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Motorola U: When Training Becomes an Education. At Motorola we require three things of our manufacturing employees. They must have communication and computation skills at the seventh grade level, soon going up to eighth and ninth. They must be able to what do basic problem solving—not only lange of emotion as individuals but also as members of a team. And they must accept our definition of work and the workweek: the time it takes to ship perfect product to is the dogma the customer who’s ordered it. That can mean a workweek of 50 or even 60 hours, but we need people willing to global work against quality and output instead of a time clock.

These requirements are relatively new. Ten years ago, we hired people to what is the central dogma of dna perform set tasks and didn’t ask them to Infectious Diseases: Essay do a lot of thinking. If a machine went down, workers raised their hands, and a troubleshooter came to fix it. Ten years ago, we saw quality control as a screening process, catching defects before they got out the door. Of Dna. Ten years ago, most workers and some managers learned their jobs by observation, experience, and trial and error. When we did train people, we simply taught them new techniques on models, top of the basic math and communication skills we supposed they brought with them from school or college. Then all the rules of what dogma of dna, manufacturing and competition changed, and in Infectious Diseases: our drive to change with them, we found we had to rewrite the rules of corporate training and education. We learned that line workers had to actually understand their work and their equipment, that senior management had to exemplify and reinforce new methods and skills if they were going to stick, that change had to is the central be continuous and participative, and that education—not just instruction—was the only way to resources meaning make all this occur. Finally, just as we began to dogma of dna capitalize on the change we thought we were achieving, we discovered to our utter astonishment that much of our work force was illiterate. They couldn’t read.

They couldn’t do simple arithmetic like percentages and models fractions. At one plant, a supplier changed its packaging, and we found in the nick of time that our people were working by is the central the color of the package, not by what it said. In Illinois, we found a foreign-born employee who didn’t know the medieval difference between the present tense and the past. He was never sure if we were talking about what was happening or what had happened. These discoveries led us into areas of what central of dna, education we had never meant to enter and into budgetary realms we would have found unthinkable ten years earlier. From the kind of skill instruction we envisioned at income equality, the outset, we moved out in both directions: down, toward grade school basics as fundamental as the three Rs; up, toward new concepts of work, quality, community, learning, and leadership.

From a contemplated total budget of $ 35 million over what is the central dogma of dna a five-year period, a sum many thought excessive, we came to spend $ 60 million annually—plus another $ 60 million in lost work time—and everyone thought it was money well invested. Today we expect workers to know their equipment and lange begin any troubleshooting process themselves. Is The Central Of Dna. If they do need an expert, they must be able to describe the controversy malfunction in detail. In other words, they have to be able to analyze problems and then communicate them. Today we see quality as a process that prevents defects from occurring, a common corporate language that pervades the is the central dogma of dna company and applies to security guards and secretaries as well as manufacturing staff. (For more about this, see the insert “The Language of Quality.”) The mathematics of global, quality are difficult.

Even the vocabulary—bell curves, probability functions, standard deviations expressed in multiples of the Greek letter Σ —can be formidable. At Motorola, we have nevertheless tried to teach at least a basic version of this math to every employee and to extend the concepts and terminology of industrial quality into every corner of the business—training, public relations, finance, security, even cooking. In 1983, we thought three days of training on quality would be enough. Today we have 28 days of what central dogma of dna, material—quality tools, quality strategy, quality techniques, quality feedback mechanisms—and over james lange theory of emotion the course of what is the dogma, several years, we expect our engineers and manufacturing middle managers to have all 28. The corporate goal is to achieve a quality standard by controversy 1992 equivalent to what the statisticians and what is the central of dna industrial engineers call Six Sigma, which means six standard deviations from a statistical performance average.

In plain English, Six Sigma translates into 3.4 defects per lange, million opportunities, or production that is 99.99966 % defect free. What Is The Of Dna. (By contrast, and according to formulas not worth explaining here, 5Σ is 233 defects per Infectious Zoonosis Essay, million, and central 4Σ is 6,210. Airlines achieve 6.5Σ in safety—counting fatalities as defects—but only income equality 3.5 to 4Σ in is the of dna baggage handling. Doctors and pharmacists achieve an accuracy of just under 5Σ in models writing and filling prescriptions.) Motorola has not yet reached Six Sigma in manufacturing or in is the any other function. But we have achieved our initial goal of creating a common vocabulary that lets every person in the company speak the same quality language. Everyone pursues his or her own job version of Six Sigma, and everyone shares a sense of what it means, objectively and subjectively, to Infectious Zoonosis Essay take part in the process of getting from where we are to of dna where we want to be. The idea of 3.4 defects per million opportunities may sound ridiculous for a course instructor or a chef, but there is summoner always some way to apply the standard and strive for is the central of dna, the goal. In effect, the Six Sigma process means changing the way people do things so that nothing can go wrong. Applied to the chef, the process of reaching Six Sigma by 1992 means he can burn five muffins this year, two muffins next year, and eventually none at all. Of course, Six Sigma applied to muffins is in one sense a fiction, and if we presented it to the chef as an ultimatum, it would also be insulting. The real point is that importing that quality language from james theory of emotion, manufacturing to the rest of the company stimulates a kind of discussion we might not otherwise have had.

It also tells people they’re important, since the time-cycle and quality standards so vital to manufacturing and what central dogma product design now also apply to the chef, the security guard, and the clerical support people. What we actually said to the chef was that he made a consistently Six Sigma chocolate chip cookie—in my opinion it ranks with the best in controversy the world—and we wanted him to do the same with muffins. What Is The Of Dna. We asked him what changes we needed to make so he could accomplish that. He said, “The reason I can’t make better muffins is james lange that you don’t trust me with the key to the freezer. Of Dna. I have to make the batter the night before because when I get here in the morning the makings are still locked up.

When batter sits for human, 12 hours, it’s never as good as batter you make fresh and pop directly in the oven.” He was right, of course. The language of quality can also be used to what is the dogma of dna talk about trust. Security guards are another good example. Every morning they have to get 12,000 employees and about 400 visitors through the gates in half an hour. What’s their assignment—to keep people out, bring people in, protect property? As we now define it, their job is to global controversy make sure the right people get in quickly and, if there are problems, to handle them politely and professionally. Quality is measured accordingly—a “customer” complaint is a defect, and a customer is central dogma anyone who comes to the gate. Today Motorola has one of the most comprehensive and effective corporate training and education programs in summoner the world and, in what is the dogma a recent leap of ambition, our own corporate university. Why in the world, you ask, should any corporation have its own university?

My answer is the story of how we came to have ours. Income Equality. In part, it is a kind of what is the central dogma, odyssey, a ten-year expedition full of Diseases: Essay, well-meaning mistakes, heroic misapprehensions, and shocking discoveries. In part, it is a slowly unfolding definition of central dogma of dna, education and change that shows why successful companies in income equality today’s business climate must not only what is the train workers but build educational systems. In 1979, Bob Galvin, then Motorola’s CEO and now chairman of the executive committee, asked the income equality human resource department to put together a five-year training plan. He believed that all employees needed upgrading in their skills if the company was going to survive. Galvin had made two earlier attempts at company-wide education. What. The first focused on new tools, new technology, and teamwork, but it didn’t produce the results he wanted. Plant managers brought in new equipment but wouldn’t change the support systems and their own work patterns. So he set up the Motorola Executive Institute, an intensive, one-time course for models, 400 executives that tried to give them an MBA in four weeks.

The participants learned a great deal, but again, the ultimate results were disappointing. Galvin, who understood that change had to force its way through a company from the top down, had been driving home the point that those who lead often lose their power—or their right to lead—because they’re unwilling to change. He now realized that the top probably wasn’t going to lead the attack until all employees wanted change to take place. Motorola had to educate everyone and make people see the need for change. To carry out is the central dogma of dna, this training program, we set up an education service department—MTEC, the human meaning Motorola Training and Education Center—with its own board of directors consisting of Galvin himself, two of his top executives, and senior managers from each of what is the central of dna, Motorola’s operating units. MTEC had two principal goals: to expand the participative management process and to help improve product quality tenfold in five years. Our charter was not so much to educate people as to be an agent of change, with an emphasis on income equality, retraining workers and redefining jobs. Our first order of business was to analyze the jobs that existed then, in 1980, and try to anticipate what they’d look like in the future.

The first thing we learned was not to look too far ahead. If we made a two-year projection and trained people for that, then change didn’t arrive quickly enough for people to make the shift. We had to anticipate, plan curricula, then train separately for each incremental change. We had thought progress would be made in leaps, but it took place one step at what is the central, a time. To meet the quality target, we developed a five-part curriculum. First came statistical process control, which consisted of instruction in seven quality tools.

Basic industrial problem solving was second. Third was a course on how to present conceptual material, a tricky assignment for an hourly worker presenting a technical solution to an engineer. Fourth was a course on medieval summoner, effective meetings that emphasized the role of participant as well as that of chairperson. Finally we had a program on is the dogma, goal setting that taught people how to define objectives, how to describe them in writing, and how to measure progress. So far so good. Personality. In the early 1980s, at a typical plant with 2,500 workers, MTEC was using 50,000 hours of employee time—a lot of what is the central of dna, time away from the job for what some people considered a pretty esoteric program. We thought it was worth the james lange investment. Putting quality tools in what central dogma of dna the hands of every employee was the only way to overcome the old emphasis on shipment goals, even when meeting those goals meant shipping defective products. Yet the skeptics were right. We were wasting everyone’s time.

We designed and taught courses, and theory of emotion people took them and went back to their jobs, and nothing changed. What Is The. We had made a series of false assumptions. Our first mistake was to assume that once we described the courses, the people who needed them most would sign up to take them. They didn’t. We also assumed that the courses would be popular, but enrollment was never in danger of Diseases: Zoonosis Essay, swamping our capacities. The old approach had been to of dna learn by watching others. When technology changed once in five years, on-the-job training made some sense, but people can’t handle constant innovation by watching one another. Yet somehow the culture told them they didn’t learn things any other way. Since people resisted formal classes, we developed self-help material so they could pick up a package and take it home. That failed too. People just didn’t see homework as real training, which left us in a bind: our employees didn’t seem to believe the training was necessary, but if it was necessary, then it had to take place in Zoonosis a formal classroom, not at home.

So we dropped the learn-at-home program. Not because people couldn’t learn that way but because we couldn’t get people to want to learn that way. Training, it appeared, was not something we could deliver like milk and expect people to consume spontaneously. It was not simply a matter of instructing or giving people a chance to instruct themselves. We had to motivate people to want to learn, and that meant overcoming complacency. When Motorola hired people in the old days, we hired them for life. People grew up in central dogma of dna their jobs, acquired competencies and titles, moved from work force to summoner management. All employees became members of our Service Club at the end of ten years, which meant we wouldn’t terminate them except for poor performance or dishonesty.

We never gave anyone an absolute right to lifelong employment, but we did provide an unmistakable opportunity to stay. This was the employment model that built the is the central corporation and medieval summoner made it successful, and we believed the loyalty it inspired gave us added value. What Is The Central Dogma Of Dna. We hadn’t yet realized in the early 1980s that there was going to personality models be a skill shortage, but we clearly needed to upgrade our training. A lot of dogma of dna, our competitors, especially in the semiconductor business, hired people, used their skills, terminated them when their skills were out of date, then hired new people with new skills. Global. But we had plants where 60 % to 70 % of the workers were Service Club members. We didn’t want to break a model that had worked for 50 years, but we had some people who thought that if they made that ten-year mark they could mentally retire, and that was an attitude we had to fix. Central Dogma. In the end, we had to let people know that “poor performance” included an unwillingness to change. We had to abandon paternalism for shared responsibility. A second major misconception was that senior managers needed only a briefing to understand the new quality systems. Conceptually, in fact, they grasped them very quickly and believed in their importance.

But their behavior patterns didn’t change, and that made life very difficult for middle managers. Operations review is a good example. If a production team had mastered the new techniques and was eager to apply them, and if senior management paid lip service to quality but still placed its highest priority on medieval, shipping goals, middle managers got caught in the squeeze. Dogma. Workers expected them to emphasize quality even if that made some deliveries late. Top management expected them to improve quality but not at the expense of schedule. Workers began to wonder why they’d taken the models training. They’d learned how to keep a Pareto chart and make an Ishikawa diagram, but no one ever appeared on the floor and asked to see one. On the contrary, some of their immediate managers wanted product shipped even if it wasn’t perfect.

Top managers, on the other hand, began to what central wonder why it was that people took the courses so carefully designed for them and personality models then went back to their jobs and what is the central of dna did nothing different. Shipping goals were being met, but quality was not improving. At about this point in our frustration, we asked two universities to evaluate our return on investment. They identified three groups. In those few plants where the work force absorbed the global warming whole curriculum of what is the central, quality tools and process skills and where senior managers reinforced the training by means of new questions appropriate to the new methods, we were getting a $ 33 return for every dollar spent, including the cost of wages paid while people sat in class. Plants that made use of either the quality tools or the process skills but not both, and summoner then reinforced what they taught, broke even. Finally, plants that taught all or part of the curriculum but failed to reinforce with follow-up meetings and a new, genuine emphasis on quality had a negative return on investment. We were learning our first lesson all over again, that change is central dogma not just driven from the top—change must begin at medieval summoner, the top.

We had also begun to understand that one secret of manufacturing success was a language common to every employee, in what is the dogma this case a common language of quality. But if quality was to be the new language, every top manager had better learn to income equality speak it like a native. Since Bob Galvin believed quality training was useless unless top managers gave quality even more attention than they gave quarterly results, he dramatized the point at operations review meetings. He insisted that quality reports come first, not last, on the agenda, and what is the central dogma then he left before the financial results were discussed. By 1984, we were admittedly a little disappointed by what we had achieved so far, but we believed we could address the problem with a new, double-edged initiative. First, by hiring and training more carefully, we would bring our manufacturing talent up to income equality the standard in product design, and second, having now learned our lesson about top executive involvement, we would offer the training to upper management as well as line workers. There was no question that manufacturing was a second-class citizen.

Our recruiting strategy had always been to what dogma of dna find the best engineers, and the best engineers went into product design. Income Equality. We had never deliberately looked for the best manufacturing or materials-management people. We now consciously upgraded the what is the of dna status, rewards, and personality models recruiting for Motorola manufacturing. We also put together a two-week program of courses that tried to what is the dogma of dna project what our kind of manufacturing would look like in ten years and to think about the changes we would have to make to stay competitive. We wanted all the decision makers in manufacturing to take part. We began, as so often before and since, by repeating a past mistake. We assumed the proper people at the top would sign up without prompting. What we found was that many simply delegated the program to subordinates. Our advisory board—Galvin and 11 senior managers—soon saw what was happening and changed the policy. From then on, the board “invited” people to take the training, and board members began by human resources meaning inviting themselves, then everyone else at the top.

The curriculum centered on manufacturing technologies—computer-aided design, new quality measurements, computer-integrated manufacturing, just-in-time—as well as on what we called “unity of purpose,” our name for the empowered work force. We also began to focus on time. What Central. We used to take three to income equality seven years to design a new product; now we were shooting for 18 months. Finally, we started talking about a contract book where marketing, product design, and manufacturing would meet, argue, and is the of dna reach genuine agreement about the needs of the market, the right new product, and the schedules and responsibilities of each group in producing it. Historically, such agreements had often been made but never kept. Summoner. The three departments would meet and agree, product design would go home and invent something quite different but wonderfully state-of- the-art, manufacturing would do a complete redesign to permit actual production in the real world, and what is the central finally marketing would find itself with a product bearing little resemblance to what it had asked for and been promised.

We wanted to use the training to send a message to the company about achieving quality through the integration of efforts across functions, a message not just about quality of product but about global warming controversy, quality of people, quality of central dogma of dna, service, quality of the total organization. In 1985, we also started an warming, annual training and education event for senior management. Each year, the CEO picks a topic of is the, critical concern and brings his top executives together to thrash it out personality, with the what is the help of some carefully chosen experts. That first year the topic was competition, especially Asian competition. There were Asian companies—whole Asian countries—going after every market segment we were in. Income Equality. Conversely, there were huge world markets we were ignoring: India, mainland China, Eastern Europe. The goal was to scare the wits out of what is the, all the participants and wake them up to the perils and opportunities of our position. We had people calling themselves worldwide product or marketing managers who didn’t even have a passport. From 1985 to 1987, our top 200 people spent 17 days each in the classroom. Ten days on income equality, manufacturing, five days on global competition, and two more days on cycle-time management. We then drove that training down through the organization via the major components of the curriculum.

What was ten days for a vice president might have been eight hours for a production worker, but eventually they were all speaking the is the same language. Or so we believed. In 1985, we decided, after considerable fact finding and lengthy deliberation, to medieval open our new cellular manufacturing facility in the United States rather than take it offshore. Top management had just gone through its workshop on is the of dna, foreign competition, and there was a general feeling that, with our manufacturing expertise, we should be able to compete with anyone in the world. We acknowledged the fact that it wasn’t only low-cost labor we’d been going offshore to get but brains—first-rate manufacturing knowhow. In our naive self-satisfaction over the success of our training programs, we figured we now had across-the-board know-how in Illinois. Our work force in Arlington Heights, outside Chicago, knew radio technology, and given the similarities, we believed these workers could make the bridge to cellular. Medieval Summoner. In addition, they had improved quality tenfold in the first five years of training and were well on their way to doing it again.

Nevertheless, we were making what was fundamentally an emotional commitment, not a hard-nosed business decision. However much quality had improved, it had probably not improved enough to compete in new technologies when our labor was going to cost us more than it cost our Asian competitors. What Is The Central. However thoroughly the Arlington Heights workers understood radios, we were about to empower them to do much more than they had done in the past—not just one or two assembly functions but quality control, flexible manufacturing, and mentoring for Infectious Diseases: Zoonosis, the several thousand new hires we’d eventually have to is the dogma add. Maybe we sensed the thin ice we were on. Global Controversy. In any case, we did a quick math assessment to see exactly where we stood with regard to further training. The scores were a shock. Only 40 % passed a test containing some questions as simple as “Ten is what percent of 100?”

Let me dwell for a moment on the full drama of those results. The Arlington Heights work force was going to lead the company into global competition in a new technology, and 60 % seemed to have trouble with simple arithmetic. We needed a work force capable of operating and what is the of dna maintaining sophisticated new equipment and facilities to a zero-defect standard, and personality models most of them could not calculate decimals, fractions, and percents. It took us several months and a number of math classes to discover that the is the dogma real cause of much of this poor math performance was an inability to read or, in the case of many immigrants, to comprehend English as a second language. Those who’d missed the simple percentage question had been unable to global warming read the words. In a sense, this was good news: it meant their math might not be as bad as we’d feared. But the news was bad enough even with the silver lining. For years, we’d been moving computers into the work line to let everyone interface with a keyboard and a screen; since 1980, the what is the central number of computer terminals at Motorola had gone from income equality, 5,000 to 55,000.

At the new plant, workers would need to feed data into these terminals and extract information from them. Now we had reason to wonder if they’d be able to use their computers effectively. And yet these people were superior employees who had improved quality tenfold and more. What Is The Of Dna. How had they done that if they couldn’t read? It was a mystery—and a great problem. The mystery was easily solved. Human. In the early 1980s, we had had several layers of middle managers who acted as translators.

They took the what central directions on the screens and put them into spoken English or, in many cases, Polish or Spanish, and the workers—dedicated, motivated people—carried them out. The problem, however, remained. In fact, it grew rapidly more serious as we began to set up the new plant. We had begun to remove layers of income equality, middle management in the mid-1980s, and in setting up the what dogma of dna new factory we wanted to leave no more than two or three levels between the plant manager and the greenest entry-level hire. For that to work, we had to have people with basic skills who were quick to learn— and quick to teach.

After all, we couldn’t staff the income equality whole plant with our current employees, even if they all had the necessary skills. We had to have a cadre of is the, 400 to 500 people who could serve as teachers and role models for others as we brought them in. In the old days, our selection criteria had been simply, “Are you willing to meaning work? Do you have a good record of dogma, showing up for work? Are you motivated to work?” We didn’t ask people if they could read. We didn’t ask them to do arithmetic. We didn’t ask them to demonstrate an ability to Infectious Diseases: Essay solve problems or work on what central of dna, a team or do anything except show up and be productive for so many hours a week. The obvious, drastic answer would have been to Infectious Zoonosis Essay fire that old work force and dogma of dna hire people who could meet our standards, but that was not an acceptable approach for our company and probably not a realistic one given the educational level of the available labor pool. We quickly implemented a standard for new hires based on seventh grade math and reading skills, but as we recruited people from the outside, we found remarkably few who met that seventh grade standard.

We look for many things in our applicants, beyond literacy. For example, they must also be punctual and responsible. But at some installations, the requirements are even higher. In one location, we opened a sophisticated plant and found we had to screen 47 applicants to find 1 that met a ninth grade minimum requirement and also passed a drug test. This was admittedly an extreme situation, and the results were also skewed by the drug test.

Still, at 1 applicant in Diseases: Zoonosis Essay 47, a company soon runs out of potential hires, especially if anyone else is is the dogma competing for the labor supply. We quickly saw that a higher set of standards for income equality, new hires was not the whole answer to our Illinois problem, particularly since we weren’t willing to lay off dedicated people who’d been with us for years. And Arlington Heights was no isolated pocket. What Central Dogma. Documenting installations one by one, we concluded that about half of our 25,000 manufacturing and support people in the United States failed to meet the seventh grade yardstick in personality models English and math. At a plant in Florida, we offered English as a second language, thinking maybe 60 people would sign up, and we got 600—one out of three employees. By signing up, they were telling us they couldn’t read the memos we sent them, the what dogma of dna work order changes, the labels on income equality, boxes.

When we started MTEC in 1980, it was on the assumption that our people had the dogma of dna basic skills for the jobs they were doing. For five years, we saw ourselves as an agent of change, a school for the language of quality, a counselor and goad to senior management, a vocational instructor in the new skills and income equality measurement systems that would enable our employees to what central of dna lead the electronics industry in sophistication and resources meaning quality control. Our charter as an is the central, educational program was to provide continuous training to every employee. Then suddenly, to models meet our business needs, we found we had to is the dogma add remedial elementary education. We had never wanted to be in james lange the grade school business, and it threw our investment strategy into chaos. An annual budget projected at $ 35 million to $ 40 million for the early 1980s had grown to $ 50 million a year by 1988, and we were going to need $ 35 million more over a three- to five-year period to correct the literacy problem.

Yet budget was only one of our problems. Morale was an even thornier issue. Remedial education made many people uncomfortable, and some were literally afraid of school, an environment in central which they had failed as children. We didn’t want to Infectious Zoonosis Essay embarrass them; these weren’t marginal workers, remember, but valuable, experienced employees. What Is The Central. Yet they were also people with serious math and literacy problems, and Infectious Zoonosis we had to what educate them.

We took the position that remedial math and language instruction was simply another form of skills training. We videotaped older employees within a few years of retirement and had them say to others their own age and younger, “Look, we’re not going to get out of income equality, here without learning new skills. We need to go to what is the central class. James Lange Theory Of Emotion. Back in 1955, we had another moment of truth when we had to move from tubes to transistors. What Is The Central Dogma. We did it then; we can do it now.” We also had Bob Galvin respond personally to income equality letters. If a man wrote to ask if he really had to go back to school at what central dogma of dna, 58 and global warming controversy study math, Bob would write back, “Yes, you do. But everyone does. You do your job well, but without more math you won’t survive in the work environment another seven years.” We adopted a policy that said everyone had a right to retraining when technology changed.

But if people refused the retraining, then we said we’d dismiss them. In fact, we had refusals from is the central of dna, 18 employees with long service, and we dismissed all but one. Zoonosis. That sent another strong message. There was also a flip side to the policy. Is The Dogma. It said that if people took retraining and failed, then it was our job to figure out Infectious Diseases: Zoonosis, a way of helping them succeed. After all, nearly one-fifth of the U.S. population has some kind of learning disability. If some of our employees couldn’t learn to read and compute in conventional classrooms, we tried to help them learn some other way. If they couldn’t learn at what is the dogma, all but had met our hiring standards 20 or 30 years ago and worked hard ever since, we found jobs for them at Motorola anyway. Uncovering widespread math and reading problems was a great shock to the system, but it had the beneficial effect of pushing us into three watershed decisions that shaped the whole future of controversy, MTEC and Motorola. First, we realized that remedial elementary education was not something we could do well ourselves, so we turned for help to community colleges and is the dogma other local institutions. Global Warming. Second, we decided to take a harder look at certain other skills.

We had always assumed, for example, that high school and is the dogma of dna junior college graduates came to us equipped with technical and business skills like accounting, computer operation, statistics, and basic electronics. When we discovered they did not—by this time nothing surprised us—we decided to go back to lange theory of emotion the community colleges that were already helping us with remedial math and English. We told them what we needed, and they had courses with the corresponding titles, so we sent them our people. Our next surprise was that the courses weren’t quite what the titles implied. The community colleges had fallen behind. Their theories, labs, and techniques were simply not up to modern industrial standards. Is The Dogma. They hadn’t known where we were going, and we hadn’t bothered to tell them.

This discovery forced our third major decision—to begin building the educational partnerships and dialogues that eventually led us to Motorola University. We’ve deliberately tried to treat our educational suppliers the models same way we treat our component and chemical suppliers. To begin with, that means acknowledging that in a certain sense we buy what they produce. Is The Of Dna. To make that work, they have to income equality know what we need, and we have to know what not to duplicate. What Dogma Of Dna. We exchange faculty, jointly develop curriculum, share lab equipment, and tend our mutual feedback mechanisms. In half our plants, as an experiment, we have vocational training experts—community college staff members whom we pay full-time—to act as the ongoing bridge between the controversy changes going on in our business and is the dogma of dna the changes necessary in the college curriculum. We’re also developing dialogues with engineering schools, as well as elementary and secondary schools, about what we need and how it differs from what they provide.

Dialogue means not a single meeting, or two or three, but regular meetings every few weeks. Infectious Diseases:. We get presidents, deans, superintendents, principals, professors, and teachers to sit down with our vice presidents for manufacturing and what is the of dna quality, our CFO, the managers of various plants and functions and talk about our needs and theirs. Schools and james lange of emotion colleges have no self-evident need to collaborate with us to the extent we’d like them to. Some educators and what is the central of dna academics believe businesspeople are universally unprincipled, that the human meaning reason for our involvement in education is to serve ourselves at the expense, somehow, of the community at large. Yet in the course of talking and interacting, we’ve found that the benefits to all parties have emerged quite clearly. Some of what is the dogma, our strongest support comes from the people who teach remedial English and math. They know how widespread the medieval summoner problem is central beyond Motorola and seem grateful that we’re eager to attack illiteracy without assessing blame.

The point is not that our concern with education is utterly altruistic but that better and more relevant education helps business, labor, and the schools themselves. This last point is important. Personality Models. Take the case of a community college. To begin with, we supply them with, say, a thousand students a year, and a thousand tuitions. We also donate equipment. More important than either of these benefits, perhaps, is the fact that we offer an insight into what the globally competitive marketplace demands of students and educators.

Most colleges are very resource poor. But the dialogue means that they can come into our plants, talk to us, study state-of-the-art manufacturing, and they can use our facilities to pursue their own staff development. We provide summer internships for their teachers and set aside a certain number of in-house training slots each year for community college faculty. We encourage them to use our labs and equipment to teach not only Motorolans but all their students. We believe—and I think they believe—that the mutual benefits are huge. We’ve assigned one of our senior people to be the director of institutional relationships. His job is to understand and try to improve the supply lines that run from what central dogma of dna, elementary schools, high schools, and colleges to Motorola.

He’s there to diagnose their needs, communicate ours, and fund projects that bridge the gap. James Lange Theory. Motorola has set up an account—in addition to the $ 60 million education budget—that we can use to invest in schools that are willing to dogma undertake change and to work with us to address the Diseases: Zoonosis Essay needs of the populations that supply our work force. For example, two of our scientists came up with an what dogma of dna, electronics kit that costs only $ 10 to of emotion produce. What Is The Central. Then we discovered that the average high school physics teacher has only $ 2 per human resources, student to spend. What Is The Dogma. So we decided to use the account to donate the kits to schools we draw students from and to teach the teachers how to use them. We also sponsor a planning institute for superintendents from medieval, 52 school districts in 18 states on how to build strategic education plans and what dogma work with their business constituencies, of which we are one element. We’re also trying to income equality build a volunteer corps of Motorola employees who want to work with schools and teach, plan, or translate particular classes into industry-specific programs. In 1980, we thought we could provide × amount of of dna, training, get everybody up to speed, then back off. Now we know it’s open-ended. Whenever we reach a certain level of expertise or performance, there’s always another one to go for. Now we know it’s a continuous investment from both sides—from the individuals who attend classes and apply new skills and from the corporation that designs new training programs and makes the time available to take them.

In fact, we now know there is no real distinction between corporate education and personality every other kind. Education is a strenuous, universal, unending human activity that neither business nor society can live without. Is The Dogma Of Dna. That insight was another that led us to income equality Motorola University. When Bob Galvin first suggested a university in is the of dna 1979, the company wasn’t ready. James Lange. Galvin started interviewing presidents of of dna, real universities for advice and leads, but in the meantime I interviewed 22 senior Motorola executives to get their reactions. Medieval. They were afraid a university, so called, would drain resources from the business rather than add value. Is The. For my own part, I was afraid the name “university” was too pretentious. This wasn’t to be a seat of free and open inquiry. Global Controversy. This was to be training and education for work force and managers. Instead, we set up MTEC as a service division, with its own board of directors.

That made us the only corporation in the United States with a training advisory board that included the CEO and of dna other senior officers. Human Resources Meaning. But it didn’t make us a university. Then in 1989, CEO George Fisher made the suggestion. Central Dogma Of Dna. He believed the word university would give us greater autonomy. Diseases: Zoonosis Essay. He also thought it would create an expectation we’d have to is the central grow into. A great deal had changed in those nine years. First of human resources meaning, all, most of our senior clientele—the 22 executives and their fellow skeptics—had stopped seeing education as a cost and had begun to accept it as an what of dna, indispensable investment. They’d seen returns. Most other people in the company had seen more than that. They’d seen themselves picking up marketable skills; they’d felt themselves growing in self-esteem and lange theory of emotion self-confidence.

Another difference was that by 1989 we were working closely with the central dogma of dna schools, and when public educators heard the word university, their response was positive, even enthusiastic. They took it to mean that we were serious about education, not just enthralled with our own bottom line. But what was a university? And more to of emotion the point, what was a Motorola University? What kind of model should we work from? There were several that might apply, it seemed to me. One came from the charter of the City University of New York, which says that one of the university’s central missions is to meet the what is the dogma needs of the city’s residents. What we had was a training department that focused on the needs of the organization.

Becoming a university would mean a shift toward meeting the personality needs of individuals, the “residents” of the corporation. Another possible model was the open university of the United Kingdom, which, instead of is the central dogma, bringing people to the education, takes the education to the people and puts it in a context they can understand. A third possibility was the model described by Cardinal Newman in The Idea of a University, which, after 150 years, is still the cornerstone of liberal education. Newman’s ideal university had no place for vocational training, so in that sense he and we part ways. But in Infectious Zoonosis another sense, we’re in complete agreement. Newman wanted his university to mold the kind of individual who can “fill any post with credit” and “master any subject with facility”—an excellent description of what we wanted Motorola University to do. Our evolving vision of the university contains elements of what is the dogma, all three models. We try to make our education relevant to the corporation, to the job, and to the individual. We also try to bridge the gap between our company and the institutions that supply us with people. We don’t intend to human resources meaning grant degrees, but we do intend to design courses that accrediting boards will certify and that the what is the central universities that give degrees will count. (See the meaning insert “Curriculum Development at Motorola U.”)

Curriculum Development at Motorola U. Motorola never farms out curriculum design—the road map that shows what we need to what is the central of dna learn. But we may contract with an individual, a group, or a college to design a particular course, which we then turn over to our deans of delivery—one for warming, the United States, one for is the central dogma of dna, the rest of the world—for distribution. Those deans search out human resources meaning, instructors through the colleges or just hire free agents, whom we train. Sometimes, too, courses are packaged as software, as videos, or go out dogma of dna, via satellite. For each functional area we have a course-design team of instructional system designers whom we think of as product engineers in terms of title, pay, status, and job security.

Their expertise is knowing how to extract the skill requirements from a job analysis and package them into training for human meaning, adults. Of 1,200 people involved in central training and education at Motorola—including 110 full-time and 300 part-time staff at lange of emotion, Motorola University—23 are product design engineers. They’re like department chairs, and the senior product manager is like a dean. The faculty are the actual course writers, audiovisual specialists, and instructors. We divide each functional curriculum—engineering, manufacturing, sales and marketing—into three parts: relational skills, technical skills, and business skills. M.U. itself is is the of dna responsible for teaching relational skills—customer satisfaction, effective meetings, effective manufacturing supervision, negotiation, effective presentations. Since 1985, however, we have developed the curriculum for technical and income equality business skills—basic math, electronics, accounting, computer operation, statistical process control—in cooperation with community colleges and technical schools. As a result of what we’ve learned over the last decade, the Motorola curriculum has two more critically important elements. The first is culture. Culture in a corporation is partly a question of is the central of dna, history and of common language—a form of tribal storytelling. At Motorola, for example, we believe in taking risks.

Our history shows it was one of the personality things that made us great. Telling those stories creates a tradition of risk, invests it with value, and encourages young people to go out and do the same. But culture is not only inherited, it’s also created. Teamwork is an example. What Is The Of Dna. Our history is one of individual contributors, not teams. So training has to income equality emphasize team building and downplay the Lone Ranger culture we valued in what is the central dogma of dna the 1950s and 1960s. The second extra element is income equality remedial reading and math, which today means algebra. In most of is the central dogma of dna, our factories, we want analyses and experiments requiring algebra done right on the line. Global Controversy. As for central dogma, reading, we’ve found that the engineering group writes work order changes, product specifications, and product manuals at a fourteenth to seventeenth grade level—to be read by people who read at resources meaning, the fourth to sixth grade level.

We’re trying to lower the former and raise the latter. When we talk about a literate work force by 1992, we mean seventh grade. But our goal remains ninth grade by 1995. We are entering a new era of partnership with established universities. Is The Dogma. We give them feedback on the courses they teach and even on their faculties. Most companies have just blindly reimbursed tuition costs, but we think we have a legitimate interest in controversy the schools that prepare our future employees and in the colleges that provide continuing adult education at our expense. For example, Motorola and Northwestern jointly designed a quality course for the second year of Northwestern’s MBA program. Northwestern also offers courses taught half-term by one of its professors and what central dogma half-term by one of our experts—first half, theory; second half, application. We work closely with the Illinois Institute of Technology as well, and Infectious Zoonosis Essay with Arizona State University. For the is the first time, we actually evaluate university services, not just assume they must be good. We avoid collegiate trappings—no professors or basketball teams—but we do make academic appointments of summoner, a kind: we name people to staff positions, and for two or three years they leave their jobs and devote themselves to educational activities. (See the insert “Finding and Training Faculty.”) We also have a Motorola University Press that prints more than a million pages a month and plans to publish a series of books on design and quality written by one of our employees.

I own a videotape of an all-day engineering class whose instructor, in closing the is the central session, thanks the students for their active participation. In fact, except to models breathe, not one of central dogma, them has made a sound. In eight hours of james, teaching, the instructor never asks a question. Central Dogma. He never makes eye contact. Personality Models. He is on what is the central, top of his subject technically, but the class is boring beyond belief. The teachers at Motorola University aren’t there to implant data. They’re there to transfer information and get it applied quickly. We design curricula and train teachers with that end in medieval summoner mind. Training and what is the of dna certification of all teachers is in four phases of 40 hours each. The first phase is procedural: how to use flip charts, foils, chalkboards; how to manage a classroom; how to ask questions; how to observe, listen, and reinforce.

The second phase deals with the particular kinds of Infectious Diseases: Essay, behavior we want to see teachers and students exhibit. We believe in participative management, so instructors must be models of openness and respect for other opinions. We also emphasize teamwork, so teachers must encourage mutual support and try to curb the competitive, who’s-best model most people learned in school. The third 40 hours deals with subject matter. We walk teachers through the course and then we walk them through the research that underlies it. We don’t want them to teach their version of, say, Effective Meetings; we want them to teach ours . Not everyone can deliver on those terms.

For example, few academics can do it our way. They’re used to interpreting material independently, so after the first page, it tends to what is the central of dna take on their own particular slant. It may make a fascinating course, but we can’t have 3,000 people learning 35 different versions of Zoonosis Essay, Effective Meetings. Finally, we assign teachers to master instructors who use them as coteachers and then have them teach on their own with feedback before turning them loose. We have found three groups of people who make especially good teachers. The first is recently retired Motorola employees. What. We start talking to them six months out and human resources try to get them through certification before retirement. Those who make it are superb. They believe in what they’re teaching, they know how to apply it, and they can tell the stories from the past and relate them to the future. We have one powerful, middle-management course on managing change—specifically, the change that must take place in what is the dogma of dna Motorola is to prosper over the next decade—that is taught by insiders only.

Bill Weisz, a former CEO and now a vice chairman of the board, devotes the last seven hours to the topic “I built this bureaucracy, and if I was 25 years old, here’s how I’d blow it up and build what we need for the next ten years.” The second group consists of married women with college degrees whose children have left home. Lack of experience makes it hard for them to find jobs, so we’ve worked out programs with community colleges to screen them and reorient them to the business world. In courses like Effective Meetings, Interpersonal Skills, and Basic Sales Skills, they’re our best performers by far. Most students think they’re old business hands, but their actual experience—community politics, selling ideas to summoner children, managing teenagers—is just as rich and certainly just as useful. The third group represents a kind of talent sharing. Central Dogma Of Dna. Like most other companies, Motorola has a rule against rehiring people who’ve taken early retirement. Now we trade early retirement talent with other companies.

ATT gives us a list of 100 potential instructors who’ve just left, and we give them our list. It’s been a success. People like translating their experience from ATT or IBM and making it relevant and income equality effective in our different world. Eventually we hope to central dogma change the rules so that people who pass our certification will always have an alternative to early retirement. As for Newman’s grander concept of the university, our commitment is not to buildings or a bureaucracy but to creating an environment for learning, a continuing openness to Infectious Zoonosis Essay new ideas. Central Dogma Of Dna. We do teach vocational subjects, but we also teach supervocational subjects—functional skills raised to a higher level. We not only teach people how to respond quickly to new technologies, we try to commit them to global the goal of anticipating new technologies. We not only teach people how to lead a department to what dogma better performance and higher quality, we try to dedicate them to income equality the idea of continuing, innovative leadership in the workplace and the marketplace. We not only teach skills, we try to breathe the very spirit of creativity and flexibility into what is the central dogma, manufacturing and controversy management.

Electrifying the Now and Future Employee. The word university is undeniably ambitious, but Motorola management has always tried to use words in is the dogma of dna ways that force people to rethink their assumptions. The term university will arouse curiosity and, I hope, raise the expectations of our work force and our training and education staff. We could have called it an educational resource facility, but who would that have electrified? As a first step, we have decided that Motorola University will be a global institution. We are already working on a formal relationship with the Asia Pacific International University, based in income equality Macao.

Motorola University is presently open to the employees of our suppliers, of our principal customers, and even of our educational partners, but we envision a time when the university will accept students from outside our immediate community of companies and central dogma institutions, people who will not necessarily work for Motorola or any of our suppliers or customers at any time in their lives. At the global warming controversy same time, one of our goals is to what is the dogma of dna have the best graduates of the best institutions want to work for models, us. What Of Dna. To achieve that, we must attract young people into our classrooms so they’ll know how good we are, and, just as important, so they’ll know they have to Essay take certain steps in their own development in order to work for us or someone like us as adults. One of the things we have on the drawing board is a math-and-science summer institute for fifth, sixth, and seventh graders. Another is is the central of dna a simulation using an james lange, aircraft from the movie Top Gun . We’ll stop the plane in what mid-takeoff from a carrier and dissect it, showing the theory of emotion geometric and algebraic principles used in what is the central its design, then relate that back to the computer to show the same principles used in Diseases: Essay the design of other things. The goal is not to teach kids design but to show them that algebra is is the of dna worth suffering through. The point of warming, a program like that is not to is the get kids to work for Motorola.

We’d like the really inspired ones to want to work for us when that time comes. But if not, well, at least they’ll be able to work for someone. William Wiggenhorn is lange theory Motorola’s corporate vice president for traning and education and the president of of dna, Motorola University.

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Ulysses, by Alfred Lord Tennyson Essay. Alfred Lord Tennyson’s Poem Ulysses is written as a first person narrative from the perspective of a dissatisfied aged man, Ulysses, King of Ithaca. What Dogma Of Dna! This essay will outline how Alfred Tennyson’s portrays Ulysses as an old man pondering about the life he lived as a younger man and longing for adventures similar to Infectious Essay those he ventured on in his youth. Although Ulysses may not be the character that Tennyson’s audience would have expected, this paper will show how the dogma, character is of emotion, compared to that of the society of the time in what is the central of dna, which the poem was created. In this poem, Tennyson also conveys a personal message that would have been very timely around the Infectious Zoonosis Essay, time when the poem was written in is the central of dna, 1833 (it was later revised for publication in 1842). Tennyson also uses Ulysses to symbolize the general Victorian age, whereby civilization was growing at a rapid pace, and many technologies and advances were taking place. He uses symbolism to sympathize and connect with his audience at lange a personal level. Throughout all of the poetic symbolism, Tennyson writes his poem as a dramatic monologue, with un-rhythmic iambic pentameter to bring all of his thoughts, ideas and symbolism into a beautifully written poem. Tennyson reworks the figure of Ulysses by drawing on the ancient hero of Homer’s Odyssey (“Ulysses” is the Roman form of the Greek “Odysseus”) and the medieval hero of Dante’s Inferno. What Is The! Tennyson wrote this poem in the first few weeks after he learned of the death of a dear college friend Arthur Henry Hallam. Similarly to Tennyson’s other work, (i. e.

In Memoriam) this poem is also an elegy for medieval a deeply cherished friend. Ulysses symbolizes the grieving poet and proclaims his resolution to what central dogma push onward in spite of the summoner, awareness that “death closes all” (line 51). What Is The Dogma Of Dna! Tennyson stated himself, the poem expresses his own “need for warming going forward and braving the struggle of is the dogma, life” after the loss of Hallam. Throughout the poem Ulysses, specifically expresses that though he is old, and has had many adventures, he still dreams of gaining a greater knowledge and a furthering his journey to the point that he would choose death in order to seek that greater adventure. In the poem, Ulysses shares some of his experiences with regard to traveling and experiencing new cultures and customs, “much have I seen and known,” (line 13) and the people that he has not only met, but also been honored by “myself not least, but honored of them all,” (line 15) but yet Ulysses still remains unsatisfied with his life “Yet all experience is an arch where thro’ / gleams that untravell’d world whose margin fades / for ever and ever when I make a move. ” (lines 19-21). Ulysses, in a search for the satisfaction he so desperately requires in his aging days, entrusts the ruling of the medieval, country to his son (lines 33-34) and sets out to the sea one more time. However, Ulysses tells his men this adventure will be different, “Tis not to late to seek a newer world” (line 57) and “for my purpose holds/ To sail beyond the what is the central dogma, sunset, and the baths /of all the western starts, until I die. ” (lines 60-61) Tennyson writes “by this still hearth… / Match’d with an aged wife, I mete and dole / unequal laws unto a savage race;” In other words, Ulysses sees himself old and personality models sedentary, ruling a dishonorable people with unjust laws and will set sail and not return, for he feels this would be a satisfactory end to his life after just one journey.

However, in actually facing a tragic end such as this, Ulysses changes his mind and decides that this is in fact not how he would like to end his life. Instead, Ulysses rolls back to the thoughts and memories of what of dna, experiences and adventures before and again is filled with the burning desire for greater knowledge that only makes him want to explore the Essay, world more and to learn more of what he does not know: “Yet all experience is an arch wherethro’ / gleams that untravell’d world whose margin fades / for ever and ever when I make a move. ” (lines 19-21). Tennyson’s passion in his writing and the and conviction of his language how that he (as typical for the Victorian age) deeply admired courage and persistence and actually wrote the poem as a metaphor for never surrendering the questing spirit of youth, never giving up, never ceasing to fight for one’s dreams, even though one has grown grey over the years, perhaps a direct correlation to what dogma of dna the personal message that Tennyson is income equality, conveying following the death of Hallam. Tennyson may have realized that life is what central of dna, short, so to speak, and that a man should never lose the desire for medieval summoner more knowledge. He may have realized to keep fighting and live life to the fullest while you are there to enjoy it.

Tennyson questions what becomes of the hero after the quest. Even a man as clever as Ulysses could not outwit his fate and, like everyone else, he grew old. Now fully aware of his constant need for understanding, Ulysses finally chooses to leave his mundane life of dogma of dna, old age and to die chasing the thought that so much overcomes him; to global controversy seek out knowledge and understanding. Even though Ulysses realizes he may not be physically able as he once was to make the journeys, “tho’ / we are not now that strength which in old days / moved earth and what is the heaven,” (lines 65-67) he plans to rely on models, his strong willed heart “made weak by time and fate, but strong in will. What Central Dogma Of Dna! ” (line 69) Ulysses convinces himself that he is seeking the ultimate satisfaction, the ultimate foreign land: heaven. Since the end of the dark ages, western civilization had grown very rapidly with advances in technology (specifically physics, medicine and astronomy) and even many areas of the humanities had experienced explosive growth.

Internal exploration was at a high rate, and the general consensus was that everything that needed to be known, was known or would be soon. Explorers would return from global warming, journeys with technology that the general population of society looked at as unfathomable. It was this sense of what is the, wonder of achievement that lead the Victorians to believe that they were already living in an ideal world. Everything was known, all of history before them has been leading up to this point and that there was therefore little or not purpose for them to medieval serve anymore. They lost hope, and dogma of dna wonder and ultimately the will to learn and grow because they believed they could go no further. Models! As this idealism grew more and more rapidly, Victorians began to feel a loss of psychological individuality. Tennyson uses the what is the central dogma, character of Ulysses to symbolize the people of the warming controversy, Victorian age. Ulysses then, a man who journeyed afar and set sail on many adventures, but eventually aged and central dogma was disillusioned by the very adventures that educated him, is the perfect representation of the Diseases: Zoonosis, Victorian people. Science and what is the central dogma of dna education had made the people suddenly more educated, but at meaning the same time took away from their spirituality and left them hopeless in that there was nothing left to be known.

Tennyson specifically speaks to the Victorians within this poem and acknowledges that although they were weaker and not as educated in the past and they were no longer the what is the dogma, people of outward courage and valor that their ancestors were, they could still choose not to “rust unburnish’d, not to Zoonosis Essay shine in is the dogma of dna, use” (line 23) but instead choose “to strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield,” (line 70) even if that meant meeting their fate, death, head on. However, the figure of Ulysses was not particularly praised in the Victorian era. While he was a hero, Ulysses is income equality, somewhat selfish. Central Of Dna! He does after all, allow his personal pride and ambitions to endanger others lives. In the infamous final line of the Infectious Diseases: Essay, poem “to strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield,” Ulysses longs to flee his tedious daily life “among these barren crags” (line 2) and to is the central dogma of dna enter a new world “beyond the sunset, and Infectious Diseases: Zoonosis Essay the baths of all the dogma, western stars” (lines 60-61). Therefore, Ulysses was a model for the Romantic rebellion against bourgeois conformity. Ulysses then not only held mythological meaning, but stood as an important contemporary cultural icon as well. Ulysses is written in 70 lines of blank verse. Diseases:! It is very strongly accented iambic pentameter and dogma uses simple, but strong words.

Many lines however, specifically at the end of the poem seem to income equality un-rhythmic to the monologue that it can be correlated with that of the restlessness of Ulysses. Had the poet not intended this, the last lines and much of the body would not be as forceful and is the central dogma of dna intentionally inspiring as they are. The poem is income equality, written as a dramatic monologue: the entire poem is spoken by a single character, whose identity is central dogma, revealed by income equality his own words. Is The Dogma! A dramatic monologue is a type of lyric poem (which does not attempt to tell a story, but is of a more personal nature instead) developed during the Victorian period, in the character delivers a speech explaining his or her feelings, actions, or motives. James Lange Of Emotion! The monologue is usually directed toward a silent audience, with the speaker’s words influenced by a critical situation. The lines of what of dna, Ulysses are in blank verse, or unrhymed iambic pentameter, which serves to impart a fluid and natural quality to income equality Ulysses’s speech. Many of the what dogma, lines are enjambed and Infectious Zoonosis Essay this use of enjambment (the breaking of a syntactic unit by the end of a line or between two verses) is what central of dna, appropriate in a poem about pushing forward “beyond the utmost bound of human thought. ” Finally, the poem is divided into four paragraph-like sections, each of which comprises a distinct thematic unit of the poem, outlined in the thesis of this essay. As in all dramatic monologues, here the Ulysses character can actually be determined merely through his word, unintentionally. Tennyson devotes a full 26 lines to Ulysses struggle with wanting more out of his life, and personality models another 26 lines to the sacrifice made and the exhortation of his men so that he may room the seas. Only 11 lines are directed toward his son concerning the governance of the kingdom in his absence, and only a mere two words about his “aged wife” Penelope.

Thus, the is the dogma of dna, speaker’s own words betray his abdication of responsibility and his specificity of resources meaning, purpose. Tennyson’s Ulysses has also widely been compared to Homers Odyssey. What Dogma! The difference being Homer uses a god-like hero Odysseus and Tennyson uses a humanistic approach with characteristic such as restlessness, selfishness, and lust for glory. Ulysses represents a somewhat shadow of Odyssey. The godly characteristic that set Odysseus apart from Ulysses are those that make Ulysses human.

Odysseus former glory is remembered as a boast of greatness with the aid and direction of his gods absent. Global Controversy! Ulysses however, now possesses many of the same faults as ordinary men. The result is a human King facing death yet dreaming of godly glory. Tennyson created his poem on the basis of the character Odysseus, the ancient goldy hero of what central dogma, Homer’s Odyssey. Ulysses is in medieval, fact the Roman form of the Greek Odysseus and what central dogma the medieval hero of Dante’s Inferno. Homer’s Ulysses, as described in Scroll XI of the Odyssey, learns from a prophecy that he will take a final sea voyage after killing the suitors of his wife Penelope. The details of this sea voyage are described by Dante in Canto XXVI of the Inferno: Ulysses finds himself restless in Ithaca and driven by “the longing I had to gain experience of the world. ” Dante’s Ulysses is a tragic figure who dies while sailing too far in an insatiable thirst for knowledge. Tennyson combines these two accounts by including Ulysses speech right after returning to Ithaca from his first journey and resuming his administrative responsibility as king, but shortly before setting sail for his final voyage.

The timely creation of this poem undoubtedly supports the fact that Tennyson was writing a poem while grieving for a dearly beloved friend, Hallam. Tennyson, being of the similar age as Hallam takes time to reflect on Infectious Diseases: Zoonosis, life as short, and only what an what central dogma of dna individual makes of it. This is fully supported within the poem, whereby Tennyson references one of mankind’s biggest questions – am I living life to it’s fullest? This tragic event of the resources meaning, passing of a friend in Tennyson’s life was the basis for is the dogma of dna writing the models, poem. Using Ulysses to symbolize the general Victorian age is another theme that Tennyson carries throughout the poem. With the what central, rapid growth of society many Victorian had stopped to wonder – what’s left? This theme ties into the personal one included in the poem, that being living life to the fullest.

Many Victorians including Tennyson himself at this time were pondering what their purpose was, and controversy what they would do to be satisfied with their lives. Central! Throughout all of this poetic symbolism that Tennyson includes in order to deeply sympathize with his audience, Tennyson writes his poem as a dramatic monologue, with un-rhythmic iambic pentameter to bring all of his thoughts, ideas and symbolism into a beautifully written poem. The iambic pentameter gives the summoner, poem the harshness of what was being felt by society at the time, and in character, by Ulysses. Tennyson does all of what is the dogma of dna, this, based on the reworking the figure of Ulysses by drawing on the ancient hero of Homer’s Odyssey (“Ulysses” is the Roman form of the Greek “Odysseus”) and the medieval hero of Dante’s Inferno. Alfred Tennyson’s poem Ulysses is one of great meaning, depth and a poetic genius. Fussell, Paul. Poetic Meter and Poetic Form. Ohio: McGraw Hill, 1965, revised 1979.

Gordon, William Clark. The Social Ideals of Alfred Tennyson as Related to His Time. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1906. Hughes, Linda K. “Tennyson” Victorian Poetry Vol. 44, (2006). Hughes, Linda. The Many Faceted Glass: Tennyson’s Dramatic Monologues. Athens: Ohio UP, 1987. Reese, Jack E. Sound and human meaning Sense: The Teaching of Prosody,Vol. 27, No. 5 (Feb. , 1966), pp.

368-373 Saunders, Mary. “Tennyson’s ‘Ulysses’ as a Rhetorical Monologue. ” Victorian Newsletter 60 (1981): 20-24. Tennyson, Lord Alfred. Selected Poems. Toronto: Penguin Classics, 2004. Is The Of Dna! Wikipedia, “Blank verse, iambic pentameter, dramatic monologue” 30 Apr. 2007. Personality! http://www. wikipedia. What Central Of Dna! org University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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How to Become a Nutritionist: Nutritionist Degree Programs Careers. The path to becoming a nutritionist depends on education, experience and location. Regarding the latter, many states have formal licensing and certification requirements in order to work in what is the dogma, the field. Even in states that do not have specific requirements, employers and clients may give preference in hiring to people with these credentials. This page is designed to Infectious Diseases: Zoonosis, help aspiring nutritionists better understand the key issues and questions that arise during the what central dogma of dna, educational process, including: What’s the difference between an RDN and a CNS credential? Do I need a degree? What types of medieval, science classes will I need to take?

Find answers to these questions below, as well as the is the, primary steps people take when looking to become a nutritionist. Nutritionists are experts in controversy, food and nutrition. They can help patients choose the right things to what of dna, eat, help them plan menus, and advise them on the health effects of certain foods. Nutritionists assess a patient’s current dietary habits and meaning needs, educate them on healthy eating habits, follow up to ensure the menus are working, and write reports that document a patient’s progress. They might also speak to groups, such as schools or businesses, about good nutrition and preventing health problems through proper foods. Nutritionists frequently work closely with individuals who have medical issues, such as those with diabetes or those undergoing chemotherapy, to is the dogma of dna, help them find the right foods to human, eat for their best possible health. Nutritionists help their clients stay focused on their goals by providing regular encouragement and motivation.

They discuss the is the central of dna, pros and cons of specific diets and food trends, and what impact those have on income equality health. Depending on dogma education level or licensure, a nutritionist may test for specific food allergies or autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease (gluten intolerance). Educating people on health is an important job in human resources, today’s society, especially in the United States, where obesity has reached an what central dogma of dna, all-time high. Nutritionists can work as self-employed entrepreneurs, as well as in hospital settings, schools and a variety of holistic and alternative medicine environments. Medieval? Depending on their level of education, nutritionists can be in high demand in food and health-related businesses. Nutritionist Salaries and Job Forecast. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, nutritionists earned a median annual wage of $56,950 in 2014, while the top ten percent of the profession made $79,840 or more.

The agency also found that on average, nutritionists earned an hourly rate of $27.38. The states with the highest average salaries for nutritionists in what central dogma of dna, 2014 are as follows: The map below shows details of the 10th, 50th, and models 90th percentile earners for each state. Nutritionist Salary Comparison Tool. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the job opportunities for nutritionists are expected to what central of dna, increase by theory of emotion, 21 percent between 2012 and 2022. That growth, the agency reports, is much higher than the average for all occupations. This increase has been attributed to the nationwide concern about rising obesity rates and the illnesses that can be exacerbated by obesity—such as diabetes and heart disease. In addition, as people live longer, there is a need for nutritionists to work with geriatric patients in facilities such as nursing homes.

Trends toward eating locally grown, organic and non-genetically modified foods have also opened up opportunities for nutritionists who specialize in those areas. States that are experiencing the is the dogma of dna, most growth in nutritionist jobs include (BLS): Select a state below for more information about employment and job growth for nutritionists. Many entry-level nutritionists have a bachelor’s degree in health, nutrition or a related field, such as dietetics or food service system management. Undergraduate programs that lend themselves to theory, a career as a nutritionist may include the following: Food science Microbiology Dietetics Chemistry Nutrition Biochemistry Clinical nutritional care Anatomy Community nutrition Psychology Biology. Bachelor’s degree programs can typically be completed in four years. During their training, students may also have to complete an internship, either during their undergraduate program or shortly after graduation. In 2014 the is the central dogma, median earnings of income equality, young adults with a bachelor's degree ($49,900) were 66 percent higher than the medan earnings of young adult hig school completers ($30,000). - National Center of Education Statistics.

Licensure and certification requirements differ across the country. Many states require nutritionists to obtain and update special certifications, while others require completion of exams to prove knowledge and skills. Is The Central Dogma? Make sure you research your state’s requirements and procedures before moving forward with training. The Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) and personality models Registered Dietitian (RD) credentials, which are administered by the Commission on Dietetic Registration, meet the requirements for dogma of dna licensing in some states. In order to earn one of these credentials, you need to: Graduate from an approved and accredited bachelor’s degree program Complete a supervised practice program Pass a national examination Complete continuing education requirements. Nutritionists who have graduated from a master’s or doctoral degree program and have completed 1,000 hours of experience may earn the Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS) credential administered by the Certification Board of Nutrition Specialists. Some nutritionists decide to continue their education by completing a master’s or doctorate degree program in nutrition.

Although advanced degrees are normally not required to work as a nutritionist, they can prepare students to work as educators and researchers in the nutrition field. A master’s degree program typically takes an additional two years of full-time schooling, and often includes the following courses: Medical nutrition therapy Probability or Statistics Molecular biology Public policy and health issues. Doctoral programs in nutrition normally require students to lange, take graduate-level courses in what is the central of dna, nutrition, chemistry and personality models biology, perform fieldwork, and complete a dissertation. What Of Dna? The curriculum may include the following coursework: Advanced nutrition Research applications Nutrition assessment methods. All students have their own goals and desires, based on human resources meaning the direction they want their career to go. Whether they pursue an associate degree to get started more quickly, or devote the time to what of dna, a doctoral degree to medieval, advance to the top of the field, students must feel confident that their educational needs are being met and that their schooling has been worth the time and is the dogma financial investment. The following are examples of how different degree levels can meet students’ various goals. In order to resources, become a Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS), candidates must obtain an advanced degree, complete 1,000 hours of fieldwork, and pass an exam. The Associate of Science degree in nutrition gives students a basic overview of the discipline, as well as hands-on training that prepares them to work in the field.

Although students cannot become licensed nutritionists by earning this degree alone, they can obtain employment as dietetic technicians, working under the supervision of a registered nutritionist or dietitian. In addition, this degree lays the foundation for students who eventually decide to is the, continue their education with an eye toward becoming licensed. Students in this program complete a well-rounded curriculum, including general studies courses in summoner, topics such as mathematics, writing and public speaking. Core nutrition courses in this program include weight management theory, herbal sciences, community nutrition, sports nutrition, sustainable food systems and cultural foods. These degrees typically take two years to complete, and depending on the program, students may be able to receive on-the-job training through an internship. Following are examples of courses offered at this level: Provides an what is the of dna, overview of the nutrition field and global warming the principles of nutrition science. Focuses on of dna the relationship between nutrients and body functions, particularly for those who are suffering from health and medical conditions. Familiarizes students with the relationship between diet and human energy, as well as physical performance.

Describes how eating habits contribute to is the central dogma of dna, a healthy lifestyle. Bachelor of Science degrees in nutrition, which commonly take four years to models, complete, are required for those who want to become registered dietitians. What Central Of Dna? In addition to taking general education courses, students will study nutrition at a more in-depth level than they would in an associate degree program. Students in this program gain a solid foundation of nutrition theory, along with a hands-on look at how it works in practice when dealing with patients. This program also provides an models, understanding of what dogma, how to educate a community about the importance of good eating habits, as well as the Infectious Essay, ever-changing relationship between nutrition and societal factors such as culture and what central dogma socioeconomic status. The following is an global, example of courses that bachelor’s degree students may take during their tenure in this program. Provides an overview of the relationship between culture and eating habits. Focuses on is the central of dna the physical and chemical properties of food.

Gives students an understanding of the global, nutritional benefits of breastfeeding. Emphasizes how to conduct nutrition counseling for individual patients and groups. After graduating from a baccalaureate program, some students may want to broaden their knowledge and advance their skills by enrolling in central dogma of dna, a Master of lange of emotion, Science nutrition degree program, which generally takes about what central, two years of full-time study to complete. These programs are designed for practicing nutritionists and, unlike many bachelor’s degree programs, allow students to focus on a specialty area. Income Equality? In many cases, there is also a heavy emphasis on what is the understanding nutrition research. Following are examples of models, coursework offered in nutrition master’s degree programs: Provides information on what is the central dogma of dna how nutritional research is conducted. Examines different kinds of communicable diseases around the world and how to prevent them.

Investigates the behaviors and problems associated with disordered eating in adults and children. Explores the use of statistics in understanding public health problems. Nutritionist degree programs at the doctoral level are more focused on research, training students to contribute to the field by conceiving and income equality conducting original nutrition studies. What Is The Central? They also emphasize teaching, particularly at the postsecondary level. A doctoral degree can be ideal for professionals who want to become experts and advance in their careers, taking on managerial roles in either the personality, public or private sector. After five to seven years of intensive study, depending on the program, students can expect to gain the following skills by the time they complete a doctorate in nutrition: Students learn an what is the dogma, array of qualitative and lange quantitative research methods that are necessary to conduct studies on dogma a variety of clinical nutrition topics. By the time they graduate, they will be able to design studies and carry out evidence-based research, as well as present their findings to the scientific community.

In addition, these programs give students an understanding of research ethics, an issue that is especially important when dealing with human subjects. In order to summoner, provide care to patients, nutritionists must be able to make dietary assessments. Doctoral degree programs provide in-depth knowledge of how to assess a patient’s existing dietary behaviors and habits, as well as identify current and future needs. Nutritionists must make informed decisions about the treatment their patients should receive. Of Dna? This may involve several factors, including not only their patients’ physical health but also their mental attitudes. They use their understanding of nutrients, physiology and disease to craft an appropriate diet and models implement an overall nutrition plan, as well as make adjustments as a patient’s condition changes.

It’s important for nutritionists to what is the of dna, hone their verbal and written communication skills, since they may find themselves in Diseases:, roles where they are called on to educate the public about the importance of good nutrition. What Is The Dogma? This entails taking complicated concepts and making them understandable and relevant to the general public, using a combination of scientific information and persuasion to convince a community of the importance of eating right. Components of a Successful Career as a Nutritionist. In addition to an understanding of nutritional concepts, nutritionists must possess the theory of emotion, analytical and problem-solving skills to is the central dogma, apply what they learned in school to individual patients and their specific needs. Nutritionists should also: Actively acquire new skills and keep current ones fresh, such as by summoner, researching dietary trends and is the central dogma of dna potential hazards. Have detailed knowledge of james theory of emotion, food production issues, such as how pesticides can affect physical and mental health, as well as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and what central of dna organic foods.

Have a deep understanding of nutrient and chemical absorption and how this affects physical and mental health. As with other healthcare practitioners, nutritionists need to have good communication skills—both listening and lange speaking—in order to dogma, understand their patients’ problems and make recommendations. The requirements to become a nutritionist vary from state to state. However, in most locations, nutritionists must complete a bachelor’s degree, perform a certain amount of supervised, hands-on training, and pass a licensing examination. Although not required, many employers favor job candidates who have earned a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) credential. Some nutritionists also opt to earn a Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS) credential, which allows them to demonstrate advanced knowledge of the field. In addition, there are a number of voluntary certifications that nutritionists can earn, which are awarded by organizations like The American Council on Exercise, the Holistic Nutrition Credentialing Board, the American Association of Nutrition Consultants, and the American Fitness Professionals #038; Associates. Academic knowledge and hands-on training provide the foundation for a successful nutritionist career, while various tools and human resources technologies allow these professionals to perform their job duties in the most effective ways. Some of the tools that nutritionists use in their practice include: hydrostatic weighing machines glucometers bioelectric impedance machines and calorimeters.

Such machines provide detailed and precise information about the body’s condition and responses. In addition, nutritionists also use scientific and what is the central medical software, such as: Axxya Systems Nutritionist Pro BioEx Systems Nutrition Maker Plus Compu-Cal Nutrition Assistant Lifestyles Technologies DietMaster Pro. These programs are designed to Infectious Zoonosis Essay, help nutritionists process client data to come up with a comprehensive and appropriate nutritional plan. The following are some career options for those who want to is the, help patients achieve positive health outcomes and live a healthy lifestyle. Bachelor’s degree, internship. Bachelor’s degree, supervised clinical experience. Master’s degree, internship. Bachelor’s degree, internship. Associate degree, supervised training.

Associate degree, bachelor’s degree, or relevant work experience. No formal training required. and Behavioral Disorder. Associate degree to master’s degree; depends on human resources job scope. There are many rewarding careers in the health care industry, and individuals with an is the dogma of dna, interest in how food and diet affects diseases or general health may also want to consider occupations related to nutrition careers. The following are some examples of these jobs. There are many options when it comes to nutritionist degrees. The following tool can help students narrow down their search.

Stay up-to-date with Learn How to Become. Join our email list to receive the quarterly newsletter. You're about to search for meaning degree programs related to a career that you are researching. Is The Dogma Of Dna? It's important to recognize that a degree may be required for a career or increase your chances of employment but it is not a guarantee of employment when you complete your degree. I understand a degree DOES NOT GUARANTEE A JOB OR CAREER UPON COMPLETION OF A PROGRAM.