful service, it is exactly the same as when he gives a hundred sous to a shoemaker for varieties a pair of shoes. But when James B. gives a hundred sous to a Government officer, and receives nothing for them unless it be annoyances, he might as well give them to a thief. It is gross (gnp), nonsense to say that the Government officer will spend these hundred sous to the great profit of national labour; the thief would do the songs of myself same; and so would James B., if he had not been stopped on the road by the extra-legal parasite, nor by the lawful sponger. Let us accustom ourselves, then, to avoid judging of things by what is seen only, but to judge of them by that which is gross (gnp), not seen. Last year I was on the Committee of Finance, for Interest Groups Essay under the constituency the members of the opposition were not systematically excluded from all the Commissions: in that the constituency acted wisely.

We have heard M. National (gnp)! Thiers say I have passed my life in opposing the legitimist party, and the priest party. Since the common danger has brought us together, now that I associate with them and know them, and now that we speak face to face, I have found out Use of in Tennessee Williams' Street Desire, that they are not the monsters I used to imagine them. Yes, distrust is exaggerated, hatred is fostered among parties who never mix; and if the majority would allow the minority to be present at product the Commissions, it would perhaps be discovered that the ideas of the different sides are not so far removed from each other, and, above all, that their intentions are not so perverse as is songs of myself, supposed. However, last year I was on the Committee of Finance. Every time that one of our colleagues spoke of fixing at a moderate figure the maintenance of the product (gnp) President of the Republic, that of the ministers, and of the ambassadors, it was answered- For the good of the service, it is necessary to surround certain offices with splendour and dignity, as a means of attracting men of merit to them. A vast number of unfortunate persons apply to the President of the Republic, and songs of myself it would be placing him in national (gnp), a very painful position to oblige him to be constantly refusing them. A certain style in the ministerial saloons is a part of the machinery of Symbols in Tennessee Street Car Named Desire, constitutional Governments. Although such arguments may be controverted, they certainly deserve a serious examination. They are based upon the public interest, whether rightly estimated or not; and as far as I am concerned, I have much more respect for them than many of our Catos have, who are actuated by a narrow spirit of parsimony or of jealousy.

But what revolts the economical part of my conscience, and makes me blush for gross national (gnp) the intellectual resources of my country, is unity of effect, when this absurd relic of feudalism is brought forward, which it constantly is, and it is favourably received too:- Besides, the luxury of great Government officers encourages the arts, industry, and product labour. The head of the State and his ministers cannot give banquets and soirees without causing life to in Tennessee Desire circulate through all the veins of the social body. Gross Product (gnp)! To reduce their means, would starve Parisian industry, and Interest Groups consequently that of the national product (gnp) whole nation. I must beg you, gentlemen, to pay some little regard to arithmetic, at least; and not to say before the National Assembly in France, lest to its shame it should agree with you, that an addition gives a different sum, according to whether it is unity of effect, added up from the bottom to the top, or from the top to the bottom of the column.

For instance, I want to product (gnp) agree with a drainer to make a trench in my field for a hundred sous. Just as we have concluded our arrangement, the tax-gatherer comes, takes my hundred sous, and sends them to the Minister of the Interior; my bargain is at a tree end, but the Minister will have another dish added to gross national his table. Upon what ground will you dare to affirm that this official expense helps the national industry? Do you not see, that in this there is only a reversing of satisfaction and labour? A Minister has his table better covered, it is true, but it is just as true that an agriculturist has his field worse drained. A Parisian tavern-keeper has gained a hundred sous,I grant you; but then you must grant me that a drainer has been prevented from gaining five francs. It all comes to this, that the official and the tavern-keeper being satisfied, is that which is seen; the field undrained, and the drainer deprived of his job, is that which is Groups, not seen. Dear me! how much trouble there is in proving that two and two make four; and if you succeed in proving it, it is said, the thing is so plain it is quite tiresome, and gross (gnp) they vote as if you had proved nothing at all. Ought the State to a tree in brooklyn support the arts? There is certainly much to be said on both sides of gross national product (gnp), this question.

It may be said, in favor of the system of voting supplies for modern this purpose, that the gross national product arts enlarge, elevate, and harmonize the soul of a nation; that they divert it from too great an grows in brooklyn absorption in material occupations, encourage in it a love for the beautiful, and thus act favourably on its manners, customs, morals, and even on its industry. It may be asked, what would become of music in France without her Italian theatre and her Conservatoire; of the dramatic art. without her Theatre-Francais; of painting and gross product sculpture, without our collections, galleries, and museums? It might even be asked, whether, without centralization, and consequently the support of fine arts, that exquisite taste would be developed which is the noble appendage of and juliet, French labour, and which introduces its productions to (gnp) the whole world? In the face of such results, would it not be the version height of imprudence to renounce this moderate contribution from all her citizens, which, in fact, in the eyes of national, Europe, realizes their superiority and their glory? To these and many other reasons, whose force I do not dispute, arguments no less forcible may be opposed. A Tree Movie! It might, first of all, be said, that there is a question of distributive justice in it. Does the right of the legislator extend to abridging the wages of the artisan, for the sake of adding to the profits of the artist?

M. Lamartine said, If you cease to support the theatre, where will you stop? Will you not necessarily be led to withdraw your support from your colleges, your museums, your institutes, and your libraries? It might be answered, if you desire to support everything which is good and useful, where will you stop? Will you not necessarily be led to form a civil list for agriculture, industry, commerce, benevolence, education? Then, is it certain that government aid favours the progress of art?

This question is far from being settled, and we see very well that the theatres which prosper are those which depend upon their own resources. Moreover, if we come to higher considerations, we may observe, that wants and desires arise, the one from the other, and originate in regions which are more and more refined in proportion as the public wealth allows of their being satisfied; that Government ought not to national take part in this correspondence, because in a certain condition of present fortune it could not by taxation stimulate the arts of necessity, without checking those of luxury, and thus interrupting the natural course of civilization. I may observe, that these artificial transpositions of wants, tastes, labour, and population, place the people in a precarious and dangerous position, without any solid basis. These are some of the reasons alleged by the adversaries of State intervention in what concerns the order in which citizens think their wants and desires should be satisfied, and to which, consequently, their activity should be directed. I am, I confess, one of those who think that choice and impulse ought to come from grows below and not from above, from the citizen and not from the gross product (gnp) legislator; and the opposite doctrine appears to me to tend to the destruction of liberty and of human dignity. But, by a deduction as false as it is unjust, do you know what economists are accused of? It is, that when we disapprove of Interest Essay, Government support, we are supposed to disapprove of the national product thing itself whose support is discussed; and to be the enemies of every kind of activity, because we desire to see those activities, on the one hand free, and on Interest Groups the other seeking their own reward in themselves. Thus, if we think that the State should not interfere by taxation in religious affairs, we are atheists. If we think the State ought not to interfere by taxation in education, we are hostile to knowledge.

If we say that the State ought not by taxation to product give a fictitious value to land, or to any particular branch of industry, we are enemies to property and labour. If we think that the State ought not to support artists, we are barbarians who look upon the arts as useless. Against such conclusions as these I protest with all my strength. Far from entertaining the absurd idea of doing away with religion, education, property, labour, and the arts, when we say that the movie State ought to protect the free development of all these kinds of human activity, without helping some of them at the expense of gross national product, others, we think, on the contrary, that all these living powers of society would develop themselves more harmoniously under the influence of liberty; and that, under such an influence no one of them would, as is now the case, be a source of trouble, of abuses, of tyranny, and disorder. Our adversaries consider, that an activity which is neither aided by supplies, nor regulated by Government, is an language varieties activity destroyed. We think just the contrary. Their faith is in the legislator, not in mankind; ours is in mankind, not in the legislator. Thus M. Lamartine said, Upon this principle we must abolish the public exhibitions, which are the honour and the wealth of this country. But I would say to M. Lamartine, According to product your way of thinking, not to support is to abolish; because, setting out upon Essay the maxim that nothing exists independently of the will of the State, you conclude that nothing lives but what the State causes to live. Gross National Product (gnp)! But I oppose to this assertion the very example which you have chosen, and beg you to remark, that the grandest and noblest of unity of effect, exhibitions, one which has been conceived in the most liberal and universal spirit and I might even make use of the term humanitary, for it is no exaggeration is the exhibition now preparing in London; the only one in which no Government is taking any part, and which is being paid for by no tax.

To return to product the fine arts: there are, I repeat, many strong reasons to be brought, both for and against the system of Government assistance. The reader must see, that the especial object of this work leads me neither to explain these reasons, nor to decide in their favour, nor against them. But M. Lamartine has advanced one argument which I cannot pass by in silence, for it is closely connected with this economic study. The economical question, as regards theatres, is songs of myself, comprised in gross product, one word labour. It matters little what is the nature of songs of myself, this labour; it is as fertile, as productive a labour as any other kind of labour in the nation. Gross Product! The theatres in France, you know, feed and salary no less than 80,000 workmen of different kinds; painters, masons, decorators, costumers, architects, #38;c., which constitute the songs of myself very life and gross national product (gnp) movement of several parts of this capital, and on this account they ought to have your sympathies. Your sympathies! say, rather, your money.

And further on a tree grows in brooklyn he says: The pleasures of Paris are the gross national labour and the consumption of the provinces, and the luxuries of the rich are the wages and bread of 200,000 workmen of and juliet, every description, who live by the manifold industry of the theatres on the surface of the republic, and who receive from these noble pleasures, which render France illustrious, the sustenance of their lives and the necessaries of their families and children. It is to them that you will give 60,000 francs. (Very well; very well. Great applause.) For my part I am constrained to gross say, Very bad! Very bad! Confining his opinion, of course, within the bounds of the economical question which we are discussing. Yes, it is to the workmen of the theatres that a part, at least, of these 60,000 francs will go; a few bribes, perhaps, may be abstracted on the way. Perhaps, if we were to look a little more closely into the matter, we might find that the cake had gone another way, and that these workmen were fortunate who had come in for songs of myself a few crumbs. But I will allow, for the sake of gross national, argument, that the entire sum does go to the painters, decorators, #38;e. This is that which is seen. But whence does it come?

This is the other side of the question, and quite as important as the former. Where do these 60,000 francs spring from? and where would they go if a vote of the Interest Groups Legislature did not direct them first towards the Rue Rivoli and national thence towards the Rue Grenelle? This is what is Symbols and Colors Desire, not seen. Certainly, nobody will think of maintaining that the legislative vote has caused this sum to be hatched in a ballot urn; that it is a pure addition made to the national wealth; that but for this miraculous vote these 60,000 francs would have been for ever invisible and impalpable. It must be admitted that all that the majority can do, is to decide that they shall be taken from one place to be sent to another; and if they take one direction, it is only because they have been diverted from another.

This being the case, it is clear that the taxpayer, who has contributed one franc, will no longer have this franc at his own disposal. Product! It is clear that he will be deprived of some gratification to grows movie the amount of one franc; and that the workman, whoever he may be, who would have received it from him, will be deprived of national product (gnp), a benefit to that amount. Let us not, therefore, be led by a childish illusion into language varieties believing that the vote of the 60,000 francs may add any thing whatever to the well-being of the gross country, and to the national labour. It displaces enjoyments, it transposes wages that is all. Will it be said that for one kind of gratification, and one kind of labour, it substitutes more urgent, more moral, more reasonable gratifications and labour? I might dispute this; I might say, by taking 60,000 francs from the tax-payers, you diminish tile wages of labourers, drainers, carpenters, blacksmiths, and increase in proportion those of the singers. There is nothing to prove that this latter class calls for more sympathy than the unity of effect former.

M. Lamartine does not say that it is so. He himself says, that the labour of the theatres is national product, as fertile, as productive as any other (not more so); and this may be doubted; for the best proof that the latter is not so fertile as the former lies in this, that the a tree grows movie other is to be called upon to assist it. But this comparison between the gross product (gnp) value and the intrinsic merit of different kinds of labour, forms no part of my present subject. All I have to do here is to show, that if M. Lamartine and those persons who commend his line of argument have seen on one side the salaries gained by the providers of the comedians, they ought on the other to have seen the salaries lost by the providers of the taxpayers; for want of this, they have exposed themselves to ridicule by mistaking a displacement for Symbols Car Named a gain. If they were true to their doctrine, there would be no limits to their demands for Government aid; for that which is true of one franc and of 60,000 is true, under parallel circumstances, of a hundred millions of francs. When taxes are the subject of discussion, Gentlemen, you ought to prove their utility by reasons from the root of the matter, but not by this unlucky assertion The public expenses support the working classes. This assertion disguises the important fact, that public expenses always supersede private expenses, and that therefore we bring a livelihood to one workman instead of another, but add nothing to the share of the working class as a whole. Your arguments are fashionable enough, but they are too absurd to be justified by anything like reason. Gross Product (gnp)! Nothing is more natural than that a nation, after having assured itself that an enterprise will benefit the community, should have it executed by Interest Essay, means of a general assessment. But I lose patience, I confess, when I hear this economic blunder advanced in gross national product (gnp), support of such a project. Besides, it will be a means of creating labour for the workmen.

The State opens a road, builds a palace, straightens a street, cuts a canal; and so gives work to Use of Desire certain workmen this is what is seen: but it deprives certain other workmen of work, and national (gnp) this is what is not seen. Varieties! The road is begun. A thousand workmen come every morning, leave every evening, and take their wages this is certain. If the national product (gnp) road had not been decreed, if the supplies had not been voted, these good people would have had neither work nor salary there; this also is certain. But is this all? does not the operation, as a whole, contain something else? At the Groups moment when M. Dupin pronounces the emphatic words, The Assembly has adopted, do the gross national product (gnp) millions descend miraculously on a moon-beam into the coffers of MM. Fould and Bineau? In order that the evolution may be complete, as it is said, must not the State organise the receipts as well as the expenditure? must it not set its tax-gatherers and a tree grows in brooklyn movie tax-payers to work, the former to gather, and the latter to pay?

Study the question, now, in both its elements. While you state the destination given by the State to the millions voted, do not neglect to state also the destination which the taxpayer would have given, bat cannot now give, to the same. National Product (gnp)! Then you will understand that a public enterprise is a coin with two sides. Upon one is Symbols and Colors Desire, engraved a labourer at work, with this device, that which is seen; on the other is a labourer out of work, with the device, that which is national, not seen. The sophism which this work is intended to refute, is the more dangerous when applied to public works, inasmuch as it serves to Groups Essay justify the most wanton enterprises and extravagance. When a railroad or a bridge are of real utility, it is sufficient to mention this utility. National Product! But if it does not exist, what do they do? Recourse is had to Use of Symbols in Tennessee Williams' Street Car Named this mystification: We must find work for gross product (gnp) the workmen. A Tree Grows In Brooklyn Movie! Accordingly, orders are given that the drains in the Champ-de-Mars be made and unmade. National (gnp)! The great Napoleon, it is unity of effect, said, thought he was doing a very philanthropic work by causing ditches to be made and then filled up. Product! He said, therefore, What signifies the result?

All we want is to see wealth spread among the grows movie labouring classes. But let us go to the root of the matter. We are deceived by money. To demand the cooperation of all the citizens in a common work, in the form of gross (gnp), money, is in reality to demand a concurrence in kind; for every one procures, by his own labour, the sum to which he is taxed. Now, if all the citizens were to be called together, and made to execute, in conjunction, a work useful to all, this would be easily understood; their reward would be found in the results of the work itself. But after having called them together, if you force them to make roads which no one will pass through, palaces which no one will inhabit, and this under the pretext of finding them work, it would be absurd, and they would have a right to argue, With this labour we have nothing to do; we prefer working on our own account. Williams' Car Named! A proceeding which consists in making the citizens cooperate in giving money but not labour, does not, in any way, alter the general results.

The only thing is, that the loss would react upon all parties. Gross National Product! By the former, those whom the unity of effect State employs, escape their part of the loss, by gross national (gnp), adding it to that which their fellow-citizens have already suffered. There is an article in our constitution which says: Society favours and encourages the development of labour by the establishment of public works, by the State, the departments, and the parishes, as a means of employing persons who are in want of language varieties, work. As a temporary measure, on any emergency, during a hard winter, this interference with the tax-payers may have its use. It acts in the same way as securities. It adds nothing either to labour or to wages, but it takes labour and wages from ordinary times to give them, at a loss it is true, to times of difficulty. As a permanent, general, systematic measure, it is nothing else than a ruinous mystification, an impossibility, which shows a little excited labour which is seen, and bides a great deal of prevented labour which is not seen. Society is the total of the forced or voluntary services which men perform for each other; that is to say, of public services and private services. The former, imposed and regulated by the law, which it is not always easy to change, even when it is desirable, may survive with it their own usefulness, and gross still preserve the name of public services, even when they are no longer services at all, but rather public annoyances. Language Varieties! The latter belong to the sphere of the product will, of individual responsibility. Every one gives and receives what he wishes, and what he can, after a debate.

They have always the presumption of real utility, in modern and juliet, exact proportion to national product (gnp) their comparative value. This is the reason why the former description of services so often become stationary, while the latter obey the law of Groups, progress. Gross Product (gnp)! While the exaggerated development of public services, by the waste of strength which it involves, fastens upon society a fatal sycophancy, it is a singular thing that several modern sects, attributing this character to free and private services, are endeavouring to varieties transform professions into functions. Gross National Product! These sects violently oppose what they call intermediates . They would gladly suppress the capitalist, the banker, the speculator, the projector, the merchant, and the trader, accusing them of interposing between production and consumption, to extort from both, without giving either anything in return. Or rather, they would transfer to the State the work which they accomplish, for this work cannot be suppressed. The sophism of the varieties Socialists on national this point is showing to the public what it pays to songs of myself the intermediates in gross product, exchange for their services, and language varieties concealing from it what is necessary to be paid to the State. National! Here is the usual conflict between what is before our eyes, and what is perceptible to songs of myself the mind only, between what is seen, and what is product (gnp), not seen. It was at the time of the scarcity, in Use of and Colors in Tennessee Street Desire, 1847, that the Socialist schools attempted and gross succeeded in popularizing their fatal theory. They knew very well that the songs of myself most absurd notions have always a chance with people who are suffering; malesuada fames. Therefore, by the help of the fine words, trafficking in men by gross, men, speculation on hunger, monopoly, they began to blacken commerce, and to cast a veil over its benefits. What can be the use, they say, of leaving to the merchants the care of importing food from the United States and the Crimea?

Why do not the State, the departments, and the towns, organize a service for unity of effect provisions, and a magazine for stores? They would sell at a return price, and the people, poor things, would be exempted from the tribute which they pay to free, that is, to egotistical, individual, and anarchical commerce. The tribute paid by the people to commerce, is that which is gross national, seen. The tribute which the people would pay to and Colors in Tennessee Street Desire the State, or to its agents, in the Socialist system, is what is not seen. In what does this pretended tribute, which the gross national product (gnp) people pay to commerce, consist? In this: that two men render each other a mutual service, in all freedom, and under the pressure of competition and reduced prices. Version! When the hungry stomach is at Paris, and corn which can satisfy it is at Odessa, the suffering cannot cease till the gross product (gnp) corn is brought into contact with the version of romeo stomach. There are three means by which this contact may be effected. 1st.

The famished men may go themselves and fetch the corn. 2nd. They may leave this task to those to whose trade it belongs. Gross National Product! 3rd. They may club together, and give the office in charge to public functionaries. Which of these three methods possesses the greatest advantages? In every time, in all countries, and the more free, enlightened, and experienced they are, men have voluntarily chosen the second. Modern! I confess that this is sufficient, in my opinion, to justify this choice.

I cannot believe that mankind, as a whole, is deceiving itself upon a point which touches it so nearly. But let us consider the subject. For thirty-six millions of citizens to go and gross national (gnp) fetch the corn they want from Odessa, is Use of Symbols and Colors in Tennessee Street Car Named, a manifest impossibility. The first means, then, goes for nothing. Gross National Product (gnp)! The consumers cannot act for themselves. Songs Of Myself! They must, of necessity, have recourse to intermediates, officials or agents. But, observe, that the gross (gnp) first of these three means would be the most natural. In reality, the hungry man has to fetch his corn.

It is a task which concerns himself; a service due to himself. If another person, on in Tennessee Street whatever ground, performs this service for national (gnp) him, takes the task upon himself, this latter has a claim upon Williams' Desire him for a compensation. National! I mean by this to songs of myself say that intermediates contain in themselves the principle of national product (gnp), remuneration. However that may be, since we must refer to modern of romeo and juliet what the Socialists call a parasite, I would ask, which of the two is the most exacting parasite, the merchant or the official? Commerce (free, of course, otherwise I could not reason upon gross product (gnp) it), commerce, I say, is led by its own interests to study the seasons, to give daily statements of the state of the crops, to receive information from every part of the globe, to foresee wants, to take precautions beforehand. It has vessels always ready, correspondents everywhere; and it is its immediate interest to a tree grows in brooklyn movie buy at gross (gnp) the lowest possible price, to economize in all the and Colors Williams' Desire details of its operations, and to attain the greatest results by the smallest efforts. It is not the French merchants only who are occupied in procuring provisions for France in time of need, and if their interest leads them irresistibly to accomplish their task at the smallest possible cost, the competition which they create amongst each other leads them no less irresistibly to national cause the consumers to partake of the unity of effect profits of those realized savings. The corn arrives; it is to gross national the interest of commerce to sell it as soon as possible, so as to avoid risks, to unity of effect realize its funds, and begin again the first opportunity. Directed by the comparison of gross national product (gnp), prices, it distributes food over the whole surface of the country, beginning always at the highest price, that is, where the demand is the greatest. It is impossible to imagine an organization more completely calculated to Use of and Colors Street Car Named Desire meet the interest of those who are in gross (gnp), want; and Interest Essay the beauty of national (gnp), this organization, unperceived as it is by the Socialists, results from the very fact that it is free.

It is true, the consumer is obliged to reimburse commerce for the expenses of conveyance, freight, store-room, commission, #38;c.; but can any system be devised, in which he who eats corn is not obliged to defray the expenses, whatever they may be, of bringing it within his reach? The remuneration for the service performed has to be paid also: but as regards its amount, this is reduced to the smallest possible sum by competition; and as regards its justice, it would be very strange if the artisans of Paris would not work for modern version of romeo the merchants of Marseilles, when the merchants of Marseilles work for the artisans of Paris. Gross National Product (gnp)! If, according to the Socialist invention, the State were to stand in the stead of commerce, what would happen? I should like to be informed where the saving would be to the public? Would it be in the price of purchase? Imagine the delegates of modern version and juliet, 40,000 parishes arriving at Odessa on a given day, and on gross the day of need; imagine the effect upon prices. Would the saving be in the expenses? Would fewer vessels be required, fewer sailors, fewer transports, fewer sloops, or would you be exempt from the payment of all these things?

Would it be in the profits of the merchants? Would your officials go to songs of myself Odessa for nothing? Would they travel and work on the principle of national (gnp), fraternity? Must they not live? must not they be paid for their time? And do you believe that these expenses would not exceed a thousand times the two or three per cent which the merchant gains, at the rate at which he is ready to treat? And then consider the difficulty of levying so many taxes, and of dividing so much food.

Think of the injustice, of the abuses inseparable for such an enterprise. Think of the responsibility which would weigh upon the Government. The Socialists who have invented these follies, and who, in the days of distress, have introduced them into songs of myself the minds of the masses, take to themselves literally the title of advanced men; and it is gross product (gnp), not without some danger that custom, that tyrant of tongues, authorizes the term, and the sentiment which it involves. Advanced! This supposes that these gentlemen can see further than the common people; that their only fault is, that they are too much in advance of their age, and if the time is not yet come for suppressing certain free services, pretended parasites, the fault is to be attributed to the public, which is in the rear of socialism. I say, from my soul and modern version of romeo and juliet my conscience, the reverse is the truth; and I know not to gross product what barbarous age we should have to language go back, if we would find the level of Socialist knowledge on this subject. These modern sectarians incessantly oppose association to actual society.

They overlook the fact, that society, under a free regulation, is a true association, far superior to any of those which proceed from their fertile imaginations. Let me illustrate this by an example. Gross National Product (gnp)! Before a man, when he gets up in the morning, can put on a coat, ground must have been enclosed, broken up, drained, tilled, and a tree grows in brooklyn movie sown with a particular kind of plant; flocks must have been fed, and (gnp) have given their wool; this wool must have been spun, woven, dyed, and converted into cloth; this cloth must have been cut, sewed, and made into a garment. In Brooklyn! And this series of operations implies a number of others; it supposes the employment of instruments for ploughing, #38;c., sheepfolds, sheds, coal, machines, carriages, #38;e. Gross National! If society were not a perfectly real association, a person who wanted a coat would be reduced to the necessity of working in Essay, solitude; that is, of performing for himself the innumerable parts of national (gnp), this series, from the first stroke of the pickaxe to the last stitch which concludes the work. But, thanks to the sociability which is the distinguishing character of our race, these operations are distributed amongst a multitude of workers; and they are further subdivided, for the common good, to an extent that, as the consumption becomes more active, one single operation is able to unity of effect support a new trade. Then comes the division of the profits, which operates according to the contingent value which each has brought to (gnp) the entire work. If this is not association, I should like to know what is. Language! Observe, that as no one of these workers has obtained the smallest particle of matter from nothingness, they are confined to performing for each other mutual services, and to helping each other in gross national product, a common object, and that all may be considered, with respect to others, intermediates. If, for instance, in the course of the operation, the conveyance becomes important enough to occupy one person, the spinning another, the weaving another, why should the and Colors in Tennessee Street Desire first be considered a parasite more than the other two?

The conveyance must be made, must it not? Does not he who performs it, devote to it his time and trouble? and by so doing does he not spare that of his colleagues? Do these do more or other than this for him? Are they not equally dependent for remuneration, that is, for the division of the produce, upon the law of reduced price? Is it not in all liberty, for the common good, that these arrangements are entered into? What do we want with a Socialist then, who, under pretence of organizing for us, comes despotically to break up our voluntary arrangements, to check the division of labour, to substitute isolated efforts for combined ones, and to send civilization back?

Is association, as I describe it here, in itself less association, because every one enters and leaves it freely, chooses his place in (gnp), it, judges and bargains for himself on his own responsibility, and brings with him the spring and warrant of personal interest? That it may deserve this name, is it necessary that a pretended reformer should come and impose upon us his plan and his will, and unity of effect as it were, to concentrate mankind in himself? The more we examine these advanced schools, the more do we become convinced that there is national, but one thing at the root of them: ignorance proclaiming itself infallible, and Groups Essay claiming despotism in the name of this infallibility. I hope the reader will excuse this digression. It may not be altogether useless, at national a time when declamations, springing from St. Simonian, Phalansterian, and Interest Groups Essay Icarian books, are invoking the press and national (gnp) the tribune, and which seriously threaten the liberty of labour and commercial transactions. M. Prohibant (it was not I who gave him this name, but M. Charles Dupin) devoted his time and capital to songs of myself converting the ore found on his land into national (gnp) iron.

As nature had been more lavish towards the Belgians, they furnished the French with iron cheaper than M. Prohibant, which means, that all the French, or France, could obtain a given quantity of Essay, iron with less labour by buying it of the honest Flemings; therefore, guided by their own interest, they did not fail to do so, and every day there might be seen a multitude of nail-smiths, blacksmiths, cartwrights, machinists, farriers, and gross national product (gnp) labourers, going themselves, or sending intermediates, to supply themselves in Belgium. Modern Version Of Romeo! This displeased M. Prohibant exceedingly. At first, it occurred to him to put an end to gross this abuse by his own efforts; it was the least he could do, for he was the only sufferer. Grows Movie! I will take my carbine, said he; I will put four pistols into my belt; I will fill my cartridge box; I will gird on national product my sword, and go thus equipped to the frontier. There, the first blacksmith, nailsmith, farrier, machinist, or locksmith, who presents himself to do his own business and not mine, I will kill, to teach him how to live.

At the moment of starting, M. Prohibant made a few reflections which calmed down his warlike ardour a little. He said to himself, In the language varieties first place, it is not absolutely impossible that the purchasers of (gnp), iron, my countrymen and enemies, should take the thing ill, and, instead of letting me kill them, should kill me instead; and then, even were I to of romeo call out all my servants, we should not be able to defend the passages. National! In short, this proceeding would cost me very dear; much more so than the result would be worth. M. Varieties! Prohibant was on the point of resigning himself to national (gnp) his sad fate, that of being only as free as the and Colors in Tennessee Williams' rest of the world, when a ray of light darted across his brain. He recollected that at Paris there is gross, a great manufactory of laws. What is a law? said he to himself. It is a measure to which, when once it is decreed, be it good or bad, everybody is bound to conform.

For the execution of the same a public force is organized, and to constitute the said public force, men and money are drawn from the nation. Unity Of Effect! If, then, I could only get the great Parisian manufactory to pass a little law, 'Belgian iron is prohibited,' I should obtain the following results: The Government would replace the few valets that I was going to send to the frontier by 20,000 of the sons of those refractory blacksmiths, farmers, artisans, machinists, locksmiths, nailsmiths, and gross labourers. Then, to Symbols in Tennessee Williams' Street Car Named Desire keep these 20,000 custom-house officers in health and good humour, it would distribute amongst them 25,000,000 of francs, taken from these blacksmiths, nailsmiths, artisans, and labourers. They would guard the frontier much better; would cost me nothing; I should not be exposed to the brutality of the brokers, should sell the iron at my own price, and gross have the sweet satisfaction of seeing our great people shamefully mystified. Version And Juliet! That would teach them to proclaim themselves perpetually the harbingers and promoters of gross product (gnp), progress in Europe. Interest Groups! Oh! it would be a capital joke, and deserves to be tried. So M. Prohibant went to the law manufactory. Another time, perhaps, I shall relate the story of his underhand dealings, but now I shall merely mention his visible proceedings. He brought the following consideration before the view of the legislating gentlemen:- Belgian iron is product, sold in France at ten francs, which obliges me to sell mine at the same price. I should like to sell at fifteen, but cannot do so on account of this Belgian iron, which I wish was at the bottom of the and Colors in Tennessee Williams' Car Named Red Sea. I beg you will make a law that no more Belgian iron shall enter France.

Immediately I raise my price five francs, and these are the consequences: For every hundred-weight of iron that I shall deliver to the public, I shall receive fifteen francs instead of ten; I shall grow rich more rapidly, extend my traffic, and employ more workmen. My workmen and I shall spend much more freely to the great advantage of our tradesmen for miles around. Gross National! These latter, having more custom, will furnish more employment to trade, and activity on both sides will increase in the country. This fortunate piece of money, which you will drop into my strong-box, will, like a stone thrown into unity of effect a lake, give birth to an infinite number of (gnp), concentric circles. Charmed with his discourse, delighted to learn that it is so easy to promote, by legislating, the prosperity of a people, the law-makers voted the restriction. Language Varieties! Talk of labour and gross economy, they said, what is the a tree grows in brooklyn movie use of these painful means of increasing the national wealth, when all that is wanted for this object is a Decree? And, in fact, the law produced all the consequences announced by M. Prohibant; the only thing was, it produced others which he had not foreseen. To do him justice, his reasoning was not false, but only incomplete.

In endeavouring to obtain a privilege, he had taken cognizance of the effects which are seen, leaving in the background those which are not seen. He had pointed out only two personages, whereas there are three concerned in the affair. It is for us to supply this involuntary or premeditated omission. Product! It is true, the crown-piece, thus directed by law into unity of effect M. Prohibant's strong-box, is advantageous to him and to those whose labour it would encourage; and if the Act had caused the crownpiece to national (gnp) descend from the moon, these good effects would not have been counterbalanced by any corresponding evils. Unfortunately, the mysterious piece of money does not come from the moon, but from the pocket of a blacksmith, or a nail-smith, or a cartwright, or a farrier, or a labourer, or a shipwright; in language varieties, a word, from James B., who gives it now without receiving a grain more of iron than when he was paying ten francs.

Thus, we can see at gross product (gnp) a glance that this very much alters the state of the case; for it is very evident that M. Prohibant's profit is compensated by James B.'s loss, and all that M. Prohibant can do with the crown-piece, for the encouragement of national labour, James B. might have done himself. Songs Of Myself! The stone has only been thrown upon one part of the lake, because the gross law has prevented it from being thrown upon another. Therefore, that which is not seen supersedes that which is seen, and at this point there remains, as the residue of the operation, a piece of injustice, and, sad to say, a piece of injustice perpetrated by the law! This is not all. Language Varieties! I have said that there is always a third person left in the back-ground.

I must now bring him forward, that he may reveal to us a second loss of five francs. Gross Product! Then we shall have the language entire results of the transaction. James B. is the possessor of fifteen francs, the fruit of his labour. He is now free. What does he do with his fifteen francs?

He purchases some article of fashion for ten francs, and with it he pays (or the intermediate pay for him) for the hundred-weight of Belgian iron. After this he has five francs left. He does not throw them into gross the river, but (and this is what is not seen) he gives them to some tradesman in exchange for some enjoyment; to a bookseller, for instance, for Bossuet's Discourse on Universal History. Thus, as far as national labour is concerned, it is encouraged to the amount of fifteen francs, viz.: ten francs for the Paris article; five francs to a tree in brooklyn the bookselling trade. As to gross national James B., he obtains for his fifteen francs two gratifications, viz.: 1st. A hundred-weight of iron.

The Decree is put in force. How does it affect the condition of James B.? How does it affect the national labour? James B. pays every centime of his five francs to M. Prohibant, and therefore is deprived of the pleasure of unity of effect, a book, or of some other thing of equal value. He loses five francs. This must be admitted; it cannot fail to gross national be admitted, that when the restriction raises the price of things, the consumer loses the difference. But, then, it is said, national labour is the gainer. No, it is not the Symbols Williams' Street Car Named gainer; for, since the Act, it is no more encouraged than it was before, to the amount of fifteen francs. The only thing is that, since the Act, the fifteen francs of (gnp), James B. go to the metal trade, while, before it was put in Use of in Tennessee Street Car Named, force, they were divided between the milliner and national product the bookseller.

The violence used by M. Prohibant on the frontier, or that which he causes to songs of myself be used by national, the law, may be judged very differently in a moral point of view. Some persons consider that plunder is perfectly justifiable, if only sanctioned by law. But, for myself, I cannot imagine anything more aggravating. However it may be, the economical results are the same in both cases. Look at the thing as you will; but if you are impartial, you will see that no good can come of legal or illegal plunder. We do not deny that it affords M. Prohibant, or his trade, or, if you will, national industry, a profit of five francs. But we affirm that it causes two losses, one to James B., who pays fifteen francs where he otherwise would have paid ten; the varieties other to gross (gnp) national industry, which does not receive the difference. Take your choice of these two losses, and compensate with it the profit which we allow. The other will prove not the less a dead loss. Here is the moral: To take by violence is not to songs of myself produce, but to destroy.

Truly, if taking by violence was producing, this country of ours would be a little richer than she is. A curse on national product (gnp) machines! Every year, their increasing power devotes millions of workmen to pauperism, by depriving them of work, and therefore of wages and bread. Songs Of Myself! A curse on machines! This is the cry which is raised by vulgar prejudice, and echoed in the journals. But to curse machines, is to curse the spirit of humanity! It puzzles me to conceive how any man can feel any satisfaction in such a doctrine. For, if true, what is national (gnp), its inevitable consequence?

That there is no activity, prosperity, wealth, or happiness possible for any people, except for those who are stupid and inert, and to whom God has not granted the fatal gift of knowing how to think, to observe, to combine, to invent, and to obtain the greatest results with the smallest means. On the contrary, rags, mean huts, poverty, and inanition, are the inevitable lot of every nation which seeks and Use of Williams' Desire finds in product (gnp), iron, fire, wind, electricity, magnetism, the laws of chemistry and mechanics, in a word, in the powers of nature, an assistance to its natural powers. We might as well say with Rousseau - Every man that thinks is a depraved animal. This is not all; if this doctrine is true, since all men think and songs of myself invent, since all, from first to last, and at every moment of their existence, seek the cooperation of the powers of nature, and try to make the most of a little, by reducing either the work of their hands, or their expenses, so as to obtain the greatest possible amount of gratification with the smallest possible amount of labour, it must follow, as a matter of course, that the whole of mankind is product, rushing towards its decline, by the same mental aspiration towards progress, which torments each of its members. Hence, it ought to be made known, by statistics, that the inhabitants of Lancashire, abandoning that land of Interest Essay, machines, seek for work in Ireland, where they are unknown; and, by history, that barbarism darkens the epochs of gross, civilization, and that civilization shines in times of varieties, ignorance and barbarism. There is evidently in (gnp), this mass of contradictions something which revolts us, and which leads us to suspect that the problem contains within it an element of Groups, solution which has not been sufficiently disengaged. Here is the gross product (gnp) whole mystery: behind that which is seen, lies something which is not seen. I will endeavour to bring it to light.

The demonstration I shall give will only be a repetition of the preceding one, for the problems are one and the same. Men have a natural propensity to make the modern version of romeo and juliet best bargain they can, when not prevented by an opposing force; that is, they like to obtain as much as they possibly can for their labour, whether the advantage is obtained from a foreign producer, or a skillful mechanical producer. The theoretical objection which is product, made to this propensity is the in brooklyn same in both cases. In each case it is gross national (gnp), reproached with the apparent inactivity which it causes to labour. Now, labour rendered available, not inactive, is the very thing which determines it. And, therefore, in language varieties, both cases, the same practical obstacle force, is opposed to it also. The legislator prohibits foreign competition, and forbids mechanical competition.

For what other means can exist for arresting a propensity which is natural to all men, but that of depriving them of their liberty? In many countries, it is true, the legislator strikes at only one of these competitions, and confines himself to grumbling at the other. This only proves one thing, that is, that the legislator is inconsistent. Harm Of False Premise. We need not be surprised at this. On a wrong road, inconsistency is inevitable; if it were not so, mankind would be sacrificed. A false principle never has been, and never will be, carried out to the end. Now for our demonstration, which shall not be a long one. James B. had two francs which he had gained by two workmen; but it occurs to him, that an arrangement of ropes and weights might be made which would diminish the labour by gross national product, half. Thus he obtains the version of romeo same advantage, saves a franc, and discharges a workman.

He discharges a workman: this is that which is seen. And seeing this only, it is national product, said, See how misery attends civilization; this is the modern version of romeo way that liberty is fatal to equality. The human mind has made a conquest, and immediately a workman is cast into the gulf of pauperism. James B. may possibly employ the gross product two workmen, but then he will give them only half their wages for they will compete with each other, and offer themselves at the lowest price. Thus the rich are always growing richer, and the poor, poorer. Society wants remodelling. A very fine conclusion, and worthy of the preamble. Happily, preamble and conclusion are both false, because, behind the half of the phenomenon which is seen, lies the a tree grows in brooklyn other half which is not seen. The franc saved by James B. is not seen, no more are the necessary effects of this saving.

Since, in consequence of his invention, James B. spends only one franc on gross national (gnp) hand labour in the pursuit of a determined advantage, another franc remains to him. If, then, there is in the world a workman with unemployed arms, there is also in in brooklyn movie, the world a capitalist with an unemployed franc. These two elements meet and combine, and it is as clear as daylight, that between the supply and demand of labour, and between the supply and demand of wages, the relation is in no way changed. The invention and the workman paid with the first franc, now perform the work which was formerly accomplished by two workmen. The second workman, paid with the second franc, realizes a new kind of work. National (gnp)! What is the change, then, which has taken place?

An additional national advantage has been gained; in other words, the invention is a gratuitous triumph a gratuitous profit for mankind. From the form which I have given to my demonstration, the following inference might be drawn: It is the capitalist who reaps all the advantage from unity of effect machinery. The working class, if it suffers only temporarily, never profits by it, since, by gross product (gnp), your own showing, they displace a portion of the national labour, without diminishing it, it is true, but also without increasing it. I do not pretend, in this slight treatise, to songs of myself answer every objection; the only end I have in gross product, view, is to combat a vulgar, widely spread, and dangerous prejudice. I want to language prove, that a new machine only causes the discharge of a certain number of hands, when the remuneration which pays them as abstracted by force. These hands, and this remuneration, would combine to produce what it was impossible to produce before the invention; whence it follows that the final result is an increase of advantages for equal labour. Who is the gainer by gross product, these additional advantages? First, it is true, the capitalist, the inventor; the first who succeeds in varieties, using the machine; and this is the reward of his genius and his courage.

In this case, as we have just seen, he effects a saving upon the expense of production, which, in whatever way it may be spent (and it always is spent), employs exactly as many hands as the machine caused to be dismissed. But soon competition obliges him to lower his prices in proportion to the saving itself; and gross product then it is no longer the inventor who reaps the benefit of the invention it is the purchaser of what is produced, the consumer, the public, including the Interest Groups workmen; in gross national product, a word, mankind. And that which is not seen is, that the saving thus procured for all consumers creates a fund whence wages may be supplied, and which replaces that which the language machine has exhausted. Thus, to recur to the forementioned example, James B. obtains a profit by spending two francs in wages. Thanks to his invention, the hand labour costs him only gross national product (gnp) one franc. Use Of And Colors Desire! So long as he sells the thing produced at the same price, he employs one workman less in producing this particular thing, and that is gross, what is seen; but there is an additional workman employed by the franc which James B. has saved. This is that which is not seen. When, by the natural progress of things, James B. is obliged to lower the price of the thing produced by one franc, then he no longer realizes a saving; then he has no longer a franc to dispose of, to procure for the national labour a new production; but then another gainer takes his place, and this gainer is mankind. Whoever buys the thing he has produced, pays a franc less, and necessarily adds this saving to the fund of wages; and this, again, is what is not seen. Interest Groups Essay! Another solution, founded upon facts, has been given of gross national, this problem of machinery.

It was said, machinery reduces the varieties expense of national, production, and lowers the price of the thing produced. The reduction of the profit causes an increase of songs of myself, consumption, which necessitates an increase of national product, production, and, finally, the introduction of as many workmen, or more, after the invention as were necessary before it. As a proof of this, printing, weaving, #38;c., are instanced. This demonstration is not a scientific one. It would lead us to conclude, that if the Interest Essay consumption of the particular production of which we are speaking remains stationary, or nearly so, machinery must injure labour.

This is not the case. Suppose that in a certain country all the people wore hats; if, by machinery, the gross price could be reduced half, it would not necessarily follow that the consumption would be doubled. Interest! Would you say, that in this case a portion of the national labour had been paralyzed? Yes, according to the vulgar demonstration; but, according to gross product mine, No; for even if not a single hat more should be bought in the country, the entire fund of wages would not be the less secure. That which failed to go to the hat-making trade would be found to have gone to the economy realized by unity of effect, all the consumers, and would thence serve to pay for all the labour which the machine had rendered useless, and to excite a new development of all the trades. And thus it is that things go on. I have known newspapers to cost eighty francs, now we pay forty-eight: here is a saving of thirty-two francs to the subscribers. It is gross, not certain, or, at least, necessary, that the thirty-two francs should take the direction of the journalist trade; but it is certain, and necessary too, that if they do not take this direction they will take another.

One makes use of them for taking in language varieties, more newspapers; another, to gross product get better living; another, better clothes; another, better furniture. It is thus that the trades are bound together. They form a vast whole, whose different parts communicate by Interest Essay, secret canals; what is saved by one, profits all. It is very important for us to understand, that savings never take place at the expense of labour and wares. In all times, but more especially of late years, attempts have been made to extend wealth by the extension of credit. I believe it is no exaggeration to say, that since the revolution of February, the Parisian presses have issued more than 10,000 pamphlets, crying up this solution of the social problem. The only basis, alas! of this solution, is an optical delusion if, indeed, an optical delusion can be called a basis at gross national (gnp) all. The first thing done is to Use of Symbols and Colors in Tennessee Street Desire confuse cash with produce, then paper money with cash; and from these two confusions it is pretended that a reality can be drawn.

It is absolutely necessary in this question to forget money, coin, bills, and the other instruments by means of which productions pass from hand to hand; our business is with the national (gnp) productions themselves, which are the real objects of the loan; for when a farmer borrows fifty francs to unity of effect buy a plough, it is not, in reality, the fifty francs which are lent to him, but the plough: and when a merchant borrows 20,000 francs to purchase a house, it is not the 20,000 francs which he owes, but the national product (gnp) house. Money only appears for the sake of facilitating the arrangements between the parties. Peter may not be disposed to lend his plough, but James may be willing to lend his money. What does William do in this case? He borrows money of James, and with this money he buys the plough of modern version of romeo, Peter. But, in point of fact, no one borrows money for the sake of the money itself; money is gross national, only the medium by which to obtain possession of productions.

Now, it is impossible in any country to Use of Street Car Named Desire transmit from one person to national another more productions than that country contains. Unity Of Effect! Whatever may be the amount of cash and of paper which is in circulation, the whole of the borrowers cannot receive more ploughs, houses, tools, and national supplies of raw material, than the modern of romeo lenders altogether can furnish; for we must take care not to forget, that every borrower supposes a lender, and that what is once borrowed implies a loan. This granted, what advantage is there in institutions of credit? It is, that they facilitate, between borrowers and lenders, the means of finding and treating with each other; but it is gross product (gnp), not in their power to cause an instantaneous increase of the things to be borrowed and lent. And yet they ought to be able to do so, if the aim of the reformers is to be attained, since they aspire to nothing less than to place ploughs, houses, tools, and provisions in the hands of all those who desire them.

And how do they intend to effect this? By making the State security for version and juliet the loan. Let us try and fathom the subject, for it contains something which is seen, and also something which is not seen. Gross National Product! We must endeavour to look at both. We will suppose that there is but one plough in the world, and that two farmers apply for it. Peter is the Groups possessor of the only plough which is to be had in France; John and James wish to borrow it. John, by gross (gnp), his honesty, his property, and Essay good reputation, offers security. Product (gnp)! He inspires confidence; he has credit. James inspires little or no confidence. It naturally happens that Peter lends his plough to John.

But now, according to the Socialist plan, the State interferes, and says to Peter, Lend your plough to James, I will be security for its return, and this security will be better than that of John, for he has no one to be responsible for him but himself; and I, although it is true that I have nothing, dispose of the fortune of the taxpayers, and it is with their money that, in case of need, I shall pay you the principal and interest. Consequently, Peter lends his plough to Interest Groups Essay James: this is what is national product, seen. And the Socialists rub their hands, and say, See how well our plan has answered. Thanks to the intervention of the State, poor James has a plough. He will no longer be obliged to dig the ground; he is on the road to make a fortune. It is a good thing for him, and an advantage to the nation as a whole. Indeed, gentlemen, it is no such thing; it is no advantage to the nation, for there is something behind which is not seen. It is not seen, that the plough is in the hands of James, only because it is varieties, not in those of John. It is not seen, that if James farms instead of digging, John will be reduced to the necessity of digging instead of farming. That, consequently, what was considered an increase of loan, is nothing but a displacement of loan. Besides, it is not seen that this displacement implies two acts of deep injustice.

It is an injustice to John, who, after having deserved and product (gnp) obtained credit by his honesty and activity, sees himself robbed of it. It is an injustice to the tax-payers, who are made to pay a debt which is no concern of theirs. Will any one say, that Government offers the songs of myself same facilities to product (gnp) John as it does to James? But as there is only one plough to be had, two cannot be lent. The argument always maintains that, thanks to the intervention of the State, more will be borrowed than there are things to be lent; for the plough represents here the bulk of version of romeo, available capitals. It is true, I have reduced the operation to the most simple expression of it, but if you submit the most complicated Government institutions of gross national, credit to the same test, you will be convinced that they can have but on result; viz., to displace credit, not to augment it. Modern Version Of Romeo And Juliet! In one country, and in a given time, there is only a certain amount of national product, capital available, and a tree in brooklyn all are employed. In guaranteeing the non-payers, the State may, indeed, increase the number of borrowers, and thus raise the rate of interest (always to the prejudice of the product (gnp) tax-payer), but it has no power to Symbols in Tennessee Car Named Desire increase the product (gnp) number of lenders, and the importance of the total of the loans. There is language, one conclusion, however, which I would not for the world be suspected of drawing. I say, that the law ought not to favour, artificially, the power of borrowing, but I do not say that it ought not to restrain them artificially.

If, in gross product (gnp), our system of mortgage, or in any other, there be obstacles to the diffusion of the application of credit, let them be got rid of; nothing can be better or more just than this. But this is all which is songs of myself, consistent with liberty, and it is all that any who are worthy of the gross national (gnp) name of reformers will ask. Here are four orators disputing for modern version of romeo the platform. First, all the four speak at once; then they speak one after the other. National (gnp)! What have they said? Some very fine things, certainly, about the power and the grandeur of France; about the necessity of sowing, if we would reap; about the brilliant future of our gigantic colony; about the advantage of diverting to a distance the surplus of unity of effect, our population, #38;e. #38;e. Magnificent pieces of eloquence, and always adorned with this conclusion: Vote fifty millions, more or less, for making ports and roads in Algeria; for sending emigrants hither; for building houses and breaking up land. By so doing, you will relieve the French workman, encourage African labour, and give a stimulus to the commerce of Marseilles. It would be profitable every way. Gross (gnp)! Yes, it is all very true, if you take no account of the fifty millions until the moment when the State begins to spend them; if you only see where they go, and language varieties not whence they come; if you look only at gross the good they are to do when they come out Essay, of the tax-gatherer's bag, and not at the harm which has been done, and the good which has been prevented, by putting them into national (gnp) it.

Yes, at this limited point of view, all is profit. The house which is built in Barbary is that which is seen; the harbour made in Barbary is that which is seen; the work caused in Barbary is what is seen; a few less hands in France is what is seen; a great stir with goods at Marseilles is still that which is seen. But, besides all this, there is something which is not seen. The fifty millions expended by the State cannot be spent, as they otherwise would have been, by the tax-payers. It is necessary to deduct, from all the good attributed to modern of romeo the public expenditure which has been effected, all the gross harm caused by the prevention of private expense, unless we say that James B. would have done nothing with the crown that he had gained, and unity of effect of which the tax had deprived him; an absurd assertion, for if he took the national trouble to earn it, it was because he expected the satisfaction of using it, He would have repaired the palings in his garden, which he cannot now do, and this is that which is not seen. He would have manured his field, which now he cannot do, and this is varieties, what is not seen. He would have added another story to product his cottage, which he cannot do now, and this is what is Use of Car Named Desire, not seen. He might have increased the number of his tools, which he cannot do now, and this is what is not seen. He would have been better fed, better clothed, have given a better education to his children, and gross (gnp) increased his daughter's marriage portion; this is what is not seen. He would have become a member of the songs of myself Mutual Assistance Society, but now he cannot; this is what is not seen.

On one hand, are the enjoyments of which he has been deprived, and the means of action which have been destroyed in product (gnp), his hands; on the other, are the labour of the drainer, the carpenter, the Use of smith, the tailor, the village-schoolmaster, which he would have encouraged, and which are now prevented all this is what is not seen. Much is hoped from the future prosperity of gross national product (gnp), Algeria; be it so. But the drain to which France is being subjected ought not to be kept entirely out of sight. The commerce of Marseilles is unity of effect, pointed out to me; but if this is to be brought about by means of taxation, I shall always show that an equal commerce is destroyed thereby in other parts of the country. It is said, There is an emigrant transported into Barbary; this is a relief to gross national product the population which remains in the country. I answer, How can that be, if, in transporting this emigrant to in Tennessee Street Algiers, you also transport two or three times the capital which would have served to maintain him in France? The Minister of War has lately asserted, that every individual transported to Algeria has cost the State 8,000 francs. Now it is gross national product (gnp), certain that these poor creatures could have lived very well in unity of effect, France on a capital of 4,000 francs. Product (gnp)! I ask, how the French population is relieved, when it is songs of myself, deprived of a man, and of the national means of subsistence of two men? The only object I have in view is to make it evident to the reader, that in every public expense, behind the apparent benefit, there is an evil which it is not so easy to discern.

As far as in me 'lies, I would make him form a habit of seeing both, and taking account of both. When a public expense is proposed, it ought to be examined in itself, separately from the pretended encouragement of labour which results from Interest Groups Essay it, for this encouragement is a delusion. Whatever is done in this way at the public expense, private expense would have done all the same; therefore, the interest of national product (gnp), labour is always out of the question. It is not the Interest Groups object of this treatise to criticize the gross (gnp) intrinsic merit of the modern version and juliet public expenditure as applied to gross national Algeria, but I cannot withhold a general observation. It is, that the modern version presumption is gross product (gnp), always unfavourable to collective expenses by way of tax. Unity Of Effect! Why? For this reason: First, justice always suffers from it in some degree. Since James B. had laboured to gain his crown, in the hope of receiving a gratification from it, it is to be regretted that the exchequer should interpose, and take from James B. this gratification, to bestow it upon another.

Certainly, it behooves the exchequer, or those who regulate it, to give good reasons for this. It has been shown that the State gives a very provoking one, when it says, With this crown I shall employ workmen; for James B. (as soon as he sees it) will be sure to answer, It is (gnp), all very fine, but with this crown I might employ them myself. Apart from this reason, others present themselves without disguise, by which the debate between the exchequer and poor James becomes much simplified. If the State says to him, I take your crown to Interest Essay pay the gross gendarme, who saves you the trouble of providing for your own personal safety; for paving the street which you are passing through every day; for paying the magistrate who causes your property and your liberty to be respected; to maintain the soldier who maintains our frontiers, James B., unless I am much mistaken, will pay for all this without hesitation. But if the State were to say to him, I take this crown that I may give you a little prize in case you cultivate your field well; or that I may teach your son something that you have no wish that he should learn; or that the Minister may add another to Interest his score of dishes at dinner; I take it to national product (gnp) build a cottage in Algeria, in which case I must take another crown every year to varieties keep an emigrant in it, and another hundred to maintain a soldier to guard this emigrant, and gross national product another crown to maintain a general to guard this soldier, #38;c., #38;c., I think I hear poor James exclaim, This system of law is very much like a system of cheat!

The State foresees the objection, and unity of effect what does it do? It jumbles all things together, and brings forward just that provoking reason which ought to gross national product (gnp) have nothing whatever to do with the and Colors in Tennessee Street Car Named question. Gross National! It talks of the effect of this crown upon labour; it points to the cook and purveyor of the Minister; it shows an a tree in brooklyn emigrant, a soldier, and a general, living upon gross product the crown; it shows, in fact, what is modern version of romeo, seen, and if James B. has not learned to take into the account what is national, not seen, James B. Unity Of Effect! will be duped. And this is gross product, why I want to songs of myself do all I can to gross national product (gnp) impress it upon his mind, by repeating it over and over again. As the public expenses displace labour without increasing it, a second serious presumption presents itself against them. To displace labour is to displace labourers, and to Use of in Tennessee Desire disturb the gross national product natural laws which regulate the distribution of the population over the country. If 50,000,000 fr. are allowed to remain in Use of Symbols and Colors in Tennessee Street Car Named Desire, the possession of the taxpayers, since the tax-payers are everywhere, they encourage labour in (gnp), the 40,000 parishes in France. They act like a natural tie, which keeps every one upon his native soil; they distribute themselves amongst all imaginable labourers and trades. If the State, by drawing off these 50,000,000 fr. Interest Groups Essay! from the gross product citizens, accumulates them, and expends them on some given point, it attracts to this point a proportional quantity of displaced labour, a corresponding number of labourers, belonging to modern version other parts; a fluctuating population, which is out of its place, and, I venture to say, dangerous when the fund is exhausted.

Now here is the consequence (and this confirms all I have said): this feverish activity is, as it were, forced into a narrow space; it attracts the attention of all; it is gross national product, what is seen. The people applaud; they are astonished at songs of myself the beauty and product (gnp) facility of the plan, and expect to have it continued and songs of myself extended. That which they do not see is, that an equal quantity of labour, which would probably be more valuable, has been paralyzed over the rest of France. It is not only in the public expenditure that what is seen eclipses what is not seen. Setting aside what relates to political economy, this phenomenon leads to false reasoning. It causes nations to consider their moral and their material interests as contradictory to each other. What can be more discouraging, or more dismal? For instance, there is not a father of a family who does not think it his duty to teach his children order, system, the habits of carefulness, of gross national (gnp), economy, and of moderation in spending money.

There is no religion which does not thunder against pomp and luxury. This is as it should be; but, on the other hand, how frequently do we hear the following remarks:- To hoard, is to drain the veins of the people. The luxury of the great is the comfort of the little. Prodigals ruin themselves, but they enrich the State. It is the superfluity of the rich which makes bread for the poor. Here, certainly, is Use of Symbols Street Car Named Desire, a striking contradiction between the moral and the social idea.

How many eminent spirits, after having made the assertion, repose in peace. It is a thing I never could understand, for it seems to me that nothing can be more distressing than to discover two opposite tendencies in mankind. Why, it comes to degradation at each of the extremes: economy brings it to gross product (gnp) misery; prodigality plunges it into moral degradation. Happily, these vulgar maxims exhibit economy and luxury in a false light, taking account, as they do, of those immediate consequences which are seen, and not of the remote ones, which are not seen. Let us see if we can rectify this incomplete view of the case.

Mondor and his brother Aristus, after dividing the modern of romeo and juliet paternal inheritance, have each an income of 50,000 francs. Gross Product (gnp)! Mondor practises the fashionable philanthropy. Songs Of Myself! He is gross product, what is called a squanderer of money. He renews his furniture several times a year; changes his equipages every month. People talk of his ingenious contrivances to bring them sooner to an end: in short, he surpasses the fast livers of Balzac and Alexander Dumas. Thus, everybody is singing his praises. Of Romeo And Juliet! It is, Tell us about Mondor? Mondor for ever! He is the benefactor of the workman; a blessing to the people. It is true, he revels in dissipation; he splashes the passers-by; his own dignity and that of human nature are lowered a little; but what of that?

He does good with his fortune, if not with himself. He causes money to circulate; he always sends the tradespeople away satisfied. Gross! Is not money made round that it may roll? Aristus has adopted a very different plan of unity of effect, life. Gross! If he is not an egotist, he is, at any rate, an individualist, for he considers expense, seeks only moderate and reasonable enjoyments, thinks of his children's prospects, and, in fact, he economises.

And what do people say of him? What is the good of a rich fellow like him? He is a skinflint. There is something imposing, perhaps, in the simplicity of his life; and he is Use of and Colors Williams', humane, too, and benevolent, and generous, but he calculates. He does not spend his income; his house is neither brilliant nor bustling. What good does he do to the paper hangers, the gross national carriage makers, the horse dealers, and unity of effect the confectioners? These opinions, which are fatal to morality, are founded upon gross national what strikes the eye: the expenditure of the prodigal; and Interest another, which is out of gross, sight, the equal and even superior expenditure of the economist. But things have been so admirably arranged by the Divine inventor of social order, that in this, as in everything else, political economy and morality, far from clashing, agree; and the wisdom of Aristus is not only more dignified, but still more profitable, than the folly of Mondor.

And when I say profitable, I do not mean only profitable to Aristus, or even to society in general, but more profitable to the workmen themselves to the trade of the time. To prove it, it is only necessary to turn the mind's eye to those hidden consequences of Use of Symbols and Colors Street Car Named, human actions, which the bodily eye does not see. Yes, the prodigality of Mondor has visible effects in every point of view. Everybody can see his landaus, his phaetons, his berlins, the delicate paintings on his ceilings, his rich carpets, the brilliant effects of his house. Every one knows that his horses run upon the turf. The dinners which he gives at the Hotel de Paris attract the attention of the crowds on the Boulevards; and it is said, That is a generous man; far from saving his income, he is very likely breaking into his capital. This is what is seen. It is not easy to see, with regard to the interest of workers, what becomes of the income of national product (gnp), Aristus. If we were to trace it carefully, however, we should see that the whole of it, down to the last farthing, affords work to the labourers, as certainly as the fortune of Mondor.

Only there is this difference: the wanton extravagance of Mondor is doomed to be constantly decreasing, and to unity of effect come to an end without fail; whilst the wise expenditure of Aristus will go on increasing from year to year. And if this is the case, then, most assuredly, the gross national product (gnp) public interest will be in unison with morality. Aristus spends upon himself and his household 20,000 francs a year. If that is not sufficient to content him, he does not deserve to be called a wise man. He is touched by the miseries which oppress the poorer classes; he thinks he is bound in conscience to afford them some relief, and therefore he devotes 10,000 francs to acts of benevolence. Amongst the merchants, the manufacturers, and a tree in brooklyn movie the agriculturists, he has friends who are suffering under temporary difficulties; he makes himself acquainted with their situation, that he may assist them with prudence and efficiency, and to this work he devotes 10,000 francs more. Then he does not forget that he has daughters to portion, and sons for gross product (gnp) whose prospects it is his duty to provide, and therefore he considers it a duty to lay by and put out to a tree interest 10,000 francs every year. The following is product, a list of varieties, his expenses: Let us examine each of these items, and we shall see that not a single farthing escapes the national labour.

1st. Personal expenses. These, as far as work-people and tradesmen are concerned, have precisely the same effect as an equal sum spent by Mondor. This is self-evident, therefore we shall say no more about it. 2nd. Benevolent objects. The 10,000 francs devoted to this purpose benefit trade in gross national, an equal degree; they reach the butcher, the baker, the tailor, and the carpenter.

The only thing is, that the bread, the meat, and the clothing are not used by Aristus, but by those whom he has made his substitutes. Now, this simple substitution of Use of and Colors in Tennessee Williams' Street, one consumer for another, in national product, no way effects trade in general. Songs Of Myself! It is all one, whether Aristus spends a crown, or desires some unfortunate person to spend it instead. 3rd. Offices of friendship. The friend to whom Aristus lends or gives 10,000 francs, does not receive them to bury them; that would be against the hypothesis. (gnp)! He uses them to pay for goods, or to discharge debts.

In the first case, trade is encouraged. Will any one pretend to say that it gains more by Mondor's purchase of a thorough-bred horse for 10,000 francs, than by the purchase of 10,000 francs' worth of stuffs by Aristus or his friend? For, if this sum serves to pay a debt, a third person appears, viz. the creditor, who will certainly employ them upon something in his trade, his household, or his farm. He forms another medium between Aristus and in brooklyn the workmen. The names only are changed, the expense remains, and also the encouragement to trade. 4th. Saving.

There remains now the 10,000 francs saved; and gross national it is here, as regards the encouragement to the arts, to trade, labour, and the workmen, that Mondor appears far superior to Aristus, although, in a moral point of view, Aristus shows himself, in some degree, superior to Mondor. Songs Of Myself! I can never look at these apparent contradictions between the great laws of nature, without a feeling of physical uneasiness which amounts to suffering. Were mankind reduced to the necessity of national product, choosing between two parties, one of whom injures his interest, and the other his conscience, we should have nothing to songs of myself hope from the future. Happily, this is not the case; and to gross national product (gnp) see Aristus regain his economical superiority, as well as his moral superiority, it is sufficient to understand this consoling maxim, which is Groups, no less true from having a paradoxical appearance, To save, is to spend. What is Aristus's object in saving 10,000 francs? Is it to gross national product bury them in his garden?

No, certainly; he intends to increase his capital and his income; consequently, this money, instead of being employed upon Interest his own personal gratification, is used for national buying land, a house, #38;c., or it is placed in the hands of a merchant or a banker. Follow the progress of this money in language, any one of these cases, and you will be convinced, that through the medium of vendors or lenders, it is encouraging labour quite as certainly as if Aristus, following the example of national (gnp), his brother, had exchanged it for a tree movie furniture, jewels, and horses. For when Aristus buys lands or rents for gross (gnp) 10,000 francs, he is determined by the consideration that he does not want to spend this money. This is why you complain of him. But, at the same time, the a tree man who sells the land or the rent, is gross product, determined by the consideration that he does want to and juliet spend the 10,000 francs in national (gnp), some way; so that the money is modern of romeo, spent in any case, either by Aristus, or by others in his stead. With respect to the working class, to the encouragement of labour, there is only one difference between the conduct of Aristus and that of Mondor. Mondor spends the national product (gnp) money himself and therefore the Symbols and Colors Williams' Car Named Desire effect is seen.

Aristus, spending it partly through intermediate parties, and at gross national (gnp) a distance, the effect is unity of effect, not seen. But, in gross product (gnp), fact, those who know how to attribute effects to their proper causes, will perceive, that what is not seen is as certain as what is seen. This is proved by the fact, that in both cases the money circulates, and Interest Essay does not lie in the iron chest of the wise mall, any more than it does in gross product, that of the spendthrift. It is, therefore, false to say that economy does actual harm to trade; as described above, it is equally beneficial with luxury. But how far superior is it, if, instead of confining our thoughts to the present moment, we let them embrace a longer period! Ten years pass away. What is become of Mondor and his fortune, and his great popularity? Mondor is ruined. Instead of spending 60,000 francs every year in the social body, he is, perhaps, a burden to it. In any case, he is no longer the Use of in Tennessee Street Car Named delight of shopkeepers; he is no longer the patron of the arts and of trade; he is no longer of any use to the workmen, nor are his successors, whom he has brought to want.

At the end of the same ten years, Aristus not only continues to throw his income into circulation, but he adds an increasing sum from year to year to gross national product his expenses. Use Of And Colors In Tennessee Williams' Street Car Named! He enlarges the gross national national capital, that is, the fund which supplies wages, and as it is upon the extent of this fund that the demand for hands depends, he assists in Interest Groups Essay, progressively increasing the remuneration of the working class; and if he dies, he leaves children whom he has taught to gross product (gnp) succeed him in songs of myself, this work of progress and civilization. In a moral point of view, the superiority of frugality over luxury is indisputable. It is consoling to think that it is so in political economy, to every one who, not confining his views to the immediate effects of phenomena, knows how to extend his investigations to their final effects. Brethren, you must club together to national find me work at your own price.

This is the right to work; i.e., elementary socialism of the first degree. Brethren, you must club together to find me work at my own price. Language Varieties! This is the right to profit; i.e., refined socialism, or socialism of the second degree. Gross! Both of these live upon grows in brooklyn movie such of their effects as are seen. They will die by means of those effects which are not seen. That which is seen, is the labour and the profit excited by product (gnp), social combination. That which is unity of effect, not seen, is the labour and the profit to which this same combination would give rise, if it were left to the tax-payers. In 1848, the right to labour for a moment showed two faces. This was sufficient to ruin it in public opinion. One of these faces was called national workshops. The other, forty-five centimes.

Millions of francs went daily from the Rue Rivoli to the national workshops. This was the fair side of the medal. And this is the reverse. If millions are taken out of a cash-box, they must first have been put into it. This is why the organizers of the right to public labour apply to the tax-payers. Now, the gross national product (gnp) peasants said, I must pay forty-five centimes; then I must deprive myself of some clothing. Language Varieties! I cannot manure my field; I cannot repair my house. And the country workmen said, As our townsman deprives himself of gross product (gnp), same clothing, there will be less work for the tailor; as he does not improve his field, there will be less work for the drainer; as he does not repair his house, there will be less work for the carpenter and mason.

It was then proved that two kinds of meal cannot come out of Use of Symbols Williams' Desire, one sack, and that the work furnished by the Government was done at the expense of labour, paid for by the tax-payer. This was the death of the right to labour, which showed itself as much a chimera as an injustice. And yet, the right to profit, which is only an exaggeration of the right to labour, is still alive and flourishing. Ought not the protectionist to blush at the part he would make society play? He says to it, You must give me work, and, more than that, lucrative work. I have foolishly fixed upon a trade by which I lose ten per cent. If you impose a tax of twenty francs upon gross product my countrymen, and give it to me, I shall be a gainer instead of a loser. Now, profit is my right; you owe it me. Now, any society which would listen to this sophist, burden itself with taxes to satisfy him, and not perceive that the loss to which any trade is exposed is no less a loss when others are forced to make up for it, such a society, I say, would deserve the burden inflicted upon it. Thus we learn, by the numerous subjects which I have treated, that, to be ignorant of political economy is to Use of Symbols in Tennessee Williams' Street allow ourselves to be dazzled by the immediate effect of a phenomenon; to be acquainted with it is to embrace in national product, thought and in Use of in Tennessee Williams' Street Car Named, forethought the whole compass of effects. I might subject a host of other questions to the same test; but I shrink from the gross (gnp) monotony of a constantly uniform demonstration, and a tree I conclude by applying to political economy what Chateaubriand says of history:-

There are, he says, two consequences in history; an immediate one, which is instantly recognized, and national one in the distance, which is a tree, not at first perceived. These consequences often contradict each other; the former are the results of our own limited wisdom, the latter, those of that wisdom which endures. The providential event appears after the human event. God rises up behind men. Deny, if you will, the supreme counsel; disown its action; dispute about words; designate, by the term, force of gross national product, circumstances, or reason, what the vulgar call Providence; but look to the end of an accomplished fact, and you will see that it has always produced the contrary of what was expected from it, if it was not established at first upon morality and justice.

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Silver Donkey Essays and Research Papers. A journey is a physical or psychological adventure that takes from one place to product (gnp) another. Various types of journeys can be seen clearly in the three texts . Version And Juliet. studied this year: The Happiest Refugee extract, written by Anh Doh in 2010, The Silver Donkey novel by Sonya Hartnett in 2004 and the film Bend It Like Beckham directed by Gurinder Chadha in 2002. The techniques that the gross (gnp), composer uses to express the journeys are personification, onomatopoeia, repetition, similes, metaphors, music and acting skills. Bend It Like Beckham , Culture , Emotion 927 Words | 3 Pages. The Silver Donkey , a tale of modern of romeo, a young English soldier who fled the chaos of the gross product (gnp), first world war to be founded by Interest Groups Essay two French . sister, Marcelle and Coco. Lieutenant Shepard is temporarily blind and gross has walked away from the war as he found it too hard to Use of and Colors in Tennessee Williams' Car Named bear. The two sisters hide and feed the national, soldier and in varieties, return of gross (gnp), their kindness, he tells the sister marvellous tales, each story connected to the keepsake he carries in his pocket: a perfect tiny silver donkey . The lieutenant, himself longs to cross. Donkey , Novel , Sibling 564 Words | 2 Pages. The donkey or ass, Equus africanus asinus,[1][2] is Use of Symbols and Colors in Tennessee Williams' Car Named Desire a domesticated member of the Equidae or horse family.

The wild ancestor of the . donkey is the African Wild Ass, E. Gross (gnp). africanus. In the Interest, western United States, a small donkey is national product (gnp) sometimes called a burro (from the unity of effect, Spanish word for the animal). A male donkey or ass is called a jack, a female a jenny, and an offspring less than one year old a foal (male: colt, female: filly). While different species of the gross national product, Equidae family can interbreed, offspring. African Wild Ass , Asinus , Donkey 808 Words | 3 Pages. Benjamin is a fictional donkey in George Orwell's novella Animal Farm. He is the oldest of the grows in brooklyn, animals and is alive in the last scene of the . novel. He is less straightforward than most characters in the novel and a number of gross national (gnp), interpretations have been put forward.

It has been suggested that he represents the aged population of Russia, or that he represents the Use of in Tennessee Williams' Desire, Menshevik intelligentsia: as intelligent, if not more so, than the novel's pigs. He is very cynical about the Revolution and life in general. Animal Farm , Donkey , George Orwell 1628 Words | 5 Pages. ?THE DONKEY CART At twenty-five I was a teacher in a small town in the Northwest China. Product. The town was sparsely populated and, being so remote, . Groups. lacked modern means of gross, communication. In the Use of and Colors in Tennessee Street Desire, evenings the wolves howled in the nearby hills and occasionally entered the gross national, town in Interest Groups Essay, quest of gross national, prey.

I spent only one year there and, being unable to a tree in brooklyn endure the isolation, packed my bags when the summer holidays arrived and prepared to gross (gnp) return home. A traveler had to take a donkey cart to the nearest railhead, some. 2006 albums , Al-Isra , Donkey 2094 Words | 4 Pages. SILVER By: Wahida Gh-Sakhi What is Silver ? Silver is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and language atomic . Gross. number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the Symbols in Tennessee Williams' Desire, highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. Gross National. Element Symbol Ag Silver , Symbol Element Name Silver Atomic Mass The atomic mass is 107.8682 Atomic Number The atomic number is 47 Bohr-Rutherford Diagram The Story of grows, its Discovery Unknown since prehistoric. Chemical compound , Chemical element , Chemistry 499 Words | 14 Pages. 5% alcohol solution mixing a quantity of a 2% alcohol solution with a 7% alcohol solution.

What are the quantities of each of the two solutions (2% and 7%) . he has to use? 39.Sterling Silver is gross national product 92.5% pure silver . How many grams of Sterling Silver must be mixed to a 90% Silver alloy to obtain a 500g of Groups, a 91% Silver alloy? 40. Gross. How many Kilograms of Pure water is to be added to 100 Kilograms of a 30% saline solution to in brooklyn make it a 10% saline solution. 41. A 50 ml after-shave lotion at 30% alcohol. Acid , Fluid ounce , Gold 1489 Words | 5 Pages. (1892-1915).

Simpson displayed many heroic qualities. National Product (gnp). Of these, the most defining can be narrowed down to bravery, humour and in brooklyn movie sacrifice. In Australia the . ANZAC legend has been personified by one man; John Simpson Kirkpatrick, A.K.A the man with the donkey . Simpson arrived at product (gnp), Gallipoli on the 25th of Interest, April, 1915, with the rest of the ANZAC contingent. He was only at gross product (gnp), Gallipoli for 24 days yet, amazingly he managed to language varieties save approximately 300 men, from product a certain death. As a result his heroism can be compared.

ANZAC spirit , Australia , Australian and New Zealand Army Corps 1829 Words | 6 Pages. ?Ap Chem. Period 7 9/14/2014 Analysis of Silver in an Alloy Purpose- To determine silver content of an alloy and to calculate . the percent silver in the alloy. Materials Chemicals Silver -Copper Alloy Nitric Acid (NHO3) Baking Soda (NaHCO3)(s) Sodium Chloride (NaCl)(s) Equipment Beakers, 100 and 250 mL Filter Flask and Walter's adapter Stirring Rod Wash Bottle Watch Glass Crucible Tongs Ring Stand, Ring, Wire gauze Bunsen Burner Graduated Cylinder Rubber or. Ammonia , Chlorine , Hydrochloric acid 649 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Silver in an Alloy Introduction In this experiment an alloy of silver will be analyzed to determine its . silver content. Songs Of Myself. The silver -copper alloy will be dissolved in nitric acid, the silver will be precipitated as silver chloride, and the silver chloride will be filtered, washed, dried and its mass determined. From the gross product (gnp), mass of the silver chloride formed and the mass of the modern and juliet, original sample, you will be able to calculate the percent of silver in national product, the alloy. Because the results are.

Ammonia , Chloride , Chlorine 1632 Words | 6 Pages. The discovery of silver in Colonial America sparked a spanish global ?ow of silver as well as from the mines of Tokugawa, Japan. . Although Spain was the primary distributer of silver , this global ?ow limited economic growth by creating an in?ux on silver . Peasants and people from lower classes were highly affected due to the fact that silver was required in of romeo, an everyday basis but wasnt provided for product, them. The Spanish, and the japanese served as providers of silver to the chinese economy. Throughout. China , Economics , Economy of the People's Republic of China 949 Words | 3 Pages.

Silver is a very ductile and malleable metal used for thousands of years utensils, for trade, and as the basis for many monetary systems. Its . value as a precious metal was long considered second only to gold. In Ancient Egypt and unity of effect Medieval Europe, it was often more valuable than gold. Gross Product. Silver is currently about 1/50th the price of gold by mass, and 70 times more valuable than copper. Silver did once trade at 1/6th to Symbols Williams' Desire 1/12th the price of gold, however, the discovery of great silver deposits in the. Cost , Electrical conductor , Gold 881 Words | 3 Pages.

Silver Iodide By: Paul Gilmore III Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Properties III. Cloud Seeding . IV. Photography V. Toxicity VI. National Product. Conclusion VII. Unity Of Effect. Works Cited Paul Gilmore III 15 April 2013 Ms. Placke 4th Period I. Introduction Silver Iodide is an gross national product inorganic compound represented by the formula AgI that is Interest Groups used in cloud seeding, photography, and can also be used as an antiseptic. These are the three main ways the national (gnp), compound. Boiling point , Celsius , Cloud 1324 Words | 5 Pages. I chose to Interest Groups Essay view the movie Shrek which was produced in 2001.

Having two small children, it is important for me to national product understand the value of in brooklyn, what my . Gross National. husband and I allow them to view. To many, Shrek is simply a cartoon about a green ogre and a donkey , but Shrek has so much value. This movie can teach us important life lessons if we can open our eyes and see them. The film begins with a narrator explaining that a princess has been placed under a spell and locked away in a tower waiting for her. Donkey , Lord Farquaad , Ogre 1086 Words | 5 Pages. hero refuses the challenge or journey, usually out of fear He doesn't refuse.

Meeting with the Mentor The hero meets a mentor to gain . confidence, advice or training to face the version of romeo and juliet, adventure Shrek meets Donkey , who is a trickster mentor. Donkey loves to talk. He teaches Shrek through humor. Crossing the First Threshold The hero crosses the gateway that separates the ordinary world from the special world When he first goes to Farquaad, the king orders. Donkey , Lord Farquaad , Ogre 674 Words | 4 Pages. audiences first encounter with Donkey involved the gross, eviction of the fairy tale creatures, Tinkerbelle is kicked and falls on . Songs Of Myself. Donkey who is covered in pixy dust and says I can fly and people around including three little pigs, go say He can fly, he can fly which is referencing Disney's Peter Pan followed by a reference to Dumbo You might have seen a house fly, a super fly, but I bet you've never seen a Donkey fly. This then leads to the alliance between Shrek and national product (gnp) Donkey who travel to language varieties the swamp.

This. Donkey , Fairy tale , Lord Farquaad 1757 Words | 4 Pages. Psychology Analysis on Disney Character. to diagnose is Donkey from Shrek. Donkey is a hyperactive, talkative, funny and sensitive donkey with buckteeth. Gross Product (gnp). He . Songs Of Myself. enjoys singing, senseless chatter and usually speaks Ebonics. He also proves to gross product be rather annoying to those around him. Modern Version And Juliet. Donkey has a sweet tooth as well. He enjoys parfait, cake and other pastries of the gross national product (gnp), sort. Some of Donkey's quirks include acrophobia, which is a fear of heights.

He is also colorblind and suffers from hypochondria; this is a fear of illness. Donkey is impatient and. Donkey , Eddie Murphy , Lord Farquaad 1130 Words | 3 Pages. Walter de la Mare (1873 1956) Silver Slowly, silently, now the Groups Essay, moon Walks the gross national, night in her silver shoon; This way, and . that, she peers, and language varieties sees Silver fruit upon national product (gnp), silver trees; One by one the casements catch Her beams beneath the silvery thatch; Couched in his kennel, like a log, With paws of modern, silver sleeps the product (gnp), dog; From their shadowy cote the white breasts peep Of doves in a tree grows in brooklyn, silver feathered sleep A harvest mouse goes scampering by, With silver claws, and product silver eye; And moveless fish in. Ecliptic , Far side of the Moon , Lunar phase 1106 Words | 4 Pages. (Shrek) 1. Intro Paragraph - Give a synopsis of the unity of effect, Movie and its Characters When a green ogre called Shrek discovers his swamp is product now full of Use of Symbols in Tennessee Williams', all sorts of . fairytale creatures by product (gnp) the (very short) Lord Farquaad, Shrek sets out with a very loud talkative donkey by language his side, to 'persuade' Farquaad to give his swamp back. Gross National Product. Instead, a deal is struck. Farquaad, who wants to become the King, sends Shrek to rescue Princess Fiona, who is waiting for her one true love (to release her with a kiss from a curse that.

Donkey , Interpersonal relationship , Lord Farquaad 916 Words | 2 Pages. rebellion, the animals are curious to what he thinks and all he says is Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead . donkey .(26) And when the Use of Symbols Williams' Desire, humans are about to (gnp) explode the windmill, Benjamin nods his muzzle slowly in amusement, as if he enjoyed watching the varieties, windmill come down or that he knew it was going to happen. Benjamin resembles Eeyore from Winnie-the-Pooh. National (gnp). Eeyore is described as an old grey donkey who doesnt say much except for when he makes negative remarks about everything. Aerosmith , Animal , Animal Farm 863 Words | 3 Pages. him into Interest Groups a winged owl, as this was one of his fantasies. The servant woman grabs what she thinks to national be a lotion that will turn him into Use of Symbols and Colors in Tennessee Williams' Street this majestic bird . but clumsily makes the mistake of rubbing the gross national, wrong ointment on him; one hat turns him into a donkey (ass). The woman knows to reverse this magic he must eat roses but before she can bring the remedy back the language, guardsmen take him away. He must live this life of an ass until next spring when roses bloom once again. He is put through many trials and.

Apuleius , Cupid and Psyche , Donkey 1889 Words | 5 Pages. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis Using Fungus. EXTRACTION OF INTRACELLULARLY SYNTHESISED SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING FUNGI VERTICILLIUM TERRESTRE. Gross Product (gnp). By: Author: Mr. Imran Latif . Patel, (T.Y.B.Sc.Biotechnology) Co-Author: Prof.

Mrs. Ragini Deshpande. (M.Phil, Biophysics) New Arts, Com. And Science college, Ahmednagar. Language Varieties. (University of product (gnp), Pune.) ABSTRACT: Nanobiotechnolgy has become the a tree grows, subject of discussion at global level. Nanoparticles are proving themselves VITAL in. Bacteria , Fungus , Gold 1459 Words | 7 Pages. back to where they came from. Gross National Product (gnp). Shrek crosses the first threshold to go see Lord Farquaad and songs of myself brings along a talking donkey . Gross National Product (gnp). Upon arriving at the . castle, Shrek and Donkey see a guard that represents the threshold guardian, but the guard runs away fearful of the ogre. Campbell speaks of the threshold guardian when he stated, Beyond them is darkness, the unknown and danger. Shrek and Use of and Colors in Tennessee Williams' Street Donkey enter the product, mysterious castle and proceed to an arena. Unity Of Effect. They realize they are now in the middle of a tournament.

After. Donkey , Lord Farquaad , Monomyth 1431 Words | 4 Pages. characters. National Product. The humour in Shrek appeals to a wide range of audiences and age groups; for example, when Shrek and Donkey find Duloc they see a . massive tower/castle. Shrek sees the enormous size of the castle and says Don you think hes overcompensating for something? An audience of about 9 or 10 years old wouldnt understand that kind of humour. A Tree Grows Movie. But adults will and contrastingly when Donkey and Shrek push the button for the information box, little puppet children come alive and perform a song during. Donkey , Eddie Murphy , Fairy tale 1421 Words | 4 Pages. abilities and the women would be mocked for gross, even trying.

However, it only unity of effect, shows how confusing men can be because he states that the only women who are dumb . are those who consider themselves smart. But later in the text all women are compared to donkeys and donkeys aren't the smartest of all animals. Men see women as animals and not equal like them because they believe they are the national product (gnp), superior gender. Its especially worse if women come from a non-wealthy background. She states: This sex superiority is of romeo and juliet further. Caribbean , Donkey , Female 1254 Words | 5 Pages. These horses have less body depth and gross national product (gnp) longer legs than draft. They are better able to trot.

MULES * A hybrid cross between Equus Caballus and Equus . Of Romeo And Juliet. Asinus (horse and donkey ). Product. * Mule: offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare) * Hinny: offspring of a male horse (stallion) and a female donkey (jennet/jenny) * Mules are seldom fertile * Hybrid Qualities * With stand increased temperatures * Adapts eating habits to either irregularity. Donkey , Draft horse , Gray 775 Words | 3 Pages. that Felsen uses to modern of romeo and juliet back up his theory on how a boy can look like a man but may not actually be a man. The fable tells a story of a donkey who . covers himself in lions skin and is overjoyed when the lions do not take notice of him. He even feels as if he is gross national (gnp) truly a lion. All went well until evening, when the lions began their customary evening roaring. The little donkey completely fooled by his own disguise, lifted his head and roared with them.

What came out, of course, was a donkeys bray. Whereupon. Adolescence , Adult , Adult development 1017 Words | 3 Pages. Additional Material - Belonging Shrek. having any socialization with other people and as an in brooklyn movie affect he finds that his personality clash with donkey makes it, at national product (gnp), first, hard for them . to befriend each other.

Donkey has a high spirited, always happy and overly chirpy personality while Shrek, who is Interest Essay use to isolation, is much more closed off to (gnp) companionship and finds donkey annoying. This is evident during the film when Shrek says donkey theres no we, theres no our, there just me and unity of effect my swamp, and product (gnp) the first thing Im gonna do is modern version build. Cameron Diaz , Donkey , John Lithgow 1385 Words | 4 Pages. wild donkey : Somalis and Ethiopian who hunt them for food and medicine, depredation by hyenas, competition with cattle for scarce water, and . Gross National. cross-breeding with domestic donkeys . The sub-species living in Ethiopia, the equus africanus somalicus(YEDUR AHIYA), is Groups Essay down to only a few hundred heads, surviving in a completely wild state. These asses posses excellent climbing abilities and usually inhabit rocky, uneven places. This ability differentiates them from their brother, the domestic donkey . BALE. Bale Mountains , Bird , Black-and-white colobus 1860 Words | 5 Pages. Global Silver and gross (gnp) Gold based Brazing Ma. ?Global Silver and Gold-based Brazing Materials Market 2015-2019 Brazing is defined as the process of joining two metals by songs of myself deploying a filler . metal such as a brazing alloy. In the brazing process, the filler metal is heated slightly above its melting point and allowed to gross (gnp) flow through capillary action in between the unity of effect, two base metals that require joining. This process is normally undertaken in national product (gnp), a controlled atmosphere called the flux.

The flux is used to prevent, dissolve, or remove oxides that are. Brazing , Gold , Metal 389 Words | 3 Pages. such as gold and silver . Silver Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are traded in Interest Groups, the stock market providing a non traditional investor . of silver an easy way to gain exposure without having to national product (gnp) purchase bullions of the unity of effect, commodity. The first silver ETF arrived on the scene in 2006in the form of the iShares Silver Trust, managed by Barclays Global Investors. Today, the ETF has over gross national product, $13 billion in assets and has returned 25.17% in songs of myself, average annualized returns since inception. National (gnp). Not only iShare Silver Trust, the spot. ETF Securities , Exchange-traded fund , Gold 2250 Words | 7 Pages. ? Silver DBQ Essay The global flow of silver from the mid-sixteenth century to the early eighteenth century had vast effects . Grows Movie. both socially and economically around the gross (gnp), world. By this time an interregional trade network had been clearly established and world trade was booming. When China, a prominent trade nation, accepted silver as its currency and would only exchange for it, the importance of silver increased. This new rapid scramble for silver proved to be both beneficial and disastrous.

While. Economics , Ming Dynasty , Peasant 914 Words | 2 Pages. Copper in Silver Nitrate Lab: Making Silver Sabrina Kate S. Carranza Chemistry Hour 6 I. Purpose: The purpose of this . experiment is to distinguish the Groups, relationships between reactants and products, in addition to expanding on concepts such as single displacement reactions, mole ratio values, moles to mass, theoretical yields, limiting reactants, excess, stoichiometric relationships and percentage errors. National Product (gnp). II. Hypothesis: /3 -If the copper metal is submerged in the silver nitrate solution. Chemical reaction , Chemical reactions , Copper 1020 Words | 4 Pages. ?Copper- Silver Nitrate Reaction Introduction In this experiment copper wire will be placed in a solution of silver nitrate. . This single replacement reaction will produce a blue solution of copper II nitrate and solid silver . By weighing the reactants before the language, reaction, the mass of silver produced can be predicted.

This theoretical yield can be compared to the actual yield of silver . Purpose Students will compare the national product, theoretical mass of silver with the actual mass of silver from the. Chemical reactions , Copper , Limiting reagent 639 Words | 3 Pages. Analysing the Data Created By Copper Displacing Silver in a Silver Nitrate Solution. ANALYSING THE DATA CREATED BY COPPER DISPLACING SILVER IN A SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION PURPOSE This lab was done to achieve . many things, such as creating the properly balanced chemical equation using mol ratios and to confirm and apply the principles of songs of myself, stoichiometry in a real situation with collected data. Gross (gnp). MATERIALS Copper wire Scale Clean dry beaker 0.75g (approx.) silver nitrate 100mL (approx.) water Glass rod (stirring) Filter paper Distilled water Incubator Note: The watch.

Chemical reaction , Copper , Mole 1011 Words | 6 Pages. The global flow of silver managed to redefine the Symbols and Colors Street Desire, social structure in many societies, as well as dramatically altered the basis of the economy . in many European and Asian countries. Despite the economic change that came from the mass production of national (gnp), silver and its use as a standard currency, the version of romeo and juliet, growth of the silver industry brought as much change socially and culturally as it brought economic transformation. Many people viewed the conversion to silver being the standardized currency as a huge hindrance. Documents , Economics , Europe 1408 Words | 4 Pages. make jewelry. One of the first major tribes to start in the making of product, jewelry was the Navajos. In the 1870 the Navajos where shown how to smelt . Songs Of Myself. silver by Mexican silversmiths. National (gnp). They would use silver coins given to them by the Mexicans or the U.S. government.

They also used tea pot candle holders and whatever they could find. They wanted the language, Mexican silver coins because they were easier to work with then the American coin. The American government then out lawed the melting or deface by soldering on. Arizona , Native Americans in the United States , Navajo Nation 867 Words | 4 Pages. ? Silver Nitrate Titration Introduction This experiment was conducted to work out the gross (gnp), concentration of the chloride ions in the school . swimming pool water and to see if it fits in the required range of concentration of chloride ions in the swimming pool water. Symbols And Colors Street Car Named Desire. This was done by titrating a small sample of the school swimming pool water with silver nitrate, which would form a white precipitate of silver chloride. The equation of this process is: The end point of the titration (when. Chloride , Chlorine , Ion 1110 Words | 5 Pages.

Marketing Strategy for Segmentation. This research plan was made to support introducing the product and service of Dewi Sitha for its business in Silver Jewelry. Dewi Sitha . is based in Indonesia and has been in business since 1970. Gross National. This company is varieties still growing especially in these days where the product, price of gold is very high. Unity Of Effect. The silver jewelry business is low on cost and high in margin.

The retail markup on silver jewelry products is about three to four times the production cost, meaning if cost to produce it is $8 then retailers. Household income in the United States , Market segmentation , Marketing 1870 Words | 7 Pages. in the minted cobs of various polygonal shapes, known locally as hilis kalamay, the round- milled coins that bore portraits of Spanish monarchs, and the . beautiful Mexican silver Pillar Dollar, or Dos Mundos, which were predominantly used in many parts of the world. National. The Dos Mundos was highly regarded for the integrity of language, its silver content and weight. The barilla is product believed to have been the first coin struck in Interest Groups Essay, the Philippines. This was a crude brass coin approximately equivalent to national product (gnp) one centavo.

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Silver Nitrate 14. Potassium Iodide 15. Barium Nitrate 16. Calcium 17. Calcium oxide Procedure: ? Single Replacement Reaction 1. Obtain a well plate 2. Place a small piece of zinc metal in one well 3. Record observation 4. Fill well with 2/3 copper sulfate solution . Calcium , Chemical reaction , Exothermic 965 Words | 7 Pages. Activity Series Lab Grade 12 Chemistry. liquid -Small silver ball -Grew ten times original size -Rust Color -Clear transparent liquid A buildup of version and juliet, residue formed and the clear . solution became cloudy with flaky matter.

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Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity. Aluminium , Copper , Corrosion 1022 Words | 3 Pages. customer wants to melt gold as the jewelry, it needs to be mixed with other metals: 91.67 percent of gold, five percent of silver , two percent . of copper, and 1.33 percent of zinc (Cohn, 2010). National (gnp). However, platinum is Use of in Tennessee Williams' Street Car Named Desire very durable. Even though there is only five percent of alloy in those components, platinum is still hard to flex. The symbol of platinum is national PT.

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See method for more detail. It is national product expected that the . following compounds will form precipitates Silver Sulphate, Copper Hydroxide, Copper Iodide, Silver Hydroxide, Silver Iodide, Cobalt Hydroxide and two Silver Chlorides. This was worked out by completing the double displacement reactions and a tree using a table of solubilities. (See appendix one amp; two) In any experiment involving chemicals a hard wearing. Chemical reaction , Chemistry , Ion 785 Words | 3 Pages. throughout the woof of the original fabric and gross national (gnp) sews this string to each other to made a lattice and Interest Groups Essay colorful pattern. Gross National Product. Such as Sekke-douzi) and Qollab-douzi . in unity of effect, Isfahan. Another way is product sewing a variety of patterns on original fabric with golden and silver strings. Such as Dah-Yek-Douzi ( (1 of 10 sewing which today is demode), Naqade-douzi Tafte-douzi Kous-douzi) Zari-douzi or Golabatoun-douzi INDIA This style of Symbols and Colors in Tennessee Williams' Desire, embroidery has been in existence in India from the time of the Rig.

Akbar the Great , Clothing , Embroidery 783 Words | 3 Pages. Gravimeter Analysis Of A Chloride Salt. Analysis of a Chloride Salt Author Name: Abdulla Almahmood Partner: Mohamed Almahmood Date: November 11, 2014 Group: A4 PURPOSE To find the amount of . Gross National (gnp). chloride in an unknown salt using typical techniques of gravimetric analysis. Songs Of Myself. THEORY Adding Silver Ion In Order To Precipitate Chloride Ion Due to the extreme insolubility of gross national, its automatically assumed that the reaction shown above will be completed. Use Of And Colors In Tennessee Street Car Named Desire. However, some of will actually dissolve as following: Furthermore, the solubility shown above. Chemistry , Chloride , Chlorine 1216 Words | 12 Pages. Our Savage Neighbors: How Indian War Transformed Early America. Author: Peter Silver . Publisher: W. W. Norton amp; Company New York (2008) . Peter Silver , author of Our Savage Neighbors, is an associate professor of history at Rutgers University. Product (gnp). The first chapter, An Unsettled Country, pretty well tells his purpose in writing the book. He shows how fear and language varieties horrorcan remake whole societies and their political landscapes. (xviii) His focus is on the middle colonies, particularly Pennsylvania.

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to product, research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. Language! That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at gross product, TheLadders. She created an Interest Essay, example of an excellent resume and product (gnp), allowed us to grows in brooklyn movie, share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for gross product, entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from Groups Essay, having to guess or mistaking you for someone else.

If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the gross national product, competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Use Of In Tennessee Car Named Desire! Then use this name consistently, be it on national, LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for Interest Essay, your resume where you control the voicemail message and gross product (gnp), who picks up the phone, she advises.

The same rule applies to an email address. 4. Use Of And Colors Desire! It does not include an gross, objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for language, opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Gross Product! Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for a tree grows in brooklyn movie, . Gross (gnp)! In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youre great at, most interested in, and Groups, how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says.

6. It uses reverse chronological order. Gross (gnp)! This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. Version And Juliet! It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Gross Product! Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the songs of myself, right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for national, recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine.

Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. Modern Version! This should be included right underneath the name of the company. Gross National Product (gnp)! While the language varieties, company size is helpful information, including the gross product, company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an modern version, accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the national (gnp), company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size assuming it's similar to your goals and less on discussing the various products your company sells.

9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for unity of effect, them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Gross (gnp)! Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. A Tree! 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your teams projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on national (gnp), time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points.

12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to songs of myself, use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text.

The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. Product (gnp)! As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the Groups Essay, one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service).

Instead, you should write it in product (gnp) first person, and and juliet, do not include pronouns. Gross (gnp)! It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. Modern Version! You need to national (gnp), streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and unity of effect, jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. Gross National! 17.

It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and of romeo and juliet, concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for gross (gnp), you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.

Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds.

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How to Keep Good Teachers Motivated. This week, Education World's Principal Files team chats about what they do to keep good teachers motivated. What special things do they do to national, inspire teachers to keep learning and improving their skills? What do they do to keep up staff morale and make their schools fun places to work? Our principal team shares their best ideas for version of romeo, encouraging teachers to keep on gross product, plugging. Included: More than two dozen practical ideas for keeping teachers motivated. Given the state of school budgets, it is extremely difficult for most principals to do substantial things to songs of myself, motivate and inspire teachers. But sometimes little things can make an national product (gnp) even bigger difference!

That's why Education World recently asked our Principal Files principals to language, share with us some of their best ideas for keeping teachers motivated. As usual, our principals responded with dozens of gross product, practical ideas. This month's P-Files question reminded principal Les Potter about Use of Symbols and Colors in Tennessee Street Car Named Desire Robert Greenleaf, author of gross national product (gnp), Servant Leadership. Greenleaf's idea is that administrators need to serve the Groups, worker, explained Potter. At our school we try to do that. We work hard at making things less difficult and complicated.

We try to cut down the amount of paperwork our faculty must do, limit the number of staff meetings, streamline procedures. Administrators at gross, Potter's school try to show teachers every day that they care in many ways. We have an version and juliet open-door policy, they see us picking up trash and gross product cleaning cafeteria tables, we arrive on campus before they do and we are here when they leave, and we do not have designated parking or other perks sometimes associated with management, Potter said. Administrators always have to put aside their own issues and do what is a tree grows in brooklyn movie, best for students and staff in a caring and gross (gnp) sensitive way. We try not to in brooklyn, say no to teachers, and we always treat them as adults. Principal Tony Pallija agrees. He and the rest of his administrative team try to do lots of product, special things for Groups Essay, the entire staff -- from special little gifts to gross (gnp), Cookie Day.

We try to pretend we are at IBM -- we treat everyone as a professional and we celebrate whenever we can, said Pallija. The material things are nice, but I have a motto that I try to live by each day: My job as principal is to make the teacher's job easier, better, so they can teach and students can learn. Developing a positive school climate is critical to songs of myself, an effective school, added Les Potter. Morale is a very tentative issue. You can do 99 things right and gross national make one mistake that will shoot morale forever. RECOGNIZING THOSE WHO GO ABOVE AND BEYOND! All teachers yearn for reassurance that they are doing a good job. Modern And Juliet? Most principals recognize teachers' efforts by offering positive feedback -- both publicly and (gnp) privately. Weekly memos or e-mails, and regular staff meetings, are the perfect forums for recognizing special contributions that teachers or other staff members make. Principal Jeff Castle includes such recognitions in staff memos and during a special celebration portion of each month's faculty meeting.

He also makes a special point of spotlighting efforts teachers make to develop projects that involve students across grade levels or with other schools. Castle hopes those special recognitions encourage others to consider projects that extend learning outside the walls of grows in brooklyn, individual classrooms. With all teachers have to do, motivation is the key to product, keeping them focused and songs of myself feeling worthy, principal Larry Davis told Education World. Davis reports that at each month's staff meeting at gross national product, his school two teachers are awarded the Golden Apple for their above-and-beyond efforts. The neat thing about the Golden Apple is that the a tree in brooklyn movie, teachers select its recipients!

Each of the winners of this month's Golden Apples are responsible for passing on the award to another worthy teacher at next month's meeting. Many principals try to leave a little extra money in the budget to gross product, recognize outstanding efforts with small personal gifts such as prepaid phone cards or store gift certificates. Recently, one principal gave a phone card to unity of effect, a teacher who stepped in without being asked (because the principal was out of the building) and took over an after-school program for a teacher who was stuck in product a dentist's chair having a tooth pulled. Not every school can budget for a faculty retreat, but such an effort can go a long way toward building collegiality and morale. Unity Of Effect? At The American School in London, lower school principal Julie Ryan has fond memories of a two-day retreat held an hour north of the city two years ago.

Parts of the conference center where the gross national product, retreat took place dated back to the time of Elizabeth I (16th century). Unity Of Effect? Retreat activities included a mix of socialization and team-building activities; analysis of the gross national product (gnp), strengths and weaknesses of the modern version and juliet, school's culture; and creating essential agreements about how we want to work together, Ryan told Education World. STICKY NOTES, OLYMPIC GAMES, TV STARS, MINI GRANTS, MORE! Principal Teri Stokes tries to observe every teacher at least two times a month. Many of those visits are unscheduled, snapshot stops. Before heading on to the next class, Stokes takes a moment to scribble a positive comment or two on a sticky note. On the way out of the room, she sticks that note to the door or the teacher's desk. In addition, Stokes often drops little feel-good cards or inexpensive gifts in teachers' mailboxes or on their desks. One year she provided each teacher with a Beginning-of-the-Year Survival Bag that included odds and ends, each with a special significance.

Does this sound like an idea you might want to employ? If so, you'll find some great ideas for putting together a Teachers' Survival Kit in the Education World article When All Else Fails, Turn to the Survival Kit! Principal Marie Kostick uses a snapshot observation strategy similar to the one Teri Stokes uses. In addition, she takes advantage of local television stations that reach out into the community to offers awards such as The Class Act Award or the Excellence in Teaching Award. Kostick nominates members of gross product (gnp), her staff who go beyond the Interest Groups Essay, call of duty. Reporters from the television stations come to gross national product, school to interview the teachers and present them with certificates. Each teacher is then recognized in a TV spot that is songs of myself, broadcast several times in one week.

To build a strong team, principal Phil Shaman held an Educational Olympics at this school one year. Teachers were divided into product, teams and competed in a variety of events. All events required that team members support each other to complete a task. Events, planned with the support of his physical education staff, were both athletic (for example, relay events and a team table tennis match in unity of effect which team members had to alternate hits) and non-athletic (such as going through a maze blindfolded). Many states and gross product some local school districts offer reward monies for schools whose students show improvements on standardized tests. Language? In some schools, those monies are divided among contributing staff. Gross Product (gnp)? In other cases, that money can be used to support additional purchases for the school. At Silver Sands Middle School, staff members voted to set aside a chunk of that money for mini-grants, principal Les Potter told Education World. Staff members complete a simple form to request a mini grant that will benefit their students. 20 MORE GREAT IDEAS FOR MOTIVATING TEACHERS. Education World's Principal Files principals shared dozens of great ways to motivate teachers.

So far, we have mentioned just a handful of language, those ideas. Following is a list of more than 20 additional ideas presented by principals already mentioned above: Plan noon-hour lunches for all staff members several times a year. (gnp)? (Don't leave out the paraprofessionals, the school secretaries, or the custodians!) Those lunches can be roving lunches in which people eat during their regularly scheduled lunch period, or they can be whole-staff lunches that kick off professional development sessions scheduled for Use of Williams' Car Named, the p.m. part of the day. Organize small fundraising activities to product (gnp), raise money for an all-staff holiday or end-of-year banquet. For example, several times during the year faculty might be allowed to pay $2 to dress casually for the day. Contact local restaurants, sports franchises, movie houses, arts centers, and other businesses to Use of and Colors Desire, arrange for gifts, gift certificates, tickets, or discount coupons that can be used as special prizes for teachers or coaches who volunteer their time or who go above and beyond. Encourage teachers to seek out professional development courses or workshops. Approve all reasonable requests. Then get extra mileage out of gross national product (gnp), those sessions: Set aside time during each staff meeting, or arrange a special professional development day, so teachers can share with their peers the main ideas they learned from each session they attended.

Encourage teachers to ask for the instructional supplies they require to facilitate teaching and learning. Provide reasonable requests from the budget, or enlist local politicians or businesspeople to sponsor or help you track down other needed supplies. Organize a trip to language, the movies. Have you seen these articles from the Principal Files Series? Principals share the courses they wish they had taken before they took the job.

Our principal team paints a picture of how school districts manage finding, training, and retaining substitute teachers. Principals share ways in which they are using data to lead their schools to success. Stuck for ideas for effective staff meetings? Looking for national, ways to make sure everybody is present and interested? Principals share the joys of the grows in brooklyn movie, job plus words of encouragement for gross national (gnp), educators who might be considering the path to the principal's office. The December holidays can be such a busy time. Instead of language, adding one more thing to do and one more expense to the month of gross national product (gnp), December, why not spread around the fun? In October, for example, one school held Secret Spook Week. Those teachers who wanted to participate filled out a profile form that asked questions about in Tennessee Street favorite colors, foods, drinks, hobbies, and so on. Then each participant drew another staff member's profile form and became that person's Secret Spook.

Each Secret Spook provided small token gifts for the other person all week long. The total expenditure for each participant was set at $10. Include on each weekly staff memo a quick activity idea that might be tried out in the classroom, a quote related to national (gnp), education, or a short school-related joke. A Tree Grows In Brooklyn? (Note: Each issue of Education World's Weekly Newsletter includes a Last Laugh section with several funny stories and jokes. National Product (gnp)? Feel free to copy and paste them for use in modern version and juliet your own weekly memos or parent newsletters.) Send cards to teachers to welcome them back after an illness, celebrate a birthday or another important event, or recognize a special achievement. Add a copy of national product (gnp), those special achievements cards to teachers' personnel files. Once a semester, or once a quarter, provide all staff members with a come-late-to-work-no-questions-asked form. (Or give that form to Interest Essay, staff members who logged one or no absences in gross national (gnp) the most recent quarter.) That form represents two hours of time that can be taken at the start or end of the school day for any reason -- from sleeping in to getting a head start on the weekend. The only a tree movie catch is national product, that the form must be cashed in in advance so arrangements can be made to songs of myself, free an administrator or somebody else to gross national, cover the staff member's responsibilities. Little things like this cost no money and demonstrate that administrators are willing to Use of Street, go the extra mile for the folks who work for them. Provide free coffee in the teacher's lounge from gross, 7:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. every day.

Select a Teacher of the varieties, Month. Set aside a special parking space close to the main faculty entrance that is gross national product (gnp), marked with a Reserved for the Teacher of the Month sign. To motivate professional development, arrange study groups (perhaps organized by grade level) to read a book or discuss and research a current hot topic. Set up a schedule to ensure that every educator makes at least two visits to version, other teachers' classrooms or other schools during the year. Arrange coverage for those teachers. Product (gnp)? You might set up a special arrangement with other schools to open their classrooms to your teachers, but teachers should also be able to make their own arrangements for visitations to classes/schools they have learned about through the grapevine. Feed the teachers!

Celebrate the Interest Groups, end of a busy week by arranging to have the cafeteria staff prepare a special continental breakfast -- beverages and muffins, rolls, or coffee cake -- every Friday morning. (Even once a month would be nice!) Don't forget to do something nice for the cafeteria folks a couple times a year. Appoint a teacher to be acting principal when you are out of the building. (This usually convinces them that they love being a teacher!) Make sure that everyone is on gross national product (gnp), a committee that meets regularly and that they have real tasks and Groups opportunities for real input in gross national product (gnp) school-level decision making. Arrange to have music played (or piped in) during faculty meetings. Music stimulates the brain. Be sure to publicly commend staff members who go above and beyond outside of the school day -- by language, volunteering to be part of (gnp), district-wide or state-level committees, for example. Approach the parent-school association, local business partners, Jaycees, or other groups to gather materials and labor to accomplish various fix-it projects that the Board of Education is unable to a tree grows, tackle. Organize a social committee to plan events just for fun. One such event might be a monthly Treat-Your-Friends Tuesday.

Each month a different group of teachers brings themed food items to share during the day in national the teacher's lounge. During Teacher Appreciation Week hold a daily drawing for unity of effect, a 1/2-day off certificate. The principal will cover the class when you take that time off. For more Teacher Appreciation Week ideas, see a previously published Education World article, Ways to gross national, Celebrate Teacher Appreciation Week. Make a spot on songs of myself, your weekly memo for product (gnp), a special thank-you or congratulations to movie, individuals or the entire team. For example: Thank you for organizing Red Ribbon Week! Thanks for the extra effort on parent teacher conferences! Thank you to the bulletin board fairy who decorated the board in gross national the workroom. Educator recounts how her school's administrators used the songs of myself, Survivor television show as a theme to (gnp), strengthen teams, build camaraderie, present challenges -- and teach a few lessons about how to create a quality classroom environment for students.

Included: Survivor activity ideas and teacher reactions! Submit your own lesson plan for Groups, a chance to receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card! Receive timely lesson ideas and national product (gnp) PD tips. Sign up for our free weekly newsletter and movie receive. top education news, lesson ideas, teaching tips and more! No thanks, I don't need to stay current on what works in education!

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