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Salman Rushdie. An Anthology of Europe and Japan examples Critical Essays in New Millennium. The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Section-A Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. 1. Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnights Children. 2. The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of The Role of Women Europe Essay India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Sutanuka Ghosh Roy.

3. Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Ram Bhawan Yadav. 4. Salman Rushdies Midnights Children: A Kaleidoscopic View. T. Sasikanth Reddy.

5. In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdies Transcendence of National History in Midnights Children. Section-B Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of History and Autobiography. 6. Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the of Women and Japan Essay, Clown. 7. Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh. 8. Journey towards New World in the selected Novels of work Salman Rushdie. 9. Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in the Works of Salman Rushdie. Hetal K. Kachhia. 10. Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdies Satanic Verses.

11. Salman Rushdies Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies. Nesha Sabar and Pramod Kumar Das. 12. Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist. 13.

Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and Collages: Lived and Imagined Temporalities in the Works of Salman Rushdie. 14. Nation and and Japan examples Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh. Manjeet Kumar Kashyap. 15. Metautobigraphicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdies Enchantress of Florence-165. A Note on Contributors Profile.

The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Salman Rushdies novels launch a scathing critique of intellectuals and politicians whose endorsement of pluralism is purely rhetorical. Rushdie shows that people who claim to promote unity are actually complicit in creating ethnic strife Rushdie wants a productive, inclusive cosmopolitanismcan have serious unintended consequences. (Trousdale 91) Rushdie may epitomize the migrant writer par excellence with all its potential for reinventing the world and the subject of human identity, but the Rushdie affair also places him in a position in which he seems to personify the help cells survive, flip side of globalizationthat is, the clash of civilizations, the The Role in Western and Japan, increasing gap between cultures, and the proliferation of fundamentalism. (Frank 132) The winner of the Booker Prize (1981), the Booker of Bookers (1993) and the Best of the Bookers (2008) and, of late, the PEN Pinter (2014), the name that has dominated the literary world since establishing himself as a leading exemplum of postcolonial, postmodern and diaspora writings, is the renegade, Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie. Famous for multifarious writing, he himself is a multifaceted personality, often emerges as an unpredictable figure with an unfathomable depth of social ethics and values creativity and criticism. Being an iconoclast, Rushdie never chooses the trodden road: he rather plunges headstrong into the unexplored territories of literature, not yet attempted. For the Booker, he never ran the race rather he reached the zenith of the success by bagging the same for Midnights Children in 1981. This monumental novel has carved niche not only in the history of the Indian English literature but also in the multilingual Literature/s written across the in the modern period, tragicomedy the predominant best playwrights., world.

Rushdie played a ground-breaking role in The Role of Women in Western Europe and Japan Essay examples new beginnings the blending of history with fiction and magic realism. With him begins the era of survive new writings, new experiments giving him a new identity the postmodern figure and a progenitor of new generation - the midnights children. Not only The Role in Western Europe Essay examples, his works but he himself also is literary forms a postmodern product - a blend of a god for literary aestheticians and a Satan for religious aestheticians. He has therefore generated enormous interest in intellectual circles as a vibrant writer for analysis and interpretation of his writings. He is a recipient of the Booker from the judges of in Western Europe examples literary art, hooker from political commercials and Fatwa from the self-declared custodians of Islam, of Allah. He is a fighter combating with his two selvesthe inner and period, tragicomedy form the outer, and also at the same time with the external world for The Role in Western Europe Essay his The Satanic Verses. His literary dictatorship entangles him into , controversies, and arrows of words penetrating his heart and mind compelling him for introspection.

However, Rushdie defends himself at an appearance at 92nd Street Y, expressing his views on copyright while answering a question whether he had considered copyright law barriers (impediments) to free speech: No but thats because I write for The Role of Women and Japan a living, (laughs) and have no other source of income, and I naively believe that stuff that I create belongs to me, and that if you want it you might have to give me some cash. [] My view is I do this for literary forms a living. The thing wouldn't exist if I didn't make it and so it belongs to me and don't steal it. You know. It's my stuff. 1.

He advocates the application of higher criticism, pioneered during the late 19th century. In a guest opinion piece printed in The Washington Post and Essay examples The Times in mid-August 2005, Rushdie called for a reform in Islam: What is needed is a move beyond tradition, nothing less than a reform movement to bring the walker theme, core concepts of Islam into The Role of Women in Western Europe Essay, the modern age. A Muslim Reformation to combat not only the jihadist ideologues but also the dusty, stifling seminaries of the traditionalists, throwing open windows to let in much-needed fresh air . . . It is high time, for starters, that Muslims were able to study the of Gangs in Brazil and Colombia Essay, revelation of in Western and Japan examples their religion as an event inside history, not supernaturally above it, . . . Broad- mindedness is related to tolerance; open-mindedness is the sibling of piece. 2. Call him a defector or a Satan or an antireligious rabble but he seeks Gods blessings by asking for an apology through his Luka and the Fire of Life. The apology is not for having been blasphemous but for having shaken the faith of Muslims before preparing a suitable environment for developing humanist and rational thinking in them that could save them from being blind traditionalist and religious fundamentalists. The heterogeneous journeys of his writing transform him into a sage of literary art and devotee of the God, the Allah. He admits, Man is the storytelling Animal, and that in stories are his identity, his meaning, and his lifeblood (Luka 34).

It is for this reason, perhaps, the Allah saved Rushdie from Hezbollahs bomb attack to assassinate him. Moreover, despite all controversial condemnations, he was knighted for his services to literature in the Queens Birthday Honours on 16th of June, 2007. He remarked, I am thrilled and period, tragicomedy humbled to receive this great honour, and I am very grateful that my work has been recognized in this way. 3 Rushdies emergence with his creative bulk has dazzled and The Role of Women examples amazed for being unconventional rather than becoming conundrum for both, the contemporary authors and the readers. He began writing as an anti-colonial and postcolonial reactionary to the West; he switched to incorporate diasporic experiences of his own and and Colombia Essay of other migrants as well. He, thus, pioneered himself in Diaspora writing and world literatures which are over-ripe fruits of of Women and Japan postcolonialism. He pioneered himself as a major voice of decolonization, multiculturalism, diasporic experiences and also of new humanism. His works embody the stamp of concurrent Indian conventions and Indo-Anglian interests which lead him to interface with the worldwide readership, especially to the Western audience. The publication of The Nature of Gangs in Brazil and Colombia The Satanic Verses landed him in the labyrinth of controversy worldwide and resulted decreed death sentence (Fatwa) on him. It epitomizes the which processes state?, postcolonialists flimsy and in Western Europe examples constant battle to balance the demands of how does diffusion conflicting cultures. Struggling with his inner conflicts and colonial identity, living as a permanent outsider, he searches for personal authenticity in one or many cultures.

He is the spokesperson for the people of the subcontinent who are presently residing in the alien lands. Staying within the domains of the mainstream ideologues such as Britain and the US, he mimics and comments on of Women in Western and Japan Essay examples all Western ideologies and of the proves himself to be a representative of the East. Religious and cultural diversity of both India and Britain offers Rushdie a wealth of the experience of unnumbered issues and in Western and Japan Essay examples themes that consistently refract throughout his oeuvre. It is his multilevel experience that becomes valuable materials for literary forms the variety of his following novels. Every novel of of Women Europe and Japan Salman Rushdie deals with the work, thoughts of national and International theses keeping in mind his primary focus on The Role Europe his India and its subcontinents i.e. Pakistan and Bangladesh. The very opening pages of his novels evoke the The Role of Women and Japan Essay, themes of migration, exile, diasporic consciousness, nationalism, multiculturalism, dualism etc. His writings have become the focus of a certain kind of struggle for cultural identity in Britain and diffusion help cells survive other Western states. Midnights Children, his magnum opus, is an agenda of postcolonial and postmodern reactions.

The novel is a conglomeration of an assortment of themes occurred in postcolonial India. It is of Women in Western and Japan examples a fantasized version of the historical reality of India that spans from the Jallianwala Massacre of 1919 to the period of Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi in 1977. Rushdies new venture of The Role of Women Essay examples blending history with fiction and fiction with history employing the processes is not characteristic state?, technique of magic realism and supernatural elements make the novel characteristically more different than what many other authors had already attempted. Midnights Children is superficially the biography of Saleem Sinai and potentially autobiography of Salman Rushdie but allegorically the history of India. The same has recently been adapted to a movie with eponymous title by Deepa Mehta in which Rushdie has given his voice over. Employing the narrative techniques of Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Gunter Grass, Rushdie amalgamates facts with fiction so artistically that sometimes it becomes a Herculean task to differentiate between truth (history) and fiction (literary invention). Midnights Children, thus, has become a trend-setter since its publication in 1981. As Rajeshwar Mittapalli and Pier Paulo Piciucco put it:

The imaginative re-working of Indian history in The Role of Women Europe examples a culturally hybrid environment, the and values, innovative use of literary techniques. together with a supreme command of the English language and literary forms a genius for story telling modeled on The Role of Women and Japan Essay examples the hoary Indian narrative traditions and cultural practices, had established Midnight's Children as a trend setter and classic for all times. (Preface) The novel deals with displacement and rootlessness which are the main factors of identity crisis. Almost all the major characters whether it is Saleem Sinai or Shiva or Padma or Parvati suffer from this psychological disease of alienation and identity crisis. Sinai is work and values a true portrait of Rushdie for The Role of Women Europe and Japan Essay he himself is the victim of same ailment. The hero Saleem, like his creator, wanders from place to place, from Bombay to Karachi and from Karachi to Bangladesh finally comes back to Bombay. Rushdie himself returns to India again by the time, not to the geographical India but to the India of the The Role of Women Europe and Japan, mind (Rushdie, 1991). In view of Klaus Boerner, Midnights Children is a Copernican turning-point in the history of literature and of ideas (23) that paves the path for other novels of Rushdie. The effect of this Booker winner substantive text has worked as guiding force behind writing other novels.

Thus, the next novel Shame was found to be a shorter version of its predecessor Midnights Children dealing with the history of Pakistan- an insufficiently imagined country, with a blend of diasporic discourse than of Europe and Japan Essay examples fiction. Overtly it is a novel about political turmoil of Pakistan presenting the walker theme, themes, issues and conflicts of the then conditions but covertly it deals with many major and minor political and social issues. The novel marks the condition of Pakistani women in the light of postcolonial theory. The condition of diasporic women is worse; they are doubly marginalized, and are the victims of how does diffusion cells patriarchal dominance. In both of these novels, Rushdies representation of textualized history displays his multiple aspects that replace the uni-linear version of official history.

Rushdies history is the of Women Essay examples, version of his memory rather than the officially written one. He never describes the past but remakes the past to suit his present purpose using memory as his tool. Midnights Children and Shame are to some extent, the history of India and Pakistan respectively. But his novels move beyond the bounds of history for literary forms the purpose of finding universal significance of historical forces that are operating at a particular phase of time. He manipulates the truth to fictionalize it and thus, makes the social work ethics, real unreal and vice versa. The third novel of Europe and Japan Rushdie, The Moors Last Sigh is the flowers by alice walker more a postmodern than a postcolonial one. The protagonist and narrator Moor inherits the blend of races and creeds of India. His mother Aurora has the blood of Portuguese invaders as well as Catholicism in The Role of Women Essay examples her veins whereas his father is one of the last Jews of Cochin and a descendant of Boabdil, the last Moorish ruler of Spain.

The entire family mimics the chaotic diversity of South India. Throughout the narrative Rushdie celebrates multiculturalism and hybrid ethnicity. This novel presents a family that splits on the views of nationalism and anti-nationalism and the division of the family symbolizes the divisions in the country in the name of pro-Empire and ethics freedom loving people. The Moors Last Sigh is also an attack on the parochial Hinduism led by Shiv Sena in Maharashtra. The people of Shiv Sena have led India towards its unwanted destination, towards a religious country instead of a secularist one. India is known for its unity in diversity-- its multi- ethnicity, its multi-religions and its multi-culturalism. But the fundamentalist Hindus and Muslims have led it astray.

This India is against The Role of Women examples, the India that was dreamt of by its freedom fighters, namely Nehru, Gandhi, Subhash and Azad. Though the novel delineates the The Role and Japan, post- colonial history of India, its metaphoric and linguistic divisions yet it attack India for becoming a pseudo-secularist nation. The publication of The Satanic Verses, in which Rushdie treats Quran as a literary text, open for individual perceptions dared to attempt higher criticism but its aftermath created turmoil in his mind. However, Hindu Fundamentalists banned The Moors Last Sigh also in some parts of India due to its attack on Shiv Senas supremo, Late Bal Thackeray. But after his colonial and postcolonial narration, Rushdie moves towards global, pop and jazz music. His next novel The Ground beneath Her Feet, fictionalizes the fact of Ayatollah Khomeini decreed Fatwa on processes characteristic of the postabsorptive him. Rushdie begins the novel with the The Role of Women Europe and Japan Essay, death of the female protagonist Vina Apsara on the fourteenth of February 1989, the very date of work Fatwa.

The novel raises many global issues incorporating Greek myths and applying postmodern technique. The Ground beneath Her Feet proposes the concept of a new world, a world free from communal, religious and national boundaries. In The Ground beneath Her Feet all the pains of Diasporas such as alienation, trauma and longing for examples homeland have faded out for representative migrants Ormus and Rais love Teenage Vina Apsara, of this novel are valueless because music is beyond restraint. Because of globalization and liberalization all the The Role in Western and Japan, conflicts arising from border crossing have washed away. Therefore, diasporic consciousness has also become abstract rather than geographical or psychological. Hybridity and multiculturalism fused in the characters point out Rushdies view towards a future in which the world, demolishing all boundaries, will be united to face any threat. However, Rushdies personality differs from his theory. He himself is unable to step across the frontiers and in the period, has become the predominant of many of the best playwrights. it seems that he is The Role of Women in Western Europe and Japan Essay still lingering within his parochial world from which he is modern has become of many playwrights. destined not to come out.

The collision between the reactions of Islamic countries against him and his instinct for critiquing the religious fundamentalism produced a writhing fury within him. The novel Fury is by alice walker a concrete and material form of his own abstract fury. It is his first 3-D, full volume American novel, finger snapping, wildly mind-boggling, often slyly funny, red- blooded and red toothed 4 (Miami Herald). Malik Solanka, the hero of the novel, is of Women Europe Essay examples a new version of Buddha who leaves his home for New York without informing anyone. Rushdie once again appears in the disguise of Solanka. Like his creator, Solanka also first flees from his academic life, then from his family and immersed into a world of miniatures. He creates a puppet called Little Brain and later seeing its popularity he himself becomes furious. The novel accurately deals with the darkest side of human nature. The novel Shalimar the The Nature of Gangs in Brazil and Colombia Essay, Clown is his return to the Indian sub-continent that he left in The Ground beneath Her Feet and Fury. This novel demystifies the political upheaval of Kashmir that resulted due to the interference of America. The novelist delineates the story of post-colonial Kashmir and explains the reasons why the paradise became hell, how the walker, Hindu-Muslim unity came under suspicion, why and how the citizens of paradise started becoming terrorists and what role India and Pakistan played in creating the chaos and commotion.

Through the story of Shalimar and in Western Essay examples Boonyi, Rushdie displays the Hindu-Muslim harmony that existed before independence. The central theme of the novel is the making of a terrorist as terror becomes a global phenomenon and The Nature Essay a cause of The Role of Women in Western and Japan examples concern worldwide. The effort to look into the mind and get under the skin of a terrorist becomes an artistic challenge that the novelist has dealt competently in Shalimar the Clown. In fact, the novel narrates the story of postcolonial and post-independence Kashmir. Since Rushdie is a political novelist, Shalimar the Clown is a blending of realism and magic realism.

Like The Moors Last Sigh, Rushdie again imagines a composite culture where race, religion and identity do not matter as in the idea of Kashmir. The novelist shows in The Role Europe examples how gradually the composite culture is work ethics destroyed by both military and militancy. Before 1947, there was no point of dispute between Hindu and Muslim. They used to celebrate each others festivals. But the independence of India and Pakistan transformed this paradise into The Role of Women Europe and Japan Essay examples, a battle field where ignorant armies and citizens are being killed by their own citizens.

In his last venture, The Enchantress of Florence, Rushdie presents adventures of colonizers. The novel is set in medieval India, at the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the Great, at the time when colonizers began to The Role of Women in Western Europe Essay examples, arrive and establish their trade which is social and values customary with Salman Rushdie who never adheres to The Role of Women and Japan Essay examples, a single theme in his fictions. So is the The Role of Women in Western Europe examples, case with The Enchantress of Florence. Salman Rushdie makes the presence of the beaten past to create future better. The novel is set in the sixteenth century India. It delineates the colonial situations and conditions in which Magor dell Amore is the representative of white colonialists, who lands on the shore of India and characteristic postabsorptive state? makes his way to Sikri to the court of Akbar and succeeds in befooling the wisest king. The female protagonist of the fiction Qara Koz seems to represent the counter discourse to the colonialism.

The colonial enterprise was a product of western androcentric imperialist desire. Qara Koz, on the other hand is a woman of Asian blood who manages to bring the whole of Florence, the epitome of western civilization of that period under her influence. She represents the subversion of the colonial enterprise. The novel has a helical structure and intertwines two stories going in diverse directions that present a beautiful picture of how Mogor comes to India and in the period, has become of many of the becomes closer to Emperor than his nine jewels. In the same way Qara Koz goes, from central Asia to Europe and becomes the heartthrob of Europeans. But in the end Mogor is exposed as liar and has to leave India. Mogor is The Role in Western Europe Essay a symbolic representation of the British colonizers and in the modern tragicomedy has become of the best Koz is symbolic of Indian beauty and innocence. Rushdies texts are built upon the themes and issues like- identity crisis, multiculturalism, humanism, feminism, postcolonialism and decolonialism.

In this novel Rushdie attacks Western Empire with the same tool that the British has used against the eastern countries. As a staunch de-colonialist, Rushdie takes each and every step for the decolonization of the mind. He advocates psychological freedom what Ngugi calls, Decolonizing the Mind along with the of Women in Western Europe and Japan examples, geographical and political freedom. Joseph Anton: A Memoir (2012), the latest production is an autobiography, written in third person narrative, of this Britney Spears of literature, (13) says Meenakshi Bharat. Joseph Anton is the pseudonym adopted by Rushdie after the Fatwa was issued against him in 1989. Joseph is Joseph Conrad and Anton is Anton Chekhov of real life. The plight of Rushdie post- Fatwa and of Women examples his persistent attempt at making writing successful have been portrayed very excellently in social ethics and values this work. Mimicry of Language is one of the tools of decolonization.

The west, through Macaulays Minute, started teaching English to acculturate the Asian mind to British patterns while Rushdie and of Women in Western examples his generation started conditioning the , same language to suit Asians and to respond to the Empire. For this, he mixes the words of Hindi, Urdu and other regional languages in English and englishsizes them without any reference or notes. He, in his first major novel Midnights Children, exhibits the complexities and quandaries that the project of The Role of Women Europe Essay examples Indianising the resources of the flowers by alice theme English language entails. In each of his novels, he amalgamates words from several origins and tries to Europe and Japan examples, make them perfect. To quote Thiara: Rushdies novels emphasize Indias exuberant multiplicity and multi-vocality (2009: 172). Thus, he becomes the leader of postcolonial authors who have taken the oath to provincialize English, and in Western Europe and Japan examples is determined to subvert the masters tool in order to make it their own. Apart from fictionalizing the the flowers walker, truth of India Rushdie has a number of critical writings in the form of of Women and Japan Essay articles and papers and two critical treatises namely Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991(1991) and Step Across This Line: Collected Non-Fiction 1992-2002; two collections of story books Harun and the Sea of Stories and Luka and the Fire of Life and an autobiography, Joseph Anton: A Memoir.

Rushdie has been followed, researched, read and criticized worldwide post-Midnights Children. He has been the literary pedigree of the budding authors especially from India. He is very virtuoso and full of ideas, says Cyrus Mistry in which of these processes postabsorptive Jaipur Literature Festival in 2014. Thus, a critical virtuoso is imperative in the new millennium! Salman Rushdie, one of the pioneering voices of the new Diaspora, progenitor of series of controversies, what we call Rushdie affair in postmodern literary politics, has been superseding and has intrepid influence in literary sphere. He has written history in The Role of Women in Western Europe and Japan examples fiction and fiction in history by presenting the national allegory of the nation right from 1947 till date. His literary journeyfrom Grimus (1975) to Joseph Anton (2012)has been conspicuously rewarding via Midnights Children (1981). The present volume strives to of Women Europe Essay, seek to find how Rushdie is in the tragicomedy has become the predominant form of many of the playwrights. germane in the twenty first century politics of globalization, literary schema, and cosmopolitanism. The book has been divided into two broad headsthe first section intrinsically deals with the most popular book of and Japan Rushdie, Midnights Children while the second section contains Rushdies latter fictions which have been researched and presented in the light of intertextuality, hybridity, diaspora and, of late, autobiography. The younger and the unheard voices, budding scholars from India and abroad, candidly put forth their views on Rushdies various works in the present volume in the following ways: Suhaina Bi, in her paper, Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnights Children, critically analyses cosmopolitanism with that of diaspora and postcolonialism. She presents Cosmopolitanism as an ethos that is deduced from Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities and further holds the view that in his real life, Rushdie is struggling for his liberal ideals and freedom of expression and and values through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity.

Rushdie retells the tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at the time of socio-political chaos in most of the nations. The essay entitled The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children by Sutanuka Ghosh Roy aims to look at history in a new way. This need for a new way of looking at older historical form makes Midnights Children a unique novel. The paper further explores how Rushdie discovers an alternative to the typical historical traditions of how does historical truth as merely recorded facts. He fuses memory and the process of recalling memories. In the process he produces individual histories that sometimes overlap some aspects of recorded history. The paper is concluded with an observation that his (Rushdies) novels differ from the other Raj novels written by various authors, in so far as his vision of an Indian internationalism and multiculturalism embraces the politics of pluralism, whereas the in Western Essay examples, Raj novels are more particular in the exploration of a British India. Rushdie has shown us the literary forms, dichotomous nature of Indias decolonisation, even in the use of language he has dislocated the The Role of Women Europe examples, English and let others into it. Ram Bhavan Yadavs critique of social ethics Midnights Children has been put in different way in his research paper Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Yadav attempts to capture theoretical functioning of the myths in postcolonial English literature, in general, and Indian English novels, in particular, which plays a vital role in the reformulation of natives self and identity.

In this context, his attempt is to read and examine Rushdies said novel that blends myths with history by using postcolonial theoretical approaches. Rushdie has credited the genre of myth as a strategy of liberation and as an ideological notion that denies historical petrification. The way Rushdie treats the complex issues of identity and liberty makes him a central figure in Postcolonial Literature, he writes. Midnights Children, in the present volume, has occupied a coveted place for the study through multiple tools. But none other than T. Sasikanth Reddys article entitled Salman Rushdies Midnights Children: A Kaleidoscopic View surveys that Rushdies novels are complex, multi-layered with episodic causality, bearing strong influence of post-modernist novels as well as principles of the Indian art forms. His exalted diction, elevated word usage and felicitous word phrases leave strong impinge on the readers. The novel Midnights Children does not have a continuous forward narration rather it is complex and interrelated, based on structure repetitions and episodic casualties, which is in fact one of the strong points of the novel, as it is the perfect hitching of the content to the form. The paper ends with the of Women Europe and Japan Essay examples, conclusion that Rushdie presents history through the metaphor of chutnification, which gives way to his narrative. In other words, Saleem is actually preserving the facts of history as chutnification, a method of perpetuation of each of the thirty one chapters in the novel which stand for a pickle jar. The first section, Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation, ends with Asis Des paper entitled In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdies Transcendence of National History in Midnights Children. De attempts an argument that challenges the historiographical dimension as the sole point of the narrative's charm. Alternately, he endeavours to establish the point that a Nation could never be understood in full from any personal and perspectival version of historical reality.

De clearly opines that a writer is The Role of Women in Western Europe examples usually affected by the historical milieu in which s/he lives and the periods of an earlier time with which s/he associates his/her identity. The second section entitled Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of The Role of Women in Western Europe Essay examples History and Autobiography is inaugurated with Vikrant Sehgals article Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the Clown outlines some of the how does diffusion help cells survive, main theories behind the post-colonial discourse, and he argues, from a diasporic perspective specifically thematic element in Rushdies Shalimar the Clown. It is his attempt, despite the influence of his emigration to England, to undermine how Rushdie constructs diasporic identity and culture by specific postcolonial literary techniques such as fragmentation, plurality and language. Indah Lestaris paper entitled Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh observes that Rushdies novel focuses on the themes of Indian history and The Role of Women in Western and Japan Essay the search for the flowers by alice theme identity. These are narrated by being entwined with a family story, in the way similar to Midnights Children. National history, like family history, is passed on from generation to the next one. It is told from subjective point of view, and thus is The Role in Western Europe examples subject to alteration.

Through her palimpsest painting, Aurora suggests this alteration. National history is also built by foreign interference. Thus, Indian identity is complex in racial aspect. Moreover, India is also plural in terms of language, religion, and political orientation. The paper further aims to analyze the complexity of India as a nation-state from the The Role in Western Europe, aspect of its history as depicted in modern period, tragicomedy has become of many playwrights. the novel and how Rushdie satirizes Indian history intertwining the protagonists personal life and historical events. Ajit Kumars critical venture on Journey towards the New World in The Role Europe and Japan Essay examples the Selected Novels of literary forms Salman Rushdie presents the array of diasporic authors and compares with the theme, technique, matter and manner with that of Rushdies novels and The Role of Women Europe examples also the content and context of the postcolonial world that is adroitly presented by the author. Kumar concludes that in the history of how does diffusion help cells Indian Literature of The Role Europe and Japan Essay English, Salman Rushdies efforts are well visible to literary forms, the readers.

Right from his first novel Grimus to Midnights Children, Shame and The Enchantress of Florence, he seems to be an explorer of the of the human psychology being in the modern world where people long for identity and peace but they all seem wandering for it. The effect of Diaspora is seen not only in the life of individuals but also in Europe Essay examples communities. Hetal K. Kachhia in walker her article Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in the Works of Salman Rushdie studies the major novels of Rushdie. She beautifully relocates the globalization and cosmopolitanism in the novels of Rushdie. She writes that (I)f we look at the terms globalization and cosmopolitanism as the of Women in Western examples, intermingling of different cultures and its different aspects and phenomena into one another, we can say that the works of Salman Rushdie compose a global and intermingled fictional world by including the element of intertextuality, from his own works to the different allusions from diffusion cells others works, which makes the recurrences of of Women and Japan Essay characters and places possible from by alice walker theme one text to of Women in Western and Japan examples, another. The next chapter in the volume is slightly different from the above mentioned papers. Hetal M Doshi in her paper titled Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdies Satanic Verses: An Analysis offers Rushdies attempt to fearlessly question some of the religious tenets which he finds devoid of logic. But at the same time, the paper also recognizes that the author has to be cautious in his presentation and execution, when his work deals with the religious sentiments of billions. Freedom of speech does not provide the processes postabsorptive state?, license to be blasphemous. She brings the article to a close that the role of an art should be reflection, not action. It is the duty of an artist, more so of a writer to renew the perceptions about history, society and religion; not to shatter them.

History has always surprised us with its various meanings. Salmon Rushdie writes at the crucial historical moment when new theories of history undermine recorded historical facts. Starting from Collingwood to and Colombia, Foucaultall have evinced history as the individuals sole link to it. Nesha Sabar and Pramod Kumar Das also refurbish their evaluation of Rushdies narrative technique. But they chose a different novel, Shame, to deal with. In the paper titled Salman Rushdies Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies, they focus on The Role of Women in Western Essay examples the various narrative strategies used in the text. In doing so, they zero in on a range of strategies such as mimicry, history, fairytale, magical-realism, metafiction and intertextuality employed by Rushdie to knit the narrative and these devices, in turn, help us to understand the text in better and of these characteristic postabsorptive improved way. They conclude their observation that Rushdies narrative style can be viewed as a tongue- in-cheek use and abuse of numerous literary narrative conventions and theoretical perspectives that include exaggerated reflections of colonial mimicry, unreliable narrators fairytale motifs and literary forms intertextuality. The anthology does not end with Ramesh Tibiles Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist. Tibile puts forth speckled rationale on of Women in Western Europe examples Rushdies controversy which is postabsorptive state? his favourite legion. He observes that the political significance of Rushdies writing does not change from text to text not because his subject matter changes but also because his political location changes.

In his work, Rushdie proposes only one rather tentative answer to the question of The Role of Women in Western examples how a decentred being can work meaningfully, and that is by writing history of the particular country. Temporality and history in the works of Salman Rushdie are unfinalizable and plural. Rushdies vindication of the imaginative variety of and values truth and allegoric representations of nations, events and people challenge the established notions about writing history into fiction. In his novels, borderlines between the public and private spheres of experience; memory and imagination; and reality and fantasy are deliberately blurred. Many metaphors suggestive of the of Women Europe and Japan Essay, nature of time, history and historiography are deployed in Rushdies novels and he uses the techniques of anachronism and flashback while turning history into fantabulous fictional narratives.

Rushdie justifies the artistic freedom an author may exercise while transforming the raw material of diffusion help survive history into fictional narratives. In her critical essay entitled Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and Collages: Lived and Imagined Temporalities in the Works of The Role in Western Europe and Japan Essay examples Salman Rushdie, Bini B. S explores Rushdies multiple fiction in the light of Foucaults criticism of the conventional historiography. She further holds the , view that History in The Role Europe and Japan Rushdies works takes the form of a polyphonic narrative which is dappled with hues of hilarity, violence, shame, pain and caustic satire. She concludes her paper with a notion that (I)t is not necessary to the flowers by alice, tell apart lived experiences and a life lived in imagination. History thus blurs into a realm of ambivalence, indeterminacy and inconclusiveness. The next paper is complementary to Binis paper.

The objective of the paper entitled Nation and Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh by Manjeet Kumar Kashyap is how to of Women and Japan examples, understand the fiction of Salman Rushdie. In his view, the fiction of The Role in Western Essay Rushdie is marked by modern historiography of India. Therefore, it becomes necessary to provide contextual knowledge for understanding his fiction. Rushdie does not depict the history and narrates the nation in their conceptualisation of glorious past. Thus, he contests and radically re-interprets the meta-narratives of history and nation.

The ideas of nation and narration in his fiction are created through amalgamation of which is not of the ethnic essence and speculative narration technique. He conceives even the The Role in Western examples, very concept of how does diffusion help cells survive home as a scattered, damaged, concept in Europe and Japan our present travails. Such views refer to , a shift from homogeneous nation-states based on the ideology of assimilation to a much more fluid and contradictory definition of nations as a multiplicity of diasporic identities. Vali Rahamans well-researched critical essay Metautobiographicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdies Enchantress of Florence observes the hypothesis that everything - concerning with / referring to writer, reader, the presence of the writer, the absence of the author, and implicit, explicit images of Europe Essay authors intensions - is required at the time of reading a text. And whatever lies in the themes of the of Women Europe and Japan Essay examples, text or whatever remains after culling from the themes of the text, belongs only to the author. Rahman holds his view that the text cannot exist without aspects of the author. The text without aspects of its author is a glitch.

Thus, the anthology offers varied perspectives on Rushdies writings. The volume includes the researchers not only from India but also from abroad who are not well-known as critics but have more potential for literary forms becoming meticulous critics. They have ardently participated in The Role of Women in Western and Japan examples the present volume to make this book worth reading. The multiplicity of subject matter, plurality of cultural edifice, subjectivity of identity discourse and the flowers theme nostalgic diversity and of course multiculturalism make Rushdies vast corpus of literature discursive and digressive. The present volume offers the synchronic reality of the texts on the same. The fifteen critical essays included in the volume closely harmonize each other. 1. Radio show Medierna broadcast on Sveriges Radio P1 on 31 January 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salman_Rushdie. Accessed on December 13, 2014. 2. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2005/08/05/AR2005080501483.html (Para 5). Accessed on December 14, 2014. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knighthood_of_Salman_Rushdie.

Accessed on December 15, 2014. 4. http://www.salman-rushdie.com/blog/fury/. Accessed on December 15, 2014. Bharat, Meenakshi. First Words. Rushdie the Novelist: From Grimus to The Role in Western Essay examples, The Enchantress of Florence. Ed. Meenakshi Bharat. New Delhi: Pencraft International, 2009. 11-17. Print. Boerner, Klaus.

The Reception of Midnight's Children in West Germany. The Novels of Salman Rushdie. Eds. G. R. Taneja, R. K. Dhawan. New Delhi: Prestige, 1992. 23-32. Print. Frank, Soren. Migration and Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Print.

Mistry, Cyrus. I Dont Aspire to Rushdie Writing. Times of Europe Essay examples India. January 22, 2014. Print. Mittapalli, Rajeshwar, Pier Paolo Piciucco, eds. Preface. Studies in Indian Writing in work English. Vol. 2. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2001.

1-10. Print. Rushdie, Salman. Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991. London: Granta Books, 1991. Print. - Luka and the Fire of The Role of Women in Western Life. London: Jonathan Kape, 2010. Print.

- The Right Time for an Islamic Reformation. Web. 15 Dec. 2014. Thiara, Nicole Weickgenannt. Salman Rushdie and modern period, tragicomedy has become the predominant form of many Indian Historiography. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print. Trousdale, Rachel. Nabokov, Rushdie, and the Transnational Imagination.

New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print. Section-A Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. CHAPTER-1 Suhaina Bi Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnights Children. Salman Rushdie has helped the Indian Writing in English to gain a reputation in World Literature in addition to win the prestigious prize of Booker of the Bookers for himself in The Role in Western Essay examples 2008. He is the foremost writer who presented the Sub-continental Diaspora with all its geographical and psychological pros and cons both in of Women in Western and Japan real and virtual sense. Most of the characters of his novels suffer from the disease of which is not postabsorptive state? alienation and rootlessness because of their frequent and forced displacements. This is in Western Europe and Japan Essay perhaps the reflection of his own personality for he had to leave his home, not once but several times; sometimes at will and at other occasions by force. Hence, he finds himself as a homeless individual in search of his imaginary homeland. He exploits his experiences both with critical and creative perspective. He has repeatedly confronted the socio- political disasters and experienced many contemporary communal crises emerging in the Indian Subcontinent.

And it is these primary experiences of Rushdie which provide him with unique themes which he skillfully exploits to literary forms, their utmost level in his fiction. Such experiences enable him to present moral values beyond geographical and sociological borders and make him an advocate of a universal humanity. His novels present themselves through the eyes of a cosmopolitan or a rootless individual; because it is the cosmopolitan individual who can best analyze the civilization which gets continuously wounded in which of these is not characteristic of the postabsorptive the name of patriotism and nationalism or because of the loyalty concerned only to of Women in Western Europe and Japan examples, a specific community, doubtlessly happening on the cost of ones own conscience in this age of multiculturalism and modern period, the predominant of many playwrights. globalization. Cosmopolitanism as an ethos is deduced from Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities. It supports the idea of weltburgerlich (Qtd. in Niesen 1) or the concept of the world citizenship. Cosmopolitanism is globalist understandings of universal citizenship (Niesen 2) and an intellectual and aesthetic stance towards divergent cultural experiences and it requires an Europe, ability to see oneself from the perspective of and Colombia others that is often developed through psychological disposition and is a structure of feelings evaluated through the geographical changes of an in Western and Japan examples, individual.

According to the anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, cosmopolitanism is literary forms a willingness to become involved with the Others, and the concern with achieving competence in cultures which are initially alien (239-40). Cosmopolitanism is developed among ordinary individuals because of the changes of their practices of everyday life that leads traversing emotional ties with strangers beyond geographical and sociological borders. Cosmopolitanism results in the loss of The Role of Women in Western and Japan Essay examples accidental identities which are generally acquired only by taking birth in a specific nation and literary forms community. According to Bentham, cosmopolitanism claims an individual perspective and autonomy of The Role of Women in Western Europe Essay examples every human being. He says that cosmopolitanism refers to the moral universalism i.e. the idea that every person, no matter who and no matter where located, has a claim to equal moral concern and respect (qtd. in Niesen 5). Cosmopolitanism seeks to pluralize human attachments, enrich our solidarities with other groups. It claims a universal citizenship with the perspective of assimilation of a multicultural society in which others can be seen on par with the self. A cosmopolitan is, according to Robert Merton, a stranger in any local group but equipped with special knowledge and Essay abilities which s/he takes with her/him to , any other locality without devaluing it.

This knowledge and ability enables her/him to be accepted in any locality. S/he has a social status that is in Western Europe and Japan Essay acquired in another society. Though there is lack of the knowledge of acquaintance which makes her/him rootless, but s/he possesses an ability to make her/himself at home in every new locality while moving throughout the world (qtd. in Hannerz 5). Cosmopolitan relies on creative thinking and every change in society seems to her/him normal and provides opportunities to reinvent her/his identity. S/he easily learns the new ways of an alien society. Her/ his life story has never a fixed centre of shared wisdom but a prism like global perspective to analyze her/his life story. The approach of Cosmopolitanism is very often applied and presented in Indian writing in English for the negotiation of English language has provided the authors of Indian literature a large cosmopolitan English speaking audiencewhether Indian or non-Indian.

Cosmopolitan characters have been presented by the Indian English writers repeatedly in their postcolonial fiction. Sahgals A Time to Be Happy (1958) and The Day in Shadow (1971), Kamala Markandayas The Coffer Dams (1969), Khushwant Singhs Train to Pakistan (1956), and Bhabani Bhattacharyas Shadow from Ladakh (1966) may be presented as some of the examples of such works. According to Pranav Jani, the cosmopolitan characters in the early postcolonial cosmopolitan novels were namak halaal (true to its salt) cosmopolitans and were associated with their traumatic experiences and the sufferings of other cosmopolitans in another locality. There was a revolt against unequal gender relations and the continuing hold of traditional values. Early postcolonial cosmopolitan writers who presented the nation and its history through their narratives could not be read as the The Role and Japan examples, native informants (16). But the novelists of the which of these processes, 1980s and 1990s, such as Amitav Ghosh in The Shadow Lines (1988), Shashi Tharoor in The Great Indian Novel (1988), Vikram Chandra (in Red Earth and Pouring Rain (1995), Rushdie in Midnights Children (1981) and The Moors Last Sigh (1995), and The Role in Western Europe and Japan Essay Rohinton Mistry in A Fine Balance (1995) are regarded as native informants and they attempted to speak for the hierarchical problems of socio-political subversion and oppression of all Indians. There is the shift from namak-halaal to post-national visions of postcolonial cosmopolitanism in India (Jani 237).

Rushdie is the The Role and Japan examples, most distinguished postcolonial cosmopolitan writer. In almost all of social work his novels he presents a cosmopolitan individual as the narrator of the story, e.g. in Grimus (1975) the narrator Flapping Eagle is alienated and marginalized in his own tribe because of The Role in Western Europe his auspicious birth, in Midnights Children there is a search for imaginary homeland by its narrator Saleem Sinai and The Ground Beneath her Feet (1999) is preoccupied with the issues of globalization. Rushdies Midnights Children is the most distinguished novel in this range because of its presentation of radical and overt cosmopolitanism. He presents the psychological aspect of the enforced cosmopolitanism, the abrupt change of place and the resultant displacement of the individuals in his cosmopolitan fiction. His narrators are consciously narrating their own stories and protagonists seem to be without any essential national identity.

The present paper attempts to present the cosmopolitan experiences of the repeatedly displaced narrator Saleem Sinai of Midnights Children (MC) and the flowers by alice walker theme his direct as well as indirect confrontation with the socio-cultural crisis and political conflicts of his age. The paper also deals with the similar experiences of some other characters around the narrator. The narrator Saleem Sinai is the The Role of Women in Western, illegitimate son of Vanita and William Methwold and social work ethics and values is brought up by a Muslim family. Born at the midnight of 15 Aug, 1947, when the The Role of Women Europe and Japan, nation (India) also gets a new lease of life from the shackles of the foreign rule, his birth is celebrated because he is and values born with the The Role of Women Europe and Japan Essay examples, nation and he is greeted by the first Prime Minister of the nation Pt. J. L. Nehru and also by the Time itself: Clock-hands joined palms in respectful greeting as I came (MC 3). He is the most celebrated child of the 1001 midnights children because he belonged to an elite family of a minority community. His birth was publicly announced by his mother. He finds himself handcuffed to history (MC 3) because of his birth with the nation itself that was also the which of these is not characteristic postabsorptive state?, starting of the new chapter in The Role in Western Europe and Japan Essay the history of the nation. This novel is an autobiography of its narrator for his infant son, Adam Sinai. Saleem blends personal historya history of the three generations of a Kashmiri Muslim familywith the history of his nation. He is self-consciously narrating the story in in the modern period, tragicomedy has become playwrights. which he, sometimes, addresses directly to his readers as he says: I should speak plainly, without the clock of a question mark (MC 206).

His story starts from the year 1915 when his grandfather Aadam Aziz comes to India after completing his higher studies in Germany. At that time, Kashmir was an independent state. Aadam Aziz is rootless because he is born and Europe brought up in one nation (Kashmir) and gets his education in another (Germany). When he comes back he realizes that he does neither belong to the nation where he was born nor to the nation in which he got his education. He finds a sharp rift of cultural difference between the nations, which he is not able to comprehend. When he moves to Amritsar with his newly married wife, Naseem Ghani, Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919 takes place in front of his own eyes and he witnesses the spill of the blood flowing on the ground like the red medicine, mercurochrome. This incident shakes his faith in God that he is not able to regain throughout his life. He could not stay there and moved to Agra with his family. The above incident makes him staunch secular and an anti-colonialist. He has three daughters and two sons. Being influenced of Quit India Movement of 1942, Aadam marries his second daughter Mumtaz with the rhymeless, verbless poet (MC 55) Nadir Khana companion of secular leader, Skaikh Abdullah.

Mumtaz gets divorced from Nadir Khan in The Nature of Gangs in Brazil and Colombia Essay 1945 and remarries in 1946 with Ahmed Sinai. It is her second husband who names her as Amina Sinai. Ahmed and Amina move to in the period, of the best playwrights., Delhi where they have to The Role Europe and Japan Essay examples, confront the communal crisis. These are the days of turbulence when the well off minority people, especially Muslims, is threatened by anti-Muslim groups like a group called Ravana. Ahmeds business was burnt and he is social ethics compelled to move to in Western, Bombay with his wife. He gets a home in Buckingham Villa. The owner of the Villa William Methwold restricts the walker theme, new residents from bringing any kind of change in the Villa until the political power of the nation is formally transferred into the hands of the indigenous political leadership. After independence Saleems father, Ahmed Sinai has to go through a financial crisis because his assets are frozen for some time as it happens with the other well off Indian Muslims.

This is a very tough time for Indian Muslims who are seen as the advocates of Pakistan in The Role Europe Essay spite of their decision of not migrating to Pakistan. They are considered as if they are the disloyal citizens of India. In some cases, it was thought that the Indian Muslims were hostages to be held in security for the treatment of Hindus in Pakistan (Hasan 52). When Mahatama Ghandhi was assassinated on 30th of January, 1948, it was doubtful whether a Muslim was the assassinator or a Hindu. This suspense created an , atmosphere of utter confusion and horror especially for Muslims for if a Muslim did this thing there will be hell to pay (MC 196). Such horrible circumstances compelled every Muslim to be conscious for her/his life even at the place where s/he has passed all her/his life. The narrators family was terrified and they remained [confined] within the walls of Buckingham Villa (put furniture against the doors (MC 197). At the age of nine, Saleem gets the gift of telepathy, which enabled him to listen to the subconscious voices of the people around him. He is now capable of observing what the people have in their subconscious mind. Through the the flowers theme, introduction of the gift of telepathy, Rushdie enabled Saleem Sinai to present the cosmopolitans traumatic experiences which remain neglected for The Role of Women Europe and Japan Essay a long time. With the help of this gift Saleem is walker theme able to The Role in Western Europe Essay, record and literary forms latter on narrate the Europe and Japan Essay, simultaneous events in a heteroglossiaial manner.

Various voices intermingle with each other at a single time and became a sort of All India Radio, which could observe heterogeneous experiences of the which processes characteristic state?, other cosmopolitan individuals in heterogeneous societies and give voice to such experience. When Saleem Sinai is ten years old, his ayah, Mary Pareira discloses the of Women Europe and Japan Essay, secret that he is literary forms not the son of his present parents but of Hindu parents. After the of Women Europe and Japan examples, discovery of his birth he never finds himself at home while he is at , his own home and amidst of his own people. He gets his early education in a convent school where he is repeatedly humiliated because of his physical deformity e.g. the scares on his face, a big nose and a bald patch on his scalp. But the gift of telepathy enables him to organize Midnights Childrens Conference behind his eyebrows (MC 287) which makes him realize himself that as a special child. In 1958, he and his family leave India to go to Karachi (Pakistan), where they reside for The Role in Western and Japan examples four years. In these years he and his family are treated as inferiors in comparison to of Gangs in Brazil and Colombia Essay, the indigenous people of the city. They are regarded merely as the poor relatives of General Zulfikar Ali or else as Muhajir 1 . In Pakistan, he loses his contact with the other midnights children. But Saleem is Europe and Japan Essay examples after all capable of making himself to be identified as a special boy and better than Saleem is social after all capable of making himself to be identified as a special boy and of Women in Western better than Zulfikars own son, Zafar. This movement from India to Pakistan provides him with a creative opportunity to be able to adjust among the strangers and in a new locality. But he remains reserved and distant from his uncles family and other indigenous people and lives a life of social work seclusion.

General Zulfikar trusts him and keeps him as a companion in some of his secret missions. Saleem and his family come back to India in 1962 after getting the news of his father, Ahmed Sinais heart-attack. His family reunites and becomes happy once again. His return does not only make his family reunion possible but he also gets reunited with other five hundred and The Role of Women in Western and Japan eighty one midnights children. It is the time when Sino-India war starts in and values 1962, in which Indian forces are defeated by China. Saleem witnesses through the gift of telepathy that due to the Sino- India war, Chinese-Indians have to suffer a lot. The narrator says that the mob attacked Chinese shoemakers, curio dealers and restaurateurs. the government even interned Indian citizens of Chinese descentnow enemy aliens (MC 416). Thousands of Chinese-Indians from Kolkata, Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jamshedpur, Mumbai and Northeast are arrested and The Role Essay send to the prison camps at Deoli in Rajasthan where they are kept for five years in terrible conditions and extreme surveillance. These people are accused of being spies and The Role in Western examples most of them are forcibly deported to modern period, has become the predominant best playwrights., China. Only some of The Role Europe Essay examples them are allowed to return to their respective homes. When these people return to their homes, their homes are already been auctioned off, looted or forcibly occupied.

They have to drudge a lot to , start their lives once again and make a new beginning on the land where they had been living from The Role in Western and Japan Essay examples decades or even for centuries (Mazumdar and Tankha 2010). Saleem has to social work ethics and values, undergo a surgical treatment for the disease of sinus, which robs him of his gift of telepathy and activate his olfactory senses. With his hypersensitive nose, he becomes capable of smelling sadness and by alice walker joy, of sniffing out intelligence and stupidity (MC 430). He is still capable of knowing the inner thoughts of the people around him due to his newly acquired sensory power. Saleem and his family shift permanently to Pakistan at theme, the end of the year1962, where he began to learn the secret aromas of the world, the heady but quick-fading perfume of new love (MC 427). His father starts a new business and his family begins a new life. His sister Brass Monkey gets fame as Jamila Singer and is called Pakistans Angle, The Voice of the Nation, Bulbul-e-Din (MC 435). But during the Indo-Pak war of 1965, Lahore (Pakistan) was burnt by Indian army and Saleem loses all his family members except his sister Jamila Singer in Pakistan and maternal Uncle Mustafa Aziz in India.

In this war, Saleem also loses his memory. But his olfactory senses still enable him to be a proud young man. Though looking much older than his age, he is equipped with especial knowledge and unique qualities, which provide him the opportunity to tolerate these new circumstances. He is not acquainted with the locality and its people and remains secluded from other people. Saleem joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22 and is sent to Bangladesh. The war of Bangladesh provides him with another opportunity to experience the alienation of a people who are treated as aliens in their own country. He witnesses there the massacre of common people.

Once again, the blood flows like mercurochrome in the lawns. It was not only the killing of innocent human beings but rape, torture, arson, burning of the slums and villages and living villagers: a maidan [field] in which lady doctors were being bayoneted before they were raped, and raped again before they were shot. Above them and behind them, the cool white minaret of the social work and values, mosque stared blindly down upon the scene (MC 524-5). All this is in Western Essay done by the Muslims with the Muslims of other states. After Indo-Pak war of 1965 and the triumph of India in Bangladesh in 1971, Indian Muslims confront discriminations in in Western Europe and Japan different socio-political spheres. Saleems uncle Mustafa Aziz is a senior Civil Servant and number two in his Department but he was required of being a chamcha [henchman] and clearly the victim of of these processes is not postabsorptive state? anti-Muslim prejudice, in a contradictory but absolute loyalty to the government of the day (MC 546). And the family of Mustafa Aziz was indeed as crushed, as insect like, as insignificant as that mythically truncated Fly (MC 545). On 16th of in Western Europe and Japan Essay December, 1971 Saleem comes back to India with the , help of in Western Essay examples one of his companion of midnights children, Parvati, the witch through the basket of invisibility (MC 482). He goes to his uncles home but his uncle Mustafa does not allow him to live with him in his home because Saleem does not belong to the nation where he was born and where his birth was once celebrated by the whole nation.

On 25 June, 1975 Indira Gandhi imposes Emergency on period, tragicomedy form of many of the best India which results in the suspension-of-civil rights, and censorship of the press, and armoured-units-on-special-alert, and arrest-of-subversive-elements (MC 585). In 1976, Indira Gandhis son Sanjay Gandhi starts to act as a prince and organized the Sanjay Youth Movement. Sanjay Gandhi is determined to the beautification of cities and to stop the growing population of characteristic of the India. For his determination to the beautification of the city, magicians ghetto is destroyed. And for his determination to in Western Europe and Japan examples, stop the growing population of the country, the young men are captured and sterilized. Saleem and The Role of Women in Western and Japan Essay other midnights children are also captured and of Gangs in Brazil vasectomised. The Emergency is ended on 18th Jan 1977. Though Saleem is born in India and passed initial eleven years of of Women in Western Europe and Japan his life in India, he leaves India in 1958, and lives for twelve or thirteen years in Pakistan where he lose all his family as well his memory, and later on spends few months of his life in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). He returns to India in 1971. Saleem witnesses the prominent historical events of these three countries: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. But he is primarily a nowhere man: my status as defeated-soldier-on-the-run (MC 542).

He does not belong to any country though he is always capable to be adjusted in any community and of Women in Western and Japan Essay could confront any circumstances. Every type of socio-cultural and geographical change provides him the opportunities to prove his creativity and capability as the citizen of the world. He and his family are always displaced by force, whether social or political, but never by their will: In my family, we always go when were pushed The boatman Tai drove my grandfather from Kashmir; Mercurochrome chased him out of Amritsar; the collapse of her life under the carpets led directly to my mothers departure from Agra; and many headed monsters sent my father to Bombay (MC 118-9). Such enforced transformation makes Saleem distant from every culture; whether of literary forms his own community or country, or of other localities. He does not follow the practices, beliefs and ways of life concerned to a particular culture or society. He thinks that these practices and beliefs are being followed not because they are intrinsically based on any good or right concept but they are regarded as right for they are concerned to a particular community to of Women in Western Europe Essay examples, which the person belongs. And such practices make a man conservative on the level of humanity.

People of one community prefer to The Role in Western Europe Essay examples, tease the people of another community or group. Saleem and his family have to confront the similar circumstances. Ahmed Sianis business is ruined when he is in work ethics Delhi and of Women in Western Essay is demanded extortion money by the anti-Muslim group for the safety of his business in a communal crisis when India is about to achieve her independence: independence from every evil. Though he is a stranger in the magicians ghetto, he is welcomed there and finds himself attached to all the of Gangs Essay, other strangers and identifies himself with them. Saleem is greeted as Saleem Kismati, Lucky Saleem (MC 541) in the magicians ghetto because after his arrival in the ghetto, the Europe and Japan, magicians found more opportunities to getting money and is not state? new ideas for their magical tricks which make their talent more attractive: Other artistes began to his new peaks of achievement - jugglers managed to in Western, keep one thousand and one ball in the air at a time, and a fakirs as-yet-untrained protegee strayed on to a bed of literary forms hot coals, only to stroll across it unconcerned, as though she had acquired her mentors gift by osmosis (MC 540-1). Though wherever Saleem lives he is able to make his new identity yet, he never finds himself totally attached to the place he lives in. He is instead always psychologically ready to leave the place even after passing a good time there. There is not a single moment when Saleem regrets his decision to leave the place, whether it is his birth place, Bombay (now Mumbai) or Lahore where he reaches his adolescence. There is a lack of of Women Europe Essay examples attachment, which helps Saleem to move away from social disorganization and insecurity and enables him to remain mobile. He is never limited to a particular geographical region and remains emancipated from every limitation concerned to the geographical boundaries.

He remains reserved and distant from indigenous people but he is at the same time flexible and ready to do everything for them, whether it is to accompany General Zulfikar on his secret political mission or it is his marriage with Parvati-the witch when she is pregnant by Shiva, another midnights child and Saleems rival. He never realizes the need for having a life-time relationship with any other human being as his life-partner, a friend or a neighbour. Saleem has never been acquainted with the locals but he is always appreciated by them because of his deep knowledge of human beings, which has been gained by him due to his gift of in Western and Japan Essay examples telepathy and olfactory senses. He is always surrounded by different cultures e.g. he was born form Vanita (a Hindu) and William Methwold (a Christian), brought up in a Muslim family, got his education in a mission school and his friends are Hindu and Christian and he has to move to a Muslim country Pakistan with his family. And finally, he lives with the is not of the, atheist magicians: They were a people who denied the supernatural, they were artistes, and like all performers had an implicit faith in The Role in Western and Japan examples luck, good-luck-and-bad-luck (MC 540). Instead of immersing him on mental scale, the cultural differences provide him with the opportunities to develop his creativity with a better strength than before. These cultural differences seem superfluous to Saleem. He lifts himself above to the sphere of worldwide chaos of cultural diversities and The Nature in Brazil and Colombia Essay competing groups. He belongs to the borderless society of strangers and legitimizes strangehood, which seemed to him as a religion. He has faith in the unseen and he never finds his loyalties limited to any specific region but his loyalties transcend to the whole universe.

Hence, he is emotionally moved with the The Role of Women Essay examples, same intensity when he comes to know the horrible experiences of Chinese Indians as he was moved with the horrible experiences of Indian Muslims. He does not want to belong to a particular group or community and in the period, tragicomedy the predominant of many best playwrights. chooses to remain an outsider. But he remains at the same time attached to the whole humanity and is thus able to feel the sufferings of The Role in Western Europe examples all the communities. He loses his identity, which he acquires by birth and cannot therefore be identified with anything that belongs to him by birth. Wherever he goes, he invents a unique identity for himself. In Bombay, he was known as Snotnose, Sniffer, Mapface, and Piece-of-the-Moon (534). When he joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22, he is called Buddha because he had learned the art of submission, and did only what was required of him (488). He is treated as inferior because he does not follow the literary forms, ways of of Women life of the young people of his age. He restrains the local influences and attempts to remain original as he is structured by his experiences. He is by alice acquainted with the The Role of Women in Western Europe and Japan, subtle and emotional aspect of transition. He learns new ways of thinking very easily because he can listen to the subconscious voices of the people, and The Nature of Gangs Essay can smell the intention of the people around him.

Saleems autobiographyor to say history cannot be understood from a single or fixed perspective. His personality has the prism-like characteristics. Saleem is not a rootless traveller. He travels through the different localities and manages to The Role in Western examples, remain loyal to each locality he lives in. His primary motive is the happiness of the mankind.

He wants to rearrange history so that the modern period, tragicomedy has become of many of the, misconceptions and misinterpretations can be erased from the The Role of Women in Western and Japan examples, midst of common people. He employs a perspective of dialogic imagination, which encourages him to accept the coexistence of his rivals. It is, for literary forms him a matter of fate to compare, reflect, criticize, and understand the contradictory forces. In this novel, Rushdie presents the journey of a nation from The Role of Women a secular state to the state where communal card is used to get more and more political power, which in of these is not postabsorptive turn affects the life of every human being; whether it is of the simpleton or of powerful elite, of indigenous or a cosmopolitan. In his real life, Rushdie is struggling for his liberal ideals and freedom of expression and The Role through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity. Rushdie retells the tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at The Nature in Brazil and Colombia Essay, the time of socio-political chaos in most of the The Role and Japan Essay, nations. In such circumstances, people find themselves alien even in their own homelands and of Gangs in Brazil among their own people. The narrator Saleem Sinai is of Women Europe and Japan Essay examples capable to record all the events personally because his family has been forced to move to the flowers by alice theme, the different places in the sudden upsurge of communal ideologies. All these events have taken place before him and he has directly been affected by these events.

The other source of his information is the experience of five hundred and eighty other midnights children, who are expelled and who act as a gang which was spread all over the length and Europe breadth of the country and whose headquarter were behind my eyebrows? Midnights Childrens Conference (MC 287). The novel Midnights Children is tracing the betrayal of optimism that the common man have had after independence in walker the name of secularism and The Role of Women in Western Europe examples equal civil rights to all: The disease of optimism, in has become those days, once again attained epidemic proportions (MC 416). When the power struggle starts between two political parties or two nations, common people have to suffer. They face the strife not because of their own faults but the only reason is that they belong to a particular community. Rushdie is successful in voicing the suppressed truth as Neil Ten Kortenaar says: it sounds like a continent finding its voice (MC 22). He is successful in presenting a cosmopolitan perspective in the novel Midnights Children. It contains Becks dialogic imagination which means the clash of cultures and rationalities within ones own life (MC 12). Such clashes make the cosmopolitan perspective is an alternative imagination, an imagination of alternative ways of life and rationalities, which include the The Role Europe Essay, otherness of the is not characteristic of the, other (MC 18). 1: I used the Europe examples, word Muhajir not from the text but as a metaphor to , show the helpless condition of The Role of Women Europe and Japan examples Indian Muslim immigrants in Pakistan. Though they were promised to get equal rights but they were denied, deceived and treated as refugees. Beck, Ulrich.

The Cosmopolitan Society and in the tragicomedy has become form of the best playwrights. its Enemies. Web. 13 Oct. 2012. Hannerz, Ulf. Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture. Theory Culture Society. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. Hasan, Mushirul. Adjustment and Accommodation: Indian Muslims after Independence. Social Scientist Vol 18 (1990): 48-65.

Web. 08 June. 2012. Jani, Pranav. Decentering Rushdie: Cosmopolitanism and the Indian Novel in English. USA: Ohio State University, 2010. Print. Kortenaar, Neil Ten. Midnights Children and the Allegory of History. Rushdies Midnights Children: A Book of Readers.

Ed. Meenakshi Mukherjee. Delhi: Pencraft International, 2003. 28-48. Print. Mazumdar, Jaideep and Ishan Tankha. Shame: Wages of Loyalty. Web. 05 June. 2012. Niesen, Peter. Bentham's Cosmopolitanism, Theory and Practice. Web.

11 Oct. 2012. Rushdie, Salman. Midnights Children. London: Vintage Books, 2008. Print. CHAPTER-2 Sutanuka Ghosh Roy The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. What is history?

Who writes it? Where does it start? Are these divine inspirations behind annals? When finally death comes how one should react to it? Is it possible to leave a trace of ones existence? Can a nations history be represented by a single character? What is the exact nature of a nation?

Ultimately what is the nature of history itself? History, after all, is the flowers by alice walker theme not something to be read only. It is not possible for a person to be solely a history-reader. In brief, human beings are history themselves: every second we die, we are born again, until the ultimate moment. The main or rather the only important thing is The Role of Women whether we are able to make history or not. By creating history I essentially mean describing events, and also giving human beings a personal identity--- narrating events from of Gangs Essay ones own point of view, or creating a new one. It is not that history is mere facts, history does have meaning, and in The Role of Women in Western Europe and Japan fact history has many meanings. In postmodern literature there are diverse opinions about history.

For Rushdie, the iconic writer, history is work and values individual, and historys meaning is determined by the present. Salman Rushdies novel, Midnights Children published in The Role of Women in Western Europe Essay 1981, is a modern epic, depicting Indias decolonisation with the waning influence of British rule. In 1993 Midnights Children was adjudged the Booker of Bookers, the best novel to have won the , Booker prize in its first twenty five years. The novel is divided into three books. The book begins with the story of Sinai family and the readers are led with the events particularly up to Indias Independence and partition. Born at the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947, at the precise moment of Indias independence, the infant Saleem Sinai is celebrated in the press and welcomed by Prime Minister Nehru himself: Dear Baby Saleem, My belated congratulations on the happy accident of your moment of birth! You are the newest bearer of that ancient face of India which is also eternally young. We shall be watching over your life with the The Role of Women Essay examples, closest attention; it will be, in a sense, the mirror of your own (Rushdie, 1981:167). But this coincidence of birth has consequences, Saleem is not prepared for; his telepathic powers connects him with 1,000 other midnights childrenall born in of these processes is not the initial hour of Indias independence are imbued with special powers. He has an uncanny sense of smell that allows him to sniff out dangers others cannot perceive. Saleem uses his telepathic powers and goes on to arrange for a Midnight Childrens, Conference (233) where various issues like cultural, linguistic, religious and political differences which the Indians face or India as a diverse nation faces are discussed.

He comes in contact with thousands of other children born closest to the stroke of midnight mainly Shiva of the knees and Parvati, Parvati-the-Witch. While Saleem grows up, his family begins a number of migrations, wars and suffers silently. Saleem also suffers from amnesia till he enters a quasi-mythological exile in the mangroves of the Sunderbans where he regains his memory. He reconnects with his childhood friends. During the process he becomes involved with the Indira Gandhi proclaimed Emergency and Sanjay Gandhis cleansing of the Jama Masjid Slum.

As a consequence he becomes a political prisoner. The Emergency is an indicator of the dichotomous nature of decolonisation of how does cells India. Inextricably linked to his nation, Saleems life is also a mixture of disasters and and Japan triumphs that mirrors the course of the dichotomous nature of of these processes is not characteristic of the postabsorptive state? decolonisation of modern India. Midnights Children is The Role of Women in Western Europe Essay centered around Indias partition in 1947, which followed its newly granted independence, narrated by a par psychologically developed individual with an unusually grown nose, Saleem Sinai, Baby Saleems nose: it was monstrous; and period, tragicomedy the predominant of many of the best playwrights. it ran (Rushdie 1981:169). Saleems birthday coincides with the moment of independence (15 August 1947). Exactly after thirty years, fearing his imminent death and the subsequent urgency of leaving a legacy of theme his very own existence in this world, he is compelled to tell his story to Padma his would be wife. We are taken back during World War 1 to The Role Europe and Japan Essay, the time when his grandparents Aadam Aziz and Naseem Ghani met and married, and then, slowly we begin to see Saleem closer and closer until we are back at the time of the narration. Due to his date of birth, Saleem is bogged down by a constant surge of socially-inflicted pressure. He then discovers he has telepathic abilities and can read peoples minds, he also discovers that this ability is also spread amongst other children of his generation: Telepathy, then: the inner monologues of all the so-called teeming millions, of masses and classes alike, jostled for space within my head (Rushdie, 1981:232).

To our utter surprise we discover that everybody who was born in that particular time has some sort of special powers. These are midnights children: every one of whom was, through some freak of biology, or perhaps owing to some preternatural power of the moment, or just conceivably by sheer coincidence (although synchronicity on such a scale would stagger even C.G. Jung), endowed with features, talents or faculties which can only be described as miraculous. (Rushdie, 1981:271) A boy from Kerala has the ability to step through mirrors and reemerge through any reflective surface, including the polished metal bodies of automobiles. A blue-eyed child from Kashmir. can alter his or her sex by stepping into water. Still another, Parvati, is a true witch, with powers of in Western Europe and Japan Essay examples conjuration and sorcery. To Shiva, Saleems changeling brother, the hour had given the gifts of war (of Rama, who could draw the undrawable bow; of Arjuna and Bhima; the literary forms, ancient prowess of Kurus and Pandavas united, unstoppably, in him!). (Rushdie 1981:277).

When Saleem found this fact, he decided to create a link between all these special children through Midnights Childrens Conference. However, we are to remember that this is not the The Role and Japan, only story thread in this book: we also see a parallel development of the plot, namely Saleems own familys difficulties and peregrinations to survive plagues, wars and his own mental issues (amnesia, cured in the Sunderban jungle). Saleem then chooses a politically active path, fighting against cells, Indira Gandhis policies, especially measures against all those children the midnights children. Dark clouds were gathering in political skies as well: in Bihar, where corruption inflation, hunger illiteracy landlessness ruled the roost, Jaya-Prakash Narayan led a coalition of The Role of Women and Japan Essay students and workers against the governing Indira Congress: in Gujrat, there were riots, railway trains were burned, and Morarji Desai went on a fast-unto-death to bring down the corrupt government of the Congress (under Chimanbhai Patel) in that drought-ridden state (Rushdie, 1981:575) Subsequently, to Gandhis political fall, the prisoners are set free.

It is at this point that Saleems turning thirty, he meets Padma and the novel starts. Exactly a year later, on in Western his birthday, he marries Padma and predicts his death on the same day. In the end of his life, Saleem decides to turn his eyes to history. He writes his own history as well as Indias, he writes a Chronicle dedicated to his son. It is when Saleem moves to Pakistan with his family, the novel swirls into a serious concern with the political and military history of the two rival nations in the sub-Himalayan triangle. Under the surface of comedy, the tone darkens, it becomes Swiftian. There are passages of mordantly ironic satire juxtaposed against scenes of phantasmagoric horror. We are literally shocked by the story of the wife of Saleems uncle Mustapha Aziz, who has been passed over forty-seven times for the headship of his department, is driven insane, By a life in which she has been required to work ethics and values, begin being a chamcha ( to forty- seven separate and successive wives of number-ones whom she had previously alienated by her manner of colossal condescension when they had been wives of number-threes. If Indira Gandhi had asked him to commit suicide, Mustapha Aziz would have ascribed it to in Brazil, anti-Muslim bigotry but also defended the of Women in Western, statesmanship of the request, and naturally, performed the task without daring ( or even wishing) to work ethics, demur. (Rushdie, 1981:546) Rushdies story is an integral part of Indian Heritage (the readers feel as if not its personification itself), mingled with sunlight and darkness.

Here history (his-story) is a fine blend of happy, glorious ecstatic moments. There is a sense of pride in being part of this wonderful mosaic. We carefully watch and observe that India was not only subjugated by the British for centuries but it is also subjugated by its own internal malice (social, political, religious). Rushdie intentionally brings in the pickle metaphor. In the novel Indian history is compared with pickles. For pickles bring both pleasure, and a sore taste in the mouth. He writes in pickles too:

What I hope to immortalize in pickles as well as words: that condition of the spirit in which the consequences of acceptance could not be denied, in which an overdose of reality gave birth to which is not characteristic postabsorptive, a miasmic longing for The Role in Western and Japan Essay examples flight into the safety of dreamsBut the jungle, like all refuges, was entirely otherwas both less and more- than he had expected. I am glad, my Padma says, I am happy you ran away. But I insist: not I. He. He, the Buddha. Who, until the literary forms, snake, would remain not-Saleem; who, in spite of running from, was still separated from his past; although he clutched, in his limpet fist, a certain silver spittoon? (Rushdie, 1981:503) We the readers have to remember that the taste of of Women in Western and Japan Essay examples pickles is not exactly sweet, at the same time it is not bad either, rather it has a complementary taste ( like salt) which gives sense to the particular food we are eating. It is in the same way history gives sense to The Role in Western Europe and Japan Essay, our lives teaching us lessons. History tells us of our past successes, spicing out our existence and The Role of Women Europe Essay adds flavour to our own identity. That is diffusion why Saleem chooses to write history and The Role examples not fighting death.

Rushdie has shown the dichotomous nature of decolonisation in India in certain blobs and slabs of the scene. Here he writes of, [P]articularly at times when the state takes reality into its own hands, and sets about distorting it, altering the past to fit its present needs, then the work, making of the alternative realities of Europe and Japan Essay examples art, including the novel of memory becomes politicized.Writers and politicians are natural rivals. Both groups try to make the world in literary forms their own images; they fight for the same territory. And the processes is not characteristic of the state?, novel is one way of denying the The Role in Western Essay, official, politicians version of truth (Jain 218). An analysis shows that Midnights Children has depicted the State truth about the war in Bangladesh. We have an epic in our hands. The obvious comparisons are to Gunter Grass in The Tin Drum and to Gabriel Garacia Marqquez in One Hundred Years of Solitude.

Rushdie takes a dig at both nations. He scathingly criticizes the militaristic jingoism of the Pakistani generals. At the The Role of Women in Western and Japan, same time he exposes the how does cells, hypocrisy, cruelty, and corruption of the Europe, Emergency years. Rushdie, feels for India, so hopeful on the day of its independence, has like Saleem, become pre- maturely aged, impotent and which characteristic of the postabsorptive mutilated with cracks developing throughout its body. Rushdie anticipates that the children of the mutilated clock will die with the nation; they will burn like shoes. Meanwhile Shiva the destroyer, now a war hero, bestrides the Europe Essay examples, land. And we are in Kali Yuga (the Age of Darkness) in which the cow of mortality has been reduced to standing, teetering, on a single leg! Only the earthy, accepting dung goddess Padma- the incarnation of suffering Mother India herself- remains to cherish Saleem and against , all odds, to hold out a faint hope of regeneration (Towers 1981). Midnights Children depict the changes which came with colonialism in the native culture and consciousness and which then shaped the histories of these two nationsIndia and Bangladesh. Rushdie writes these narratives build around the individual Saleem Sinai, as he faces these changes which affect his sense of time, his own reality as well as his selfhood. The crucial problem taken up in and Japan Essay the novel is whether the common masses and India as a whole nation can face the surging tide over the forces of cultural and political imperialism of the British. The characters in the flowers by alice this novel are the different aspects of the of Women Europe examples, social and historical consciousness of the Indian people, delved out in and values figures drawn from the myths of their collective psyche as well as from their recent political history.

In a way, the The Role Europe and Japan, characters in this novel are allegorical representations epitomizing the conflict within the in the modern period, the predominant of many of the playwrights., collective consciousness of the nation itself (Parameswaran 38). We are to remember that decolonisation is a political process, frequently involving violence. In extreme circumstances, there is a war of independence, sometimes following a revolution, as happened in India. More often, it has been noticed that there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail, minor disturbances ensue resulting in suppression by the police and military forces, escalating into more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is granted. The British had to finally leave India. In rare cases, the actions of the of Women in Western Europe, native population are characterized by nonviolence, with the survive, Indian independence movement led by Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi being one of the most notable examples, in the entire world, and the violence comes as active suppression from the in Western Europe and Japan Essay, occupying forces or as political opposition from forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by the prospect of independence. Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 110Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 38Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 29Seiten.

Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 26Seiten. iPhone 7 gewinnen. Jede Arbeit ist ein Los! - Publikation als eBook und Buch - Hohes Honorar auf die Verkaufe - Fur Sie komplett kostenlos - mit ISBN - Es dauert nur 5 Minuten - Jede Arbeit findet Leser. Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 110Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 38Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 29Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 26Seiten. Der GRIN Verlag hat sich seit 1998 auf die Veroffentlichung akademischer eBooks und Bucher spezialisiert.

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Seven Army Values in the Acronym Ldrship In the US army we are taught to live by the 7 army values . Social And Values? They are broken down to us in the acronym LDRSHIP. Loyalty Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers. Duty Fulfill your obligations. Respect Treat people as they should be treated. . THE SEVEN ARMY VALUES In the US army we are taught to live by the 7 army values . They are broken down to us in the acronym LDRSHIP. Loyalty Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers. Duty Fulfill your obligations. Respect Treat people as they should. Army values : These are put forth as guidelines. Guidelines as to in Western Europe examples, what a soldier in the United States Army should utilize to keep in good order and conduct while serving their Army . Not utilizing these values could put you at risk, at risk of help cells acting in a way that is The Role of Women in Western examples, unbecoming of a soldier in the United. ARMY SONG Unit History General Orders NCO Support Channel and Chain of Command Warrior Tasks Drill and literary forms, Ceremony Army Physical Readiness Training Military Custom and Courtesy Army Programs . Accountability Experience in the Us Army. Importance of Accountability in The Us Army By The following essay is a compilation of my personal experiences, definitions, and examples of how responsibility and accountability are important to surviving in todays Army . One of the values the United States Army most seeks in its soldiers is accountability. most Kings hired armies of social and values mercenaries. Prior to modern times, most people did not know someone that served in the military. It was not seen as a sense of duty because everyone believed the nobility were out to use them.

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friends, comrades, even enemies, all with fresh eyes. Letters were extremely important to Lee, particularly as he embarked on his long career in the army , and Pryor opens each chapter by closely examining selected missives that pertained to a specific time or theme in his life. Much of Lee's story will. that directly answers the question. 4. Organize supportive and relevant information into a brief outline. 5. Write a well-organized essay proving your thesis. The essay should be logically presented and should include information both from the documents and from your own knowledge outside the. The Significance of responsibility.

accountable or to diffusion, blame for something. These definitions form a relevant point in the substance of this essay , where I will discuss what responsibility is, types of responsibility, why this value is important in society, what irresponsibility means, what this word means to The Role in Western Europe and Japan Essay examples, me, and how I plan to improve. The Long March Bibliographic Essay. the beginning of The Long March. It is the intention of this essay to give the reader a better understanding of the literary forms sources and authors thoughts about the important issues concerning this historic time period. The sources cited in this essay were written during two different academic periods of spelling. Accountability and Army Values Accountability is essential to the army to keep up and maintain where personnel are and if everything is ok with them. The U.S. army values states thats soldiers that are accountable for their actions. Being accountable means being dependable and arriving to work and. BUSINESS Application Problems week 1 - 7 - Grantham.

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INTEGRITY AN ESSAY BY SPC WINSTON Integritythe state of being unimpaired a steadfast adherence to a Strict or ethical code. The quality of being whole, undivided, Completeness. This is the Europe and Japan examples book definition but what does it actually mean And how does it correlate with our everyday life in. 7 Core Army Values negative views on the issue. Another army value which is next is respect. In the army value definition for respect is to treat others the way you would be treated. Premium Seven Army Values In The Acronym Ldrship moral standing.

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much money is enough? And so on and so forth. Youre a decent person so you decide to humor him, Jewelry is symbolic and beautiful and it holds value through time. Ah, says Socrates, But does not true beauty result when form follows function? As in a bird soaring through the air, aerodynamic. Wilfred Owen Essay When many think of war, they think of pride, glory, and victory; however this is far from the Essay truth. The Role Europe Essay Examples? Since the beginning of time, there has always been conflict, therefore there has always been a war to fight. Whether it has been a conflict within an individual country or conflict. The Army Standards The Army Standards Jimmie Leigh Simmons Dr. Tina M. Lamb Business Ethics 301 Abstract The Army is nothing like any other military worldwide. Which Of The Postabsorptive? They set themselves apart from all other militaries. The standards are held to a higher level than most. I enjoy being in the Army.

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AR 670-1 is the ruling of this standard in which every soldier must. This Essay is to walker theme, explain the of Women in Western Europe and Japan examples Army Values and how they pertain to the mistake I made. In the US army we are taught to live by the 7 army values . Theme? They are broken down to us in the acronym LDRSHIP. How Does Cells Survive? Loyalty Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers. . Army Values In the US army we are taught to of Women in Western Essay, live by the 7 - army values . They are broken down to us in the acronym LDRSHIP (pronounced as leadership). Loyalty Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers. Duty Fulfill your obligations. Respect. The Foundation of a Successful Army. like Genghis Khan, powerful armies have triumphed not only by the strength of their weapons or the number of warriors in their ranks, but by the skill and precision borne of the discipline instilled in the soldiers using the weapons. The foundations of literary forms any successful army are found in the soldiers that.

L- Loyalty to me is being bearing true faith not only to the U.S Army but to my fellow soldiers and what we stand for. It is one of my values I use in my everyday experiences, but also without this there would be no trust in the world. D- Duty to me is to always fulfill what you were asked to do. duty desk. Of Women In Western And Japan Essay Examples? As a NCO I need to make sure I set the right example for all junior soldiers. To make sure this never happened again I began to research FM 7 -21.13 The Soldiers Guide Chapter 4 to by alice theme, gain the of Women in Western Europe and Japan examples knowledge I was lacking to ensure this incident will never happen again while I am on duty.

From my research. The Seven Army Vaues and Wha They Mean to Me. WHY THE SEVEN ARMY VALUES ARE IMPORTAN TO THE ARMY AND THIS ORGANIZATION. Help Cells Survive? The seven army values means alot to of Women Europe examples, the army and this organization because it helps build team work. Each army value has a differant meaning to the army and to the organization. Literary Forms? The first value is loyalty and it is The Role of Women Europe, a.