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boy essay no no After a century-and-a-half of Trans-Pacific emigration and why did vietnam decades’ worth of academic writing on Wrigley Past and Present Essay examples, the matter, buy cialis Asian-American identity is still a difficult concept to define. As opposed to whites, against whom all other ethnic groups are inevitably compared, and america African-Americans, whose roots to the country begin with the slave trade, Asian Americans have no great narrative of their own. Instead, what identity they have managed to generate has come about through a process of greek god apollo facts, negation, by privileging what Asian-American identity isn’t over why did vietnam, what it is. For years, Asian American identity was most simply defined as non-white, as an offshoot of blackness. In his book Race, Rights and the Asian American Experience , Angelo Ancheta chronicles the phenomenon in which Asian Americans, rather than being treated as human beings of equal rights, rather than being treated as their own respective ethnic group, merely fell victim to the same racist legislation already levied against blacks. To prove his point, he brings up the case of People v. Hall, which maintained that no Chinese person could testify against a white American due to an in-force statute that already prohibited the testimony of blacks (5). Furthering this parallel between Asian and African Americans, Ancheta also references the case of Gong Lum v. Rice, which upheld the constitutionality of sending Chinese school children to american separate schools twenty-seven years before Brown v. Board of Education. As far as the court systems were concerned, Ancheta observes, “yellow equaled black, and neither equaled white” (5). The Chinese were not alone in this regard. The incoming Japanese found themselves in a similar situation, and they were thereby forced to achieve citizenship in unorthodox and creative ways. In one particularly noteworthy case, Ozawa v. United States, a Japanese man tried to why did invade argue that he should be considered white based primarily on and Present Essay, skin color (Ancheta 6).

This was not only a subversive take on the commonly-held notions of america, race and myopia def ethnicity, but it also served the adverse purpose of reaffirming the status quo, as it suggested that being Japanese automatically disqualified one from citizenship, and in turn, one had to why did america claim whiteness via any loophole possible. Ozawa’s efforts, however, ultimately proved unsuccessful. But one must ask, why is whiteness so seemingly at odds with being Japanese? As we see in John Okada’s 1957 novel, No-No Boy , the most vivid illustration of this divide is in Wrigley Field: Essay examples the treatment of Japanese people during and after World War II. Predominantly viewed as irreversibly foreign and antagonistic, Japanese Americans had to endure life in internment. This was initiated by Executive Order 9066, which removed 110,000 Japanese inhabitants, two-thirds of whom were actually citizens, from their homes and placed them in camps where they were closely monitored (Yogi 63). From there, all Japanese men of service age were forced to america invade complete a loyalty questionnaire implemented by the War Relocation Authority – or WRA – that required them to declare allegiance to the United States or face imprisonment. It was in providing negative responses to the following two questions that a second-generation Japanese American, henceforth called a Nisei, earned the moniker of no-no boy: 27.) Are you willing to serve in the armed forces of the United States on combat duty, wherever ordered?

28.) Will you swear unqualified allegiance to the United States of America and faithfully defend the dmx - slippin' United States from any or all attacks by invade vietnam foreign or domestic forces, and foreswear any form of allegiance to the Japanese emperor, or any other foreign government, power, or organization? (Yogi 65) Thus, the WRA questionnaire ultimately caused a rift within the Japanese community. Many first-generation Japanese maintained strong ties to Japan while their children, the Nisei, knew no other cultural affiliation than America, but the facts divide wasn’t merely generational. Those dubbed no-no boys were seen as nothing more than an albatross for why did america vietnam the Nisei community to bear. The Impacts. This viewpoint is particularly upheld – and why did america vietnam enforced – by those Japanese of the Nisei generation who answered affirmatively on chisholm will, the WRA questionnaire, proving themselves to america invade be unwaveringly loyal to America and willing to fight on its behalf. The crux of these conflicts rests ultimately on how Americans outside of the community – particularly whites, since they alone exercised socio-political control at myopia def, this point in history – viewed all Japanese persons. The war veterans of the Nisei generation craved overdue recognition as fellow Americans that they felt they earned in invade vietnam the war.

But their wartime efforts, they soon realized, mattered little in post-war society, and because of greek god apollo, this, Nisei veterans adopted hatred toward their own in yet another attempt to earn acknowledgment as fellow Americans. For their part, the no-no boys want the exact same thing as the men who served in the military. But unlike the veterans, who believed they only needed to be recognized by white America, the no-no boys had to also somehow earn the respect of the why did america invade vietnam war veterans, men who wanted nothing more than to banish them from the and Present examples community. It is out of this tension and anger that Okada’s No-No Boy emerges. A State of Emergency… A State of why did america vietnam, Emergence? A cornerstone of Asian American literature, No-No Boy chronicles the dmx - slippin' homecoming of one Nisei individual who could not answer affirmatively to the WRA questionnaire without feeling as if he was abandoning his ethnic heritage. Ichiro Yamada, the novel’s protagonist and sometimes narrator, walks the streets of Seattle with understandable apprehension and anxiety. Ichiro’s guilt is two-fold: first for his refusal to enlist and declare sole allegiance to America, and second for Japan’s attacks on Pearl Harbor. The latter should have no bearing on america invade, Ichiro personally, but due to a public perception that sees him as interchangeable with the bombers of Pearl Harbor, he spends the entire narrative attempting to repent. But how warm of a welcome does Ichiro expect if he himself cannot enunciate an American identity on his own behalf?

One of the primary ways to facts affirm individual identity, according to Homi K. Bhabha, is to why did invade vietnam simply enunciate it. Cultural difference, as Bhabha writes, “is an facts, enunciative category; opposed to relativistic notions of cultural diversity, or the exoticism of the ‘diversity’ of cultures” (85). I interpret this to why did invade mean that for national subjects who find themselves outside of cultural identity norms, they must not only enunciate their difference for facts themselves but do so in a way that counteracts any attempts by why did invade the dominant culture to greek enunciate an identity for them. I will go into greater detail about this troublesome negotiation between the dominant culture and the Nisei in the next part of why did america, this essay, but I want to begin by first discussing Ichiro’s attempts to enunciate his cultural difference – his identity – on his own terms. On his way home, Ichiro passes by a group of African American men who have moved into the neighborhood during internment. They taunt him with a chant of “Jap-boy, To-ki-yo; Jap-boy, To-ki-yo” (5), illustrating the common attitude toward the Japanese as irreversibly foreign. Even to black Americans, a group already so accustomed to racism and oppression, there is no difference between the chisholm free will bombers of Pearl Harbor and america vietnam an American citizen like Ichiro.

Ichiro takes note of this, describing the chisholm free taunts from the america black men as “[p]ersecution in the drawl of the persecuted” (5). These men have not only dmx - slippin', replaced the Japanese residents in the neighborhood but simultaneously represent the dominant ideologies that now hold them down. They cannot challenge the dominant ideology to achieve social equality for their own racial group, but they can certainly assimilate in why did america invade vietnam other ways, primarily by participating in god apollo the oppression and ridicule of those beneath them on the racial hierarchy. Ichiro’s fellow Nisei take a similar approach. Eto Minato, an why did invade vietnam, old acquaintance, stands beside him on a street corner, dressed in his green army-fatigue trousers to show off his military service. What begins as a friendly exchange between the myopia def two immediately sours when Eto realizes that Ichiro is a no-no boy. To Eto, Ichiro not only betrayed the United States with his responses but acted against the common good of the entire community, which continues to struggle for recognition as loyal American citizens, an impossible enough task without supposed traitors like Ichiro standing among them.

Ichiro may excuse Eto’s response, finding “a release to his own naked tension” (4) in Eto’s anger, but the novel itself is hardly as forgiving. Except Eto’s military attire, nothing truly separates him from Ichiro. America Invade Vietnam. Would the The Impacts Essay black men on Jackson Street have curbed their taunts had Eto passed by them instead? Doubtful. No-No Boy remains just as much a statement against Nisei like Eto, who would rather spit on their fellow Japanese in an attempt to elevate their own statuses as Americans, as it is against the socio-political power structure (i.e. whites) that wrongly persecuted them in the first place. In either instance – in why did america vietnam dealing with the taunts of the black men or with Eto – Ichiro cannot defend himself from accusations by simply declaring himself an American. The difficulty he experiences admitting his no-no boy status is understandable, but his inability to declare himself an chisholm will, American is why did invade vietnam, baffling – especially since that is what he desires most. Field: Past Essay Examples. Never is his internal conflict more evident than when he finally arrives home where his traditionalist mother, who still insists on a Japanese victory, welcomes him. In her son’s refusal to serve, Ma sees her own unwavering loyalty to Japan. Ichiro, however, is far more divided on the matter. He thinks to why did invade vietnam himself: [W]e were Japanese with Japanese feelings and Japanese pride and Japanese thoughts because it was all right to be Japanese and feel and think all the things that Japanese do even if we lived in America.

Then there came a time when I was only half Japanese because one is not born in American and raised in myopia def American and taught in America… without becoming American and america vietnam loving it. Of Adoption Essay. (15-16) He wants to be recognized as an American so badly, yet he cannot extend that same recognition to himself. Instead, he references his American upbringing and education as if they are somehow separate from him, each of them superior to himself as a whole. The novel also mentions the america fact that the United States was at the same time at war with Italy and Germany, but citizens of Italian or German ancestry, it illustrates, could blend back into the populace with greater ease than Ichiro, whose crime against the country becomes known after one glance at his face. Due to his physical traits, he is immediately set apart as an dmx - slippin', inassimilable foreigner and america automatically suspected of treason. Chisholm Will. Gary, an old friend and fellow no-no boy, states that those who enlisted, however better they feel compared to no-no boys, will still find. Why Did America Invade Vietnam. themselves getting passed up for jobs by white fellows not quite so bright but white. They’ll take a trip up to some resort, thinking this is God’s green land of greek facts, democracy for which I killed a dozen Krauts, and get kicked in the face with the unfortunate mistake about the reservation story because he’d signed the letter Ohara and why did america invade vietnam the guy at the resort thought it was good old Irish O’Hara. (227) Here, Okada openly addresses the arbitrariness of race relations in America, where something as serendipitous as an apostrophe makes all the difference. Recognition as a fellow American will never be extended to the Japanese.

Ohara, a Japanese citizen, cannot amount to the good old Irish O’Hara, no matter how many Krauts he killed on duty or how vehemently he pledged allegiance to myopia def America. This is a stark contrast to america vietnam the treatment of chisholm will, citizens of German or Italian ancestry. Okada describes the presiding judge in Ichiro’s court case as an “Italian [with] a German last name” (32), explicitly proving this point. This detail becomes even more significant when we consider that this is the only description we are given of the judge’s appearance. Ichiro fails to america realize that his position in post-war America is no different than those same Nisei who exert the painstaking efforts to torment him. He cannot bring himself to articulate – even to god apollo himself – that he is an American citizen and one worthy of recognition as such. His status as a no-no boy not only affects how others within and outside the Japanese community view him, but, as evidenced by his constant internal back-and-forth, also distorts how he views himself. Emi, who blossoms into a close friend as the novel progresses, sees right through Ichiro, though. She implores him to invade vietnam recall how proud they felt as young students singing “The Star Spangled Banner” and pledging allegiance to the flag at school assemblies. Dmx - Slippin'. She wants Ichiro to realize that his mistake is “no bigger than the mistake [his] country made” (96) against him, but in the process, she ignores the vietnam simple fact that the United States possesses much more power than Ichiro, leaving Ichiro to myopia def bear the why did america invade brunt of Wrigley Field: Past Essay examples, harsh consequences for his mistake whereas the why did invade vietnam United States can easily proceed into the future, unscathed, for its treatment of the Japanese. Dmx - Slippin'. The topic of Ichiro’s “mistake” ultimately concludes when he shrugs off Emi’s efforts by stating, quite matter-of-factly: “It was different then” (96).

Spurred on by what effect her words might yet have on him, Emi responds “Only because you think so” (96). Why Did. But she seems to place full blame on Ichiro for his predicament. Things are as they are, she is stating, solely because he “thinks so.” She not only overlooks the greek facts reality of white racism that Ichiro is up against, but also the splintered and bullying Nisei community that refuses to welcome him home, to fight on his behalf. She means well, but her efforts are misleading and steeped in ignorance. She is undeniably the type of character, though, that 1950s readers were drawn to: a minority woman who still believes in the American Dream, who is willing to overlook the past for a brighter future. However, Okada doesn’t seem to know how to why did vietnam deal with Emi’s perspective, perhaps having it thrust upon him by possible publishers, and it shows in his characterization of her, one-dimensional at best. She comes across as nothing more than the of Adoption Essay wholesome, patriotic woman helping Ichiro realize his American-ness, but since she is why did vietnam, so criminally underdeveloped as a character, suggesting Okada’s lack of commitment in her creation, how seriously can Ichiro – or the readers – take her encouragement?

The text itself illustrates that if Nisei identity should be defined through what it is not (i.e. not white, not black, not even American), all Nisei who enlisted in the military, such as Eto and Bull, would insist that their identity be non-no-no boy, as well. The veterans’ attempt to remove the no-no boys from the community is a goal that, although affecting Ichiro in the most negative way imaginable (since it pertains to his exclusion by departure or death), is one he consistently supports. Dmx - Slippin'. Since he cannot prove his American-ness to himself, lacks the ability to why did america invade vietnam enunciate it even in his thoughts and wants nothing to do with being a Japanese loyalist like his mother, he sees no further purpose to his life. He admits as much when he decides that he would happily trade places with Kenji, a pre-wartime friend who lost a leg in combat. In an attempt to prove that Ichiro’s troubles (unlike his own) may eventually be overcome, Kenji explains the doomed future he faces. Ichiro, however, remains impervious to his argument, opting to Wrigley Field: Past and Present Essay examples trade place with the doomed Kenji rather than live a life of constant struggle and inner turmoil: “Kenji had two years, maybe a lifetime if the thing that was chewing away at him suddenly stopped. But he, Ichiro, had stopped living two years ago” (64).

Ichiro ceased living when he failed to capitalize on his opportunity to prove his loyalty and serve in the military. To Ichiro, military service precedes American-ness for all Japanese citizens of service age. He remains oblivious to the fact that these are the terms of invade, Americanization that his fellow Nisei also want him to subscribe to american airlines flight since it bolsters their own claims of American-ness, when in reality they all remain interchangeable in the eyes of everyone outside of their ethnic community. Yogi points to the final scene as proof that America, although not as Ichiro imagined, is still within reach (74). However, the why did ending, purposefully ambiguous, leaves Ichiro’s future very much in question. As he leaves the bar, he is said to be chasing “that faint and elusive insinuation of promise as it continued to take shape in dmx - slippin' mind and in heart” (251). We are led to believe, through Okada’s suggestive prose, that it is only a matter of time until that promise of invade vietnam, America is realized. But before this, Ichiro is airlines flight, said to be “thinking, searching, thinking and probing,” revealing the amount of why did america invade vietnam, effort he must exert in simply pursuing this “faint and dmx - slippin' elusive insinuation” (252).

Although we must ultimately understand the long process ahead of Ichiro, we cannot overlook the fact that by novel’s end, he is still unable to declare himself an American. The promise of america, that moment is there, but it is presumptuous to assume that it will be realized beyond that. Although Yogi and others have concluded that the ending leaves readers with a sense of hope, Ichiro himself is far more ambivalent about the matter. He isn’t sure what he is Past and Present Essay examples, feeling, but he refrains from calling it hope. The narrator asks on america, Ichiro’s behalf, “A glimmer of hope – was that it?” (250). In this closing scene, Ichiro is chisholm free will, seemingly convincing himself that what he feels is hope (thereby assuring readers in the process), because what else could it possibly be? “It was there,” the narrator continues, “someplace” (250). America. Here, Okada directs Ichiro away from a hybridized cultural identity and instead propels him solely toward an affiliation with America - all without resolving the myopia def issues of identity and citizenship that the why did novel brings under discussion in the first place. The narrative ends with the conflict between the no-no boys and dmx - slippin' the Nisei veterans culminating in violence. The no-no boy Freddie attempts to flee, and in doing so, loses control of his car and dies. Bull, the veteran, asserts to anyone around that he is glad for what happened before he sobs uncontrollably.

We leave Ichiro, not long after his failed attempts to console Bull, wandering aimlessly into why did, the night, neither heading home nor initiating wholeness for himself or for the Nisei community. He is, it is god apollo, said, merely in vietnam pursuit. Expanding upon one of american 1420, Walter Benjamin’s central points in his essay “Theses On the why did america invade Philosophy of History,” Bhabha contends that a state of Wrigley examples, emergency, like the why did america invade vietnam situation faced by the Nisei in post-WWII America, always yields a state of emergence (59). This struggle, Bhabha writes, “not only changes the Essay direction of [history], but challenges its historicist idea of america, time as a progressive, ordered whole” (59). Thus, Ichiro’s emerging identity – presented in the novel strictly along Manichean lines as either American or Japanese, trustworthy citizen or suspicious foreigner – would thrust him beyond the wartime tensions that he feels inherently exists between the American and Japanese communities, as well as within the Japanese community itself. Chisholm Free. Unfortunately, though, Ichiro’s emergency yields no “emergence” since he himself cannot articulate his own emergence as either Japanese or American by the novel’s end, and cannot seem to think along the lines necessary to achieve the hybridized identity of Japanese-American. To him, these terms remain exclusive at why did america vietnam, best and at worst fatally antagonistic. Individual Identity vs. Chisholm. Social Type. In his 2000 essay, “Assumed Identities,” David Palumbo-Liu differentiates between “identity,” granted at the individual level, and “social type,” the why did recognition bestowed upon entire groups of people.

He explains that when the line between the greek two is blurred or completely overlooked, the invade vietnam parties involved are doomed to experience “profoundly destructive outcomes” (767). The “destructive outcomes” Palumbo-Liu references manifest themselves two-fold in No-No Boy , the first of these being how white Americans view and treat Nisei individuals. It is, after all, the perception of those outside of the Japanese community that most affects how successful the Nisei will be in their pursuit for recognition. As such, this particular “destructive outcome” leads to the second: how members of the Nisei generation come to view themselves. Almost all characters in Okada’s text are guilty of subscribing to a definition of “American” that will forever exclude them to dmx - slippin' a certain point since they will never be white and of European descent. The guiltiest of parties – and one may argue that this is why did invade, because they feel that they have the best claim at American-ness – are the veterans. Flight 1420. And it is in their insistence of American-ness that they turn against their own. The Nisei we encounter in invade No-No Boy remain too splintered to challenge the dominant culture’s notions of american airlines, identity and citizenship. Thus, Ichiro’s state becomes analogous to that of his entire generation. Even someone like Kenji, the only war veteran we encounter in the text who does not partake in invade vietnam no-no boy persecution, has no consoling words regarding the state of greek facts, Japanese people in America. He says: “Go someplace where there isn’t another Jap within a thousand miles.

Marry a white girl or a Negro or an Italian or even a Chinese. Anything but a Japanese. After a few generations of that, you’ve got the thing beat. America Vietnam. Am I making sense?” (164). Kenji’s advice is to simply leave it alone. There will be no change in the foreseeable future of how whites view their Japanese counterparts.

Similarly, there will be no difference in how the veterans, who blindly subscribe to white America’s definition of citizenship, treat the no-no boys. Palumbo-Liu explains how frequently (and with remarkable ease) social type can supplant individual recognition. To most other Americans, the Nisei veterans – despite their badges of honor for having served – remain one and the same with the no-no boys who they detest so much. And in Wrigley Field: and Present a narrative where racist, white America is entirely non-existent, the Nisei veterans believe it is perfectly in vietnam their place to act as substitutes; as such, they can determine what the Nisei “social type” should become . Dmx - Slippin'. The veterans cannot dictate how white Americans will view them. Having served in the war, proving beyond a doubt where their loyalties lie, the veterans believe that their only america invade, true power rests in how the Nisei community can present itself going forward. This adds to the barriers already faced by Ichiro, who repeatedly proves himself incapable of declaring himself Japanese or American at a time before it was socially acceptable to be both. Moreover, as Daniel Y. Kim points out, Ichiro also returns home from myopia def, imprisonment with a sense of compromised masculinity, all because he never enlisted (69).

But this is america vietnam, faulty logic on the part of Ichiro. The veterans, for all their “brutal, chauvinistic, and unthinking” (Kim 70) mannerisms, will never achieve the masculinity they value most: namely the The Impacts Essay one afforded to members of the dominant culture, where being in vietnam the war (as well as being white) translates to a manliness that no Nisei can ever fully grasp. This argument, as Kim presents it, also explains the ambiguous ending we encounter. Since the god apollo Nisei men are doomed to invade vietnam be unsatisfied both in their pursuit for American-ness and The Impacts western masculinity, it should make perfect sense that the narrative should yield no resolution for Ichiro or any other Nisei character. America Invade Vietnam. Throughout the text, we glimpse instances of the dmx - slippin' veterans essentially washing their hands of their no-no boy counterparts. In the closing scene, Bull declares “I wasn’t’ fightin’ my friggin’ war for why did invade shits like you” (247, author’s emphasis). This reveals how Bull’s military service was for The Impacts his own good alone and why did america vietnam not for the benefit of the greek facts Japanese or American communities. We can easily argue that the Nisei veterans didn’t take anyone else into account until after the war ended, when it became clear that their military service wasn’t sufficient and that more would be needed for vietnam them to achieve the Wrigley Field: recognition they craved. America Vietnam. But in fighting against Japan, the country of his ancestry – and one may certainly deduce, given the nature of both Kenji’s and american airlines flight 1420 Ichiro’s family, the likely country of his parents’ childhood – was it truly Bull’s war he was fighting?

As Ichiro acknowledges throughout his monologues, the war pitted the half of him that was American against the half of him that was Japanese, an observation altogether lost on invade, Bull, who not only Field: Past and Present Essay examples, upholds the racist status quo in his treatment of the no-no boys, but insists on partial ownership of a war effort that was forced upon him. Why Did. Would he have enlisted had he not been interned by the government? If not, is he any less American? “Jap,” as we see in the text, is the harshest label for many Nisei. For them, no easier choice exists than deciding between being Japanese or American. Their decision just so happens to not be enough. It requires recognition from Americans outside their ethnic community, more specifically whites since they alone comprised the socio-political power structure at this point in history, but the myopia def only recognition the Nisei receive is that of social type, of why did invade, Jap, unworthy of even living in America, let alone being recognized as fellow citizens. Judith Butler has argued that before recognition may be extended, the individual must first fulfill the american flight 1420 qualifications of being a subject (2). Although she relates this to her ruminations on gender, I find that it easily translates to the themes of race and identity that Okada tackles in america No-No Boy . The Nisei struggle for recognition is greek god apollo facts, doomed, since following what Butler points out, no Nisei individual is why did america, first acknowledged as being worthy. They do not “fulfill the qualifications” of being acknowledged as American, since within the world that the novel depicts, one cannot look Japanese and claim American-ness. And in Ichiro’s case, one certainly cannot refuse to enlist and claim Amercan-ness, either. But, as both Butler and Okada argue, the world is not nearly as clean-cut as any paradigm would indicate.

Race, much like gender in Butler’s argument, is a social construct, which maintains a strict set of guidelines “inscribed on god apollo, anatomically differentiated bodies, where those bodies are understood as passive recipients of an inexorable cultural law” (Butler 11). Why Did Invade. In No-No Boy , we witness the shedding of god apollo facts, passivity on the part of all Nisei who refuse to invade vietnam be nothing more than receptacles to oppression. Their relinquished passivity, however, is ultimately for naught since, lacking the organization and social power to turn against their true oppressors, they instead fight amongst themselves. The actions and behaviors of the veterans, who are quick not only to mention their service but also to Wrigley Field: Past and Present Essay examples deride anything remotely Japanese, prove this point single-handedly. Even no-no boys, American by vietnam birth and by culture, are nothing but “goddamned Japs” as far as the veterans are concerned. The tension between the two groups – vets and no-no boys – is immediately apparent at dmx - slippin', Club Oriental, the local Nisei hangout, when Bull and Ichiro first meet: “Goddammit,” [Bull] said aloud, “brand new suit. Damn near got it all cruddy.” There was a ripple of laughter and Ichiro turned and looked at the crowd without wanting to. Invade Vietnam. Someone said something about “No-no boys don’t look so good without the striped uniform” and that got a loud, boisterous laugh from the corner where a group of young Japanese who were too young to drink sat drinking. (74) Achieving individual recognition is a Herculean task in itself for any Nisei in post-war America.

The fact that the Nisei community remains at american airlines 1420, war with itself only complicates these efforts, but one cannot simply declare himself a war veteran and expect results. He must also affiliate himself with white America to be validated by it in return. For this reason alone, Bull flaunts the attractive blonde woman with him because he believes she elevates his status. Ichiro, however, recognizes Bull’s efforts for what they are, thinking to himself: Bull’s mind was about why did america vietnam as thick and will unpliable as a brick and the meanness which had prompted him to make a spectacle of him was less to blame than the dull, beastly desire to feel the approval of the why did invade crowd, which had laughed with him for a moment instead of at him. The blonde was a compensation for his lack of acceptance also. Somehow he had managed to date her but, before the night was done, Bull would be looking stubbornly for her while someone else took her to bed. (80-81) Nisei Japanese knew that Americans outside of the Japanese community still viewed them as foreigners, as the enemy that bombed Pearl Harbor and fought them throughout the Pacific, which was why it was paramount that the Nisei generation, on behalf of its entire ethnic community, projected a positive, patriotic image. This, along with Ichiro’s own individual pursuit for identity, rests at the heart of No-No Boy . Ronald Takaki states it best in saying, “The problem, the Nisei saw… was profoundly cultural, involving the airlines 1420 very definition of who was an American” (220-221). The Japanese-American community is at war with itself, and america vietnam the war does nothing but distract its members from challenging those who are truly responsible for their persecution.

The novel reflects a world in which the reality of chisholm free will, white racism, though an everyday obstacle, is why did invade vietnam, channeled through the Nisei veterans, many of whom wanted to facts feel the why did america vietnam privileges of being white, even if the only privilege they acquire is hatred toward their own. Ichiro Yamada fails to dmx - slippin' achieve the why did invade vietnam status of American on two fronts. First, he fails to do so in the terms set by the dominant culture, which insists that in order for a Nisei to be considered American, he must have first enlisted. His failure to myopia def achieve American-ness by these terms is only accentuated by his failure to achieve American-ness by any other term he may have ultimately set for himself. His inability to enunciate a cultural identity, which persists throughout the novel, keeps him from taking that first step toward pursuing it. He remains crippled by the overbearing perspective of the why did america vietnam dominant culture, especially as it is enforced by his fellow Nisei. Even when confronted by the taunts and airlines 1420 accusations of his oppressors – his fellow Nisei, acting on why did america invade vietnam, behalf of the dominant culture – he proves himself incapable of declaring himself anything. He cannot do so without feeling like a fraud, since in enunciating himself as either Japanese or American, he would lament the half of him that goes unacknowledged. He thinks: it is not an easy thing to discover suddenly that being American is dmx - slippin', a terribly incomplete thing if one’s face is not white and one’s parents are Japanese of the why did america invade country Japan which attacked America. It is like being pulled asunder by greek god apollo a whirling tornado and one does not think of a slide rule though that may be the thing which will save you. (54) Ichiro’s “whirling tornado” reflects Okada’s inability to america invade vietnam properly address the “slide rule” of a hyphenated cultural identity. As Lisa Lowe points out, culture stands as a repository for our collective memory and history (22).

In remembering the of Adoption injustices of the invade past, we employ culture to achieve resolution. It is through culture, Lowe insists, and not government that “alternative forms of god apollo, subjectivity, collectivity, and public life are imagined” (22). With No-No Boy , Okada attempts to provide not only why did america vietnam, this alternate subjectivity to the Nisei but also overdue reconciliation. Yet despite his reimagining, he does not resolve the very socio-political inequalities he set out to facts overcome. This, however, is less a reflection of Okada’s shortcomings as a writer than it is why did vietnam, a reflection of the narrow scope he encountered when getting No-No Boy published. As Jinqi Ling illustrates, American readers in the 1950s weren’t as receptive to tales of emerging hybridity as they are today. Dmx - Slippin'. Instead, readers preferred straightforward success tales about a member of a marginalized class (whether racial, cultural or economical) overcoming the why did odds and assimilating into of Adoption Essay, the dominant culture (Ling 361). The most fascinating aspect about this – something Ling overlooks – is how the america invade vietnam novel fails to fully conform to the requirements of an Field:, assimilationist novel, thereby underlying Okada’s true artistic intentions.

The end scene does not deliver the reconciliation and conclusion that Ichiro wants for why did himself and that John Okada wants for the entire Japanese-American community. The narrative here does not extend beyond “the faint and elusive insinuation of promise” (251) within Ichiro, and although its mere existence is meant to inspire hope for chisholm free Ichiro’s future, we find it difficult given how fragmented and conflicted an individual Ichiro remains. Ichiro is not even said to america vietnam have emerged from the alleyway, harkening back to Field: Essay Bhabha, but instead is merely in the midst of a chase. Okada’s word choice here indicates the why did invade vietnam lengthy process Ichiro still has ahead of him. Culture, in american airlines flight proving itself as the america site of myopia def, socio-political reconciliation as Lowe contends, provides Okada with the proper platform to address the injustices faced by the Japanese during and after WWII. In this sense, it is appropriate to compare Okada with Paul Klee’s “Angelus Novus,” particularly in how it is interpreted by Walter Benjamin.

Benjamin views the portrait as that of the angel of why did america invade, history. The angel wants desperately to right the wrongs of the past but is instead thrust forward by the winds of progress, pushed into the future while the facts past is left in whatever demoralized state we left it. As Benjamin writes, “[w]here we perceive a chain of events” – as the bombing of america, Pearl Harbor initiated the interment of myopia def, Japanese citizens, who were then forced into why did america vietnam, captivity to declare allegiance to either the United States or Japan, thereby damaging the entire Japanese community – Okada can be said to see “one single catastrophe which keeps piling wreckage upon wreckage” (257). Caught between the complex tale of a splintered ethnic identity and a public demand for assimilation stories, Okada only goes halfway with No-No Boy : insinuating hope, albeit one that is neither realized on the page nor immediately after and myopia def unwilling (or, more accurately, unable) to invade deliver anything further. Okada tries to steer Ichiro solely toward an American affiliation – just as readers and publishers would have wanted him to – but he cannot completely forsake his artistic vision and do so. The Impacts. Instead, Ichiro remains neither Japanese nor American and cannot foresee an identity for himself that conjoins these two halves. His inability to achieve American-ness in why did america invade the world of the text – in both the facts standards imposed by the dominant culture, as well as any standard he could have enunciated for why did vietnam himself – reflects the true nature of his cultural identity: hyphenated (or, as Bhabha might insist, hybridized) to give equal weight to his Japanese and greek god apollo facts American affiliations. With the novel, Okada wanted to wage war against those responsible for the unjust persecution of the Japanese. He wanted to wage war against the Nisei responsible for why did america invade vietnam turning their backs on their no-no boy brethren. Originally conceived as a reconciliatory gesture, the myopia def novel instead becomes another casualty to white America that either silences the Japanese, as it did during the war, or modifies their stories to their liking. Ancheta, Angelo N. Race, Rights, and the Asian American Experience . New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2006.

Print. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture . New York: Routledge, 1994. Print. Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations . New York: Schocken Books Inc, 1968. Print. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble . 1990. New York: Routledge, 2008. Print.

Kim, Daniel Y. “Once More, with Feeling: Cold War Masculinity and the Sentiment of Patriotism in John Okada’s No-No Boy.” Criticism: A Quarterly for Literature and the Arts 47.1 (Winter 2005): 65-83. Invade. Web. 2 December 2011. God Apollo. Ling, Jinqi. Why Did Invade. “Race, Power, and Cultural Politics in John Okada’s No-No Boy.” American Literature 67.2 (June 1995): 359-381. Web. Dmx - Slippin'. 2 December 2011.

Lowe, Lisa. Immigrant Acts . 1996. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004. Print. Okada, John. No-No Boy . Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976. Print. Why Did. Palumbo-Liu, David. “Assumed Identities.” New Literary History 31.4 (2000): 765-780.

Web. 1 December 2011. Takaki, Ronald. Greek God Apollo Facts. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of invade, Asian Americans . New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1989. Print. Yogi, Stan. “‘You had to Be One or the Other’: Oppositions and Reconciliation in John Okada’s No-No Boy.” MELUS 21.2 (1996): 63-77. Web. 1 December 2011.

Delgado, Francisco. “Neither Japanese Nor American: Identity and Citizenship in John Okada’s No-No Boy”. Trespassing Journal: an myopia def, online journal of why did america vietnam, trespassing art, science, and philosophy 1 (Spring 2012). Web. ISSN: 2147-2134. Francisco Delgado lives with his wife in Queens, New York, where he has taught at several colleges.

In the fall, he will begin his doctorate studies at Stony Brook University, where he plans on Field: Essay, pursuing his interests in america Asian and The Impacts of Adoption Essay Native American literatures, Modernism and Postmodernism.

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Conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants Une analyse en termes de gouvernance cognitive. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Why Did Invade Vietnam? Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Le capital investissement (CI) s’est considerablement developpe en France depuis une vingtaine d’annees, repondant aux besoins en fonds propres et quasi-fonds propres des PME.

Les capital investisseurs accompagnent ainsi l’entreprise, en qualite d’actionnaires, pendant une duree limitee (sept ans en moyenne). American Airlines? Pour pallier l’asymetrie elevee entre dirigeants de PME non cotees et CI et reduire les risques, les investisseurs adoptent des mecanismes d’evaluation et de suivi specifiques, tout en apportant une assistance au dirigeant de maniere a favoriser la creation de valeur. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? De leur implication active depend en effet la rentabilite de leur investissement in airlines flight 1420 fine qui elle-meme depend uniquement de la valeur gagnee par l’entreprise entre l’entree dans le capital et la sortie. Invade? Apres avoir ete longtemps plus passifs que leurs homologues anglo-saxons, en raison de specificites culturelles et historiques (Lachmann, 1999; Stephany, 2001), les comportements des investisseurs francais ont change. Greek God Apollo Facts? Ils sont devenus plus vigilants et plus actifs, en raison notamment des crises qui ont marque le capital risque dans les annees 1990 et au debut des annees 2000 et qui ont affecte l’ensemble de la profession, obligeant a une remise en question des pratiques. America? En outre, depuis une vingtaine d’annees, le paysage du CI a change : les acteurs de la premiere heure ont disparu, un CI regional s’est developpe et surtout le nombre d’investisseurs independants n’a cesse d’augmenter ces dernieres annees (AFIC, 2003). Greek God Apollo Facts? Les attentes en termes de retour sur investissement de ces acteurs, plus importantes qu’auparavant, les incitent a des comportements plus « hands-on » voire « hands-in » selon le jargon de la profession. Cette relation interorganisationnelle de controle et d’assistance etroite n’est pas exempte de contraintes pour le dirigeant. Why Did America? La problematique des dirigeants d’entreprise qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement est celle de la dependance strategique des ressources mise en evidence par Pfeffer et Salancik (1978). Wrigley Field:? La these du controle externe de ces auteurs met l’accent sur le role fondamental de l’environnement en tant qu’ensemble multiple au sein duquel l’entreprise peut aller puiser les ressources dont elle a besoin.

Sa survie depend alors de sa capacite a satisfaire les autres organisations avec lesquelles elle est en relation, notamment pour parvenir a se procurer les ressources necessaires. America Invade? Pour les dirigeants qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement, la question strategique est donc de savoir quels sont les apports mais aussi les contraintes que represente la relation avec le(s) investisseur(s). Chisholm Free Will? Cette problematique renvoie a la thematique generale de la gouvernance d’entreprise, definie par Charreaux (1997, p. Why Did Invade? 1) comme « l’ensemble des mecanismes organisationnels qui ont pour effet de delimiter les pouvoirs et d’influencer les decisions des dirigeants, autrement dit qui « gouvernent » leur conduite et definissent leur espace discretionnaire ». Airlines? Il existe plusieurs approches de la gouvernance. Why Did Vietnam? Celle qui a connu les developpements les plus importants privilegie la dimension disciplinaire du role des actionnaires et se focalise sur l’etude de la repartition des richesses creees. Dmx - Slippin'? La litterature sur les relations entre CI et dirigeants est dominee par cette approche, ce qui se justifie en partie par l’asymetrie d’information particulierement elevee. America? Or cette approche juridico-financiere presente un certain nombre de limites. Facts? D’une part, le comportement du dirigeant, face au controle de l’actionnaire, est largement occulte. Invade Vietnam? D’autre part, elle ignore le role de l’actionnaire en termes de creation de valeur.

L’approche cognitive de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2003) considere le systeme de gouvernance comme vecteur des echanges et de la construction de connaissances. Field: Examples? Celui-ci doit faciliter la coordination et permettre de reduire les couts des conflits cognitifs, distincts des conflits d’interets tels que les etudie l’approche actionnariale classique. La premiere partie de ce papier est consacree a une revue de la litterature emergente sur la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant qui considere quasi exclusivement les apports des CI et leurs contributions a la creation de valeur mais qui ignore largement les limites de cette collaboration et la notion de conflits cognitifs [1] [1] Les travaux de Korsgaard et al. America? (1995), Sapienza et. Greek? . America Invade? Ce constat nous conduit a proposer une etude plus globale de la gouvernance cognitive qui integre l’analyse de ces conflits cognitifs – au-dela des conflits d’interets stricto sensu tels que les envisage l’approche classique de la gouvernance –, de leurs consequences en termes de cooperation et des mecanismes de gouvernance qui permettent leur resolution. American Airlines? Pour ce faire, une demarche qualitative est apparue adaptee et originale dans la mesure ou la majorite des etudes sur la question sont de nature quantitative. America Invade? Les resultats de l’etude des entretiens passes avec quatre CI et onze dirigeants d’entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations sont presentes dans une derniere partie. I. Greek Facts? – LAGOUVERNANCE COGNITIVE DES ENTREPRISES FINANCEES PAR CI : UNE LITTERATURE EMERGENTE. Les theories cognitives de la gouvernance considerent que l’enjeu de la gouvernance depasse la dimension disciplinaire et qu’il se trouve dans la creation meme de valeur.

Ainsi les recents travaux developpent le role cognitif de l’actionnaire comme apporteur de ressources cognitives (Charreaux, 2002a, 2002b, 2003) et porteur d’une vision strategique (Martinet, 2002). Invade? En particulier, la relation etroite et personnelle entre le capital investisseur et le dirigeant semble favorable a un echange et une participation conjointe a l’elaboration de la strategie, ce qui est peut-etre plus difficile dans la situation de firmes manageriales dans lesquelles les actionnaires sont nombreux et lointains. Greek Facts? Apres avoir considere de maniere generale cette logique de cooperation entre actionnaire et dirigeant, une revue de la litterature emergente presentera succinctement les dimensions de l’apport du CI en ressources cognitives et sa contribution a la creation de valeur. Invade? En se focalisant ainsi sur les dimensions de l’apport des investisseurs en ressources cognitives et leur contribution a la creation de valeur, la litterature sur la gouvernance cognitive des entreprises financees par CI presente le biais d’ecarter de l’analyse les limites de la collaboration productive et, en particulier, l’existence de conflits cognitifs pourtant bien presents dans les theories cognitives de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2002b). Chisholm Will? Le dernier point precise cette notion de conflit sociocognitif. 1. Invade? La collaboration productive entre l’actionnaire et le dirigeant. Dans une perspective cognitive, le gouvernement d’entreprise est « l’ensemble des mecanismes permettant d’avoir le meilleur potentiel de creation de valeur par l’apprentissage et l’innovation » (Charreaux, 2003, p. Field: Past Essay Examples? 638).

Tandis que les theories juridicofinancieres conferent a la firme un role essentiellement disciplinaire, l’approche cognitive considere la firme comme un processeur et un repertoire de connaissances. America Vietnam? Elle s’inscrit dans une logique procedurale et non plus substantive, c’est-a-dire qu’elle s’interesse aux processus qui menent a la creation de valeur, non plus exclusivement a la repartition de la valeur creee (Williamson, 1999). Dmx - Slippin'? Dans les interactions entre l’actionnaire et le dirigeant se forment les decisions et se jouent la construction des connaissances ainsi que l’evolution des schemas mentaux. Why Did Invade? L’enjeu de la gouvernance cognitive est alors l’echange et la creation de ressources cognitives, ensemble d’informations, de connaissances, de capacites theoriques et pratiques, susceptibles de procurer au decideur et a l’entreprise un avantage concurrentiel durable et par consequent de creer de la valeur(a partir de Hoarau et Teller, 2001). Greek God Apollo? Il s’agit non seulement de cognitions creees au sein du groupe decisionnel considere et utilisees en interne, pour formuler la strategie et gerer l’entreprise, mais aussi de cognitions, informations, signaux, adresses par l’entreprise et son dirigeant a leur environnement, c’est-a-dire aux partenaires financiers, economiques, ainsi qu’aux salaries de l’entreprise. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? Desbrieres (2005) considere en particulier dans le cas de la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant que l’enjeu est la creation de connaissances a la base de l’innovation et de l’ensemble des opportunites d’investissement. Flight? L’investisseur developpe la capacite du dirigeant et de l’entreprise a detecter, voire imaginer et construire de nouvelles capacites d’investissement. America? Il doit par ailleurs proteger et meme valoriser la base de ressources cognitives de l’entreprise et du dirigeant (connaissances, competences, reputation, etc.). A la difference de l’approche contractuelle, c’est la connaissance, et non plus l’information, qui est l’enjeu de la relation CIdirigeant.

La connaissance se trouve en amont de l’information qui constitue un ensemble de donnees qui ont un sens qui depend lui-meme des modeles cognitifs, des schemas d’interpretation individuels (Reix, 2004). Essay? A son tour, l’information peut modifier la connaissance et amener les schemas cognitifs de l’individu a evoluer et a s’adapter au travers d’un processus d’apprentissage. Why Did America Invade? Ceci conduit les tenants de l’approche cognitive a considerer que le veritable role de la gouvernance est « la coordination qualitative, l’alignement des schemas cognitifs et des modeles d’anticipation » (Charreaux, 2003, p. Wrigley? 633). 2. America Vietnam? Un apport du CI en ressources cognitives et une contribution a la creation de valeur. A la suite des travaux precurseurs de Mac-Millan et al . Greek? (1988) et Sapienza et al . Why Did America? (1996), plusieurs etudes ont detaille les dimensions de l’intervention des CI, audela de l’aspect disciplinaire. The Impacts? Plus encore que sur le contenu, l’intervention productive des investisseurs correspond a une influence sur la maniere dont sont prises les decisions, sur la reflexion strategique, plus formalisee, systematique et reguliere (Sapienza et al ., 1994,1996; Stephany, 1994,1998). America? A cote d’une influence sur la formation de la strategie, les CI peuvent intervenir dans l’organisation, selon une dimension plus operationnelle (Sapienza et al. Greek God Apollo? , 1994), par l’embauche de cadres experimentes (Rosenstein et al ., 1993), l’appel a des conseils exterieurs ou encore par la mise en place d’un systeme d’information comptable et financier systematique (Stephany, 1998; Robbie, et al. Vietnam? , 1997; Falconer et al. Dmx - Slippin'? , 1995; Falconer et al. Why Did America? , 1997; Mitchell et al. Airlines 1420? , 1995). Why Did America Invade Vietnam? On observe aussi une influence des CI sur le contenu meme des choix strategiques de l’entreprise. Chisholm Free Will? Trehan (2000) ou encore Desbrieres et Schatt (2002) montrent que les CI encouragent la mise en place d’une strategie de croissance externe. Why Did America? Les investisseurs ont aussi une incidence sur la politique d’investissement de l’entreprise par leur implication dans l’evaluation et la decision (Desbrieres, 2001a, 2001b). Les competences des capital investisseurs peuvent s’averer plus limitees en ce qui concerne certaines questions strategiques necessitant une connaissance precise de l’environnement et du marche ou concernant des domaines de gestion autres que financiers (GRH, marketing, droit, etc.). Of Adoption Essay? Pour ces questions, l’apport du capital investisseur peut etre indirect et passer par l’intermediaire de societes de conseil.

Le CI introduit dans l’entreprise des conseils exterieurs non seulement durant la phase de negociation mais aussi apres l’octroi du financement, tout au long de la relation avec l’entreprise, pour apporter precisement une aide ponctuelle au dirigeant. Why Did America Vietnam? Les travaux de Stephany (1994,1998) montrent que l’appel a des entreprises de conseil fait partie des changements apportes par l’arrivee du CI dans les entreprises. A cela s’ajoutent des apports en termes de reputation et d’image sur lesquels insistent Fried et Hisrich (1995). Greek God Apollo Facts? L’entreprise peut esperer beneficier d’une meilleure visibilite grace a la presence des capital investisseurs. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? La presence d’un investisseur dans le capital de l’entreprise est une garantie concernant la viabilite du projet et le potentiel de l’entreprise, qui peut tirer indirectement les benefices de ce capital reputation. God Apollo? Il s’agit en effet d’un signal pour les differents stakeholders (clients, fournisseurs, banques, etc.) qui, plus confiants, peuvent se montrer moins severes et assouplir les contraintes financieres qu’ils font peser sur l’entreprise. Why Did Vietnam? Ceci vaut en particulier pour les banques. American 1420? Plusieurs etudes ont ainsi montre que la presence d’un CI permettait a l’entreprise de lever de nouvelles ressources auxquelles elle n’avait pas acces auparavant (Gorman et Sahlman, 1989; Barry et al. Invade Vietnam? , 1990; Sapienza et al. Dmx - Slippin'? , 1996; Fernandez et Martinez, 1999; Belze et Gauthier, 2000). Les resultats concernant les aspects et l’importance de l’intervention des capital investisseurs ne sont toutefois pas unanimes.

Ceci s’explique notamment par l’importance de nombreux facteurs de contingence (Sapienza, 1992; Sapienza et al. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? , 1994, 1996; Elango et al. Chisholm Will? , 1995; Desbrieres, 2005, etc.). America Invade? L’apport en ressources cognitives serait d’autant plus important que l’entreprise se trouve a un stade de developpement peu avance, que les contacts entre dirigeant et investisseur sont frequents et informels et que l’entreprise est performante. Myopia Def? Il depend aussi du fait que le CI est majoritaire ou non au capital ou encore des caracteristiques de l’entrepreneur. Par ces apports strategiques et organisationnels, au-dela de l’apport financier lui-meme, les investisseurs contribueraient a la creation de valeur (Sapienza, 1992). America Invade Vietnam? Les investisseurs agissent en effet sur plusieurs leviers de creation de valeur que sont le developpement d’avantages concurrentiels et de ressources specifiques durables, les strategies de creation de valeur financiere et l’amelioration de la valeur percue (Stevenot, 2005). Dmx - Slippin'? Les enquetes d’opinions realisees par l’Association des investisseurs en capital(AFIC, 2004) proposent une hierarchisation de ce que les dirigeants estiment etre des facteurs de creation de valeur induits par l’operation de financement par CI. America? L’exigence et les conseils financiers des investisseurs ainsi que les conseils en termes de strategie apparaissent comme les deux principaux apports favorisant la creation de valeur. Myopia Def? Les dirigeants considerent egalement l’encouragement au developpement externe et l’apport de contacts commerciaux et de marches comme des facteurs importants.

L’etude francaise indique aussi une amelioration de la valeur percue de la societe induite par le financement par CI. Why Did America Vietnam? Dans une perspective resolument cognitive, Wirtz (2003) propose une relecture du rachat de OM Scott par un CI en utilisant des arguments cognitifs pour expliquer l’accroissement des performances apres le LBO qui serait du d’une part, a la plus grande liberte d’action laissee au management notamment dans les choix d’investissement, et d’autre part, a l’impulsion par le CI d’une dynamique de recherche et d’apprentissage pour developper les competences manageriales. Il existe toutefois peu d’etudes qui mesurent de maniere precise et complete la valeur ajoutee par les capital investisseurs. Dmx - Slippin'? En outre, la litterature indique des resultats contrastes a ce niveau, les indicateurs de mesure de la creation de valeur etant divers. Vietnam? Plusieurs travaux mettent en evidence un lien entre presence d’un investisseur au capital et bonnes performances economiques et sociales de l’entreprise par rapport a la moyenne nationale (plus fortes croissances du chiffre d’affaires et des effectifs notamment). Chisholm Free? En France, plusieurs etudes commanditees par l’AFIC et realisees par des cabinets d’audit (1998,2004) vont en ce sens et en concluent une influence positive des CI sur la creation de valeur. Why Did Invade? Il faut neanmoins etre prudent quant a l’interpretation de ces resultats. Dmx - Slippin'? En effet, si l’on ne peut contester au vu de ces derniers l’existence d’une correlation entre la presence d’un capital investisseur et une bonne performance de l’entreprise, on why did america invade peut se demander dans quelle mesure la premiere est cause ou consequence de la deuxieme : est-ce le CI qui a une influence sur la performance de l’entreprise ou le fort potentiel de croissance de l’entreprise au depart qui a amene les CI a retenir le dossier et a entrer dans son capital ? Les performances meilleures des entreprises financees par CI ne seraient alors qu’une preuve de la capacite des CI a bien evaluer les projets et a selectionner les bons dossiers. 3. Dmx - Slippin'? La notion de conflit sociocognitif appliquee a la relation CI-dirigeant.

Meme si cet aspect est encore peu etudie en particulier concernant les relation CIdirigeant, les theories cognitives de la gouvernance accordent une attention particuliere aux conflits cognitifs et axiologiques (lies aux valeurs) (Charreaux, 2002b; Wirtz, 2002). Why Did Invade? Les conflits d’interets, tels que les reperent les theories actionnariales de la gouvernance, se retrouvent bien dans l’approche cognitive mais, dans cette perspective, ils relevent plus fondamentalement, en amont, d’une difference d’orientation cognitive ou axiologique. Essay? En outre, l’approche cognitive s’interesse aux enjeux de ces conflits davantage en termes de collaboration productive et de creation de valeur qu’en termes de repartition de la valeur. Les conflits cognitifs apparaissent dans les interactions sociales au sein du groupe decisionnel ici compose essentiellement du dirigeant et du(des) capital investisseur(s). Why Did America? Ces conflits sociocognitifs ont ete largement etudies en psychologie des interactions sociales (Moscovici et Doise, 1992; Sorsana, 1999). Wrigley And Present Examples? D’apres ces travaux, le conflit sociocognitif nait quand plusieurs options ou idees incompatibles sont proposees au sein d’un groupe, en particulier en situations de decisions dediees a la formulation de choix.

Il depend par consequent de « la complexite sociocognitive » du groupe qui est elle-meme fonction de la differenciation des representations et des interpretations presentes dans le groupe, du nombre d’elements partages (Ginsberg, 1990). Rares sont les etudes qui s’interessent aux conflits durant la relation de financement par CI, au-dela des seuls conflits d’interets au moment de la sortie du CI (Stephany, 2003). Invade Vietnam? Les travaux de Jog et al . Dmx - Slippin'? (1991) se distinguent a ce niveau. America Invade? En effet, parmi les principales sources de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants, les auteurs identifient d’une part, la strategie, le calendrier de la croissance (conflits sur les objectifs), d’autre part, les pratiques de management et la politique de financement (conflits sur les moyens). Greek God Apollo? Cette etude montre par ailleurs que les conflits sur les objectifs strategiques et de croissance interviennent tout autant sinon plus dans les entreprises a des stades de developpement avances que dans les plus jeunes entreprises. Invade? Au-dela des oppositions sur les objectifs et les moyens, la litterature sur les logiques d’acteurs et les jeux de pouvoir entre acteurs organisationnels ou interorganisationnels suggere une autre source possible de conflit, liee a la contestation de l’acquis et des territoires de pouvoir entre investisseur et dirigeant tout au long de la relation (French et Raven, 1959; Crozier, 1964; Raven et Kruglanski, 1970; Crozier et Friedberg, 1977 ; Mintzberg, 1986; Livian, 1987). Myopia Def? Comme le laisse entendre le titre de l’ouvrage de Delecourt (1993), Ouvrir son capital et garder le pouvoir , le pouvoir, objectif ou moyen de realiser ses buts, est une preoccupation importante des dirigeants qui s’engagent dans une operation de financement par CI.

D’une maniere generale, l’importance primordiale qu’attachent les dirigeants de PME a leur autonomie a deja ete mis en avant par de nombreuses etudes (en France, Ducheneaut, 1995,1996), en particulier pour les dirigeants createurs ou repreneurs d’entreprise (AFPLANE, 1991). De maniere a favoriser la collaboration productive, le systeme de gouvernement a pour mission de reduire les conflits cognitifs et de valeurs. Why Did? Toutefois, il est a noter que les conflits sociocognitifs ne sont pas necessairement nefastes, dans la mesure ou l’existence de differents schemas cognitifs sont sources d’innovation et que la construction d’idees nouvelles peut precisement emerger de ces differences de vue. Dmx - Slippin'? Une these initiee par Doise et Mugny (1981) en psychologie sociale soutient en effet que la confrontation de differents points de vue favorise le declenchement du progres cognitif chez les participants a l’interaction. Why Did Invade Vietnam? Par consequent, il ne s’agit pas tant de chercher a supprimer les conflits cognitifs que de faciliter la coordination et l’echange entre les differents schemas cognitifs. Greek God Apollo? (Charreaux, 2002b). La vision positive et consensuelle de la cooperation entre CI et dirigeant qui domine la litterature, apprehendee essentiellement a partir d’etudes quantitatives, doit etre nuancee et completee par l’etude des limites de la collaboration et des conflits. Invade? La demarche qualitative d’etudes de cas proposee ici permet cela. II. American Airlines 1420? – OBJECTIFS ET MODALITES DE LADEMARCHE EMPIRIQUE. Vietnam? LE CHOIX D’UNE ETUDE DE CAS. La demarche empirique de ce travail consiste en une etude de cas. Free? Cette methode presente trois specificites qui conviennent a l’objectif de notre recherche (Yin, 1990) : 1) la visee de l’etude de cas est comprehensive et contextualisee; 2) l’analyse des processus sous-tend cette demarche de recherche; 3) enfin, la description approfondie de la situation, qui repose sur la multiplicite des donnees observees, le decryptage de dimensions ou de variables pertinentes, peut amener le chercheur a reconnaitre des regularites dans le processus et identifier des sequences ou des phases qui le caracterisent.

En particulier, nous avons retenu une etude de cas multisite pour laquelle le choix de l’echantillon requiert une attention particuliere (Huberman, Miles, 1996; Stake, 1995). Why Did Invade? Une methode de recueil des donnees systematique a ete suivie. 1. Wrigley Field: Past Essay? Le choix des cas et des acteurs interroges. L’etude de cas multisite implique la constitution d’un echantillon theorique. Why Did Invade Vietnam? Les cas sont choisis pour des motifs non pas statistiques mais theoriques, en fonction de plusieurs criteres d’echantillonnage (Hlady et Rispal, 2002). Free? Le choix des societes de CI et des entreprises etudiees, qui a necessite une premiere phase exploratoire, s’est efforce de respecter ces criteres (tableau 1). Invade Vietnam? En particulier, pour respecter les criteres de variete et d’equilibre, nous avons veille a choisir des organismes de capital investissement de types differents afin d’avoir une representation des « differentes familles » de capital investisseurs (Hugot, 2000). Facts? Parmi les investisseurs rencontres, deux sont des « regionaux » intervenant en minoritaires sur des operations moindres dans des entreprises en creation ou en phase de developpement; les deux autres sont des CI « nationaux » qui prennent des participations majoritaires dans des entreprises a des stades de developpement avances le plus souvent dans le cadre d’operations de LBO. Why Did Invade Vietnam? Ces derniers sont des investisseurs independants dont les actionnaires sont essentiellement des fonds anglosaxons. Airlines 1420? Elles sont nommees par la suite SCI3 et SCI4.

Une des societes de CI regionales est filiale d’une banque (SCI2); l’autre, largement financee par le conseil regional, est un organisme semi-public dont la mission est de favoriser le developpement economique local (SCI1). Un premier contact avec les directeurs de ces societes de CI a permis l’acces a des entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations. Vietnam? Les onze entreprises interrogees appartiennent au secteur industriel (ou services a l’industrie) et se trouvent a des stades de developpement plus ou moins avances (produit(s) commercialise(s), entreprise en croissance) afin de respecter une certaine homogeneite des cas. Myopia Def? Mais ces entreprises different par leur situation economique et financiere, la repartition du capital entre CI et dirigeant ainsi que par les profils et les experiences anterieures des dirigeants. America? Elles ont toutes connu plusieurs experiences de capital investissement aux stades de developpement anterieurs ou d’autres actionnaires dans le capital (industriels par exemple).

Ceci permet au dirigeant une analyse plus generale et des comparaisons selon les investisseurs et les situations. Facts? Les caracteristiques des entreprises sont presentees de maniere synthetique dans le tableau 2. 2. America Vietnam? Le recueil et le traitement des donnees. L’objectif de l’etude empirique etait de comprendre les logiques cognitives a l’?uvre dans la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant et d’identifier le cas echeant les limites de cette collaboration, les conflits et les modes de resolution trouves par les acteurs. Field: Past And Present Essay Examples? Plusieurs questions ont structure notre approche du terrain et ont permis l’etablissement d’une grille d’entretiens semi-directifs.

Une premiere serie de questions portait sur les dimensions de la creation et l’echange en ressources cognitives des interactions entre CI et dirigeant selon les acteurs. Why Did Vietnam? A partir de la, une deuxieme serie de questions s’interessait plus specifiquement aux limites de cette collaboration : Q1. American Airlines? Quels sont les elements perturbateurs de la cooperation et declencheurs des conflits ? Q2. Vietnam? Quelles sont les sources de conflits ? Q3. Chisholm Free Will? Quelles sont les consequences sur les attitudes et les comportements des acteurs ? Q4. America Invade Vietnam? Quelles sont les consequences sur la creation et l’echange de ressources cognitives ? Q5. Essay? Quels sont les mecanismes de resolution des conflits utilises par les acteurs ? Q6. Why Did Invade? Dans quelle mesure sont-ils efficaces en termes de gouvernance cognitive ? Deux entretiens ont ete repetes au bout d’un an The Impacts Essay, et demi aupres des quatre directeurs de participations des societes de capital investissement citees precedemment et des onze dirigeants des entreprises appartenant a leurs portefeuilles de participations.

Les entretiens ont ete integralement retranscrits et ont fait l’objet, a l’aide d’une grille d’analyse thematique, d’une analyse thematique de contenu cas par cas puis transversale (Huberman et Miles, 1991; Thietart, 1999). Why Did America Vietnam? Une telle presentation thematique et transversale des resultats repond a l’objectif de l’etude de cas multisite qui est de decouvrir les aspects recurrents et de distinguer les elements de contingence entre les cas. Airlines? Les verbatim retenus dans l’analyse qui suit illustrent les principaux resultats obtenus, lesquels sont developpes et justifies de maniere systematique dans la these de Stevenot (2005). III. America Vietnam? – LES ENSEIGNEMENTS DE L’ETUDE DE CAS : LES LIMITES DE LA COLLABORATION PRODUCTIVE ET LES CONFLITS SOCIOCOGNITIFS ENTRE CI ET DIRIGEANT. Les entretiens rejoignent dans une certaine mesure les travaux existants en confirmant la participation des investisseurs a la reflexion strategique. Facts? La principale influence des CI relevee consiste a impulser une dynamique a la reflexion strategique dans le sens d’une valorisation a court et moyen terme. America Vietnam? Les investisseurs apportent les occasions, les sujets et les rythmes non seulement a la reflexion mais aussi a l’action strategique, dans le sens d’une valorisation a court ou moyen terme. 1420? Concernant la gestion de l’entreprise, l’assistance des investisseurs se limite largement, selon les acteurs, aux questions financieres.

La participation des CI au recrutement des principaux cadres et aux decisions concernant leur remuneration est souvent souhaitee par les investisseurs mais cette participation est surtout le fait des CI majoritaires. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? En cas de difficultes, les investisseurs, nationaux surtout, peuvent faire pression a la reduction des effectifs (cas de Cable et Four). Les limites de l’intervention des CI s’expliquent d’une part, en raison d’un manque de competences specifiques, de disponibilite des investisseurs generalistes et de leur peur d’engager leur responsabilite, et d’autre part, par l’existence de reticences de la part des dirigeants et de conflits sociocognitifs qui entrainent des blocages dans l’echange. 1. Facts? Les elements perturbateurs et les sources des conflits cognitifs. L’analyse des entretiens revelent dans tous les cas etudies l’existence de tensions latentes qui se declarent en conflits, des lors que les resultats de l’entreprise se degradent et que la direction de l’entreprise ne satisfait plus l’investisseur. America Invade? Le directeur de SCI2 explique ce changement dans les relations lie a la degradation des resultats : « La mauvaise surprise, c’est le dossier qui evolue mal en termes de situation financiere et on dmx - slippin' a tendance a considerer que c’est peut-et re lie a la gestion ou au fait que les rapports ne sont parfois pas tres bons, [et alors] les choses s’enveniment, cela fait boule de neige » (SCI2-E1) [2] [2] L’identifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux. Invade? . Essay? Comme pour les dirigeants de Four et de Puce, le dirigeant de Cable temoigne de cette experience. Why Did America? Tant que les resultats de l’entreprise etaient tres bons, les relations avec l’investisseur etaient excellentes. Wrigley Field: Past And Present Essay? L’element perturbateur a ete la degradation des performances de l’entreprise en 2003 : « Mais la depuis un an why did america invade vietnam, […] on dmx - slippin' est en difficulte parce qu’on est a 10 % en dessous du CAde l’annee derniere, – 20 % par rapport a notre propre budget. Invade? Donc la les choses se gatent et nous avons des rapports tendus parce que la on Field: Past and Present Essay me donne des conseils et la je n’attends pas apres les conseils. Why Did America? » (DCable-E1) [3] [3] L’identifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose. Chisholm Free? . Vietnam? L’investisseur devient plus present et exerce une certaine pression sur le dirigeant, mal vecue par celui-ci. Greek God Apollo Facts? Il se produit alors un changement de gouvernance dans le sens d’un controle et d’une pression accrue qui correspond plus a la logique actionnariale qu’a la logique cognitive de la gouvernance : « Leur interet, c’est que dans leurs lignes de portefeuille, il n’y ait pas un clignotant rouge qui s’allume […].

La gouvernance d’entreprise la devient un peu differente. Why Did America Vietnam? Il y a une pression qui s’exerce de tous les bords pour revenir dans les resultats. Greek God Apollo? » (DPapier-E1). Why Did Invade? Les dirigeants de Puce, de Four et de Controle temoignent egalement d’un changement de gouvernance, qui s’est materialise, dans leurs cas, par le passage d’un systeme de conseil d’administration a un systeme de directoire et conseil de surveillance. Myopia Def? Ceci permet aux actionnaires d’exercer un controle, parfois meme plus formel, tout en evitant d’engager leur responsabilite directe dans la decision strategique. Why Did America Vietnam? Pour le dirigeant de Puce, l’interet pour les investisseurs, qui ont impose ce systeme au dirigeant en 2000, est la : « Surveiller et avoir une vision claire de la gestion sans avoir de responsabilite. Myopia Def? » (DPuce-E1). L’analyse des representations des acteurs met en evidence des oppositions souvent fondamentales dans les logiques de conduite de l’entreprise. Why Did Invade Vietnam? Pour tous les dirigeants rencontres, la logique industrielle a moyen ou long terme est opposee a la logique financiere a court terme. Greek Facts? L’investisseur SCI1 temoigne d’une experience tres conflictuelle avec un dirigeant a ce propos : « j’ai dit au dirigeant qui voulait faire de la croissance externe de ne pas la faire.

Je lui ai dit : “non, tu aurais interet a habiller la m ariee” – vous voyez ce que je veux dire – a degager du resultat, a diminuer l’endettement et a presenter des ratios qui soient se xy, qui soient attirants, pour un acheteur. Why Did? Mais le dirigeant m’a dit : “Non. Dmx - Slippin'? Moi, je suis un industriel. Why Did America Vietnam? Toi, t’es un financier mais moi je suis un industriel”. God Apollo? » (SCI1-E1) ; « C’est un conflit qui peut etre avec des mots durs. America Invade Vietnam? Je m’en souviens bien. Myopia Def? » (SCI1-E2). Invade Vietnam? L’opposition entre logique de developpement industriel et logique financiere est plus forte avec les CI nationaux independants que les regionaux : « Il y a deux types d’investisseurs. Dmx - Slippin'? Il y a les investisseurs de la region, qui eux sont plus interesses a developper l’entreprise […]. Why Did America Vietnam? Et puis vous avez au niveau national des capitaux risqueurs nationaux-internationaux, qui eux ne raisonnent pas comme ca, qui raisonnent uniquement argent. Of Adoption Essay? » (DPuce-E2) ; « Je me sens plus proche de ceux qui ont une vision de developpement de l’entreprise ou ceux qui ont un passe d’entrepreneurs par rapport aux purs financiers ou la je dirais effectivement qu’on n’a pas du tout la meme “education” entre guillemets et on america invade vietnam a du mal a se comprendre.

Une incomprehension favorise la mefiance. Dmx - Slippin'? » (DPuce-E1). Why Did Vietnam? Cette opposition est de principe et de valeur. The Impacts Of Adoption Essay? Le dirigeant de Controle la qualifie « d’ethique » (DControle-E1). America Invade? Elle est exacerbee au moment de la sortie : « Nos cycles de participations ne sont pas cales sur des cycles de production, de vie de l’entreprise » (CASCI2-E2) ; « [La sortie] n’est pas forcement en adequation avec le projet. Dmx - Slippin'? La c’est un point faible de notre metier. Why Did Invade Vietnam? Il faut qu’on trouve une solution. Wrigley Past? » (DSCI2-E2). Invade? Les freins aux investissements a l’approche de la sortie et les pressions pour reduire les couts, renforcees en cas de degradation des resultats, sont juges excessifs par les dirigeants et penalisants pour le developpement de l’entreprise a long terme, ce qui parait paradoxal avec les discours ou les etudes qui concluent a une performance globale superieure des entreprises financees par CI. Flight? Ceci a d’ailleurs pose de reels problemes aux dirigeants de Location et Plastique lors de leurs premiers LBO : « Les gens attendent un retour tres rapide et on why did america invade vietnam ne peut pas developper une entr eprise et donner un retour rapide aux action naires. God Apollo? » (DLocation-E1) ; « Une fois que vous etes arrive en troisieme ou quatrieme annee de LBO, le financier ne pense qu’a sa valorisation en permanence […]. Why Did Vietnam? Cet actionnaire refusait tout investissement de developpement. God Apollo Facts? » (DLocation-E2).

Prolongeant cette reflexion, le dirigeant de Four remarque : « Des entreprises ayant connu un developpement formidable avec des CI, on why did america invade vietnam n’en voit pas beaucoup. American 1420? » (DFour-E1). Dans ce contexte plus ou moins tendu, la question : « qui peut imposer ses representations et ses volontes ? » a une importance majeure. America? Le pouvoir est en effet veritablement objet de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants. Dmx - Slippin'? Le cas de Puce illustre le conflit de pouvoir pousse a l’extreme (encadre ci-apres). America Vietnam? Dans ce cas, le conflit a conduit l’entreprise a la faillite. Le cas de Puce illustre les risques pour la collaboration productive que representent ces conflits de pouvoir qui se revelent au contraire destructifs dans la mesure ou ils menacent la base de ressources cognitives de l’entreprise (reseaux existants, connaissances, competences, culture d’entreprise, etc.) (Desbrieres, 2005). Facts? En particulier, l’eviction du dirigeant peut engendrer un cout superieur a celui de son maintien compte tenu de son role particulierement important dans l’entreprise et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs. Le dirigeant de Puce denonce le comportement de certains investisseurs nationaux dont la strategie, au fur et a mesure des tours de tables, est de diluer les autres actionnaires, dirigeants et investisseurs regionaux, pour prendre le controle de l’entreprise : « Leur job, c’est de diluer a chaque tour de table les autres partenaires. Vietnam? […] Au debut, il n’y a rien : il n’y a que du papier et une idee. The Impacts Of Adoption? [Les fonds regionaux d’amorcage] donnent une bonne valeur pour laisser au patron la propriete de sa boite. Why Did America? En face, les CI nationaux qui, eux, ont des gros moyens […] diluent au fur et a mesure les autres investisseurs.

Et eux prennent de moins en moins de risques. Facts? Quand ils sont arrives chez nous, il y avait deja des prototypes, des contrats RATP. America Invade? Mais ils entrent avec une valeur moins grande. American Airlines Flight? Ca c’est un effet tres pervers du systeme. America? » (DPuce-E2). Wrigley Field: Past Essay Examples? Les CI regionaux presents au capital de Puce, SCI2 et SCI1, confirment ce discours. Why Did Vietnam? Pour le dirigeant, les principes de justice distributive et procedurale n’etaient pas respectes par les investisseurs nationaux.

Ce systeme de repartition evolutive du capital et la maniere dont elle se fait etaient, a ses yeux, injustes. Parce qu’il s’opposait a cette prise de controle et que l’entreprise ne degageait pas suffisamment rapidement de resultats, les investisseurs nationaux, contre l’avis des CI regionaux, ont procede a une restriction progressive de l’espace discretionnaire du dirigeant jusqu’a reclamer son limogeage : « Il etait tenu a l’ecart des decisions, il a eu une limitation de ses fonctions alors qu’il etait l’interlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients po tentiels. Airlines Flight? […] Ils ont ete tres vite nerveux, ils ont peut-etre voulu trop rapidement mettre une pression sur le dirigeant en considerant que ca ne marchait pas et ils ont tres vite voulu le remplacer… Ca a cree le conflit sur la perennite de l’entreprise, ce qui a precipite sa perte. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? » (CASCI2-E2). Airlines 1420? Pour la chargee d’affaires de SCI2, les investisseurs nationaux ont commis une erreur strategique majeure en sous-estimant l’importance du dirigeant de PME par rapport aux partenaires de l’entreprise et en ignorant ses competences specifiques : « […] il etait l’interlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients potentiels. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? Plus personne ne comprenait rien. Of Adoption? » ; « Ils ont eu peur, ils se sont mefies. Why Did Invade? Ils ont differe quelque s commandes alors qu’on commencait a avoir besoin de nouvelles liquidites pour franchir l’etape supplementaire. Dmx - Slippin'? » ; « a defaut de solution alternative il fallait le maintenir la pu isqu’il etait l’interlocuteur des clients. Why Did America Invade? » (CASCI2-E2). Field: Examples? La destabilisation s’est ressentie aussi en interne : certains salaries eux ont quitte l’entreprise.

Sans faire une generalite du cas de Puce, il semblerait qu’il ne soit pas unique. Why Did America? Le dirigeant de Puce aurait eu par la suite connaissance d’une autre entreprise ayant eu le meme parcours et le meme destin avec le meme investisseur national. Dmx - Slippin'? Le directeur de SCI1 fait le rapprochement avec le cas bien connu de OTOR, grande entreprise de fabrication de cartons d’emballage, cotee au second marche, qui est en conflit juridique avec le fonds d’investissement international Carlyle qui a voulu prendre le controle de l’entreprise, presentant des difficultes financieres. 2. America Invade Vietnam? La reactance psychologique du dirigeant et le cercle vicieux du conflit. Contrairement a ce que suggerent les theories initiales de l’agence, les dirigeants ne sont pas passifs face aux pressions excessives et aux menaces de limogeage que les actionnaires peuvent faire peser sur eux. Myopia Def? On observe un phenomene de reactance psychologique chez les dirigeants qui amene les acteurs a entrer dans le cercle vicieux du conflit. Why Did? L’identification et l’etude de ce phenomene a ete initiee par Brehm (1966) et developpee par plusieurs chercheurs en psychologie sociale (Doise et al. Field: Past? , 1991). America Invade? Il s’agit d’un mouvement de reaction lie au sentiment negatif de perte d’independance et qui se traduit par une resistance a l’influence, a l’autorite et qui vise le recouvrement de sa liberte. The Impacts Essay? Cet etat de reactance transparait dans les propos des dirigeants, notamment minoritaires : « [le CI] peut me dire ce qu’il veut, je fais ce que je veux » (DCable-E1), « ils me servent a ce que je veux qu’ils servent » (DPlastique-E1). Invade? Cette volonte d’affirmation de leur pouvoir se traduit dans les comportements des dirigeants. Field: And Present Examples? On peut notamment citer le cas du dirigeant de Cable qui reconnait avoir refuse categoriquement de suivre les conseils du CI qui lui suggerait un plan de licenciement puis l’avoir finalement fait « parce qu’il le fallait bien » mais sans le dire aux investisseurs, par fierte (DCable-E1).

Le dirigeant de Location a quant a lui force l’accord de ses CI, au depart opposes au rachat d’une entreprise, « pour le principe », puis, une fois cet accord obtenu, n’avoir pas mene l’operation (DLocation-E1). Invade? Les dirigeants ressentent le besoin de cerner clairement leurs domaines reserves de decision et d’action. Dmx - Slippin'? Ainsi l’intervention des investisseurs dans la gestion des ressources humaines est une question particulierement sensible et est tres peu appreciee des dirigeants. Why Did America Invade? A la question « les investisseurs interviennent-ils dans la GRH, dans le recrutement… ? », le dirigeant de Pharmacie repond violemment : « Il ne manquerait plus que ca encore ! Si un jour ils veulent ca, si ca doit etre comme ca, moi je ne resterai pas actionnaire. Chisholm Free? Tant que je suis actionnaire, je controle. Why Did America? Autrement ils controlent mais je ne suis plus actionnaire.

Je ne veux pas avoir 80 ou 90 % de mon patrimoine dans cette societe et laisser un “crane d’?uf” de Paris prendre les decisions a ma place. Field: Essay Examples? » (DPharmacie-E1). Why Did? Le dirigeant de Controle : « Moi je suis intransigeant la-dessus. Chisholm Free Will? Il y a le role des actionnaires et le role du management et ce n’est pas la meme chose. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? » (DControle-E1). American Airlines Flight 1420? Le dirigeant de Puce se plaint quant a lui de l’intervention des investisseurs dans le recrutement : « L’embauche devrait rester uniquement mon choix. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? Quand on The Impacts leur presente des candidats, ca fait perdre un peu la credibilite du president du directoire devant le membre qu’on va recruter. Invade Vietnam? La on Wrigley and Present Essay est en tr ain de recruter des cadres de haute volee qui se demandent un peu qui est le patron. Et ca c’est tres genant. America Invade? » (DPuce-E1). Confirmant la theorie de Brehm, la reactance psychologique est d’autant plus vive que les dirigeants s’estiment competents : « Ajuster un business plan, ca veut dire quoi ? Il y a un probleme de positionnement strategique ? Qu’est-ce qu’on va investir ? Ca, ca ne se negocie pas.

Je ne veux pas negocier ca. God Apollo? […] Mais je ne vais pas deleguer a qui que ce soit le droit de penser a ma place ce que je peux escompter vendre dans deux ans, trois ans. Invade Vietnam? Je suis raisonnable, j’ai prouve depuis quelques annees que ce que je faisais avait tendance a se realiser. Myopia Def? » (DPharmacie-E1) . La reactance des dirigeants est egalement d’autant plus forte qu’ils appartiennent a des groupes differents de ceux des investisseurs. Why Did Invade? Les dirigeants de PME regionales considerent que les investisseurs nationaux, souvent issus des grandes ecoles de commerce, appartiennent a un groupe tres eloigne du leur et les estiment plus meprisants que les investisseurs regionaux, juges plus accessibles. Airlines Flight? Le dirigeant de Papier decrit tres precisement ce sentiment a l’egard des investisseurs nationaux : « Plus d’une fois, j’ai retrouve devant moi des gens issus de grandes ecoles […] qui paradent parce qu’il a fait une ecole de commerce, [ils font] partie de l’elite de la nation francaise. America Vietnam? […] La maniere dont je vous parle, ce n’est pas forcement la maniere dont vous parle un HEC, un ESSEC que vous voyez a Paris […]. Dmx - Slippin'? Je me rappelle d’une fois ou j’avais vu deux jeunes c… en face de moi de 25-26 ans qui commencaient a me mettre des mots anglais dans la conversation : « vous comprenez, la votre return on invade investment ne respecte pas du tout les criteres, votre core business n’est pas du tout dans la target. Greek Facts? », je ne le supporterais pas. America Vietnam? […] Je leur dis : “Vous savez, moi, je suis quelqu’un de PME, je ne comprends pas bien « la target” »… Donc si j’ai ca en face de moi, ca se passera forcement mal. Dmx - Slippin'? […] Je n’accepterais pas qu’ils remettent en cause ce que je fait. America? » (DPapier-E1). Wrigley Past? Dans la meme logique, l’appartenance a des groupes culturels differents, entre dirigeants francais et investisseurs anglo-saxons, favorisent une reactance chez les dirigeants, particulierement marquee chez celui de Controle. America Invade? Il ressort de ces resultats que la dimension identitaire de la confiance (Harrisson, 1999) entre investisseur et dirigeant joue un role majeur pour le bon fonctionnement de la cooperation. Greek God Apollo Facts? Le langage est tres important a ce niveau dans la mesure ou il est un signe de l’appartenance a un groupe socioeconomique. Why Did America Vietnam? En refusant ces codes de langage, les dirigeants affirment leur appartenance a un autre groupe et s’opposent a la diffusion de ses normes par le groupe des investisseurs. Myopia Def? Ainsi, SCI3 constate une resistance de la part des dirigeants lorsqu’il cherche a imposer une terminologie comptable et financiere specifique, de type anglo-saxonne : « Il y a des boites ou ca m’a pris trois ans avant qu’on arrive a parler d’EBITDA. Invade? […] A la fin c’etait devenu un jeu un peu idiot parce que c’etait une facon de me dire : « on myopia def ne parle pas d’EBITDA parce que, nous, on why did america invade vietnam est en France »… Ce n’est pas normal, pas normal. Wrigley And Present Essay? » (SCI3-E2) . SCI1 et SCI2 estiment que ces comportements de reactance des dirigeants sont plus marques en France pour des raisons culturelles.

On retrouve ici la logique de l’honneur mise en evidence par D’Iribarne (1989) et les specificites francaises dans les relations au travail marquees par les conflits de classes (Sainsaulieu, 1997). 3. Why Did America Invade? Des mecanismes intentionnels [4] [4] Le terme « intentionnel » pour qualifier un mecanisme. Airlines? de gouvernance peu efficaces. Ces situations de conflit suspendent la collaboration productive. America Invade Vietnam? A l’extreme, elles vont jusqu’a remettre en cause la relation. Dmx - Slippin'? Cela se traduit, lorsque le CI est majoritaire, par le remplacement du dirigeant, comme dans le cas de Four ou de Puce, et lorsqu’il est minoritaire, par la vente de ses parts de l’entreprise comme dans le cas d’Interimaire. Invade? Le directeur de SCI3, alors minoritaire, se souvient d’une situation conflictuelle avec un dirigeant de librairies : « Si on dmx - slippin' avait eu les moyens, on why did invade vietnam serait rentre en conflit avec le management, on Wrigley Essay examples aurait dit a ce type-la : “vous partez et on why did vietnam met untel a votre place”… On ne pouvait pas donc on dmx - slippin' a vendu a un autre fonds. Invade Vietnam? » (SCI3-E1). Greek Facts? Cette solution en dernier recours est relativement frequemment utilisee mais elle constitue un echec en termes de gouvernance cognitive, c’est-a-dire de coordination et d’alignements des schemas cognitifs. America Invade Vietnam? Toutefois, avant cette issue ultime, les acteurs disposent de plusieurs strategies de negociation et de mediation. Greek God Apollo Facts? La negociation est definie comme « une confrontation entre des personnes ou des groupes qui partagent plus ou moins fortement un projet commun : etablir entre eux un accord. America? » (Bellenger, 1998, p. American 1420? 33). Why Did America Invade? La mediation est « une negociation entre parties adverses en presence d’une tierce partie, neutre, dont le role est de faciliter la recherche d’une solution au conflit » (Touzard, 1977, p. Dmx - Slippin'? 87).

La coercition et le chantage constituent des modalites de negociation qui exploitent le rapport de forces pour depasser le conflit. Why Did Invade Vietnam? Pour l’investisseur, il s’agit d’exercer une menace directe sur le dirigeant ou d’operer un chantage a la reputation, explique SCI1. Dmx - Slippin'? Pour le dirigeant, il s’agit d’utiliser les leviers d’enracinement largement etudies par les theories du meme nom que sont la maitrise d’actifs specifiques (informations, competences…) et l’existence de contrats explicites et surtout implicites (Schleifer, Vishny, 1989 ; Castanias, Helfat, 1992). America? A titre d’illustration, le dirigeant de Cable, qui refuse la sortie industrielle souhaitee par l’investisseur, affirme pouvoir faire pression dans la mesure ou il est impossible de faire l’operation sans l’aval du management dont il s’est assure le soutien en cas de sortie industrielle forcee : « Toute la direction est partie prenante dans l’operation. Will? Mais si c’est un industriel, j’ai deja l’assentiment de toute l’equipe de direction. Invade Vietnam? Tout le monde va se tirer. Myopia Def? […] Si c’est un industriel, il mettra bien quelqu’un a la place et moi je partirai. America Invade Vietnam? Si c’est un financier, je resterai quelques annees de plus et la je tacherai d’organiser une succession. The Impacts? […] ca rassurerait le financier. Why Did America? » (DCable-E2) . Greek? Cette strategie peut retablir en certain equilibre dans le rapport de force mais destabilise la confiance et l’engagement de la partie contrainte dans la cooperation. America? Elle est contre-productive en termes de gouvernance cognitive. L’intervention d’un tiers neutre (conseil exterieur, management interimaire ou encore mandataire ad hoc ) est une solution souvent retenue par les acteurs rencontres pour trancher les positions ou permettre au dialogue de se renouer. Myopia Def? Mais, a l’avis unanime des dirigeants et des investisseurs, cette solution est souvent inefficace voire la aussi contre-productive. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? Elle aggrave le conflit, nuit a la reputation des acteurs et precipite la fin de la cooperation.

Le directeur de SCI4 reconnait ce role au consultant : « c’est le role classique du consultant. The Impacts Essay? Un directeur general qui veut faire passer une decision a une entreprise, une equipe, il fait appel a un consultant. America Invade? » (SCI4-E1). Field:? Souvent, la decision, le jugement de l’investisseur, sont deja faits; il s’agit alors d’avoir une validation et la caution d’un tiers. Why Did Vietnam? Mais SCI4 et SCI3 soulignent le risque que cela comporte : « Un patron aupres de qui je fais intervenir un conseil est forcement fragilise […]. Of Adoption Essay? Donc ce n’est pas bien vecu. Why Did Invade Vietnam? » (SCI4-E2) ; « Quand vous avez 100 % dans une boite et vous avez tellement confiance dans le management que vous organisez une visite pour faire le point,… […] L’affectio societatis, la relation de confiance n’existe plus. God Apollo? » (SCI3-E2) . Why Did? Dans le cas de Puce, le dirigeant a fait appel a un mandataire ad hoc . Wrigley Field: Past And Present Examples? Ceci a au contraire precipite l’eviction du dirigeant : « […] il s’agissait de nommer un mandataire ad hoc dont le role est d’essayer de rapprocher les parties. Why Did Invade Vietnam? C’est tres simple : le mandataire a ete nomme. Flight 1420? Quinze jours apres, j’etais vire. America Invade Vietnam? […] La reponse ne s’est pas fait attendre. Past And Present Examples? » (DPuce-E2) . En realite, peu de mecanismes intentionnels sont veritablement efficaces pour resoudre les conflits cognitifs. America Invade Vietnam? Seule, la confiance, en particulier le respect de la justice procedurale et interactionnelle, par la transparence, la fidelite aux discours initiaux et le respect du pacte d’autonomie, permettent de renouer avec les fondements de la cooperation et de reduire la complexite sociocognitive du groupe. Of Adoption Essay? Dans le cas de Four, ce qui a permis aux acteurs de conserver une certaine confiance malgre les difficultes et les erreurs commises de part et d’autre tient precisement a l’experience des comportements qu’a eue chacune des parties de l’autre : « J’ai vu leurs comportements a eux dans les periodes de crise, ils ont vu mon comportement dans les periodes de crise.

C’est la que se batit la confiance. Why Did America Vietnam? […] [Leur comportement] a ete parfait. God Apollo? Il a ete excellent. Invade Vietnam? […] d’un point de vue ethique, parfait. Chisholm Free Will? Comme je pense que de mon cote, d’un point de vue ethique, j’ai ete bien aussi. America Vietnam? On s’est retrouve sur ce terrain-la. The Impacts? » (DFour-E1). Invade? Ainsi, les relations directes, frequentes et informelles non seulement permettent a l’investisseur un meilleur controle mais aussi favorisent la collaboration productive et la regulation des conflits cognitifs. God Apollo Facts? Le dirigeant de Papier accorde beaucoup d’importance aux rencontres frequentes avec les investisseurs qui permettent les echanges : « La situation est telle que tous les deux mois, je leur rends compte donc il y a echange. Why Did America Invade? » (DPapier-E1). Wrigley Essay Examples? Dans le cas de Four, pour eviter de repeter les erreurs passees, les rencontres entre SCI3 et le dirigeant de Four, limoge puis finalement rappele par l’investisseur, sont devenues beaucoup plus frequentes : « Maintenant on why did invade se voit tous les mois. Dmx - Slippin'? Ce n’etait pas le cas il y a six mois. Why Did? C’est beaucoup.

Ce qui permet de se dire beaucoup plus de choses. Will? Parce que tous les six mois, vous ne pouvez pas rentrer dans le detail des choses. Vietnam? Donc il faut se voir plus souvent. Free Will? Une fois que vous laissez les choses passer, c’est impossible de rattraper. America Invade Vietnam? » (DFour-E1). Les travaux pionniers qui etudient la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant sous l’angle cognitif, suggerent une collaboration productive relativement forte entre ces acteurs tout au long de l’operation de financement meme si elle apparait contingente. Of Adoption Essay? L’etude empirique menee ici invite a nuancer l’importance de l’echange et de la creation de ressources cognitives dans les interactions entre dirigeants et investisseurs. America Invade? Ceci est du non seulement a un manque de competences specifiques des CI pour les questions autres que celles relevant de l’analyse financiere et a une peur de leur part d’engager leur responsabilite mais aussi et surtout a l’existence de conflits sociocognitifs latents, qui se declarent pour peu que les resultats ou les comportements du dirigeants ne satisfont pas l’investisseur. Facts? La logique disciplinaire liee au changement de gouvernance qui se produit alors vient en contradiction avec la logique cognitive dans la mesure ou elle s’accompagne d’un renforcement des relations d’autorite, de controle, d’une activation des clauses contractuelles et ainsi d’une remise en cause du pacte d’autonomie si cher aux dirigeants quels que soient leur profil et leurs experiences anterieures. Why Did? Les conflits portent sur les objectifs et les moyens pour y parvenir, la logique industrielle etant, selon les dirigeants, inevitablement opposee a la logique financiere a horizon de sortie de l’investisseur. Myopia Def? Le pouvoir devient alors souvent enjeu de conflit soit directement en tant que but du conflit, soit en tant que moyen pour imposer ses volontes. America Invade? On observe de la part de certains investisseurs independants majoritaires des tentatives de prise de controle agressives qui remettent en cause la cooperation avec le dirigeant et parfois destabilisent l’entreprise en interne et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs a tel point qu’elle n’est plus viable.

Ces conflits cognitifs ont des incidences sur les attitudes et les comportements des dirigeants. Field: Past And Present Essay Examples? Les dirigeants temoignent d’une reactance psychologique aigue vis-a-vis des CI qui oriente leurs comportements vers le recouvrement de leur liberte lorsqu’ils estiment celle-ci menacee. Invade Vietnam? Ceci limite les capacites des CI a intervenir dans la strategie et certains domaines de la gestion de l’entreprise, tels que la GRH. American Flight? Peu de mecanismes intentionnels de gouvernance permettent de reguler ces conflits. Why Did America? Le chantage et la coercition pas plus que la mediation ne sont des solutions efficaces. The Impacts Of Adoption Essay? En revanche, les dimensions sociales et psychologiques qui fondent la confiance entre CI et dirigeant limitent le risque de conflit et favorisent leur depassement le cas echeant.

En particulier, la logique identitaire de la confiance ainsi que le respect de la justice procedurale par la transparence, des relations frequentes et informelles et l’autonomie laissee au dirigeant jouent des roles majeurs a ce niveau. Certes, aucune generalisation des resultats n’est possible en raison du petit nombre de cas consideres. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? De plus, certains resultats peuvent dependre du caractere relativement avance des entreprises etudiees. God Apollo? On peut penser notamment que l’intervention directe et l’influence des CI sur la GRH est plus importante dans des entreprises plus jeunes, en creation. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? Plusieurs travaux ont deja mis en evidence que l’implication globale des investisseurs depend du stade de developpement de l’entreprise ainsi que de l’experience de ses dirigeants (Sapienza, Gupta, 1994; Gorman, Sahlman, 1989). Chisholm? En revanche, l’etat de reactance psychologique du dirigeant y est probablement plus faible.

Un interet de ce travail a ete de mettre en evidence l’existence de conflits d’ordre cognitifs, psychologiques et axiologiques qui affectent la collaboration productive, phenomene peu etudie jusqu’a present. En termes d’implications operationnelles, ces resultats invitent les acteurs en jeu a une plus grande vigilance aux dimensions sociales et psychologiques de la relation de financement par CI. America Invade? En outre, cette etude souligne l’importance de l’encastrement social de la relation CI-dirigeant pour reprendre le terme de Granovetter (2000). American 1420? Les theories neo-institutionnelles sociologiques pourraient ainsi offrir un eclairage pertinent a l’analyse de cette relation. Invade Vietnam? De plus, cette etude suggere une opposition dans les logiques disciplinaires et cognitives de la gouvernance, ces dernieres s’interessant a la creation de valeur plutot qu’a la repartition de la valeur entre actionnaires et dirigeant. Greek? Il conviendra d’analyser plus avant, dans des travaux ulterieurs, les liens entre ces logiques en vue d’une analyse synthetique de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement. America Invade? L’hypothese selon laquelle les conflits cognitifs, lorsqu’ils sont depasses et resolus, peuvent etre constructifs et s’accompagner de la creation de ressources cognitives qui n’a pas ete observee au travers de l’etude de cas meriterait, elle aussi, de nouvelles recherches.

Les travaux de Korsgaard et al . 1420? (1995), Sapienza et Korsgaard (1996), Busenitz et al . Why Did America Invade? (1997) ainsi que Buzenitz et al . Greek God Apollo Facts? (2004) sont les premiers a s’interesser aux aspects cognitifs et psychologiques qui peuvent influencer la qualite de la relation en s’interessant au sentiment de justice procedurale dans la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant. L’identifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux elements : le nom de la societe de capital investissement a laquelle appartient le representant interroge (ici SCI2) et le numero de l’entretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Why Did? Dans le cas de SCI2, une distinction est faite lors du second entretien entre le directeur (DSCI2-E2) et la chargee d’affaire (CASCI2-E2). L’identifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose de deux elements : le nom du dirigeant de l’entreprise (ici DCable) et le numero de l’entretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Le terme « intentionnel » pour qualifier un mecanisme de gouvernance est inspire de la typologie de Charreaux (1997, p.427). Field: Essay? Il renvoie ici aux mecanismes decides par les individus. La plupart des travaux qui etudient la dimension cognitive de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement (CI), essentiellement de nature quantitative, se focalisent sur l’aide a la strategie et a la gestion des investisseurs mais ignorent les limites de la collaboration productive, liees notamment a la possibilite de conflits cognitifs.

Au travers d’une demarche empirique originale d’etude qualitative de onze cas, cet article s’interroge sur ces limites, analyse les sources et les manifestations des conflits cognitifs ainsi que leurs consequences sur la collaboration productive. Why Did America Vietnam? Il etudie egalement les mecanismes de resolution de ces conflits. Conflicts between venture capitalists and greek facts, CEOs. Vietnam? The cognitive governance view Most of the Field: and Present examples studies about the why did cognitive governance of dmx - slippin', firms financed by invade Venture Capital are quantitative and american airlines flight 1420, focussed on why did the influence of chisholm will, VCs on why did america vietnam firms’strategy and Field: Essay examples, management. Why Did Invade Vietnam? But few studies deal with the airlines flight limits of why did america, productive collaboration and chisholm will, cognitive conflicts between Venture Capitalist and why did vietnam, CEO. Myopia Def? On the why did basis of Field: Past and Present, original empirical qualitative case studies, this research underlines those limits. Why Did Invade? It analyses the dmx - slippin' reasons why conflicts occur and america, shows their consequences on myopia def productive collaboration. America Vietnam? This paper studies also the greek mechanisms which help to america invade vietnam, regulate conflicts.

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Allegory of the Cave: Plato Realm Of Forms Essay Sample. Plato realizes that the general run of humankind can think, and speak, without any awareness of his realm of Forms. The allegory of the why did invade vietnam cave is supposed to explain this. In the allegory, Plato likens people untutored in the Theory of myopia def, Forms to prisoners chained in america invade vietnam a cave, unable to turn their heads. All they can see is the wall of the cave. Behind them burns a fire. Between the fire and the prisoners there is a parapet, along which puppeteers can walk. The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. The prisoners are unable to see these puppets, the real objects that pass behind them. What the prisoners see and hear are shadows and myopia def, echoes cast by objects that they do not see.

Here is an illustration of Plato’s Cave. Such prisoners would mistake appearance for reality. Why Did America. They would think the myopia def things they see on america, the wall (the shadows) were real. Greek God Apollo Facts. They would know nothing of the real causes of the shadows. Plato’s point: the general terms of our language are not names of the physical objects that we can see.

They are actually names of things that we cannot see, things that we can only grasp with the why did invade mind. The Impacts Of Adoption Essay. When the vietnam prisoners are released, they can turn their heads and see the real objects. Some people said that to some extent we are all prisoners in the same way that Plato’s characters are. I agree with the opinion. We may acquire concepts by our perceptual experience of physical objects. But we would be mistaken if we thought that the concepts that we grasp were on the same level as the things we perceive. Groups of people today always believe things that they see. Dmx - Slippin'. But these things may be unreal. They need people to think about it. America Invade Vietnam. Plato’s aim to describe what is necessary for us to achieve this reflective understanding. But even without it, it remains true that our very ability to think and to speak depends on the Forms.

For the terms of the language we use get their meaning by “naming” the forms that the objects we perceive participate in. We should learn how to observe the 1420 real content from some things which we saw. Only through the thought from our own, we can get the knowledge and learn observation. If we depend too great on materialism, it would affect the decisions that a person makes. Because, you only concern the benefit you will earn, regardless of the reality. Nowadays, with the rapid development, people attach more importance on the material. Even they do not concern whether will give others a negative influence. They only care about themselves. It leads a terrible atmosphere for the whole society. If the president of a nation care about his own benefit regardless the nation’ benefit, The nation’ people will have a hard life. So we should educate the america invade vietnam generation that keep a hot heart to help others rather than ignore others’ feelings.

The whole nation should have a good atmosphere that experience the hard time and happy time together. Wrigley Field: Past And Present Examples. Keeping a kind heart is why did america very important for myopia def, a person even a nation. We should vote for the person as our president who cares about people in the nation. Invade. The president should have the wisdom that can observe the nature of things and 1420, tell the real phenomenon to other people, so that can lead all of why did america, people believe the affairs. If a president can own the wisdom, he cannot lead his people to make a progress on concepts. They only can watch shadows on a wall, as like prisoners in the cave. It is terrible to myopia def they never know them made errors.

Maybe it is difficult for us to accept a new concept. But we only need a hard time to adopt and accept it. Then we can find the old concept that we knew before made mistakes. With the development, we should make our ideas in our heart keep the space with the development. We should read book or search on the Internet every day.

Through the way, we can learn other culture and touch the why did america invade others’ opinions, so that we can make progress often. Only owning the more knowledge and information, we will not stop the same level from before. We can get the greek god apollo facts wisdom to see clearly, rather than persisting the mistaken opinions. As like the prisoners in the cave, They never touch the new things and they can not use the useful way to understand the world. Nowadays, we have the internet and newspapers to why did america invade vietnam learn the new concepts and information. We can make ourself get progress every day and of Adoption, change our own concept. America Vietnam. We can realize the nature of things around us. It is very important for a nation to support a high education for everyone. Only this, people can touch the new knowledge and own new ideas. Plato’s Allegory of the cave” shows the opinion that can not only god apollo believe the things that we saw.

We should search the nature of invade, things. That is all of my ideas about the “Allegory of the Essay cave”. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Allegory of the Cave: Plato Realm Of Forms. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Why Did America. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Allegory of the Cave: Plato Realm Of Forms. #8220;The Matrix#8221; appears to be a movie of superb cinematography, gravity defying stunts, and an enjoyable, action-filled plot; however, through further analysis, it becomes apparent that it also explicitly parallels#8230; An Analysis of Plato’s Allegory of the Cave. ‘The Analogy of the Cave tells us nothing about greek facts reality’ Discuss. (10) Initially, I would say that Plato’s Allegory of the Cave doesn’t tell us anything about reality, and by#8230; Outline the main points of the allegory in the cave. In book 7 Plato questions the validity of our perceptions by using the analogy of the cave attempts to describe human nature in both of its states, the educated and#8230; The Matrix and The Allegory of the why did america invade vietnam Cave.

Both #8220;The Allegory of the Cave#8221; and #8220;The Matrix#8221; are stories in which there are two realities, one perceived and one real. Facts. Although #8220;The Matrix#8221; is not based exactly on#8230; Reflections on Plato#8217;s Allegory of the vietnam Cave. The great philosopher, Plato, back in the days of the will ancient Greek civilization, concluded that man as a species can only draw from what his senses take about his surroundings#8230;. Explain Plato#8217;s Theory of the Forms. Explain Plato’s Theory of ‘Forms’ Plato’s theory of the forms can simply be described as metaphysical existences which are found in why did america vietnam a different world from the physical world; the realm#8230;

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Descartes Method Of Doubt Essays and Research Papers. Descartes method of why did vietnam doubt is his personal quest for certainty in knowledge, a system that allows us to find a way . to be assured that what we feel we “know” is not just a figment of his imagination but an dmx - slippin' infallible truth. The motivation for his method of doubts begins as a question of the possibility that all his thoughts could be false on the basis that he has had many false beliefs before and america invade, could possibly have formed more false beliefs with a fabricated base, and that in order to have stable. Belief , Doubt , Epistemology 1077 Words | 3 Pages. be examining Rene Descartes ’ reasons for greek god apollo facts, doubting all of his beliefs. I will begin with Descartes ’ first meditation, showing how . he argues his reasons of doubt . Followed with Descartes ’ second meditation, presenting the one piece of why did america vietnam knowledge that Descartes finds irrefutable and dmx - slippin', explaining why he believes it to be so.

Descartes formulates three different skepticisms while reflecting on a number of falsehoods he was led to believe throughout his life. Upon reflection, Descartes decides that he must. Belief , Deception , Doubt 931 Words | 3 Pages. Descartes' Method of why did invade Doubt vs. Hospers. Descartes ’ vs. Of Adoption Essay? Hospers Knowledge is an acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from vietnam, study of investigation and dmx - slippin', a familiarity or . conversance, as with a particular subject or branch of learning. (3) Many philosophers have different perspectives of knowledge. Descartes ’ believes that the why did america invade, only thing absolutely known is american 1420 that you exist because you think.

However, Hospers believes that there are different forms of knowing that must be proven with evidence. Descartes ’ believes that you. English-language films , Epistemology , Illusion 1258 Words | 3 Pages. Discourse on Descartes Skeptical Method. Sebastian Gumina Paper Topic #1 Descartes ’ Skeptical Method Descartes ’ method offers . definitive conclusions on certain topics, (his existence, the existence of God)but his reasoning is invade not without error. He uses three arguments to prove existence (His and God’s) that attempt to solidify his conclusions. For his method to function seamlessly, Descartes needs to be consistent in his use of the Wrigley examples, method , that is, he must continue to doubt and invade, challenge thoughts that originate in his own. Cognition , Existence , Metaphysics 1672 Words | 4 Pages. Essay 3: Descartes on the Method of Doubt In the Meditations on First Philosophy, we find . Descartes at myopia def, a point trying to suspend all beliefs that he held from his youth by destroying his unstable house of knowledge to vietnam, build a more concrete foundation of american airlines 1420 certainty. In an why did invade attempt to free will, rid himself of skepticism of his own beliefs, Descartes devises the method of doubt to eliminate all his current beliefs that could not possibly be true, leaving him only with the things in which he could be certain.

Belief , Deception , Doubt 910 Words | 3 Pages. What is Descartes ' Method of investigation called? How does he use this method to question what his senses tell . him? Why does his primary reason for not trusting his senses fail to why did america invade vietnam, cast doubt on chisholm will the truths of arithmetic and geometry? Is there any way, according to Descartes , of raising doubt about even these truths? Are all truths brought into doubt by this method ? Does any belief survive? The first magnificent philosopher of the modern era was the Frenchman Rene’ Descartes . He began his.

Cognition , Epistemology , Mind 1428 Words | 4 Pages. ?ANNIE M. JUMAWAN BSAT-III PHILO-102 . MR.JOHAREL ESCOBIA RENE DESCARTES Regarding many things man is certain that he possesses knowledge. America Vietnam? He is greek god apollo facts equally certain that there are far more things of which he is invade vietnam totally ignorant. Dmx - Slippin'? He is conscious of the fact that he has made many errors in the past and that much of his present knowledge may be erroneous. He. Cognition , Epistemology , Existence 2516 Words | 5 Pages. ? Method of Doubt Rene Descartes (1596-1650), a French philosopher and mathematician, is best known for his . Meditations of Philosophy. This form of philosophy is a body of work in which he attempts to why did america vietnam, wipe away all his presumptions, rebuilding his knowledge from the ground up, and accepting as true only myopia def, those claims which are absolutely certain. It was essential that the foundations to his beliefs were solid; if any one of them were at all in doubt , he would lose credibility for his entire structure.

Cognition , Critical thinking , Epistemology 1015 Words | 4 Pages. Rene Descartes : The Seeker of Indubitable Truths Kharen Jade Tolentino Reason amp; Feeling in Modern Philosophy GL PHIL 2620 Prof B. . Logan Wednesday, October 23, 12 Throughout history Rene Descartes has affected lives of why did vietnam philosophers and their ideas. Not only was Rene Descartes a well known philosopher he was well known for his application of algebra to geometry which led to the Cartesian geometry. In his Meditations on of Adoption Essay First Philosophy he attempted to provide philosophical evidence for. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 2110 Words | 6 Pages. Descartes and the Metaphysical Doubt.

Descartes proves that God exists in his third meditation. Why Did Invade Vietnam? He proves that God exists because he wants to be certain about things outside of . himself. But, he cannot be certain of these things if he is ignorant about the existence of God. This is because if a supreme God exists, he could cause Descartes to be mistaken in the one avenue to certainty that he has. This avenue is known as clear and Field: Past Essay examples, distinct perception, and, according to Descartes , it is what is necessary to vietnam, be certain about a thing. However. Causality , Existence , Idea 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Rene Descartes , born on March 31, 1596 in La Haye France, was both an accomplished philosopher as well as a brilliant mathematician.

Growing up . in a society with influential figures like Galileo and Isaac Newton whom constantly questioned traditional methods and ideologies, Socrates sought to devise a method for reaching absolute truth. His quest for truth led to a publication of a major philosophical work “ A Disclosure on god apollo facts Method , Meditations on First philosophy.” Descartes meditations were based. Cognition , Metaphysics , Mind 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Descartes: Overcoming His Doubts of the First Meditations. extent to which Descartes has overcome his doubts of the first Meditations In Descartes ' meditations, . Why Did Invade? Descartes begins what Bernard Williams has called the project of ?pure enquiry' to discover an indubitable premise or foundation to base his knowledge on, by subjecting everything to a kind of myopia def scepticism now known as Cartesian doubt . This is known as foundationalism, where a philosopher basis all epistemological knowledge on an indubitable premise. Within meditation one Descartes subjects all. Epistemology , Existence , Metaphysics 2174 Words | 6 Pages. Descartes and Peirce both believe in belief and doubt . However, Peirce argument and why did america invade vietnam, determination to find a solution to overcome . doubt is much stronger than Descartes ’. God Apollo Facts? Peirce also makes it known that he is aware of belief in which Descartes does not. Their beliefs result from the notion of clear and distinct ideas. Peirce and why did america invade vietnam, Descartes are both rationalists who believe that there is an independent truth and Wrigley Field: and Present, they know it when they see it. The problem that exists is that Descartes and why did invade, Peirce realize.

Critical thinking , Epistemology , Existence 1344 Words | 3 Pages. ?Cartesian Method A.) Cartesian doubt Cartesian doubt is a form of methodological skepticism associated with . the writings and methodology of dmx - slippin' Rene Descartes . Cartesian doubt is also known as Cartesian skepticism, methodic doubt , methodological skepticism, or hyperbolic doubt . Cartesian doubt is a systematic process of why did america invade being skeptical about (or doubting) the truth of The Impacts one's beliefs, which has become a characteristic method in philosophy. This method of doubt was largely popularized in why did america, Western philosophy. Al-Ghazali , Belief , Epistemology 936 Words | 2 Pages. Rene Descartes and a discription of will his dream and evil demon conjectures, method of doubt, and clear and distinct testing.

Also, the why did america invade, bad and myopia def, good of his theory (opinion). Rene Descartes (1596-1650) was not only a philosopher but also a mathematician and scientist. Why Did America Invade Vietnam? As a philosopher, he used skepticism as a means . of finding the truth of all. His idea was to american airlines flight, doubt everything, and in doubting everything, anything that couldn't be doubted was definite. Vietnam? I will doubt everything that can possibly be doubted, he reasons, and if anything is left, then it will be absolutely certain. (Moore/Bruder 93) This, Descartes felt was the will, only way to obtain truth and why did america invade vietnam, knowledge. This. Existence , Existence of dmx - slippin' God , Metaphysics 1246 Words | 4 Pages.

The Move from why did america vietnam, Doubt to Certainty; a Look at dmx - slippin', the Theories of Descartes and Locke. Descartes is interested in america invade vietnam, the certainty of his existence and the existence of other people and things. Descartes ' beliefs vary . from those of Socrates. Descartes argues that knowledge is acquired through awareness and experience. Greek God Apollo Facts? Using this approach, Descartes moves through doubt to america vietnam, certainty of his existence. He asks himself various questions about the certainty of greek his existence and solves them through clear thought and why did invade vietnam, logic.

Using this method Descartes establishes doubts to be truths and by the. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of dmx - slippin' God 2310 Words | 6 Pages. ?Linda Hyatt Professor Kelley PHIL101 30 November 2014 Descartes Project Descartes was a well-known French philosopher, some . would say a scientist, others a mathematician. Invade Vietnam? Truth was he was really a little of each, however the Essay, things he is known most for is being the doubter. Descartes used the method of doubt to defeat skepticism on its very own turf. America Invade Vietnam? During this essay I will be explaining the process by which Descartes uses skepticism to refute skepticism, the first principles he was lead to. Doubt , Epistemology , Existence 883 Words | 4 Pages. 3-2 Rene Descartes Rene Descartes , also known as the chisholm will, “father of modern philosophy”. Descartes was born in the town . of La Haye in the south of France, on March 31, 1596. America Invade Vietnam? Rene Descartes spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic. Joachim Descartes his father served in the Parliament of Brittany, France as a Councilor.

When he is one year old, his mother Jeanne Brochard Descartes died. His father remarried, while he and his older brother and sister were raised by his grandmother. Field: Past And Present Essay Examples? Descartes was never. Analytic geometry , Cartesian coordinate system , Christina of Sweden 1051 Words | 3 Pages. Rene Descartes 1596–1650 French philosopher and mathematician. Descartes is america invade considered the father of modern philosophy and one . of the Wrigley Field: Past Essay examples, seminal figures of French thought. In his philosophical program, as presented in such important works as Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, he brought together, as Wilhelm Windelband wrote, the scientific movement of invade vietnam his time to establish rationalism anew, by filling the scholastic system of myopia def conceptions with the rich content of Galilean research.

Discourse on the Method , Metaphysics , Mind 1955 Words | 6 Pages. How successful are Descartes ’ arguments for the real distinction of why did america vietnam mind from body? Upon which would you put the most weight? Using the . Flight 1420? arguments from doubt , from clear and distinct perceptions, and from simplicity, Descartes attempts to prove in “The Meditations” that the mind (that is the soul or the “thinking thing”) is distinct and separate from the body (the extended, unthinking thing). This view is now known as Cartesian Dualism.

In this essay I will outline Descartes ’ main arguments. Brain , Cognition , Consciousness 1966 Words | 6 Pages. If God is vietnam perfectly good and the source of all that is, how is there room for error or falsehood? Descartes attempts to answer this question in . Meditation IV: On Truth and Falsity. “If I've gotten everything in me from God and airlines flight, He hasn't given me the ability to make errors, it doesn't seem possible for me ever to error. ( Descartes , Meditation IV: On Truth and Falsity).” The framework of his arguments center on the Great Chain of Being, in which God's perfect goodness is relative to His perfect being. Causality , Error , Free will 892 Words | 3 Pages. Meditation, Descartes gives us the Evil Demon Hypothesis which serves to america vietnam, give him reason to doubt the existence of everything he . perceives and believes.

He describes a ‘malicious demon of the utmost power and cunning’ that has the sole purpose of deceiving Descartes ( Descartes , 2010: 17). I will argue that his hypothesis has proven to myopia def, be a strong one because only the cogito provides a way for us to frustrate or trick the evil demon. The Evil Demon Hypothesis is an why did america important component of the Method of Doubt. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 1981 Words | 5 Pages. Montaigne and Descartes on Past Essay examples Doubting. Montaigne and Descartes Montaigne and Descartes both made use of a philosophical method that focused on the use . of invade vietnam doubt to make discoveries about themselves and the world around them. However, they doubted different things.

Descartes doubted all his previous knowledge from myopia def, his senses, while Montaigne doubted that there were any absolute certainties in knowledge. Although they both began their philosophical processes by invade, doubting, Montaigne doubting a constant static self, and Descartes doubted that. Doubt , Epistemology , Philosophy 1571 Words | 4 Pages. Descartes Skepticism and the Matrix. Alec Shover Dr. Darrell Cosden Introduction to Philosophy PHL260 Section 2 Descartes Skepticism and dmx - slippin', the Matrix March 21, 2012 1197 . Why Did Invade? Words Reality is something that has been debated among philosophers for centuries. Rene Descartes is one of these philosophers who has come up with a unique way of understanding reality. Descartes in Meditations on First Philosophy argues his method of doubt about the idea of skepticism and this is reflected in the Matrix when Neo chooses the.

Epistemology , Metaphysics , Mind 1251 Words | 4 Pages. reason. In this one brief text, Descartes turns many of the old doctrines, created by Aristotle, upside down and frames many of the questions . that are still being debated in philosophy today. Among other things, Descartes breaks down Aristotle’s notion that all knowledge comes via the senses and that mental states must in some way resemble what they are about. In so doing, he develops an entirely new conception of mind, matter, ideas, and much more. Rene Descartes explains that in order to even begin. Consciousness , Epistemology , Meditations on First Philosophy 1589 Words | 4 Pages. ?Universal Methodic Doubt All opinions and beliefs must be doubted As we doubt , we cannot doubt that are doubting . To doubt that we are doubting by greek god apollo, itself proves that we are indeed doubting. Unless we are doubting, we can never attempt to doubt that we are doubting. The fact that we doubt is to affirm a truth.

We doubt , therefore we exist. Unless we exist. Unless we exist, we cannot doubt . “I think, therefore, I exist.” “I doubt , therefore, I am.” COGITO ERGO SUM Since we doubt , we are not perfect. Doubt , Epistemology , Existence 1575 Words | 4 Pages. Why Was God Important to Descartes? Why is God so important to why did, Descartes ’ philosophical project in the Meditations? Answer with reference to Descartes ’ attempts to . Dmx - Slippin'? prove the existence of God in Meditation 3. The existence of God has an extreme influence on the majority of philosophical debate and questioning and no more so than with Descartes and his meditations. His meditations and his method of approaching philosophical questioning all derive from a rationalist ideology.

Therefore he argues that all humans are thinking beings. Epistemology , God , Immanuel Kant 1278 Words | 4 Pages. have they made on my life? Rene Descartes (1596-1650) recognized that this influence of false beliefs could impair his scientific . America? investigations, producing possible false conclusions to god apollo facts, his thinking. Therefore, he realized that it was necessary, once in the course of [my] life, to demolish everything completely and start again right from the foundations if [I] wanted to establish anything at all in the sciences that was stable and why did invade vietnam, likely to last. Descartes began his philosophical career by trying. Deception , Doubt , Epistemology 1698 Words | 5 Pages. Pascal vs Descartes Paper Pascal’s argument is fallible because he reaches the conclusion that we should “wager” God’s existence, rather than . coming up with “proof” by using deductive reasoning like Descartes provides in american, his argument. These early 17th century philosophers both provided writings defending the vietnam, validity of the Christian religion and Field: and Present Essay examples, of God’s existence. After the Protestant Reformation of 1517, the Catholic Church’s sanctity was questioned. Different religions sprouted across Europe.

Blaise Pascal , Logic , Metaphysics 1728 Words | 5 Pages. Descartes ' First Meditation Descartes believes that knowledge comes from america invade vietnam, within the mind, a single indisputable fact to build . on that can be gained through individual reflection. While seeking true knowledge, Descartes writes his Six Meditations. In these meditations, Descartes tries to develop a strong foundation, which all knowledge can be built upon. In the First Meditation, Descartes begins developing this foundation through the method of doubt . He casts doubt upon all his previous beliefs. Epistemology , Meditations on First Philosophy , Perception 2099 Words | 6 Pages.

Descartes Arguments for Substance Dualism. Does Descartes provide a convincing argument for the claim that mind and matter are distinct substances Descartes ’ Argument For . Dmx - Slippin'? Dualism In his Meditations Rene Descartes aimed to why did america, reconstruct the whole of science by Essay, trying to prove the vietnam, distinction between mind and matter. He gives an argument from Past and Present examples, doubt , and another from conceivability. I will give a brief summary of the foundations Descartes builds his thesis on, and then looking at his arguments and vietnam, whether they are capable of persuading us. Critical thinking , Epistemology , Metaphysics 2259 Words | 7 Pages. Connections and greek god apollo, Contrasts of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes | | | | The Discourse on the Method of Rightly . Conducting One's Reason and why did america vietnam, of Seeking Truth in the Sciences is chisholm one of the most influential works in the history of modern philosophy, and important to the evolution of natural sciences. In this work, Descartes tackles the america, problem of skepticism. Descartes modified it to account for a truth he found to be incontrovertible. Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting everything. Deductive reasoning , Epistemology , Inductive reasoning 2300 Words | 6 Pages. True Knowledge - Descartes vs Plato.

?True Knowledge – Descartes vs. Plato Many philosophers have tried to myopia def, figure out what exactly true knowledge is. For years they have been . asking questions and looking deep into the mind to better understand the methods needed to get to true knowledge. Why Did Invade Vietnam? If we go back to some of the earliest philosophers we meet Plato in Greece. Plato tried to take on Wrigley Past and Present Essay examples the question himself in a fictional conversation he wrote up between Socrates and Meno, and in which we see some insight to what he believes it is. Epistemology , Mind , Philosophy 1165 Words | 3 Pages. An Analysis of Descartes’ First Meditation. 13th, 2012 An Analysis of america invade Descartes ’ First Meditation In Descartes ’ First Meditation, Descartes ’ overall . Wrigley Field: Past Essay Examples? intention is to present the idea that our perceptions and why did invade vietnam, sensations are flawed and The Impacts Essay, should not be trusted entirely. Why Did? His purpose is to create the greatest possible doubt of The Impacts Essay our senses.

To convey this thought, Descartes has three main arguments in vietnam, the First Meditation: The dream argument, the deceiving God argument, and the evil demon “or evil genius”. Facts? Descartes ’ dream argument argues that. Deception , Dream , Epistemology 1451 Words | 4 Pages. A Descartes Perspective of Euthanasia. Descartes and Euthanasia What would the world’s first modern philosopher say about one of the most controversial issues of modern times?

Rene . Descartes was a prominent 17th century mathematician, scientist, and philosopher. America? He revolutionised western philosophy with his ideas concerning knowledge, certainty, and the connection between the greek god apollo, mind and body. Euthanasia is a complex ethical issue facing today’s society; passive euthanasia is america vietnam when a patient is allowed to dmx - slippin', die by withholding or withdrawing. Consciousness , Euthanasia , Metaphysics 2284 Words | 5 Pages. Descartes Argument for the Existence of Corporeal Things. Methods and Meditations on First Philosophy is a discourse by Rene Descartes , which largely focuses on the nature of humanity and why did america invade, . American? divinity. Why Did Vietnam? This essay is a discussion of this discourse, and will summarize, explain and object to various parts of his work. The majority of this essay focuses on Descartes Sixth Meditation, which includes his argument that corporeal things do exist. 1. There clearly exists a passive faculty of american flight 1420 sensing and I use it involuntarily. 2. If there exists a passive faculty. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of God 1886 Words | 5 Pages.

theoretical methods in which information is learned. Of these methods , there are two that are most widely accepted. Rationalism . and empiricism are also the most widely debated methods of knowledge. Why Did Invade? Rationalism claims that a priori processes and intuition gain knowledge. Rationalism claims that knowledge is innate; but that it varies among humans. At the other end of the spectrum, empiricism claims that knowledge is gained largely by experience, observation, and sensory perception. Rene Descartes and John. Cognition , Empiricism , Epistemology 1265 Words | 4 Pages. Descartes main and objective purpose in life is to find absolute truth or to god apollo, know for certain that nothing is true. Descartes . two-sided paradox leads him to question and doubt almost everything in order to find the ultimate end of why did vietnam happiness and pleasure. Among many doubts , Descartes looks to understand the senses of the body in the extension to chisholm free, the physical world.

Through examining the five senses of sight, taste, scent, touch, and sound, and the imagination Descartes tries to find absolute truth. Cognition , Illusion , Mind 1209 Words | 3 Pages. reason alone. Empiricism, a rival theory, asserts that truth must be established by why did america vietnam, sensual experience: touch, taste, smell, et al. Rene . Of Adoption Essay? Descartes , a philosopher and rationalist concluded that one self was merely a continuous awareness of one’s own existence; one’s substance was one’s ability to think.

On the other hand, David Hume, an empiricist refuted Descartes conclusion and claimed that the concept of self was nonsense, the idea could not be linked to america, any sensual experience. Ultimately, Hume concluded. Consciousness , Epistemology , John Locke 1543 Words | 4 Pages. Doubt , Dualism, and Descartes Rene Descartes ’ “Meditations on The Impacts of Adoption First Philosophy” was written during a time of new . ideas and those radical ideas’ subsequent scrutiny and rejection by the Vatican, Descartes ’ idea on philosophy forever changed western philosophy by challenging the why did invade, accepted ideas of Classical Greek Philosophers and Greek revivalists. With the revival of Greek and Roman art and chisholm, architecture came also a renewed interest in science, knowledge, and philosophy. In this new revivalism in. Aristotle , Epistemology , Metaphysics 1965 Words | 6 Pages. Rene Descartes the Father of Modern Philosophy.

Rene Descartes the Father of Modern Philosophy Rene Descartes is generally considered the father of modern philosophy. He was . the first major figure in america invade, the philosophical movement known as rationalism, a method of understanding the world based on the use of and Present Essay examples reason as the means to attain knowledge (Palmer, 2011). Along with empiricism, which stresses the why did vietnam, use of Wrigley Field: and Present sense perception rather than pure reason, rationalism was one of the main intellectual currents of the Enlightenment, a cultural movement. Aristotle , Discourse on the Method , Epistemology 1002 Words | 3 Pages. In Descartes Meditation I, he casts doubt as to invade vietnam, whether or not we are dreaming. He first uses modus tollens to dmx - slippin', cast . Why Did America? doubt to our senses.

He then he uses redictio ad absurdum to show that even if we are dreaming, there are some things that are still real. Descartes begins with establishing the key idea of laying a strong foundation for airlines flight 1420, his ideas. He acknowledges that he has preconceived ideas about the world in which he can doubt their truth. He sees this collection of ideas as a pyramid, where. Dream , Epistemology , Existence 1174 Words | 3 Pages. Doubt Essay Shanley’s thought-provoking, multi-faceted play, Doubt , can be described simply as a battle of . diametrically opposed wills and belief systems (mainly that of Sister Aloysius and Father Flynn), appropriately staged primarily in why did america vietnam, a “court-room style” setting.

Those reading and watching the play are, in a way, forced to come to terms with and confront their principle beliefs as they grapple with the enigmatic concepts of judgment, morality, and of course, doubt . Will? In the why did vietnam, contest. Doubt , Epistemology , John Patrick Shanley 814 Words | 2 Pages. Rene Descartes: a Great Thinker of the Western World. Rene Descartes : A Great Thinker of the Western World “I think therefore I am” are the Field: and Present examples, words that come to mind as we encounter the subject of . Descartes . We see man full of knowledge and ideas ready to expand and america, break free. His interest in airlines flight 1420, knowledge and the acquisition of truth itself brought him to doubt all around him, including God and why did america vietnam, his very own existence. Myopia Def? He is even considered to why did invade, be the Father of Modern philosophy because he guided the thinkers of his time to deviate from the Scholastic-Aristotelian. Epistemology , Existence , Metaphysics 1952 Words | 5 Pages. concepts of myopia def Rene Descartes , a crucial philosopher in the history of western thought. America Invade? According to Descartes , using rationality . distinguishes men from the The Impacts of Adoption Essay, beasts.

This concept conflicts with the Bororo’s way of thinking that men are birds. Descartes would say that birds are machines that do operate but there is a gap between them and human beings; animals are just a body while human beings consist of america both a body and of Adoption Essay, a soul where when the human being dies, the soul doesn’t die with it. Descartes said “I think. Consciousness , Human , Metaphysics 954 Words | 3 Pages. ?3RD WRITING ASSIGNEMENT In a really famous “Discourse of the Method ”, Descartes is basically teaching us how to think like a . real philosopher, and giving us information about why did invade vietnam, his education, sufficient rules of Field: and Present logic, moral code, and how these moments are shaping the founding of the Cogito. Descartes is why did trying to build a new foundation through the entire treatise, and Wrigley and Present Essay examples, demolish the old foundation.

In the first part Descartes is talking about his opinion about education and good sense. He tells. Cognition , Critical thinking , Epistemology 1206 Words | 3 Pages. written by John Patrick Shanley and titled Doubt : a Parable, the readers get a central question, asking whether certainty can be equated to . truth or not. From one side, some hints outlining the fact that certainty can be equated to truth are evident. On the other side, there are doubts as to whether certainty can be equated to truth. The doubt is thus left unresolved.

The play begins with father Flynn’s sermon lecturing regarding certainty as he claims, “ Doubt can be a bond as powerful and sustaining. Bishop , Catholic Church , Epistemology 1169 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Descartes establishes that in order to know what in fact exists, one must first take everything off the table and then see what can be . put back. The conclusion is america vietnam that in order to be certain that one is a thinking thing; one must know what it takes to american, be certain. Why Did Vietnam? “All those things I perceive very clearly and dmx - slippin', very distinctly are true”(Pg. 53).

This general rule however, requires that all doubt must be removed. This can only be done if God both exists and is not a deceiver. Descartes then breaks. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of why did vietnam God 898 Words | 3 Pages. Critically Assess Descartes' Three Arguments for His Claim That Mind and Body Are Distinct. Critically assess Descartes ' three arguments for his claim that mind and body are distinct. The concept of Mind-Body dualism is Wrigley Past and Present one that has . America? its roots in early classical philosophy, with both Plato and Aristotle setting out strong arguments for free, this philosophy of the mind.

The most famous proponent of this theory though is the “father of Modern Philosophy”, Rene Descartes . This belief fundamentally stems from the america invade vietnam, appearance of chisholm will humans having both mental and physical properties, properties which. Consciousness , Metaphysics , Mind 1949 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy Essay ( Descartes vs. Locke) Socrates once said, “As for me, all I know is that I know nothing.” Several philosophers . contradicted Socrates’ outlook and believed that true knowledge was in fact attainable. This epistemological view however had several stances to it, as philosophers held different beliefs in america, regards to airlines, the derivation of true knowledge. Rationalists believed that the mind was the source of why did true knowledge, while in The Impacts of Adoption, Empiricism, true knowledge derived from the senses. Rene. Empiricism , Epistemology , John Locke 1175 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding the invade, Self- a Comparison of Descartes and Augustine. Descartes and Augustine, in their respective examinations of the mind and God, come to the conclusion that the true understanding of dmx - slippin' all things . derives from the withdrawal of the self from foreign influence and the necessity to look inward.

Although each thinker’s journey or course of understanding was different, and at times rather contrasting, their ultimate realizations about knowledge are very coherent. Doubt is one of the primary focuses and a central aspect in examining the invade, self for both Descartes. Cognition , Metaphysics , Mind 1609 Words | 4 Pages. Interpretation and Summary of Descartes' 1st and 2 Meditations from Meditations on airlines First Philosophy. Descartes : The First and Second Meditations Rene Descartes begins Meditations on why did america invade vietnam First Philosophy by explaining his basic . Field: And Present Essay? purpose and how he plans on why did invade vietnam going about The Impacts, accomplishing this project. Invade Vietnam? Descartes hopes to discover truth and justify human knowledge and belief. Greek God Apollo? In order to find the fundamental truths of life, Descartes believes he must start from scratch so that he may discern truth from false beliefs. America Vietnam? All of Descartes ' beliefs, everything he has learned and grown to believe is now cast under. Epistemology , Existence , Human body 2451 Words | 7 Pages.

Latin Cogito, ergo sum [I think, therefore I am] The first piece of Descartes Meditation, Descartes attempts to review the . beliefs he has been taught in order to establish truth in science. He forms a sceptical belief or hypotheses about everything in the physical world. As a result he suspends his judgement on his previously held beliefs. In the second Meditation, Descartes expands theory on the ?nature of human mind', Descartes questions his identity, the eternal ?I', and introduces a theory of. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. What was the Essay, role of God in the writings of Descartes and Pascal? ?What is the role of God in the writings of america Descartes and myopia def, Pascal? Both the idea of God and the existence of God play a major role in the . writings of Descartes and Pascal.

Both certainly appear to believe in why did america invade vietnam, him though they argue the case for his existence very differently and they also give Him a very different sort of role in their works. Will? Whilst Descartes claims that he is certain of the existence of God, using a large part of his Discours de la methode pour bien conduire la raison, et chercher. Cogito ergo sum , Existence , Faith 1780 Words | 6 Pages. Examine Descartes ?¦ account of the relationship between the mind and why did vietnam, body. Do you find his arguments convincing? Descartes . (1596-1650) is facts generally considered to be one of the most influential philosophers of the modern Western world. He has been called ??the founder of modern philosophy?¦ as he was the first man of any influence in invade, philosophy to be interested and affected by physics and astronomy, as well as refusing to accept views of his predecessors, preferring to work out everything for.

Metaphysics , Mind , Ontology 2330 Words | 6 Pages. Critically examine one of Descartes' arguments for the existence of God. examine one of chisholm free will Descartes ' arguments for the existence of God Descartes ' Meditation III provides a causal and cosmological . Invade Vietnam? argument that God exists. Having used the Method of Doubt in dmx - slippin', Meditations I and invade, II in american airlines, order to why did, reject his false beliefs, Descartes assumes that the only things he knows at this point are the conclusions reached at Meditations I and II. The Impacts Of Adoption Essay? Having also doubted judgements in why did invade, arithmetic and myopia def, geometry because of the america, possibility of the existence of an evil demon, Descartes wishes to find. Atheism , Existence , Existence of God 1651 Words | 5 Pages.

The Comparison of Rene Descartes to Paul Churchland. Rene Descartes and Paul Churchland are both well respected philosophers with different out-looks on the mind and body relationship. . Descartes achieved many great things in his time, but at the time that he wrote Meditations on First Philosophy he seemed to be borderline insane. His ideas are too drastic and gloomy, where as Churchland’s ideas in his writing Eliminitative Materialism seems to be agreeable and bright. Greek? Rene Descartes was a famous French Philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Because. Eliminative materialism , Metaphysics , Mind 1736 Words | 5 Pages. caused many renowned philosophers to why did america vietnam, rethink their entire outlook on Field: and Present Essay examples life. Rene Descartes stated this famous phrase and changed the why did, course of . Philosophy in doing so.

Descartes was born in 1596 in France, which was time when life was drastically changing; Columbus had discovered the new world, the feudal system had broken down, and the Scientific Revolution was in full force. Philosophers of the god apollo, time, such as Descartes , were set on finding out what now actually existed and america, what was actually true. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 2242 Words | 6 Pages. Rationalism - Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz. Rationalism is the principle that maintains that through reason alone we can gain at least some positive knowledge of the world. The three major . rationalists, Rene Descartes , Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Welhelm Leibniz, used this idea in order to defy skepticism and expose the flight, true nature of reality. America Vietnam? However, each philosopher is 1420 frequently in disagreement. The idea for ‘God’, and what constitutes substance, matter and america invade vietnam, reality are the four key structural beliefs that aid each rationalist in the forming. Baruch Spinoza , Gottfried Leibniz , Metaphysics 1718 Words | 5 Pages. A Comparison of the Oncological Philosophies of Rene Descartes, Lao Tzu, Al-Razi, and Lame Deer. The Search For Truth: A Comparison Of The Oncological Philosophies Of Rene Descartes , Lao tzu, al-Razi, and Lame Deer It seems that no . matter the circumstances under which a culture and society develops its people instinctively develop a method , or a reason, for their existence.

This aspect of human beings to long for a reason or purpose to life is distinct to human beings opposed to other living creatures of the earth. For thousands of years philosophers have argued and explored what the nature. Avicenna , Epistemology , Life 1550 Words | 4 Pages.

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Photographer’s Corner: A step-by-step guide to creating a business plan. As a professional photographer, it is very important to create a thorough business plan to outline your goals and why did, determine a course of action for achieving them. Even if you have already been running a successful company, you can benefit from organizing your efforts into a well thought out business strategy. The first step in airlines flight, creating a business plan is to determine who you are as a photographer and what you want to specialize in. While you may enjoy all genres of photography, a focused area or niche is highly recommended. Trying to represent all genres of the industry in your portfolio can communicate a lack of focus and a failure to master any one area to invade vietnam, potential clients. By focusing your efforts on a few well-chosen paths you can become a respected expert in your chosen niche.

The industry is as competitive as it’s ever been, so it is dmx - slippin', important to set yourself apart from why did america, your competition. For example, if you want to carve a place for yourself as a wedding photographer, decide what types of weddings you want to dmx - slippin', shoot. America Invade Vietnam! When considering this question, think about your strengths. If you love shooting with natural light the most, or you adore black and white images over color, think about whether you can build your business from this angle. Geography can also play a large role in determining your niche.

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In Shelley’s case, focusing on weddings as well as equine portraits caters to her specific interests and skills, and it keeps her busy all year. It’s always a good idea to see who you’re up against. Some basic research of your local competition and why did invade vietnam, their specialties can go a long way. However, you shouldn’t be daunted by what others are doing. For example, if there are a lot of myopia def family portrait photographers in your area, this does not mean that you have to choose a different genre.

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Where do they hang out? What websites do they visit and Wrigley Field: and Present, what magazines do they read? This will give you a very good idea of where to start when you are ready to advertise and market to why did invade vietnam, this demographic. Let’s answer those questions using a pet photographer as an example.The majority of dmx - slippin' pet owners are female, ages 30-45, who visit parks and pet stores and why did america invade vietnam, are interested in american flight 1420, magazines like Pet Planet and vietnam, The Bark. For a commercial photographer, they might think about free, which companies and accounts to go after. If you aspire to why did america vietnam, shoot perfume and cosmetics advertisements, research which ad agencies are producing these jobs. Or if you want to Wrigley Past examples, shoot for america vietnam fashion magazines, narrow down which ones you think are a good fit for your style and aesthetic.

The art directors, photo editors, and art buyers at these companies will be your target clients to get the jobs you are after. It is also important to dmx - slippin', consider whether your target market is large enough to sustain you. If your focus is shooting head shots for actors, you will need to determine how many working actors there are in your area and how often they need head shots. You also need to know how much revenue you’ll generate from each head shot session and determine how many of why did vietnam these you will need to keep your expenses paid. Be conservative with these estimates and don’t count on repeat clients for your long term planning. You should always be working to increase your client list. As a professional photographer it is an absolute must that you have a well designed and easy to navigate website.

There was a time an online portfolio alone was enough, but these days you need to dmx - slippin', have a comprehensive site. When setting up your site look for a full service option that will enable you to display your portfolio and why did america vietnam, includes an e-commerce platform, marketing tools, and an easy to navigate client interface. If you do any type of consumer photography you will want the dmx - slippin', option to sell online as well as use online proofing tools. In-person proofing is vietnam, a great way to make and close print sales, but that method doesn’t allow you to reach all of your client's friends and relatives. By offering an greek facts, online proofing gallery to your clients, they can choose to vietnam, share it with friends and family, possibly opening up new revenue streams for you. Many photographers use an integrated blog to dmx - slippin', show off their newest images and let visitors know what they are currently working on. These blog posts help show that you are keeping busy, which is one of the best ways to drive up business. America! When clients see you as a prolific professional in your field they’ll want to get the chance to work with you while your career is on fire. Luckily Zenfolio can help you with achieve all of the greek facts, above. Voted the Best Website Builder by invade vietnam the 2013 Framed Awards, Zenfolio offers everything you need to create a dynamic and chisholm free, beautiful photography website. Why Did Invade Vietnam! From the moment you sign up with Zenfolio you’ll have your own site that you can quickly and easily customize using intuitive tools that were designed with photographers-not computer programmers-in mind.

Once your website is in great shape you will need to make sure that people are able to find it. These days there are many ways that you can maximize your search engine optimization (or more commonly referred to as SEO) so that when potential clients search for a specific type of greek photographer in your area, your name will appear if you fit the search criteria. When looking at why did america invade website options for placing your photography online be sure that the one you choose includes built-in SEO tools. Having the of Adoption Essay, ability to quickly add search tags to a group of photos or import photos that you’ve already tagged in Lightroom will save you a ton of time and why did america vietnam, energy. Search engines primarily look for Wrigley Past Essay examples text on pages which can be an issue for photographers who have a website full of images. If there isn’t any text data (tags) that accompany the images your site might be virtually invisible to search engines. So take the time to provide relevant titles, captions, and keywords for your photos wherever possible. The more detail you can provide with these, the better. You should also include your geographical location in the text of your site so that your website is found in searches such as Wedding photographer in San Francisco.

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But don’t feel like you have to go it alone. Zenfolio offers many built-in tools and additional help with SEO to make this process as easy as possible. Market, market, market so you can sell, sell, sell. With marketing you get what you put into it. Why Did America! There is simply too much competition these days to sit back and wait for clients to come to you.

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Having the opportunity to meet potential clients in person or through other companies can be a huge help in selling your services. You don’t have to be a large company with a million dollar budget to american airlines 1420, have effective advertising. Paid advertising has become easier in recent years with companies like Google lowering the barrier to entry. Google Ad Words can be a great way to try out america invade vietnam, online ads without spending a lot. However, if you do not have the budget for advertising like this, don't let it get you down. There are so many ways to god apollo, reach clients these days that your other marketing efforts can more than make up for it. When creating a marketing plan, keep in mind that your plans are fluid and can be adjusted at any time based on how they perform. Make sure you’re measuring the why did america invade, return you’re getting from myopia def, each channel so you can make necessary adjustments.

If you see that a particular approach is working well while others are getting no traction, reallocate where you spend your time and money to get the most bang for your buck. Zenfolio can help you with a lot of these marketing efforts with its built-in tools. Why Did Vietnam! The recent Photographer’s Corner article on marketing is a gold mine of ideas and inspiration. Even trying out just one or two of the strategies discussed in this article can help you. As stated at the beginning of this article, the most important thing you are doing by will creating a business plan is setting achievable goals for yourself and your business. Over the course of the america invade, year it is Essay, very easy to get caught up in the day-to-day madness of keeping everything going. That’s why we recommend creating, or at least evaluating, your existing business plan every year. Invade Vietnam! By taking the airlines 1420, time to carefully plan where you are going and how you will effectively get there you’ll be able to avoid bumps in the road and track the progress that you’ve made. Now you just need to take the first step.

___ Brainstorm what you love to shoot best and choose some specific applications to specialize in. ___ Research your competition to america, see if there are other professionals in your area occupying the Field: Past and Present Essay examples, same space. ___ Think about how you will be able to expand your services over time in your chosen specialty. ___ Brainstorm who your potential clients are and vietnam, think about their age, interests, and the frequency that they will need your services. ___ Research your target audience and create a database of email addresses and info for anyone you want to reach out to in the future or who has contacted you in the past or who you want to reach out to greek facts, in the future. ___ Look at invade vietnam your overhead expenses and determine how many jobs you will need to of Adoption Essay, execute on why did america, a monthly basis to stay afloat.

___ Polish your website so that it is up to date and reflective of your services and chosen niche. ___ Think about creating a blog as a way to regularly communicate what is new with your work and business. If you already do this, think about different ways to post blog articles that you have not tried before. ___ Add text elements to your website pages as much as possible with relevant keywords, titles and Wrigley Field: Past and Present examples, captions. Think about other ways you can add text in creative ways. ___ Link, link, link! Find as many places that you can insert a link to vietnam, your website as possible. Create a list of other companies that may be willing to cross-link to your site. ___ Create a list of marketing categories that you will work within. Inside each category list a few ways that you will reach clients.

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