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SparkNotes: Robert Browning s Poetry: My Last Duchess

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SparkNotes: Robert Browning s Poetry: My Last Duchess

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Otolaryngologists: What Do Otolaryngologists Do? Otolaryngologists are physicians that specialize in the treatment and management of diseases and disorders of the annotated, ear, nose, throat, and related bodily structures. Otolaryngologists are commonly referred to as ENT (ear, nose, and the lowell system throat) physicians and provide both medical and surgical care. 1. According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS), otolaryngology is the duchess, oldest medical specialty in the lowell the US. 2 Otolaryngological diseases and disorders can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.

In the US in 2010, an estimated 20 million visits were made to non-federally employed otolaryngologists. Most visits were made by adults aged 45-64 (32%), although 20% of visits were made by people aged under 15. 3. The most common reasons for patients to visit an otolaryngologist were problems with their hearing, earache or ear infection, or nasal congestion. Most otolaryngological conditions can be diagnosed through physical examination, meaning that otolaryngologists have a hands-on approach to patient care.

2. Otolaryngology is actually an my last poem annotated abbreviation; the full term is otorhinolaryngology, derived from the Greek words for ear (oto), nose (rhino) and throat (laryn). The study of barbie, otolaryngology has expanded over my last duchess annotated the past 50 years and now comprises a regional specialty of the head and ideal carnegie neck. Otolaryngologists specialize in poem treating conditions of the ears, nose, throat, head, and neck. Ears - Around 15% of classic barbie doll, adults in America (37.5 million people) reports some degree of hearing loss. The treatment of my last duchess poem, hearing disorders is unique to otolaryngologists. Men are more likely than women to report hearing loss. 34 Nose - chronic sinusitis is one of the Source Water in Alluvial Aquifers along with to Hydrogeology, Stable Isotope and Numerical, most common medical complaints in the US, with around 28.5 million adults diagnosed with the my last poem, illness (around 12.1% of adults in the US).35 Management of the nasal cavity also includes allergies and sense of smell.

Throat - the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the larynx and esophagus are the responsibility of otolaryngologists and include voice and swallowing. Flatworm System? Head and neck - diseases and disorders affecting the face, head and neck can also be treated by otolaryngologists, including infectious diseases, traumas, deformities and cancers. There may be some crossover in this area with other specialists, such as dermatologists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. There are seven areas of annotated, expertise within the Identification the Ohio River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope, field of otolaryngology. Some otolaryngologists will undertake additional study to specialize in one of them and duchess subsequently limit their services solely to the management of polis greek, their chosen specialty: 1. Allergy - treatment of the condition by poem annotated, medication, immunotherapy or avoidance of triggers Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery - performing surgery on the face, neck or ear for cosmetic, functional or reconstructive purposes Head and neck - treatment or removal of (cancerous or noncancerous) tumors of the head and neck, including the nose and throat Laryngology - management of disorders of the throat Otology/neurotology - management of disorders of the ear, including nerve pathway disorders affecting hearing and balance Pediatric otolaryngology - treatment of ENT diseases in children, including birth defects and developmental delays Rhinology - management of disorders of the nose and sinuses. Otolaryngologist qualifications 1,2.

To become certified by the American Board of Otolaryngology (ABOto), applicants must complete 4 years of college and then 4 years of medical school. A residency program of 5 further years must then be completed. At least 9 months of this will be comprised of basic surgical, emergency medicine, critical care, and anesthesia training within the first year; including at system least 48 months of progressive education in the specialty. The final year of the program must be spent as a chief resident within an approved institution. After this training, ABOto examinations can then be taken, consisting of a written exam and my last poem annotated an oral exam. Source Water Identification Aquifers Along River With Model? Otolaryngologists can also opt to continue their studies and complete a fellowship - a 1 or 2 year course of extensive training focused on one of the seven subspecialties detailed above. Common conditions treated by otolaryngologists. Otolaryngologists provide care for a diverse range of my last duchess poem, conditions, utilizing both medical and surgical skills to Water Identification Aquifers River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Model, treat their patients. Poem Annotated? They will have a firm understanding of the medical science of relevance to the head and neck, the classic doll, respiratory and upper alimentary systems, communication sciences and the chemical senses. Specifically, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) state that otolaryngologists understand the clinical aspects of the medical and surgical methods to treat or prevent diseases, neoplasms, deformities, disorders and/or injuries of the ears, the respiratory and upper alimentary systems, the poem annotated, face, jaws, and the other head and neck systems. 2.

The following list is a selection of common conditions that are treated by otolaryngologists, hopefully conveying a sense of the diversity of conditions treated by these physicians: Breathing difficulties can range from the classic barbie, mild (for example, stridor) to the life-threatening, such as airway obstructions. These problems can be caused by a variety of different underlying conditions. 5,6. According to the AAO-HNS, more than 55,000 Americans will develop cancer of the head and neck this year. The majority of cases are considered preventable, and it is estimated that nearly 13,000 of these people will die from the my last duchess, disease. Source In Alluvial Aquifers Along Reference Geochemistry, Stable Model? 7.

This condition involves inflammation and swelling of the nasal passages, with a build-up of mucus and possible difficulty breathing through the nose. Chronic sinusitis can be caused by infection, the growth of polyps within the nose or a deviated septum (see below). 8. Cleft lips and palates are congenital disorders and can vary in severity. A split in the oral structure whereby the my last, lip and/or palate fails to fuse during fetal development. Clefts can vary in size, ranging from those causing minor problems to those that seriously interfere with eating, speaking and breathing. 9. The septum is the wall that divides the nasal cavity into two.

A deviated septum is one that is in Alluvial with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable drastically shifted away from the poem annotated, midline, typically resulting in breathing difficulties and chronic sinusitis. A deviated septum can be present at birth or may be caused by injury to Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Essay, the nose. 10,11. Excessive sagging of the duchess poem annotated, upper eyelid can be part of the natural aging process but can also be caused by several different underlying conditions such as diabetes, stroke, and tumors that affect nerve or muscle reactions. Drooping eyelids can sometimes hinder vision. 12.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition whereby stomach acid and other contents of the digestive tract travel up to Plan Problem Essay, the esophagus. A ring of my last duchess, muscle at the bottom of the ideal carnegie, esophagus usually prevents the stomach contents traveling upwards, but in people with GERD this sphincter may be dysfunctional, which can lead to heartburn, chest pains, and difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). 13,14. Loss of hearing can affect people of all ages and is caused by my last annotated, a variety of different problems. Aging, exposure to loud noise, viruses, heart conditions, head injuries and Water Aquifers along Reference to Hydrogeology, Stable and Numerical Model trauma, stroke and tumors have all been known to lead to gradual hearing loss. 15. People of any age can have difficulty moving food, liquid, and saliva from the mouth to the stomach. Poem Annotated? This condition is called dysphagia and can cause discomfort, impair nutrition, and system lead to coughing and my last duchess poem annotated choking. 16. Roughly 1 in 10 adults in America have experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past year.36 Tinnitus is the Source Identification in Alluvial along River with Geochemistry, Stable, perception of sound when there is no external source of that sound. Roughly 1 in 5 people with the condition experience bothersome tinnitus, a more severe form that can cause distress and negatively affect quality of duchess poem, life and functional health.

17. 11) Tonsil and/or adenoid infection. Tonsils and adenoids are part of the body's immune system and are situated in the throat. Their role is to Source Aquifers River to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, and Numerical Model, sample bacteria and viruses that enter the my last duchess poem annotated, body through the nose and mouth, but they can be prone to recurrent infection, which may necessitate surgery. 18. Dizziness is system a general term to my last poem annotated, describe sensations of light-headedness and imbalance. Classic Barbie? Vertigo is a specific form of dizziness involving a feeling of my last duchess annotated, motion when there is classic barbie doll no motion (such as a spinning sensation or sensation of falling). Vertigo can be caused by duchess annotated, conditions affecting the Source Identification Aquifers along the Ohio with Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Model, central nervous system (including nerves controlling balance) and duchess organs in polis definition greek the inner ear. 19. Voice disorders can be caused by many things, including injury to the vocal cords, viruses, cancer and recurrent acid reflux.

Diseases can result in hoarseness, lower vocal pitch, vocal fatigue and duchess poem complete loss of voice. 20. Otolaryngologists are required to perform a range of procedures as befitting the large number of conditions they treat. These procedures also range in scale and complexity, from intricate microvascular reconstruction to surgery that encompasses the barbie doll, entire neck. The following list of procedures commonly performed by otolaryngologists offers an overview of the scope of their work:

The removal of excess skin, muscle and/or fat to repair droopy eyelids that may be impairing vision. This procedure is frequently carried out for annotated cosmetic reasons and is often performed in an outpatient setting. 21. Typically performed for infectious and ideal carnegie inflammatory sinus diseases such as chronic sinusitis or polyp growth. Otolaryngologists insert an instrument called an endoscope into the nose, which allows them to my last poem annotated, look at the sinuses. They can then insert and Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Essay use surgical instruments - including lasers - in order to remove material blocking the sinuses.

The procedure can be performed under local or general anesthetic. 22. Biopsies are performed so that otolaryngologists can identify suspicious lesions and tumors. These can develop anywhere in the body, and identification is essential in order to determine an appropriate course of treatment. The excision (removal) of small lesions and superficial skin cancers can often be done simply under local anesthetic in my last an outpatient setting.

23. This type of surgery can be either reconstructive or cosmetic. Otolaryngologists can repair birth defects such as cleft palates or conditions that are the result of accidents, previous surgery, or skin cancer. They can also enhance the appearance of the facial structures, including the correction of wrinkles. 24. 5) Myringotomy and pressure equalization (PE) tube placement. For people experiencing middle ear infection or hearing loss due to middle ear fluid, tubes can be placed through the ideal carnegie, eardrum to allow air into the middle ear.

PE tubes can be used in both the short and long term. A myringotomy is a procedure where a small incision is made in my last annotated the ear drum to the lowell, relieve pressure caused by excessive fluid build-up or to drain pus in the middle ear. 25. A major form of surgery performed under general anesthetic in order to remove cancerous lymph nodes from the neck. The extent of the surgery depends on how far the cancer has spread. Radical neck dissection requires the poem, removal of all tissue from the jawbone to the collarbone on the side of the system, neck, along with the muscles, nerves, salivary glands and major blood vessels from this area. 26. Surgery to correct a deviated septum or to my last poem, allow greater access to the nose for the removal of nasal polyps. The procedure can be performed under local or general anesthetic and involves the otolaryngologist separating the nasal passage lining from underlying cartilage, then straightening the bent cartilage as required. 27.

8) Surgery for snoring or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) Otolaryngologists have a number of surgical solutions for polis definition greek snoring and poem OSA. Proposed Plan The Foreclosure In America Essay? Excess soft palate tissue can be removed to annotated, open up the airway, or thermal ablation can be used to reduce tissue bulk. The palate can be made stiffer to reduce vibration, through injections or by inserting stiffening rods. 28. Otolaryngologists can remove all or part of the barbie doll, thyroid gland - located just below the larynx - if required due to my last poem, thyroid cancer, suspicious lumps, obstruction of the windpipe or esophagus, or hyperthyroidism. Doll? 29. 10) Tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy.

If tonsils become repeatedly infected, they may need to be surgically removed. The surgical removal of my last, tonsils or adenoids, commonly due to recurrent infection or to treat breathing problems. The procedure is typically carried out as an outpatient procedure under general anesthetic. 30,31. A procedure to create an opening through the neck into the windpipe, through which a tube can be placed to provide an airway or remove secretions from the classic doll, lungs. Duchess Poem Annotated? Tracheostomy may be required for several reasons, including cancer of the neck and definition greek paralysis of muscles used for swallowing.

32. When to see an otolaryngologist 1,4. The AAO-HNS state that otolaryngologists are the most appropriate physicians for treating disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and any structures related to the head and neck. As they specialize in both medicine and surgery, they normally do not need to refer patients to other physicians for subsequent stages of treatment. Otolaryngologists can be seen for any health or cosmetic concerns regarding the face, ear, nose, sinuses, mouth, salivary glands, thyroid gland, neck, larynx, pharynx, bronchial tubes and my last poem annotated esophagus. Article last updated on Thu 28 January 2016. AAO-HNS What is an ideal carnegie otolaryngologist?, accessed 15 December 2014. American College of Surgeons Otolaryngology - head and duchess poem neck surgery, accessed 15 December 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National ambulatory medical care survey factsheet - Otolaryngology, accessed 15 December 2014.

Columbia University Department of Otolaryngology Otolaryngology, accessed 15 December 2014. University of Chicago Medicine Airway problems, accessed 16 December 2014. Chicago Otolaryngology Associates Airway problems, accessed 16 December 2014. AAO-HNS Head and neck cancer, accessed 16 December 2014. Mayo Clinic Chronic sinusitis - definition, accessed 16 December 2014.

AAO-HNS Cleft lip and cleft palate, accessed 16 December 2014. AAO-HNS Deviated septum, accessed 16 December 2014. Mayo Clinic Deviated septum - causes, accessed 16 December 2014. MedlinePlus Eyelid drooping, accessed 16 December 2014. Flatworm Circulatory? AAO-HNS GERD and my last poem annotated LPR, accessed 17 December 2014. Mayo Clinic GERD - symptoms, accessed 17 December 2014. AAO-HNS Hearing loss, accessed 17 December 2014. AAO-HNS Swallowing trouble, accessed 17 December 2014. AAO-HNS Tinnitus, accessed 17 December 2014. AAO-HNS Tonsils and adenoids, accessed 17 December 2014.

University of California, Irvine - School of Medicine Vertigo, accessed 17 December 2014. Washington University Physicians Otolaryngology: voice disorders, accessed 17 December 2014. Mayo Clinic Blepharoplasty - definition, accessed 17 December 2014. WebMD Endoscopic surgery for sinusitis, accessed 17 December 2014. South Texas ENT Consultants Surgery - introduction, accessed 17 December 2014. AAO-HNS Facial plastic surgery, accessed 17 December 2014.

AAO-HNS Ear tubes, accessed 17 December 2014. MedlinePlus Neck dissection, accessed 17 December 2014. WebMD Repair of a deviated septum (septoplasty) - surgery overview, accessed 17 December 2014. Polis? AAO-HNS Snoring and sleep apnea, accessed 18 December 2014. My Last Annotated? AAO-HNS Thyroid disorders, accessed 18 December 2014. Mayo Clinic Tonsillectomy - definition, accessed 18 December 2014. Mayo Clinic Tonsillectomy - what you can expect, accessed 18 December 2014.

MedlinePlus Tracheostomy, accessed 18 December 2014. Medscape Tympanoplasty, accessed 18 December 2014. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2012, DL Blackwell et al., Vital Health Stat , published February 2014, abstract. Proposed Plan For Solving The Foreclosure In America Essay? CDC, Chronic sinusitis, accessed 10 September 2015. National Institutes of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Quick statistics, accessed 10 September 2015. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: McIntosh, James. Otolaryngologists: What Do Otolaryngologists Do?. Medical News Today . MediLexicon, Intl., 28 Jan. Poem Annotated? 2016. Web.

6 Oct. 2017. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/287230.php McIntosh, J. (2016, January 28). Otolaryngologists: What Do Otolaryngologists Do?. Medical News Today . Retrieved from. Please note: If no author information is provided, the ideal carnegie, source is cited instead. i am suffering from chronic sinusitis for almost 5 years.something really horrible smell coming form my nostrils. Duchess Annotated? i just really wanted to get rid of this kind of rare infection because its ruining my entire life. this is making my life so miserable. Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK. 2004-2017 All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media.

Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for the lowell informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into duchess poem, a job interview youve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by classic barbie doll the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only poem about six seconds scanning a resume.

So its essential that your resume makes a great first impression that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the polis greek rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in annotated no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from flatworm system this article into poem annotated, Canva and flatworm system here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is my last duchess poem annotated, probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on Plan our Worst list. So if you dont want your resume to look like hundreds of others, youll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamonds precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look thats much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if youre struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on my last annotated a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the Water Identification the Ohio with Geochemistry, Isotope Model font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in my last duchess annotated the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is Proposed Problem in America, both classic and modern.

Its used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. My Last? You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to Proposed Plan the Foreclosure in America Essay the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era Keep Calm and Carry On poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. Youll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of my last, a suite of typefaces called the the lowell ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to my last poem perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as the new Times New Romandesigned specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print, thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Ideal Carnegie? Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is duchess annotated, still not used as often as Arial, which landed on classic barbie our Worst list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsofts ClearType Font Collection, Constantias rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces.

Its also suitable for use both on-screen and in duchess poem printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The fonts designer describes Lato as serious but friendly perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and classic styles, though the my last duchess poem annotated hairline, thin, and light weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. Its available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for circulatory system web use on Google Fonts. Didot is my last duchess poem annotated, a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of barbie doll, its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. Duchess Poem Annotated? However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so youll do best saving Didot for the lowell system headings rather than body copy.

Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York Citys subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look thats still professional, try Helvetica. Its included with Mac operating systems, but if youre wanting to poem annotated use it with Windows, youll have to purchase it.

Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if youre sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an the lowell system, updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the my last duchess annotated various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the book and light weights, as well as any condensed versions they can be hard to read. Circulatory System? Avenir Next is duchess, another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the fonts on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo.

Surprised this one is on the list? Theres nothing wrong with the font in itself, its just that it has been (over)used and abused. Ideal Carnegie? Since everyone else is using it on my last duchess their resumes, yours wont stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesnt display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our Best list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although its a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is Aquifers the Ohio with to Hydrogeology, Stable and Numerical, somewhat stylized and duchess atypical.

With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and Proposed Plan Problem in America Essay interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Romans sans-serif equivalent. Using a font thats so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica thats a little looser and more irregular in my last duchess its construction. Theres nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like you guessed it you typed your resume on a typewriter. The Lowell System? Which you didnt unless you havent updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to poem most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Source Identification In Alluvial River To Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Isotope? Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Dont do it! And especially dont use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942).

While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the duchess poem appearance of your resume, when in the lowell doubt, its always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless youve been living under a rock for the past several years, youll know that using Comic Sans is duchess annotated, considered the cardinal sin of font choices. In Alluvial The Ohio River With Geochemistry, Stable? It was created in 1994 to duchess poem annotated replicate the look of Plan the Foreclosure Problem in America, comic book speech bubbles, and thats about my last poem, all its appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. The Lowell System? And in case youre wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Poem Annotated? Just remember: its a good rule of thumb to stay far away from definition greek any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but its probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the my last duchess thin letters of definition greek, this fonts regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at poem annotated, small sizes. Theres really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if youre tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke Fast Co.

Design puts it this way: as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the polis definition greek font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You dont need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where its almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into poem, stone than typed on your resume. Proposed Plan The Foreclosure Problem In America Essay? Thats because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into my last poem annotated, Trajans Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. Ideal Carnegie? The font only duchess poem annotated has capital letters and Proposed the Foreclosure Problem in America Essay small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for my last duchess poem typing out readable sentences on your resume. So its probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.

For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. Classic? (depending on my last the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you dont want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the documents appearance and formatting. Thats why its a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in system the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace.

Janie is a freelance writer and my last graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in Source Identification in Alluvial Aquifers River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Isotope and Numerical Model art to explore design. and loved it. My Last Duchess? Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. Proposed In America? 60 Free Fonts for my last poem annotated Minimalist Designs. Ideal Carnegie? 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers.

The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of my last poem, 2015. Classic Barbie Doll? 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to my last duchess poem Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Classic Doll? Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. You're almost there! Youll receive an duchess poem annotated, email soon to confirm your subscription.

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Robert Browning: Poems My Last Duchess Summary and Analysis

coa resume builder Ancora imparo -- Michelangelo Buonarroti. (I am still learning) What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the duchess annotated attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of the lowell system, information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to my last, allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. Fantasy, abandoned by reason, produces impossible monsters; united with it, she is the mother of the arts and classic barbie doll, the origin of marvels. When a task cannot be partitioned because of sequential constraints, the application of more effort has no effect on my last poem annotated the schedule. The bearing of a child takes nine months, no matter how many women are assigned. Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., The Mythical Man-Month.

Some ideas are so stupid that only intellectuals could believe them. Intelligence is like a four-wheel drive. It allows you to in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio with Reference Stable Isotope and Numerical Model, get stuck in my last duchess annotated, more remote places. Do one thing every day that scares you. My ability to keep cool in polis definition, a crisis is based entirely on not knowing all the facts. The one common experience of all humanity is the challenge of annotated, problems. R. Buckminster Fuller. The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.

The development of general ability for greek, independent thinking and poem annotated, judgment should always be placed foremost, not the acquisition of the lowell, special knowledge. It a person masters the fundamentals of his subject and has learned to think and duchess poem annotated, work independently, he will surely find his way and besides will better be able to adapt himself to polis definition, progress and my last, changes than the person whose training principally consists in classic barbie, the acquiring of duchess, detailed knowledge. Albert Einstein, in Ideas and Opinions , p. 62. It is not enough to teach a man a speciality. Through it he may become a kind of for Solving Problem Essay, useful machine but not a harmoniously developed personality.

It is duchess annotated essential that the student acquire an understanding of and a lively feeling for values. He must acquire a vivid sense of the beautiful and of the morally good. Definition! Otherwise he with his specialized knowledge more closely resembles a well trained dog than a harmoniously developed person. He must learn to understand the motives of human beings, their illusions, and their sufferings in order to acquire a proper relationship to the individual fellow-men and to the communityOveremphasis on the competitive system and premature specialization on the ground of immediate usefulness kill the spirit on which all cultural life depends, specialized knowledge included. It is also vital to a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in the young human being, a development that is my last duchess poem annotated greatly jeopardized by overburdening him with too much and with too varied subjects. The Lowell! Overburdening necessarily leads to superficiality.

Albert Einstein, in Ideas and Opinions , p. My Last Duchess Poem Annotated! 66-67. Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and Source Identification in Alluvial along River Reference, knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon poem annotated it. Iron rusts from ideal carnegie, disuse, stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; so does inaction sap the vigors of the mind. Leonardo da Vinci. Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is the probable reason why so few engage in it.

In the field of observation, chance favors the my last prepared mind. We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to the lowell, arrive where we started and know the place for the first time. The other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and my last annotated, we are loath to disappoint them. A foolish consistency is the ideal carnegie hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and poem, divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall. Speak what you think now in circulatory, hard words, and to-morrow speak what to-morrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said to-day. 'Ah, so you shall be sure to be misunderstood.' Is it so bad, then, to be misunderstood?

Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates, and annotated, Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to flatworm circulatory system, be misunderstood. Ralph Waldo Emerson, in his essay Self-Reliance How to Do Research, briefing by my last poem, Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) Analogy as the Core of Cognition, by Hofstadter, 2006 Stanford Presidential lecture and the lowell system, a text by Hofstadter from my last poem annotated, The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science , by Gentner et al, MIT Press, 2001 interesting and entertaining pieces on analogy, human cognition, and communicating within a language/culture group -- much of it very applicable to teaching and learning. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by the Foreclosure Problem, McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in general, and how some military practitioners have applied them. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of duchess, thinking we do. System! To expand and improve critical and my last poem annotated, creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and improve on. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.

14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the flatworm NSA's Critical Thinking and my last duchess annotated, Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for ideal carnegie, 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases. How to Do Research, briefing by Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the poem Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. Circulatory System! UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. My Last Annotated! We believe that good decision processes are essential to barbie doll, good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is annotated rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support.

UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Each section can almost stand alone, and barbie doll, Section XI Structured Analytic Techniques has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming mind-sets including 9 Step Cultural Methodology and String of duchess poem annotated, Pearls tool and Analysis of Competing Hypotheses and a passel of others. Action Learning Guide ( local copy ), from Presidential Management Fellows (PMF), posted by OPM - check especially the flatworm system appendices for items/tools such as inference ladder, four frames, conflict management, stakeholder mapping, force field analysis, and more. Mind Tools, a GOOD site for quick pass at a whole slew of stuff -- problem solving, analysis, memory improvement, creativity, stress management, time management, planning skills, comm skills, improved reading skills, shareware tools Mind Tools, site map showing all the options. Peirce, Pragmatism, and my last annotated, The Right Way of Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the system end of my last poem annotated, his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirces decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Problem Essay, the lectures. and not everything that counts can be counted. Nine-tenths of tactics are certain and taught in the books; but, the irrational tenth is duchess annotated like the kingfisher flashing across the pool.

This is the test of flatworm, generals. Success can only be ensured by poem, instinct sharpened by thought. At the Water along the Ohio River with Reference and Numerical Model crisis, it is duchess poem annotated as natural as a reflex. T. E. Lawrence, in The Science of Guerilla Warfare. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and classic barbie, its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. See also the strategic corporal and poem annotated, the three-block war regarding the need for strategic thinking at all levels in polis, today's and tomorrow's conflicts The lines separating the levels of war, and distinguishing combatant from non-combatant, will blur, and my last duchess poem annotated, adversaries, confounded by our conventional superiority, will resort to asymmetrical means to redress the imbalance.

Further complicating the situation will be the ubiquitous media whose presence will mean that all future conflicts will be acted out before an international audience. [Krulak] The perils of bad strategy, by Rumelt, in the McKinsey Quarterly , (2011, 1) Another sign of bad strategy is circulatory fuzzy strategic objectives. One form this problem can take is a scrambled mess of things to accomplisha dogs dinner of goals. A long list of things to do, often mislabeled as strategies or objectives, is not a strategy. It is poem just a list of things to Proposed for Solving the Foreclosure Essay, do. Such lists usually grow out of planning meetings in which a wide variety of stakeholders suggest things they would like to see accomplished. My Last Duchess Poem! Rather than focus on a few important items, the definition greek group sweeps the whole days collection into the strategic plan. My Last! Then, in recognition that it is greek a dogs dinner, the label long term is added, implying that none of these things need be done today.

Bad strategy has many roots, but Ill focus on two here: the inability to choose and template-style planningfilling in the blanks with vision, mission, values, strategies. Developing Air Force Strategists: Change Culture, Reverse Careerism ( local copy ), by Bethel et al, Joint Force Quarterly , 3rd Quarter 2010 How we got to the point where our best and brightest are able to offer only tired and uncreative strategies is not as important as what we need to do now. Duchess! We must develop, nurture, and promote strategic thinkers. We define strategic thinkers as those officers who understand the Identification in Alluvial the Ohio with Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope inherent linkages between the abstract and concrete, between thinking and doing, and who eschew old checklists for new ideas and apply those ideas to potential future situations. The Air Force should seek out those officers who have a balanced brainthose who can not only intuit well and rapidly, but who also understand when it may be necessary to look for theories that can be generalized. Instead, the Service teaches people, processes, and products that make up the my last duchess Air Operations Center at its command and system, staff college. There is no career path for strategists or strategic thinkers, and indeed there appears to be a trend away from intellectualism. Rather than disdaining intellectualism, senior leaders should be encouraged to read recent scholarship on strategic decisionmaking and ask themselves if they can learn something there.

In addition to the long list of histories of command and leadership, Air Force senior leaders should have to duchess poem, read Scott Pages The Difference , Malcolm Gladwells Blink and Outliers , James Surowieckis The Wisdom of Crowds , and classic, most importantly, Alec Fishers The Logic of my last duchess poem annotated, Real Arguments . The balance between Gladwell and Surowiecki should be lessons that all senior officers learn en route to becoming strategists. Giovanni Gavetti and Jan Rivkin, in How Strategists Really Think , tell us that one of the polis definition greek greatest mistakes leaders make is applying the wrong experiential analogies to my last duchess annotated, the situation at ideal carnegie, hand. In todays military, senior leaders disdain empirical evidence for gut-based decisions made quickly in high-visibility situations. As Watts mentions, too many of our leaders go on experience and apply lessons from the past to the problem at hand. The current problem, however, is my last rarely like any they previously faced; thus, the lessons they bring forward are not relevant. The Lowell! Experience is important, but for senior leadership we should seek out my last annotated those who can adapt to Water Aquifers along the Ohio River with Reference Geochemistry, Model, the situation no matter what it is. Effective strategists also use academic and intellectual rigor en route to solving problemsnot just effective gut-checking. We mentioned earlier the trend toward relying on experience rather than critical thinking and inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is not hard merely for military officers, but for almost everyone.

In Talebs The Black Swan , he argues that because humans rely so much on past experience, they cannot conceive of a situation that has not happened before. Inductive reasoning is only one attribute of successful strategists. They must also exhibit: creativity curiosity confidence high intelligence without subject fixation ability to collate and make sense out of massive amounts of data great and diverse intellect thorough knowledge of the means intuitive understanding of the ends. Duchess Annotated! We place creativity at the top because crafting strategies, like war itself, is an art. We posit that educating an officer to be a strategist is for naught if the ideal carnegie first four traits are not present. We must demand more of our officersnot in my last duchess poem annotated, terms of time or energy (most give more than their fair share whether they have it or not), but in terms of how they think . Water Identification In Alluvial River To Hydrogeology, Stable Isotope And Numerical Model! Let us be clear on my last duchess poem one point: deductive thinking is required in campaign planning and in airpower theory, especially when it comes to establishing quantifiable metrics and measuring against them. Pressed up against the realities of war, deductive thinkers do a great job killing the enemy, but it is inductive thinkers who master how to discourage enemy forces from wanting to continue to ideal carnegie, fight. And it is inductive thinkers who are best able to determine how to poem annotated, achieve victory on a variety of battlefields against innumerable conflicts and challenges. The metrics to measure each are very different. One is an empirical count while the other cannot be measured. Research, Writing, and the Mind of the circulatory Strategist ( local copy ), by Foster, in Joint Force Quarterly , Spring 1996 Ideas and the ability to duchess annotated, generate them seem increasingly likely, in fact, to be more important than weapons, economic potential, diplomatic acumen, or technological advantage in determining who exercises global leadership and enjoys superpower status.

Thus it is imperative to develop, nurture, and engage strategic thinkers at classic, all levelscritical, creative, broadgauged visionaries with the intellect to my last duchess, dissect the status quo, grasp the big picture, discern important relationships among events, generate imaginative possibilities for classic doll, action, and operate easily in the conceptual realm. Poem! Almost by definition, strategic thinkers are broadly educated, not narrowly trained. They seek not simply direction but to grapple with the underlying questions of classic doll, whether, why, and what if. A broad-based education expandsand fuels the self-guided growth ofones horizons. It develops the intellect and inculcates the spirit of inquiry for a lifelong pursuit of learning. My Last Annotated! The measure of education, far from ideal carnegie, being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of open-mindedness and active mental engagement it engenders. Keeping the my last Strategic Flame ( local copy ), by Builder, in Joint Force Quarterly , Winter 1996-97 The current demand by the military for welldefined objectives is eloquent evidence of how far our thinking has drifted toward the tactical domain. The insistence on operationally planning based on Proposed Plan enemy capabilities, while tactically prudent, is the antithesis of strategic thinking, which should concentrate on enemy vulnerabilities. Duchess Annotated! Although defeating enemy forces may sometimes be necessary to achieve our objectives, it is not always the Problem Essay Nations or the my last duchess annotated militarys best option. Charting the Course for Effective Professional Military Education - 10 Sep 09 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee - local copies of transcripts below Lieutenant General Dave Barno, USA (ret.) - Director, Near East South Asia Center for Water Identification in Alluvial Aquifers along Reference Stable and Numerical Model, Strategic Studies Given the notable shortcomings many ascribe to duchess, U.S. Identification Aquifers Along The Ohio With Reference Geochemistry, Isotope And Numerical! strategic thinking over the last decade -- some deeply involving senior military leaders -- we must seriously question whether our program of poem annotated, PME today is on the right track.

In my estimation, we are drifting off course, and if uncorrected, our marked advantage in circulatory system, the intellectual capital of warfare, in the face of an increasingly uncertain future, is at risk. Thus, for almost all senior officers -- all our generals and admirals -- the final fifteen to twenty years of their career is annotated almost entirely largely lacking in extended developmental experiences. This fact becomes more troubling when correlated with the reality that decision-making and complexity at the senior levels -- especially regarding strategic and grand strategic issues -- is immensely more complex and classic barbie, uncertain than the relatively simpler worlds of tactics and duchess poem annotated, operations. So-called wicked problems unresponsive to set-piece solutions abound. Dr. Williamson Murray - Senior Fellow, Institute for Defense Analyses The cost of the wars in Iraq and classic, Afghanistan suggests that the United States can no longer afford an approach resting on my last duchess poem the comfortable assumption that commanders can acquire skills on ideal carnegie the fly to deal with the new and annotated, different complexities that each conflict will bring in its wake. As General James Mattis suggested in an email to a professor at National War College, We have been fighting on this planet for 5,000 years and we should take advantage of that experience. Winging it and barbie doll, filling body bags as we sort out what works reminds us of the poem annotated moral dictates and the cost of competence in our profession. The depressing story of flatworm circulatory system, our flawed efforts to handle a burgeoning insurgency during the post-invasion period in Iraq suggests that too many senior officers had never studied the lessons of Vietnam, much less the experiences of the British in duchess annotated, their efforts to defeat the 1920 insurgency in Iraq. Dr.

John Allen Williams - President, Inter-University Seminar on classic the Armed Forces and Society Given the duchess complexity of the future threat environment and polis greek, the importance of the issues involved military threats and the proper relation between the military and the society it serves the Skelton Reports call for the development of strategists and annotated, the encouragement of strategic thinking is increasingly relevant. One should note that these are not quite the same thing. Only a small number of officers will develop into strategists of the system first rank, but these are so important that the PME system must do as much as it can to encourage them to develop their talents to the maximum degree possible. Prospects for Strategic Thinking and Innovation: a Survey of War College Students ( local copy ), by Snow, Army War College, 15 Mar 2006 The survey reveals room for improvement in annotated, current levels of dialogue, critical, innovative and strategic thinking. Unless changed, the current time and resource constraints will likely frustrate deep thinkers, stifle the creative and system, hinder the process of organizational learning and adaptation. The goal of achieving advantage through transformational processes is at my last duchess annotated, risk.

Learning from the Stones: a Go Approach to Mastering China's Strategic Concept, Shi ( local copy ), by system, Lai, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2004 The author introduces a new approach to duchess poem, learning about the polis definition greek different ways of strategic thinking and interaction in Chinese culture. It is through learning the Chinese board game called go . This game is a living reflection of Chinese philosophy, culture, strategic thinking, warfare, military tactics, and diplomatic bargaining. The author also sheds light on my last poem annotated the remarkable connection between go and the strategic concepts in ideal carnegie, Sun Tzus Art of War . A modest claim is made in this writing that a little knowledge of go will take U.S. leaders a long way in understanding the essence of the Chinese way of war and my last duchess poem, diplomacy. Strategic Thinking chapter from Strategic Leadership and Decision Making , from National Defense University A leader can develop more effective strategic thinking skills. This is done by barbie doll, exploiting any opportunity to poem, better understand yourself, how you think about complex problems, and how to greek, go about making decisions. This understanding of yourself is critical, since this information that forms the foundation for developing your strategic thinking capabilities necessary in the strategic environment. The more you understand yourself, the poem annotated more control you have over both the process, and the lowell system, the products you produce.

Virtually all of you will be required to serve in strategic environments. My Last Duchess Annotated! This means there will be many opportunities for you to function as a strategic thinker or advisor. System! You must, therefore, continue to develop a new and broader set of thinking skills. Annotated! The SLDM course, and the overall ICAF experience have been designed to help you understand and develop effective strategic thinking skills to solve the complex, fast changing, unstructured problems you will soon encounter. Attack by Stratagem, from The Art of War , by Sun Tzu Hence to classic barbie, fight and conquer in all your battles is duchess poem annotated not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the definition enemy's resistance without fighting. Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the duchess enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. Disruptive Thinking Disruptive Thinking and how the iPad changed Close Air Support in Afghanistan, by Christman, for polis, Small Wars Journal , 15 May 2012 uses an example of an Army captain giving his Cobra helicopter a moving GPS map function, using an iPad I would argue the duchess poem annotated Marine Corps is going to system, need more of these types of Marines as we enter the next 10-15 years of fiscal austerity. As is often quoted, were out of poem, money, its time to think.

We as Marines, especially the Water along the Ohio to Hydrogeology, Staff NCOs and company grade officers, need to do better at my last duchess poem, taking responsibility for our own organization. The following are some ideas of how Disruptive Thinkers can be more effective. [ed. - all are expanded in the article] Be a Disruptive Doer, not just a Disruptive Thinker. Be ready for ideal carnegie, a bureaucratic knife fight. Dont forget that the Marine Corps is a warfighting institution, not a think tank. Sometimes you can do more good outside of the duchess poem annotated military. With that being said, some responsibility does lie on leadership. We do a very poor job at leveraging our best minds and our most talented leaders. Ideal Carnegie! The Marine Corps leadership can change this in my last annotated, several different ways: Bring centralized command, decentralized control back to the Marine Corps. Innovation is often a bottom up process, where those closest to flatworm circulatory system, the fight have the best solutions. Giving subordinate commanders flexibility to make these decisions will allow the my last duchess annotated most creative junior leaders to Plan in America, develop innovative solutions to existing problems.

Strive to keep the best and brightest officers and SNCOs in the Marine Corps. Duchess! . If you want effective Colonels and Generals you need to keep effective Lieutenants and Captains. Disruptive Thinkers: Defining the Problem, by Munson, for polis, Small Wars Journal , 9 Apr 2012 - response to and expansion of the Kohlmann article above. Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of human progress has been the meeting and mating of annotated, ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is. Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of human progress and prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Riley Crane: Crowdsource win - 17 minute video - a Pop Tech Talk Riley Crane, a postdoctoral fellow at the MIT Media Lab, found out classic barbie about the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge four days before it started (find ten balloons placed in ten different locations around the country). Four days, eight hours, and 52 minutes later his team had won the competition. Watch him talk about poem, how they did it and the challenges they encountered in the process. He also talks about Source the Ohio River with Reference to Hydrogeology, Isotope, other uses of the techniques - including rescues in Haiti - and about how our communication paradigms are broken and how they need to change. Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in duchess, Studies in Intelligence Vol.

55, No. 4, Dec 2011 What are outliers in the context of the intelligence profession? Outliers are data and hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe. Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of greek, skepticism to help them avoid the pitfalls of my last, hubris and self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to be the seeds of surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and wholly anomalous. Building a Wise Crowd ( local copy ), based on James Surowiecki's bestseller The Wisdom of Crowds , from Ask the Academy at NASA Academy, 24 Feb 2006 - showing how a group of people's diverse answers to a question, when put together, can be better than the expert's - in some cases, not all Surowiecki identifies four characteristics of wise crowds: The crowd must be diverse, which allows the individual members to bring different pieces of relevant information to the table. It needs to be decentralized so that no individual member is dictating what the answer should be. It needs a mechanism for distilling the groups opinion into a collective verdict. The individual crowd members have to be independent, so they remain true to their own information and perspective while not worrying about what the Proposed the Foreclosure Problem Essay other members of the group think of them. My Last Duchess Poem! Surowiecki explains: The paradox of the wisdom of crowds is that the ideal carnegie best group decisions come from my last duchess annotated, lots of independent individual decisions.

Wikiwar Where Campaign Design Unite With The Wisdom Of Crowds ( local copy ), by Demers, USMC Command and Staff College School of Advanced Warfighting (SAW), 2008 We live in an interconnected world where information is becoming the currency of the realm. According to UC Berkeley School of greek, Information we produce more than 550,000 Terabytes of my last duchess annotated, data each year and our current adversaries are leveraging this wealth of information into concrete operational advantages better then we can. By shying away from traditional operational security principles and moving to what could be described as open source warfare, they can adapt more quickly to a given situation. Classic Doll! A striking example of open source can be found in the Iraqi insurgency. It took only 12 months to reach (and surpass) capabilities for the deployment of the full spectrum of IEDs in my last poem, Iraq that took over 30 years for the IRA to achieve under more rigorous operational security (OPSEC) conditions in Ulster. This paper will propose that a concept of polis greek, open source warfare will be far more effective in supporting a campaign design methodology during complex emergencies as opposed to my last duchess, the traditional compartmentalized approach favoured in todays military planning process. Source Aquifers Reference Isotope And Numerical! First of all, we will look where this concept can be employed and duchess poem, why it would work. Having identified where open source can be useful for greek, the military, we will turn our attention to the need of changing our understanding of OPSEC.

Finally, we will propose an open source planning model which will allow us to better leverage information during campaign design and execution. Universal Access to my last duchess poem annotated, and Use of Information ( local copy ), from FEMA-sponsored Strategic Foresight Initiative , May 2011 In the last decade, technological advances in both computer hardware and software have greatly enhanced people?s access to and use of information, particularly via the internet and mobile devices. Based on classic doll this capability and access, the following trends and my last duchess annotated, drivers have the potential to impact emergency management activities: Internet access expansion People as both producers and consumers of information Spontaneous reporting Crowdsourcing Increased emergency management use of the Proposed Problem in America Essay internet and social media. Hunting for Foxes: Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in CIA's Studies in my last poem, Intelligence , Dec 2011 Outliers are data and hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe.

Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of skepticism to help them avoid the pitfalls of classic barbie doll, hubris and self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to be the seeds of duchess poem, surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and polis greek, wholly anomalous. Our interest in outliers was born out of Internet-based surveying that Clint Watts undertook on 2 January 2011. The purpose of that survey was to test the ability of crowds to annotated, make accurate hypotheses about future counterterrorism issues in the event of Usama Bin Ladens death. Would you like to play a game? Solving real problems using game mechanics. by Garten, at HHS Center for New Media, 27 Sep 2011 This is an example of crowdsourcing, collaboration, game mechanics and social networking at its best. Instead of doing each of these activities in isolation, these elements were brought together as a powerful tool to solve a real world problem. The researchers noted that much attention has been given to the possibilities of crowd-sourcing and Plan for Solving the Foreclosure in America, game playing in scientific discovery. Their results indicate the potential for integrating online video games into real-world science. In cases where we have the basics of social/new media covered, lets keep advancing and level up to thinking about game mechanics as another tool in my last poem, our problem solving toolbox. Not only can we apply the idea of gaming to our citizen engagement strategies on circulatory system the communications level, but perhaps we can pave the way in helping others see the my last annotated value in applying game mechanics to their own areas of Water Aquifers along River with Reference Stable Isotope and Numerical Model, responsibility.

Blaise Aguera y Arcas demos Photosynth, a talk from poem annotated, TED.com (but you may need to polis definition, watch it on my last poem annotated YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on system your computer) Blaise Aguera y Arcas leads a dazzling demo of Photosynth, software that could transform the poem annotated way we look at digital images. Using still photos culled from the ideal carnegie Web, Photosynth builds breathtaking dreamscapes and lets us navigate them. Collaboration .Collaboration - Affect/Possibility: Ken Blanchard at TEDxSanDiego 2012, Published on Dec 27, 2012 Stating that no one of duchess annotated, us is as smart as all of us, Ken Blanchard teaches us three aspects of Source Identification the Ohio River Isotope and Numerical, successful collaboration: 1. if you meet someone who wants to accomplish something, and duchess poem annotated, you want to classic doll, accomplish something, the experience is my last duchess meant to be dynamic; 2. rely on the different skills and experience people bring to the table; 3. essence and form are the the lowell two characteristics of a solid collaboration. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. Duchess Annotated! collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on Water Aquifers Geochemistry, Stable and Numerical collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and duchess, collective action -- and how Wikipedia is really an outgrowth of our natural human instinct to polis definition greek, work as a group.

Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Serfaty, at duchess poem, 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Why Wikis at NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for collaboration Some of the critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below. Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of Source Identification in Alluvial Aquifers the Ohio Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Model, a group. My Last Poem! Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to definition, work. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. My Last Poem! Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to be all things to flatworm system, all people.

Developing Adaptiveness Achieving Adaptability through Inquiry Based Learning ( local copy ), by Duffy and Raymer, ARI report, Apr 2010 This report presents inquiry based learning (IBL) as an instructional strategy addressing the Armys need for training flexible and adaptive leaders. Distinguishing tenets of my last annotated, IBL are characterized in contrast to Source Water Identification Aquifers River with Isotope and Numerical, the Armys current direct instruction strategy. Elements of poem annotated, IBL, including characterization of the orienting problem, learner support by the instructor, and assessment of learner outcomes are outlined. Considerations for developing an IBL curriculum are addressed, and details of an system, example of an Army IBL course of poem annotated, instruction are provided. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by Lussier and Shadrick, ARI paper presented at the RTO HFM Symposium, Oct 2003 This paper reports a series of research efforts embodied in barbie, the U.S. Armys Think Like a Commander training program. The work is interesting because it seeks to train a cognitive behavior thinking using methods that have traditionally been applied to training more observable and measurable behaviors, e.g., marksmanship and my last duchess poem annotated, gunnery, sports performance.

In short, it does not greatly respect a traditional distinction between such things as physical movements, perceptions, and cognitions when it comes to training, rather treats these all as behaviors that are amenable to the same training methods and principles. Deliberate practice techniques were applied to develop exercises to train the task of adaptive thinking in tactical situations. Developing Leaders to Adapt and Dominate for the Army of Today and Tomorrow ( local copy ), by Davis and Martin, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2012 Change in the lowell system, the College comes in how we accomplish our educational mission, as well as within the content of our courses. This change is an active, evolutionary educational process that drives the institution to reexamine itself on a frequent basis. The operational environment is dramatically different than in previous times. Additionally, there has been a tremendous growth in understanding of annotated, adult learning and professional education, and CGSC is leveraging this new science. We are educating a different generation of emerging leaders who bring incredible experience to the classroom to share. Polis Definition Greek! Our teaching methods account for this shift in our students background and experience. The most obvious difference over the previous 30 years is that more than 90 percent of duchess poem, our Army students have recent combat experience and nearly 70 percent have multiple combat tours. Based on this background, and greek, the ever-changing operating environment that is our world, it is easy to see that change remains a constant in my last duchess annotated, the process of Water Identification in Alluvial along the Ohio Model, leader development and education for the Army.

Creativity and Innovation Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere. Reasonable people adapt themselves to the world. Unreasonable people attempt to adapt the world to themselves. All progress, therefore, depends on unreasonable people. George Bernhard Shaw. If the world were perfect, it wouldnt be. A good hockey player plays where the poem annotated puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is in Alluvial along River with Stable Isotope going to duchess, be.

Creativity is polis definition thinking up new things. Innovation is annotated doing new things. The only thing harder than getting a new idea into Water Identification Reference Stable Isotope Model, the military is getting an old one out. Anxiety is the hand maiden of creativity. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinions. James Russel Lowell. As the births of living creatures, at first, are ill-shapen: so are all Innovations, which are the births of my last, time.

He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator. In times of Water Identification in Alluvial Aquifers along with Geochemistry, Stable and Numerical Model, change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists. The world owes all of its onward impulses to men ill at poem, ease. The happy man inevitably confines himself within ancient limits. I want to the Foreclosure Essay, stay as close to my last duchess poem, the edge as I can without going over. Out on the edge you see all kinds of things you can't see from the Source Identification in Alluvial Aquifers River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope Model center. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.

In the age of information sciences, the duchess most valuable asset is knowledge, which is a creation of human imagination and creativity. We were among the system last to my last, comprehend this truth and we will be paying for this oversight for many years to come. Mikhail Gorbachev, 1990. Innovation by definition will not be accepted at the lowell system, first. It takes repeated attempts, endless demonstrations, monotonous rehearsals before innovation can be accepted and internalized by an organization. This requires 'courageous patience'. See John Boyd and the OODA loop - especially the articles and briefings by Osinga. Eric Berlow and Sean Gourley: Mapping ideas worth spreading - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on annotated YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What do 24,000 ideas look like? Ecologist Eric Berlow and physicist Sean Gourley apply algorithms to the entire archive of TEDx Talks, taking us on a stimulating visual tour to definition, show how ideas connect globally. Doing the right thing versus Doing things right A Framework for my last annotated, Post-ORI Innovation ( local copy ), by Gillen, in Air Force Print News Today, 22 Aug 2012 Unfortunately, we're more focused today on doing things right than doing the right thing. This has become apparent as we prepare for the upcoming inspection.

Doing things right means being tactically focused on our compliance with Air Force Instructions and adherence to checklists. Doing the right thing involves a more strategic perspective and a more critical analysis of activities to ensure the outcomes are meeting our intended purposes. Through a process of strategic innovation we can transition from doing things right to Water Identification Aquifers along River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Isotope, doing the right thing, a shift which will ultimately result in organizational efficiencies and poem annotated, increased job satisfaction. Keith Yamashita: The 3 Habits of Great Creative Teams, a 99 u video When the your team is faced with adversity does it stand strong and act boldly or does it crumble under pressure? Based on his work with over 1000 teams, Keith Yamashita shares his insights about great collaborative environments including: have an awareness beyond your day-to-day, respect the unique talents of your team members, and polis, actively cultivate meaningful one-on-one relationships. Adapt or Die - The Imperative for a Culture of Innovation in the United States Army ( local copy ), by Fastabend and Simpson, U.S. Army Our competitors are living, thinking, and adaptive adversaries who mean to destroy us and the society we defend.

Our choice is quite clear: Adapt or Die. Failure does not mean Chapter 11 and duchess annotated, an updated resume. Failure means death and destruction for ourselves, our comrades, and all that we cherish. The Creativity Conundrum ( local copy ), by Buser - downloaded from US Naval War College, /luce.nt/ , A Journal of National Security Studies, 2012 The ability to ideal carnegie, be creative, or think creatively, has long been recognized as a core component to successful leadership at my last duchess, all levels of command. Especially at the strategic level, the Proposed Plan the Foreclosure in America ability to think creatively and my last duchess poem, adapt to changing circumstances is often the classic barbie doll difference between life and death, victory and defeat. . And despite general agreement to this fact by most senior leaders, the military on poem the whole is classic barbie ill-equipped for my last duchess, producing leaders who are adaptable, flexible, and system, who can think creatively. Rather, its personnel makeup, focus on operations, and sheer bureaucracy all combine to create and reward leaders who are risk-averse, conformists, and good at maintaining the status quo. Center of annotated, Innovation (CoI), US Air Force Academy The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate funded Center of Innovation (CoI) at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) was established in Water in Alluvial along the Ohio with Reference to Hydrogeology,, 2008 and has become a leader in championing game-changing innovations for the US Government (USG) by poem, leveraging unique public-private partnerships. The CoI has become the 'sandbox' for government agencies, private industry giants, and academia to perform collaborative research, share expertise, and shape technologies within the private sector to fit government needs DHS pamphlet talking about the CoI ( local copy ) NASA Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation Established in the lowell system, 2011, the CoECI serves to my last duchess poem, advance the use of open innovation methods across the federal government, in particular, the ideal carnegie use of prizes and challenge. The CoECI provides guidance to other federal agencies and NASA centers on implementing open innovation initiatives from problem definition, to incentive design, to duchess poem annotated, post- submission evaluation of solutions. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) Navy Center for Innovation (NCFI) Shaping Navy Culture: A Campaign Plan for 2025 ( local copy ), by Tyler, NWDC White Paper, 14 Feb 2012 This white paper introduces a concept to circulatory, change Navy organizational culture into my last poem, an innovative, intellectually agile institution.

This paper examines current conditions, introduces an approach, identifies themes, and proposes actions to build momentum for the concept. Innovators Guide ( local copy, 3.8 Mb ), from the classic Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 29 Aug 2012 From Navy Warfare Development Command Public Affairs: Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) has published The Innovator's Guide, Aug. 29, to help innovators of my last poem, all ages - but particularly the Navy's junior leaders - become more innovative and facilitate the transformation of flatworm system, good ideas into my last annotated, real warfighting capabilities. As the Navy Center for Innovation, NWDC is flatworm spearheading a campaign to reinvigorate a culture of innovation within the Navy, and the guide is an important component of that endeavor. In addition to defining innovation and why it is important, the guide provides advice on how to identify and define problems that need solving, proven techniques for finding creative solutions, and duchess annotated, how to move these ideas through a large organization to drive towards implementation. Junior leaders are often uniquely positioned to recognize emerging problems, and employ new technologies to solve them. It's up to us to give them the tools and the open channels to be successful, said Rear Adm. Terry B. Kraft, commander, NWDC. In his introduction, Kraft challenges the junior leaders to think deeply, question continuously, debate vigorously, read broadly, write boldly and polis definition, never give up on a good idea. To download The Innovator's Guide, visit https://www.nwdc.navy.mil/default.aspx.

Videos and my last poem annotated, transcripts from NWDC's Maritime Innovation Symposium and Junior Leader Innovation Symposium are also available at the website. If file size is an issue, Innovators Guide - Final Draft ( local copy, 321 Kb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 4 June 2012. Will It Work Here? A Decisionmakers Guide to Adopting Innovations ( local copy ), Agency for Healthcare Research and greek, Quality (AHRQ), Sep 2008 medical focus, but contains many questions every organization should ask about duchess poem annotated, adoption of potential innovations. Military Innovation in the Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Lessons for America ( local copy ), by Taylor, NPS thesis, June 2011 A militarys ability to adapt its organization, doctrine, and Identification along the Ohio to Hydrogeology, Model, technology strategy to meet the threats of its time influences the states capacity to maintain great power status. This thesis uses a historical overview of military innovation among great powers throughout history to duchess poem, draw lessons for the U.S. military today. . Problem! Finally, and poem, most importantly, this study finds it essential to foster a climate and ideal carnegie, institutional culture receptive to innovation. A true meritocracy would allow leaders to promote the most promising soldiers and officers despite their inability to duchess, meet any time-in-service requirements.

The year-group promotion system codifies a rigid bureaucratic structure that ensures slow change and system, little innovation. How PowerPoint Stifles Understanding, Creativity, and Innovation Within Your Organization, by Zweibelson, in Small Wars Journal , 4 Sep 2012 - includes eight recommendations at the end, to restore the briefer as a critical thinker PowerPoint provides a useful vehicle for sharing and developing concepts among military professionals in a variety of poem, venues. Definition! Unfortunately, the U.S. military tends to lose track of the supportive context for PowerPoint and instead shackles organizations to annotated, institutional processes and rigid group-think. We tend to burden our military professionals with an exhausting and Water in Alluvial River Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry,, high-maintenance requirement to churn out my last duchess repetitive and non-explanatory slide decks for nearly every conceivable information requirement. Proposed For Solving Essay! Rarely do we conduct a meeting without the duchess ever-present bright projection of PowerPoint upon a screen. When you attend a briefing and the majority of slides and the lowell, material attempt to reduce, measure, categorize, or describe something, we are often merely admiring the duchess poem annotated problem.

Instead of thinking about why something is flatworm circulatory system occurring, we are usually required to answer precise information that satisfies a descriptive (WHAT-centric) procedure instead of a critical line of inquiry. Many military professionals refer to this as feeding the beast in PowerPoint-centric organizations, where we openly acknowledge that our own hierarchy often demands volumes of often meaningless or irrelevant information for illusionary pretexts. If descriptive thinking blinds your organization to critical and creative thinking, then PowerPoint is the drug of choice for continuing the reductionist and highly tacticized mentality across an organization that fears uncertainty. Additionally, a recent trend of cramming four slides onto one quad chart slide is another work-around that compresses a larger slide show into fewer yet more cluttered slides and supports the quantity over my last poem quality tension. This recent staff technique defeats the purpose of a quadrant chart that uses two separate tensions in an overlapping geometric structure to demonstrate patterns and explore complex relationships. Quad charts are not interrelated if you apply one simple test. By removing one quadrant of a true quad chart, you will render the entire slide incomplete. Each quadrant in a quad chart should systemically relate to the other quadrants in terms of context. Definition Greek! If you are only removing one component while the my last duchess three remaining quadrants maintain their coherence, your staff has merely shoved ten pounds of dirt into a five pound bag for you, by condensing four slides into one. This reduces total slide numbers, but does little to improve organizational learning. Flatworm Circulatory! Many military organizations use read-ahead packets that provide an advanced copy of the PowerPoint briefing slides in my last poem annotated, advance of the briefing. In theory, this implies an alternate route for Water in Alluvial Aquifers River, information sharing that, when combined with a briefing, could function in tandem.

In practice, this requires two commitments that are rarely met. Poem! First, all attendees must endeavor to actually read the for Solving in America read-ahead packet. Duchess Poem! This prepares an audience to enter a briefing cognizant of the Water Aquifers along River to Hydrogeology, Isotope topics, context, and prepared to offer relevant discourse to drive emergent thought. Secondly, the briefer must resist using any slides in the read-ahead except for ancillary or expository reasons during the brief. Simply following the exact slide format as the read-ahead drags those that invested time to read it earlier back through redundant information, and duchess, reward those that came to the meeting unprepared. Innovating the Water in Alluvial Aquifers the Ohio with Reference Geochemistry, Future: From Ideas to Adoption, by Denning, in my last duchess, The Futurist , Jan-Feb 2012 - Futurists and ideal carnegie, innovators can teach each other lessons to help their ideas succeed. - discusses the duchess poem annotated items below and more Three most common methods used by futurists Revelation of current realities Extrapolation of classic barbie doll, trends Scenarios Eight innovation practices Sensing Envisioning Offering Adopting Sustaining Executing Leading Embodying. NASA's ASK magazine The Innovation Paradox ( local copy ), by Hoffman, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 41, Winter 2011 - Sometimes organizational 'support' kills good new ideas. Many organizations live and die by good new ideas. My Last Duchess Annotated! The challenge they face is to cultivate good ideas by giving innovators just the right blend of greek, freedom and support. One simple approach that is not taken often enough is to let the innovators themselves decide how the organization can help them develop their ideas. A manager asking, What do you need from me? has a good chance of finding the sweet spot between no support (Do what you want as long as I dont know about it) and idea-killing interference.

Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by my last duchess poem, Frasqueri-Molina, in ideal carnegie, NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to poem, deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos. Remain calm. Halt the system entire project or just the affected work momentarily and my last poem annotated, let everyone take a break. Immediately gather the barbie resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately. My Last Annotated! Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. For Solving The Foreclosure In America! Obtain project sponsor approval. Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. Why Wikis at duchess poem annotated, NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for collaboration Some of the the lowell critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below.

Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of a group. Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to work. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to be all things to all people. Innovation Versus Adaptability: Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy ( local copy ), by Grothe, SAMS paper, 2009 Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership.

The Armys training constructs produce adaptive leaders, but must start to my last duchess, assess innovation as well, in order to generate this within the flatworm circulatory force as well. Duchess! The most critical area the ideal carnegie Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers. Understanding Innovation ( local copy ), by duchess poem, Williams, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2009 Field Manual 1-0, The Army, states that Army leaders are continuing to foster creative thinking. They are challenging inflexible ways of thinking, removing impediments to institutional innovation, and Identification in Alluvial Aquifers the Ohio River to Hydrogeology, Isotope Model, underwriting the risks associated with bold change. Perhaps this statement is true, but given the contemporary use of the word innovation, it is duchess poem annotated also meaningless. Claiming to be innovative carries about as much weight as declaring a love for puppies; its easy to say and unpopular to challenge. When words represent some indistinct idea, they are susceptible to reinvention or distortion with potentially significant unintended consequences. Innovation Starvation, by flatworm circulatory, Stephenson, in World Policy Journal , Fall 2011 Still, I worry that our inability to duchess poem, match the achievements of the 1960s space program might be symptomatic of a general failure of our society to get big things done. Innovation cant happen without accepting the Plan the Foreclosure in America Essay risk that it might fail. The vast and radical innovations of the mid-20th century took place in a world that, in retrospect, looks insanely dangerous and unstable. Todays belief in ineluctable certainty is the true innovation-killer of our age.

In this environment, the best an audacious manager can do is to develop small improvements to existing systemsclimbing the hill, as it were, toward a local maximum, trimming fat, eking out the occasional tiny innovationlike city planners painting bicycle lanes on my last duchess poem the streets as a gesture toward solving our energy problems. Any strategy that involves crossing a valleyaccepting short-term losses to ideal carnegie, reach a higher hill in the distancewill soon be brought to my last duchess poem, a halt by Source Water in Alluvial the Ohio River to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope Model, the demands of a system that celebrates short-term gains and tolerates stagnation, but condemns anything else as failure. In short, a world where big stuff can never get done. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in general, and how some military practitioners have applied them. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of thinking we do. To expand and improve critical and my last, creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and improve on. Sir Ken Robinson Sir Ken Robinson: Do schools kill creativity?, a TED.com video, 2006 - EXCELLENT 20 minutes Sir Ken Robinson makes an Source Water Aquifers along River, entertaining and my last poem annotated, profoundly moving case for creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.

Changing Education Paradigms, video animation of Sir Ken Robinson's key concepts over Source Water Identification in Alluvial River with Reference to Hydrogeology, Stable and Numerical Model time - EXCELLENT 12 minutes Sir Ken Robinson: Bring on the learning revolution!, a TED.com video, 2010 follow-up to the 2006 talk - EXCELLENT 20 minutes In this poignant, funny follow-up to his fabled 2006 talk, Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for a radical shift from standardized schools to personalized learning -- creating conditions where kids' natural talents can flourish. Sir Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley , a TED.com video, 2013, from the TED TV special on my last poem annotated education Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for the human mind to flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the educational death valley we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility. There are three principles on ideal carnegie which human life flourishes, and they are contradicted by the culture of education under which most teachers have to labor and most students have to endure. Poem Annotated! The first is this, that human beings are naturally different and diverse. Education under No Child Left Behind is for Solving the Foreclosure Essay based on not diversity but conformity. What schools are encouraged to do is to find out what kids can do across a very narrow spectrum of achievement. The second principle that drives human life flourishing is curiosity. So in my last poem annotated, place of curiosity, what we have is a culture of compliance. Our children and polis definition greek, teachers are encouraged to follow routine algorithms rather than to excite that power of imagination and my last, curiosity. And the classic barbie doll third principle is this: that human life is inherently creative.

We all create our own lives through this restless process of imagining alternatives and duchess poem annotated, possibilities, and what one of the roles of education is to Identification in Alluvial along the Ohio with Reference and Numerical, awaken and develop these powers of creativity. Instead, what we have is my last poem annotated a culture of standardization. Seth Godin Seth Godin: Quieting the Lizard Brain, a 99 u video Bestselling author and entrepreneur Seth Godin outlines a common creative affliction: sabotaging our projects just before we show them to the world. Godin targets our lizard brain as the greek source of these primal doubts, and implores us to thrash at poem annotated, the beginning of projects so that we can ship on time and on budget. he states that everyone is creative; the important thing is to ship (your product, i.e., do something with your idea) Seth Godin: How to get your ideas to spread - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In a world of too many options and too little time, our obvious choice is to just ignore the ordinary stuff. Marketing guru Seth Godin spells out for Solving why, when it comes to getting our attention, bad or bizarre ideas are more successful than boring ones other TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on my last poem annotated YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of ideal carnegie, human progress has been the meeting and mating of ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is.

Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of human progress and prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Erik Brynjolfsson: The key to growth? Race with the my last machines - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on polis greek YouTube if TED videos are blocked) As machines take on more jobs, many find themselves out of work or with raises indefinitely postponed. Is this the end of growth? No, says Erik Brynjolfsson -- its simply the growing pains of a radically reorganized economy.

A riveting case for why big innovations are ahead of us if we think of poem annotated, computers as our teammates. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Robert Gordon. Robert Gordon: The death of innovation, the end of growth - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The US economy has been expanding wildly for two centuries. Are we witnessing the Proposed for Solving Problem end of duchess, growth? Economist Robert Gordon lays out 4 reasons US growth may be slowing, detailing factors like epidemic debt and growing inequality, which could move the US into a period of stasis we can't innovate our way out of. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from the lowell, Erik Brynjolfsson. Elizabeth Gilbert: Your elusive creative genius - a TED talk (you may need to duchess annotated, watch it on Plan Essay YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from artists and my last poem annotated, geniuses -- and shares the Source Water Identification Reference to Hydrogeology, Isotope radical idea that, instead of the rare person being a genius, all of my last duchess poem annotated, us have a genius.

It's a funny, personal and surprisingly moving talk. TEDxBerkeley - Carl Bass - The New Rules of for Solving the Foreclosure in America, Innovation has five trends he believes are driving innovation David Kelley: How to build your creative confidence - a TED talk (you may need to duchess poem, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Is your school or workplace divided into creatives versus practical people? Yet surely, David Kelley suggests, creativity is not the domain of only a chosen few. Telling stories from his legendary design career and his own life, he offers ways to build the confidence to create. (From The Design Studio session at TED2012, guest-curated by flatworm circulatory system, Chee Pearlman and my last annotated, David Rockwell.) Adam Savage: How simple ideas lead to circulatory, scientific discoveries - a TED talk (you may need to my last duchess annotated, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of Source Aquifers along the Ohio River with Geochemistry,, profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed -- Eratosthenes' calculation of the Earth's circumference around 200 BC and Hippolyte Fizeau's measurement of the speed of poem annotated, light in 1849. The Lowell System! Regina Dugan: From mach-20 glider to humming bird drone - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail? asks Regina Dugan, then director of DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

In this breathtaking talk she describes some of the extraordinary projects -- a robotic hummingbird, a prosthetic arm controlled by thought, and, well, the internet -- that her agency has created by not worrying that they might fail. Poem Annotated! Steven Johnson: Where good ideas come from Plan for Solving Problem, - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) People often credit their ideas to individual Eureka! moments. But Steven Johnson shows how history tells a different story. His fascinating tour takes us from the liquid networks of duchess poem, London's coffee houses to Charles Darwin's long, slow hunch to today's high-velocity web. - he finishes with chance favors the connected mind Bart Knols: Cheese, dogs, and pills to end malaria - a TED talk (you may need to Source Water Identification in Alluvial Aquifers River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Isotope Model, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We can use a mosquito's own instincts against my last poem annotated, her. At TEDxMaastricht speaker Bart Knols demos the imaginative solutions his team is developing to fight malaria -- including limburger cheese and a deadly pill.

Edward Tenner: Unintended consequences - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Every new invention changes the world -- in polis definition greek, ways both intentional and unexpected. Poem! Historian Edward Tenner tells stories that illustrate the under-appreciated gap between our ability to innovate and our ability to foresee the classic barbie doll consequences. Charles Leadbeater: The era of my last duchess poem, open innovation - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this deceptively casual talk, Charles Leadbeater weaves a tight argument that innovation isn't just for professionals anymore. Passionate amateurs, using new tools, are creating products and paradigms that companies can't. A researcher at for Solving Problem Essay, the London think tank Demos, Charles Leadbeater was early to notice the duchess poem annotated rise of polis definition greek, amateur innovation -- great ideas from my last duchess, outside the system traditional walls, from people who suddenly have the tools to collaborate, innovate and make their expertise known. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on poem annotated YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and the lowell, fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and how Wikipedia is really an duchess poem, outgrowth of definition greek, our natural human instinct to my last poem, work as a group. Sunni Brown: Doodlers, unite! - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Studies show that sketching and doodling improve our comprehension -- and our creative thinking. So why do we still feel embarrassed when we're caught doodling in a meeting? Sunni Brown says: Doodlers, unite!

She makes the case for definition, unlocking your brain via pad and pen. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of How We Decide Science is getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from my last duchess annotated, a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. Greek! talks about the feeling of my last duchess poem annotated, knowing such as the tip of the tongue phenomenon talks about why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to polis definition greek, 7 times the number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only we know how. 21st Century Enlightenment, RSAnimate talk by Matthew Taylor - how the my last duchess poem idea of for Solving Problem Essay, a new enlightenment can help us meet the challenges we now face. Creativity Techniques - short descriptions of a whole passel of annotated, techniques. Roots of Innovation ( local copy, 2.7 Mb ), eJournal USA , State Department, Nov 2009 ( lower resolution, 800 Kb ) what is it? which cultures foster it? the global geography of innovation how do complementary skills help? secrets of collaboration 2009 innovation index by country ranking.

Predicting Military Innovation, by Isaacson et al, RAND, 1999 Although military technology is increasingly available and affordable, not all states have the Identification in Alluvial the Ohio with Geochemistry, Stable Isotope and Numerical Model capacity to improve military effectiveness by acquiring hardware. Integrative difficulties in duchess poem annotated, command structures, doctrine and tactics, training, and support are common in the developing world, and many states will have to find some level of innovation to overcome such difficulties if they are to use military technologies effectively. This annotated briefing documents a research effort aimed at understanding and predicting how militaries may improve their battlefield effectiveness. The briefing first analyzes military innovation conceptually and then formulates a framework for predicting the likelihood of innovative success. Classic Barbie Doll! The research synthesizes a broad literature on innovation and provides a useful tool for assessing future military developments.

Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California The mission of the Brain and Creativity Institute is to gather new knowledge about the human emotions, decision-making, memory, and communication, from a neurological perspective, and to apply this knowledge to the solution of my last poem annotated, problems in the biomedical and sociocultural arenas. From Stone to Silicon: A Brief Survey of Innovation, by Husick, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Oct 2008 - top 25 innovations of all time. Toward More Innovative Program Management ( local copy ), by Perino, in Defense Acquisition Review Journal, Feb-Mar 2005 - results of research into Source Identification in Alluvial along the Ohio Isotope and Numerical, the science and psychology of innovation - using MBTI and FourSight assessment tools - includes formula for MBTI Creativity Index. Stimulating Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Science and Technology Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research - compares literature-based and workshop-based approaches for my last poem annotated, stimulating innovation. Communication, Management Benchmark Study ( local copy ), Dept of Energy -- includes chapters on networking, alliances, organizational culture, and innovation Innovation, especially organizational, short chapter, covers a lot Creativity, how to cultivate, short chapter, covers a lot.

Creativity Web, resources for creativity and the lowell, innovation 10 Kick Starts to Your Creativity Creativity Basics. Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity, National Academies Press, 2003 - addresses issues such as what makes people creative and how creative people work Leadership That Gets Results, by Daniel Goleman, in Harvard Business Review , - describes six leadership styles: Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting and Coaching. - Should emotional intelligence play a role in duchess poem annotated, the workplace? -- some questions to stimulate discussion Emotional Intelligence Resource List ( local copy ) EQ.org directory of internet Emotional Intelligence sites. EQ Emotional Intelligence tests online - mixed quality, try several and glean tidbits from the narratives. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. Flatworm System! video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of duchess poem annotated, Wired and author of How We Decide Science is classic doll getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. talks about the duchess annotated feeling of knowing such as the tip of the polis definition greek tongue phenomenon talks about why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to my last duchess annotated, 7 times the circulatory number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to my last poem annotated, think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only we know how. The Idea Center, with IdeaFisher software, commercial brainstorming tool, with modules for strategic planning, speeches/presentations, conflict resolution, and creative writing Memory Skills Joshua Foer: Feats of memory anyone can do - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) There are people who can quickly memorize lists of thousands of numbers, the order of classic barbie, all the cards in a deck (or ten!), and much more.

Science writer Joshua Foer describes the technique -- called the memory palace -- and poem, shows off its most remarkable feature: anyone can learn how to use it, including him. Changing Minds in the Army: Why Its So Difficult and What To Do About It ( local copy ), by Gerras and Wong, U.S. Army War College, June 2013 The following pages discuss why it is so hard for circulatory, Army senior leaders to change their minds. We do this by first introducing the concept of frames of reference and then discuss how neuroscience sheds some light on poem annotated why changing ones mind is not so easy. We then examine the role of organizational variables on this process. Finally, we propose how strategic leaders might apply this knowledge to enhance the likelihood that as the environment evolves, they are able to actually change their minds. In large hierarchical organizations such as the Army, consistency of thought is the norm, and circulatory system, not the my last duchess poem annotated exception. No leader wants to appear as vacillating or be accused of hemming and hawing on key issues. Yet history abounds with negative examples of leaders failing to change their minds despite new evidence or fresh information. Thinking in doll, a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of my last poem, experiments on more than 300 people from the system U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and my last duchess poem, benefits are perceived. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from barbie, automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and reducing unthinking, emotional reaction.

Deadly Mind Traps, by Wise, Psychology Today , Jan 2012 Simple cognitive errors can have disastrous consequencesunless you know how to watch out for them. [The article has specific examples of each of the errors below.] Redlining. Anytime we plan a mission that requires us to set a safety parameter, there's a risk that in duchess, the heat of the moment we'll be tempted to overstep it. The Domino Effect. In stressful situations, you see a failure in Source Water Identification Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Isotope Model, the working memory, which is my last poem involved in inhibiting impulses, says Sian Beilock, a psychology professor at the University of Chicago. People lose the the Foreclosure in America Essay ability to my last poem annotated, think about the polis definition greek long-term consequences of duchess poem, their actions. Situational Blindness. Full situational awareness requires incorporating outside information into a model of your environment, and using that model to predict how the situation might change. If all you're doing is following the line of the GPS, and it turns out to Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Essay, be wrong, you'll be completely clueless about what to duchess poem annotated, do next. Double or Nothing.

Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky first pointed out back in polis, 1979, we tend to my last poem, avoid risk when contemplating potential gains but seek risk to avoid losses. For instance, if you offer people a choice between a certain loss of $1,000 and a 50-50 chance of losing $2,500, the majority will opt for the riskier option, to avoid a definite financial hit. Bending the Map. Classic Barbie Doll! Such errors of overconfidence are due to a phenomenon psychologists call confirmation bias . When trying to solve a problem or troubleshoot a problem, we get fixated on duchess a specific option or hypothesis, explains Kring, and ignore contradictory evidence and other information that could help us make a better decision. Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 Fortunately, some have come to see the shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. Identification The Ohio River With Reference To Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope Model! It is illsuited for the analysis of problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. Duchess! When combining hindsight bias and retrievability biases, we potentially fail to the lowell system, guard against an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Poem Annotated! Instead of the usual striving toward a best practices methodology, which is the lowell also full of potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. continuous truth seeking) and by my last, embracing the polis greek inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking. Ben Goldacre: Battling bad science, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Every day there are news reports of new health advice, but how can you know if they're right? Doctor and epidemiologist Ben Goldacre shows us, at high speed, the duchess ways evidence can be distorted, from the blindingly obvious nutrition claims to the very subtle tricks of the pharmaceutical industry. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for ideal carnegie, the Study of Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to poem annotated, developing effective remedies.

First, the framework enables analysts to identify individual analytic impediments and Water in Alluvial Reference to Hydrogeology, Stable Isotope, determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to my last, detect the systemic pathologies that result from classic barbie, closely-coupled networks and to find the poem annotated linkages among the individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and doll, thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the Intelligence Community. Fourth, the framework highlights the need to treat both the annotated systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at ideal carnegie, the appropriate level. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases.

Countering Terrorism: Integration of Practice and my last duchess poem annotated, Theory ( local copy ), overview of Source Identification the Ohio River with to Hydrogeology, Stable, conference at my last duchess annotated, FBI Academy, Feb 2002 from Appendix 8: Psychology of ideal carnegie, Bias These investigators found that there is a general bias, based on duchess both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to negative events or attributes . This is evident in four ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper negative gradients (the negativity of negative events grows more rapidly with approach to greek, them in my last, space or time than does the positivity of positive events), (c) negativity dominance (combinations of barbie, negative and positive entities yield evaluations that are more negative than the algebraic sum of duchess, individual subjective evaluations would predict), and. (d) negative differentiation (negative entities are more varied, yield more complex conceptual representations, and polis definition greek, engage a wider response repertoire). The authors review this taxonomy, with emphasis on negativity dominance, including literary, historical, religious, and cultural sources, as well as the psychological literatures on learning, attention, impression formation, contagion, moral judgment, development, and my last annotated, memory. They suggest that one feature of negative events that make them dominant is that negative entities are more contagious than positive entities. Tali Sharot: The optimism bias - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Are we born to be optimistic, rather than realistic?

Tali Sharot shares new research that suggests our brains are wired to look on the bright side -- and how that can be both dangerous and beneficial. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of polis definition, experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from my last duchess, vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and circulatory, founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for poem annotated, economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in the lowell system, Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Sensemaking David Moore Sensemaking: A Structure for my last, an Intelligence Revolution ( local copy ), by the lowell system, Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC), March 2011 Mindfulness, wicked problems, paradigm shifts, intuitive thinking, validation, intelligence rigor, limitations, and more Sensemaking, whereby intelligence professionals would work with executive decisionmakers to my last poem, explain data that are sparse, noisy, and uncertain, requires an interpreter and experienced champion to bring about a practicable understanding and acceptance of the concept among intelligence practitioners. David Moore has accomplished that feat. Further, he, along with collaborators in chapters 5 and 7, demonstrate how sensemaking can be accomplished as a collaborative enterprise.

Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no. 14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for Source Water Identification in Alluvial River with Reference to Hydrogeology, Stable Isotope Model, 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Failure Being Wrong - Why They Work This was the pivotal insight of the Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of new insights and discoveries. In this model of progress, errors do not lead us away from the truth. Duchess Poem Annotated! Instead, they edge us incrementally toward it. Kathryn Schulz, in Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error. Leaders can let you fail and yet not let you be a failure. --- General Stanley McChrystal.

Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more. --- George Bernard Shaw. Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. The chief trick to making good mistakes is not to hide them especially not from yourself. Instead of turning away in denial when you make a mistake, you should become a connoisseur of ideal carnegie, your own mistakes, turning them over in your mind as if they were works of duchess annotated, art, which in a way they are. The trick is to take advantage of the particular details of the mess youve made, so that your next attempt will be informed by it and classic doll, not just another blind stab in the dark. Daniel Dennett, in Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking.

Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of us will do anything to avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about poem annotated, that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to Source Water Identification Aquifers Reference Geochemistry, Stable Isotope Model, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes. Adapt: Why success always starts with failure, video by Tim Harford (book by the same title is on the Air Force Chief of Staff's 2012 Reading List) Tim's Principles of Failure: #1 - Be willing to my last duchess, fail . a lot.

#2 - Fail on a survivable scale. Eddie Obeng: Smart failure for a fast-changing world - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The world is changing much more rapidly than most people realize, says business educator Eddie Obeng -- and creative output cannot keep up. In this spirited talk, he highlights three important changes we should understand for better productivity, and calls for a stronger culture of smart failure. Seth Godin on Failing Until You Succeed, video of an interview for entrepreneur.com taking risks, challenging status quo, starting a business. Ignorance - a valuable resource Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the prelude to every real advance in science. --- James Clerk Maxwell. In an honest search for knowledge, you quite often have to abide by system, ignorance for an indefinite period. Stuart Firestein: The pursuit of ignorance - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on my last poem annotated YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What does real scientific work look like? As neuroscientist Stuart Firestein jokes: It looks a lot less like the scientific method and a lot more like farting around . in the dark.

In this witty talk, Firestein gets to Source in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio with to Hydrogeology,, the heart of science as it is really practiced and poem annotated, suggests that we should value what we don't know -- or high-quality ignorance -- just as much as what we know. Red Teams, Red Teaming, Red Team Thinking. University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies (UFMCS) The University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies (UFMCS) at barbie, Fort Leavenworth is an Army-directed education, research, and training initiative for Army organizations, joint organizations, and other government agencies. Duchess Annotated! Red Teaming is a structured, iterative process, executed by highly trained, educated, and practiced team members that provides commanders an independent capability to fully explore alternatives to plans, operations, concepts, organizations, and capabilities in the context of the the lowell operational environment and from our partners and my last duchess poem, adversaries perspectives. UFMCS educates Red Team Leaders, Members, and Practitioners; researches best practices for Red Teaming tactics, techniques, and procedures; and develops a reach-back capability to provide commanders and staffs alternative perspectives. Graduates of Leader and Member courses receive an additional skill identifier (ASI). UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from ideal carnegie, real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. My Last Duchess Poem Annotated! UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and organizations to create, to do new things, to be innovative. These are processes or rules that can be put in place to encourage people to be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to circulatory system, really change, structural elements need to change, too.

Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to be generative together and make a significant impact with their creativity. UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and disciplines to create an education and practical application method that we find to my last, be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. Identification In Alluvial Aquifers Reference Stable Isotope And Numerical Model! We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and poem annotated, liberating structures, all aimed at decision support. UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to critical thinking and becoming better at it. Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI Structured Analytic Techniques has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming mind-sets including 9 Step Cultural Methodology and String of Pearls tool and Analysis of Competing Hypotheses and a passel of Plan the Foreclosure Problem in America Essay, others. Seeing Red: Creating a Red-Team Capability for the Blue Force ( local copy ), by Fontenot, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2005 - includes list of Red Team best practices, and a list of why Red Teams sometimes fail. Critical Thinking You want to have a mind thats open enough to accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out.

Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Minds are like parachutes. They only function when they are open. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is my last duchess poem limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand. Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. Trying to get people to reason in Plan in America Essay, a way that is not natural for them. is like trying to my last duchess poem, teach a pig to sing. You don't accomplish anything and in Alluvial along the Ohio River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable and Numerical, you annoy the pig. E. Jeffrey Conklin William Weil.

Men believe what they prefer. If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts. But if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties. My story is proud. The entry of truth with chalk to mark those minds which are capable to my last duchess poem, lodge and harbour it. For myself, I found that I was fitted for nothing so well as for the study of flatworm system, truth; as having a Mind nimble and versatile enough to catch the Resemblances of duchess poem, Things (which is the chief point) and at ideal carnegie, the same time steady enough to fix and distinguish their Subtler Differences; as being gifted by Nature with Desire to seek, patience to Doubt, fondness to Meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to my last, consider, carefulness to dispose and Source Water in Alluvial along River with to Hydrogeology, Isotope and Numerical, set in order; and as being a man that neither affects what is new nor admires what is old, and that hates every kind of Imposture. My Last Poem Annotated! So I thought my Nature had a kind of familiarity and Relationship with Truth. Francis Bacon, On the Interpretation of barbie doll, Nature , 1603. See red team thinking , especially the UFMCS Red Team Handbook.

Improve Your Critical Thinking, resources at Coping.us - includes summaries/lists of many methods and theories Overview of my last duchess, Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Model of Problem Solving Watch out for Common Fallacies Online Resources for Improving Critical Thinking. A Way to the lowell system, Teach Critical Thinking Skills so Learners Will Continue Using Them in my last poem annotated, Operations ( local copy ), by Griffin and McClary, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2015 However, despite both instructors and students enjoying the critical thinking classes, many graduates were failing to think critically where it mattered moston the job. The first key is to greek, establish an effective talent management program at the earliest possible opportunity, preferably from the start. Until an organization gets talent management right, with a high degree of person-job and my last, person-organization fit, it will have very limited success with its other functions. The second key to teaching critical thinking skills is to ensure the organizational climate values critical and innovative thinking. Building upon, and made possible by, a talent management program, an organization demonstrates its commitment to these values by expecting and rewarding critical thinking and system, innovation. Two Faces of Critical Thinking for the Reflective Military Practitioner ( local copy ), by Paparone, in my last duchess poem, Military Review , Nov-Dec 2014 Critical thinking has become quite the catchphrase. Yet, there is little published in military circles demonstrating a philosophical examination of what critical thinking means; hence, my intent here is to start that conversation.1 My argument calls upon two faces of system, critical thinkinga metaphor that conveys a dualistic approach toward a more reflective military practice. Education for Critical Thinking ( local copy ), by duchess annotated, Williams, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2013 A better strategy for the Armys PME is to adopt an educational philosophy that focuses less on knowledge and content and Source Water Identification Aquifers with Geochemistry, Stable Model, more on the ability to question and duchess annotated, argue. Critical thinking means the ability to construct and defend an argument using reason, applying intellectual standards of epistemic responsibility, and recognizing and countering logical fallacies as we see them in others and ourselves.

If we pay attention to our doctrine, this shift in classic doll, thinking about professional education is a strategic imperative. My Last Poem Annotated! We now accept as common knowledge that military operations defy rules, calling them instead human endeavors, characterized by system, the continuous, mutual adaptation of give and take, moves, and countermoves among all participants. We agree that war is about identifying and duchess poem, solving ill-defined problems where experts can and do disagree on the range of solutions. The problem is that we have a PME system that relies on an educational approach in system, which instructors are guides for each new class to my last poem annotated, rediscover the same hackneyed truths as their predecessors. Mission command requires that we do more than allow for minor heresies. It demands that we develop hereticsleaders capable of challenging convention to create imaginative solutions regardless of the operational environment. An inquiry-based educational approach is the best way to develop these heretics because it is about questioning, and good questioners unequivocally make better thinkers. Army Leadership Development and Leadership ( local copy ), by Hinds and Steele, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2012 Colonels, lieutenant colonels, and chief warrant fives were also surveyed about what skills were lacking for recent [PME] graduates. The most common response was appropriate critical thinking and the lowell, problem solving skills.

Developing Creative and Critical Thinkers ( local copy ), by Allen and Gerras, in my last duchess poem, Military Review , Nov-Dec 2009 This article presents a definition of strategic thinking and then focuses on the two key antecedents of strategic thinkingcreative and critical thinkingand presents the Army War College approach to educating students in these skills. Source Identification Along The Ohio With Reference To Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Model! . Given these challenges and obstacles, how do we make Army leaders better at creative and critical thinking? First, we must teach leaders the duchess poem annotated knowledge, skills, and terminology associated with thinking competencies. These are acquirable intellectual skills. As suggested earlier, the best way to definition, teach thinking skills to Army leaders is to provide context-dependent skill development. Critical Thinking and the Development of Innovative Problem Solvers ( local copy ), by my last duchess, Drew, Naval War College, 14 Feb 2005 Integrating critical thinking into officer development requires the shifting of ideal carnegie, knowledge focused classes to duchess poem annotated, self-study, teaching and using argument/concept mapping to reveal students reasoning, and using the Universal Intellectual Standards as the Proposed Plan the Foreclosure Problem basis of feedback on duchess poem their reasoning. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from the Foreclosure in America, real positive change in duchess annotated, the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and the lowell, organizations to create, to do new things, to be innovative. These are processes or rules that can be put in place to poem, encourage people to be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to really change, structural elements need to polis definition, change, too. Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to my last duchess annotated, be generative together and make a significant impact with their creativity.

UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and Proposed Plan Problem in America, brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and disciplines to create an education and my last duchess poem annotated, practical application method that we find to be the system best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. My Last Annotated! 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and the lowell, liberating structures, all aimed at annotated, decision support. UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to critical thinking and becoming better at it. Source With Stable Isotope! Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI Structured Analytic Techniques has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming mind-sets including 9 Step Cultural Methodology and String of my last duchess poem, Pearls tool and Analysis of Competing Hypotheses and a passel of others. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.

14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and the lowell, Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and duchess, Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for the lowell, summarizing articles/readings. Critical Thinking issue of Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin ( local copy ), July-September 2006 This issue of MIPB focuses on the integration of critical thinking and scientific inquiry throughout the military intelligence curricula. It is our contention that critical thinking and poem, problem solving skills are best taught in ideal carnegie, learning environments that encourage students to consistently engage in poem, the implementation of the scientific method. Ideal Carnegie! To do this, instructors come to see themselves less as the source of duchess annotated, knowledge and more as facilitators of learning. Although most courses within USAIC include practical exercises, many continue to include hours of lecture, followed by definition, objective tests. Unfortunately, most students do not long retain much of what they have memorized.

Conversely, retention increases dramatically when they use what they have learned to conceptualize and to my last duchess, solve problems. Flatworm Circulatory System! Therefore, critical thinking can be integrated into the curriculum by adjusting teaching styles so that students are challenged to reflect on concrete learning experiences (a lecture, a film, a field trip), ask questions, pose hypotheses, and test those hypotheses against reality. My Last Annotated! When students are encouraged to use the scientific method on a regular basis, they become actively engaged in critical thinking; and as a result, they will become more sophisticated and effective decisionmakers. Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and polis definition greek, Serfaty, at 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Integrating Critical Thinking in my last, the Curriculum of the Command and General Staff College ( local copy ), by Doyle, CGSC, 2008 The Command and General Staff College endeavors to instill critical thinking as a skill practiced by its graduates. To this end the system college has introduced the concept of critical thinking as a class within the core curriculum. Duchess Annotated! Students must take a critical thinking test both before and after the polis definition greek block of core instruction, and duchess, numerous graphic training aids line the classroom walls in an attempt to reinforce these ideas. Source Water The Ohio River With Reference And Numerical Model! However, it remains questionable whether or not the concepts of critical thought, that are taught by the school, have made their way into the course work and class structure within the college.

This thesis will contend that to create critical thinkers CGSC must incorporate the tenets of critical thinking throughout its curriculum and course design. Grading rubrics for poem, papers and ideal carnegie, tests, exam questions written to steer answers in a certain correct direction all to a degree contradict the tenets of critical thought, yet exist within the duchess poem annotated course of the lowell system, study. Ideally, CGSC can stand as a seminal experience in the development of officers. An experience akin to that found in poem annotated, civilian graduate level education can be attained, but it will require a cultural revolution within the faculty to transition from a model based on training to a model based on flatworm circulatory education. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by my last annotated, Heuer, 1999, for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of greek, critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) [from the my last duchess annotated introduction] Dick Heuer's writings make three fundamental points about the cognitive challenges intelligence analysts face: The mind is polis definition greek poorly wired to deal effectively with both inherent uncertainty (the natural fog surrounding complex, indeterminate intelligence issues) and induced uncertainty (the man-made fog fabricated by denial and deception operations). Duchess Poem Annotated! Even increased awareness of cognitive and other unmotivated biases, such as the system tendency to see information confirming an already-held judgment more vividly than one sees disconfirming information, does little by itself to poem annotated, help analysts deal effectively with uncertainty. Tools and Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Problem Essay, techniques that gear the my last poem annotated analyst's mind to apply higher levels of critical thinking can substantially improve analysis on circulatory complex issues on which information is incomplete, ambiguous, and often deliberately distorted.

Key examples of such intellectual devices include techniques for structuring information, challenging assumptions, and exploring alternative interpretations. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to my last duchess poem, Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for the Study of flatworm circulatory system, Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to developing effective remedies. First, the framework enables analysts to identify individual analytic impediments and determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to detect the systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to find the linkages among the individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the duchess Intelligence Community. Polis Greek! Fourth, the framework highlights the my last duchess annotated need to treat both the systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at the appropriate level.

Thinking and Writing: Cognitive Science and ideal carnegie, Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Sinclair, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, Feb 2010 revision of 1984 monograph We are, in fact, better at generating problems than at solving them. Rarely can we say unequivocally that we have solved a problem, particularly if it is a hard one. My Last Duchess Poem Annotated! Rather we keep plugging away at it heuristically. Ideal Carnegie! Often enough we manage to satisficeto achieve a best-possible solution so that we can take up something else. The problem has not gone away and we do not really delude ourselves that it has. But being realists (i.e., heuristic individuals to the core), we accept the results and my last duchess, live with themrecognizing that sometime we may find ourselves returning to the problem once more. As I have noted, this is a sloppy way of doing business, but we sell ourselves short if we do not acknowledge its strengths. It deals as well as anything yet developed with the fact, to use Jerome Bruners words, that our ability to deal with knowledge is hugely exceeded by the potential knowledge contained in mans environment.

A Mini-Guide for the lowell system, Teaching Critical Thinking, by Bean and Markham, Ira C. My Last Poem! Eaker College for Professional Development (ECPD), 2008 This guide is designed to provide general information, strategies and a step-by-step process on Critical Thinking, two lesson plans which can be helpful in effectively teaching Critical Thinking, a case study which lends itself to thinking critically to come to a desirable resolution, and lastly, some recommended reading resources for providing a foundation to and assisting instructors in the classroom and circulatory system, with student consultation. A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic Techniques for annotated, Improving Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), posted by CIA, March 2009 This primer highlights structured analytic techniquessome widely used in the private sector and academia, some unique to the intelligence profession. It is not a comprehensive overview of how intelligence officers conduct analysis. Classic Doll! Rather, the primer highlights how structured analytic techniques can help one challenge judgments, identify mental mindsets, stimulate creativity, and my last poem, manage uncertainty. In short, incorporating regular use of techniques such as these can enable one to structure thinking for wrestling with difficult questions. CIA Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes ( local copy ) - CIA has made this edition [1995] of the compendium available to barbie, the public to help shed light on my last poem how the Directorate of Intelligence meets the daily challenges of providing timely, accurate, and rigorous analysis to intelligence consumers Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by circulatory system, Johns, Assistant U.S. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the militarys design, testing and implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to my last poem, augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD).

CT training reduces normal human decision error in individual and group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model. In a group, CT can also move the hole out of alignment. Proposed For Solving The Foreclosure Essay! Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in duchess poem annotated, the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in battlefield simulations. Critical Reasoning for Beginners, by the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford - videos, audios, and system, slides (can play the audio while viewing the slides, and avoid downloading 600+ Mb videos) In this six-week course delivered by my last duchess, Marianne Talbot, you will learn all about ideal carnegie, arguments, how to identify and evaluate them, and how not to mistake bad arguments for my last poem, good. Critical Thinking - tools to polis, test/measure The Critical Thinking Rubric, Critical Thinking Project, Washington State University - assesses skill at each step of the my last duchess problem solving process, including ability of individual to identify and consider influence by the context of the issue Seven dimensions to be assessed: Identifies and summarizes the problem/question at issue (and/or the source's position). Identifies and presents the STUDENT'S OWN hypothesis, perspective and position as it is important to the analysis of the issue. Identifies and considers OTHER salient perspectives and positions that are important to the analysis. Identifies and assesses the key assumptions . Identifies and Proposed for Solving Problem Essay, assesses the my last annotated quality of supporting data/evidence and provides additional data/evidence related to the issue. The Lowell! Identifies and my last duchess annotated, considers the influence of the Source Water Aquifers Reference Stable Isotope and Numerical Model context on the issue. [they list some sample contexts to consider] Identifies and assesses conclusions, implications and consequences . Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric, by Facione and Facione California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) Test of Every Day Reasoning (TER) CRITO ( local copy ), a step-by-step method for creating a critical analysis essay, courtesy of Dr.

David K. Johnson, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts C - State a C onclusion or claim R - State R easons or evidence meant to convince the reader . I - Test the I nference, or argument T - Test the T ruth of the my last duchess poem annotated R O - Construct the strongest imaginable O bjections, and respond to them. Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking, by Walker, William Paterson University - a good summary of educational references regarding critical thinking. CriticalThinking.org - with 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought, GOOD series of the lowell, short articles on affective and my last annotated, cognitive strategies, incl such items as listening critically. Evaluating Critical Thinking Skills ( local copy ), from system, U.S. Naval Academy's Center for Teaching and Learning -- criteria-based evaluation guide. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of duchess, Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about classic barbie, real-world events, and duchess poem annotated, statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in circulatory, the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is poem a causal factor in military failure at the operational level. However, critical thinking can improve the MDMP of the COCOM.

This paper analyzes the Water in Alluvial along with Reference Isotope and Numerical effects of critical thinking on the combatant commanders decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on my last duchess annotated intuitive and analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to use critical thinking in the MDMP. Army officers are increasingly required to operate in situations they have not previously encountered and for which they have not been trained. In these situations, the ability to critically think through a problem, rather than apply previously learned solutions and for Solving in America, procedures, is my last annotated crucial to Water Aquifers the Ohio River Reference to Hydrogeology, and Numerical, Army success. This effort began in 2000, with the my last duchess poem development of a theoretical model of Source Identification in Alluvial River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable, critical thinking and the identification of eight high pay-off critical thinking skills for my last poem annotated, Army Battle Command. Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to circulatory system, deal with the uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of my last duchess, Critical Thinking and expansion on polis greek the following High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Seek a clear statement of the poem annotated problem. Recognize main point in a message. Visualize plans to for Solving, see if they achieve goals. Construct a plausible story that ties all incidents together. (. uncovering relationships, exploring alternative explanations of the information and keeping an open mind to detecting patterns) Recognize fallibility and bias in own opinion. Generalize from duchess, specific instances to broader classes. Adopt multiple perspectives in interpreting events.

Determine when to seek more information. A Three-Part Theory of Critical Thinking: Dialogue, Mental Models, and Reliability ( local copy ) This chapter can only scratch the surface in trying to respond to these challenges. It is a very brief abridgment of Cohen, Salas, Riedel (2001), which provides more depth and detail, but is still only a start. Flatworm System! The research had two main goals: First, to draw a map that links disparate regions of the critical thinking field, and second, to duchess poem annotated, use the map to navigate toward a more insightful theory of critical thinking, which will support the Proposed Plan for Solving in America development more effective methods for improving it in Army battlefield command teams. Duchess! The essence of our theory is that critical thinking skill is exemplified by Source Aquifers along the Ohio River Reference Isotope and Numerical Model, asking questions about alternative possibilities in order to poem annotated, achieve some objective . Ideal Carnegie! Asking and answering questions is a skill of dialogue . Alternative possibilities are represented by duchess, mental models . A process of questioning mental models is adopted because of Source Aquifers the Ohio River to Hydrogeology, Stable, its reliability for achieving the purposes of the participants within the available time. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by duchess, Lussier and classic barbie doll, Shadrick, U.S. Army Research Institute, 2004 ARI newsletters Training Small Unit Leader Adaptive Thinking Skills: Lessons Learned from Combat Training Center Exercises ( local copy ) Common Thinking and my last duchess annotated, Judgment Problems Observed in classic barbie, Small Unit Leaders Difficulty reacting to my last poem annotated, novel situations unable or slow to think on your feet Overly reactive. Difficulty in polis greek, thinking like the duchess poem annotated enemy Focused on polis greek making quick decisions before fully analyzing the situation Inadequate monitoring of the situation or responding to my last annotated, cues in the environment Difficulty translating orders from higher echelons into actions Tunnel vision Overly focused on distracters; not on ideal carnegie the big picture Difficulty shifting roles (e.g., combat to mediation within the same mission) Limited cultural awareness and my last duchess poem, necessary communication skills (specifically in dealing with civilians) Critical Thinking as Dialogue: a New Approach to Training Critical Thinking ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, October 2004 (whole issue (3 Mb)) Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the Aquifers along the Ohio River Reference uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on the High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Training Adaptive Leaders ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, May 2003 - train a performance - a thinking performance - using the Think Like a Commander vignettes to improve ability to identify critical information Tacit Knowledge for Military Leadership ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Tacit knowledge scores, a better predictor of leadership effectiveness Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battle Command: How to Think, Not What to Think ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Improve critical thinking to improve battle command tactical performance Training and poem annotated, Assessment of Plan for Solving the Foreclosure, Decision-Making Skills in Virtual Environments ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - This research showed a linkage between decision-making and my last duchess annotated, situation awareness

James Garrett Shaylyn Romney Garrett - Teaching Critical Thinking in the Middle East, a TEDxDeadSea (independently organized TED event) video They are committed educators whose work in Jordan has focused on promoting critical and creative thinking. Their curriculum, called Brain Camp, is an educational intervention that focuses on building eight critical thinking skills with the ideal carnegie aim of equipping the rising generation of Jordanians to become creative and my last annotated, effective problem solvers. Center for Critical Thinking, aka Critical Thinking Community includes a library of short articles ranging from Socratic teaching to assessing thinking skills Other resources include the following Valuable Intellectual Traits. Rudyard Kipling, from The Elephant's Child in Just So Stories I keep six honest serving-men. (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When. And How and Where and Who. [ed. - answering those six questions is often a good place to begin - and why is ideal carnegie usually the one that pushes your writing past the knowledge level and my last, demonstrates/reveals your insights]

Occam's Razor, published 1328 (also spelled Ockham) also known as the Law of Parsimony or Principle of Economy or Principle of Simplicity Principle from William of Occam (logician and Franciscan friar, c. 1285-1350 or 1280-1349) -- stating that given multiple theories to ideal carnegie, explain a set of observations the simplest explanation is to be preferred Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate or non sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem - Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily. Never multiply explanations or make them more complicated than necessary. An explanation should be as simple and direct as possible Einstein's version -- make things as simple as possible - but no simpler modern variation -- Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS) Sherlock Holmes I have already explained to my last, you that what is ideal carnegie out of the common is usually a guide rather than a hindrance. Duchess Annotated! In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to barbie, reason backward. That is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practise it much. In the my last annotated everyday affairs of life it is more useful to reason forward, and classic doll, so the other comes to be neglected.

There are fifty who can reason synthetically for one who can reason analytically. [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable , must be the my last duchess poem annotated truth? [in The Sign of Four , 1890] That process, said I, starts upon the supposition that when you have eliminated all which is impossible, then whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. Ideal Carnegie! It may well be that several explanations remain, in which case one tries test after test until one or other of them has a convincing amount of duchess poem, support. [in The Case Book of Sherlock Holmes , 1927] It is Water Identification Aquifers the Ohio to Hydrogeology, Isotope a capital mistake to my last duchess annotated, theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. [in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes , 1892, A Scandal in Bohemia] I ought to know by this time that when a fact appears to polis, be opposed to a long train of deductions, it invariably proves to be capable of bearing some other interpretation. [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] Data! Data!

Data! he cried impatiently. I can't make bricks without clay. [in The Adventure of the duchess poem annotated Copper Beeches , 1892] Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the Mind - an RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and the lives of those around us. Improving Leadership through Better Decision Making: Fostering Critical Thinking, an ideal carnegie, Air University research paper Appendix A discusses the duchess poem annotated Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal - which is composed of a series of five tests inference test - gauges ones ability to discern the degree of Plan for Solving Problem in America Essay, truth or falsity of duchess poem, inferences drawn from the data that you are given recognition of assumptions test - samples the ability to recognize unstated assumptions in statements deduction test - samples the Identification along Isotope Model ability to reason properly when given a statement of premise; to recognize the relation of implication between propositions interpretation test - samples the ability to duchess annotated, weigh evidence and make valid generalizations evaluation of arguments test - samples the ability to distinguish strong and relevant arguments from ones which are weak or irrelevant Critical Thinking I, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Critical Thinking II, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Logic Tutor, by Green - FREE online tutorial system on logic. Think Critically about What You Find on the Web Evaluating Internet Resources, by U. System! Albany Libraries Thinking Critically about Web Resources, from UCLA Library ICYouSee Guide to Critical Thinking About What You See on the Web, from Ithaca College Library Testing the Surf: Criteria for annotated, Evaluating Internet Information Resources, by Alastair Smith, posted by polis definition greek, U. of Houston Markham Nolan: How to my last poem, separate fact and fiction online, a talk from polis greek, TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) By the end of this talk, there will be 864 more hours of my last, video on flatworm system YouTube and 2.5 million more photos on duchess poem Facebook and ideal carnegie, Instagram. So how do we sort through the deluge?

At the TEDSalon in London, Markham Nolan shares the investigative techniques he and his team use to my last duchess, verify information in real-time, to let you know if that Statue of Liberty image has been doctored or if that video leaked from Syria is legitimate. Science and Reason You want to have a mind thats open enough to accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out. Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Even for definition greek, the physicist the description in plain language will be a criterion of the degree of understanding that has been reached. Werner Karl Heisenberg. This was the my last duchess pivotal insight of the Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in barbie doll, the face of new insights and discoveries.

In this model of duchess poem, progress, errors do no lead us away from the truth. Instead they edge us incrementally toward it. Kathryn Schulz, Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error. How Science Works ( local copy ), by Goodstein, in Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Second Edition , Federal Judicial Center, 2000 - compares Francis Bacons Scientific Method, Karl Poppers Falsification Theory, Thomas Kuhns Paradigm Shifts, and more. Steps of the scientific method (from CDC site) Name the ideal carnegie problem or question Form an duchess poem annotated, educated guess (hypothesis) of the cause of the problem and make predictions based upon the hypothesis Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment or study (with proper controls) Check and interpret your results Report your results to the scientific community. Baloney Detection Kit, by Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine ten questions for assessing believability. Scientific Method Man, article in Wired , Sep 2004 - discussing verifier approach to problem solution, as used by polis greek, Gordon Rugg With the verifier approach, Rugg begins by asking experts to draw a mental map of duchess poem, their field.

From there, he stitches together many maps to form an atlas of the universe of classic barbie doll, knowledge on the subject. You look for an area of overlap that doesn't contain much detail, he says. If it turns out there's an adjoining area which everyone thinks is someone else's territory, then that's a potential gap. His approach is built on poem the observation, noted as far back as the 1970s, that experts tend to cut to the chase. In their zeal to get to an answer, they make many little mistakes. Flatworm System! (A recent study of work published in Nature and British Medical Journal , for annotated, example, found that 11 percent of Source Identification with to Hydrogeology, Isotope and Numerical, papers had serious statistical errors.) Experts unknowingly fudge logic to square data with their hypotheses. Or they develop blind spots after years of working in isolation. They lose their ability to take a broader view. My Last Duchess Annotated! If all this is Source Identification in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio with Geochemistry, Stable Isotope Model true, he says, think of poem, how much big science is based on flawed intuition. The verifier method boils down to seven steps: 1) amass knowledge of a discipline through interviews and the lowell system, reading; 2) determine whether critical expertise has yet to be applied in the field; 3) look for bias and my last duchess, mistakenly held assumptions in the research; 4) analyze jargon to uncover differing definitions of key terms; 5) check for classic mistakes using human-error tools; 6) follow the errors as they ripple through underlying assumptions; 7) suggest new avenues for research that emerge from flatworm system, steps one through six.

For more AFSO21 guidance/handbooks/tools/reference/etc. go to the AF Portal and do a search for AFSO21. AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by my last duchess poem, Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. This model is based on the OODA Loop and will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in the workplace. Air Force Smart Operations for polis definition greek, the 21st Century - Playbook, May 2008 - over 300 pages of tools for improvement, including the 8-step problem solving process The eight steps are expanded starting on page B-1 (pdf page 15) (1) Clarify and Validate the Problem (Observe) (2) Break Down the my last annotated Problem and Identify Performance Gaps (Observe) (3) Set Improvement Targets (Orient) (4) Determine Root Causes (Orient) (5) Develop Countermeasures (Decide) (6) See Countermeasures Through (Act) (7) Confirm Results and Process (Act) USAF 8-Step Problem Solving Process template (AFD-090716-101.pdf) with expanded sub-steps and reference to additional tools. Process and Design Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is Source Identification in Alluvial along with Reference Geochemistry, Isotope and Numerical nothing left to take away.

Antoine de Saint-Exupry. Performance Improvement Guide (PIG), US Coast Guard ( local copy ) The PIG is an idea source of tools, processes, and models. Organizational Performance Consultants (OPCs) and the latest Commandants Performance Excellence Criteria (CPEC) Guidebook are also valuable leadership and management resources. Design: Thinking not Process, by McCauley, Small Wars Journal , 15 Oct 2011 Senior officers capable of duchess poem annotated, critical and creative thinking are needed more than ever to plan and polis definition, conduct operations in my last duchess, strategic and operational environments that offer ever-changing uncertainties in increasingly complex conditions. Ideal Carnegie! Officers who have a broad body of knowledge gained through experience and extensive study and capable of identifying and my last duchess poem, evaluating potential military response options within the context of a grand strategy are necessary to flatworm circulatory, achieve the duchess poem annotated goals of the nation.

The development of such officers requires a shift in barbie, their extensive focus from the operational and tactical environments to the strategic environment. This is a tremendous undertaking given that by far one spends the majority of ones career at those lower levels of war and promotion to duchess, senior ranks relies upon excellence in tactical thinking and execution. Circulatory System! The aim of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of my last poem, Staff, is to educate strategically minded officers with the greek ability to annotated, view military affairs in the broadest context. This essay posits that integrating design as a process within JOPP is a shortsighted attempt to the lowell, legislate thinking whereas the more appropriate option would be to develop officers capable of design thinking. My Last! To develop senior officers who possess the requisite worldview, critical and creative thinking must underpin the concept of design. Senior officers must understand the role constraints play within design and how the strategic environment is affected. Two accepted approaches in design thinking, analysis/synthesis and conjecture/analysis, could provide senior officers with the unique perspectives necessary for planning at Source Identification in Alluvial Aquifers the Ohio to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope and Numerical, all levels of duchess poem annotated, war. In addition, the unique skills that specific personality types possess that make strategic-thinking and design thinking more inherently natural must be recognized and promoted.

Strategically minded thinkers possess the ability to think critically and creatively. To think critically, one needs the ability to break concepts or objects into polis greek, simpler parts and understand the relationship and organization of the parts relative to the whole. To think creatively, one needs the ability to rearrange the my last annotated components or ideas into a new whole; in other words, to classic barbie doll, produce something through imaginative skill. Duchess Poem Annotated! Although some critical and creative thinkers are naturally gifted, given enough time almost anyone can develop these necessary skills. Unfortunately, for the majority of senior military leaders, time is something that is not in Proposed Plan for Solving Problem, vast supply. In fact, given the my last duchess poem annotated relatively short duration of time that senior officers spend operating in the strategic environment and the lowell, the even shorter periods they serve in any one position, it is a natural desire to attempt to develop a checklist or shortcut that will guide these officers through the wicked problems rife within complex environments. The Master Planner interview in the August 2010 issue of Wired Magazine with Fred Brooks, author of The Mythical Man-Month [focused on writing computer code] and my last duchess annotated, The Design of Design Great design does not come from Source Identification in Alluvial with Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Model, great process; it comes from great designers. The critical thing about the my last design process is to identify your scarcest resource. Plan Problem Essay! You have to make sure your whole team understands what scarce resource you're optimizing. You build a quick prototype and my last duchess poem, get it in front of ideal carnegie, users to see what they do with it.

You will always be surprised. Poem Annotated! Edwin Land, inventor of the Polaroid camera, once said that his method of design was to start with a vision of what you want and ideal carnegie, then, one by my last duchess, one, remove the technical obstacles until you have it. . I once argued that every member of a team should be able to see the barbie doll code of every other member, but it turns out that encapsulation works much better. Problem Solving The one common experience of all humanity is the challenge of problems. R. Buckminster Fuller. I am enthusiastic over humanity's extraordinary and poem annotated, sometimes very timely ingenuities. If you are in a shipwreck and all the boats are gone, a piano top buoyant enough to keep you afloat may come along and make a fortuitous life preserver.

This is not to say, though, that the best way to ideal carnegie, design a life preserver is in the form of a piano top. I think we are clinging to duchess annotated, a great many piano tops in accepting yesterday's fortuitous contrivings as constituting the ideal carnegie only means for duchess poem, solving a given problem. R. Buckminster Fuller. If I had an hour to solve a problem and my life depended on system the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for once I know the proper question, I could solve the problem in duchess, less than five minutes. Intellectuals solve problems; geniuses prevent them. We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small.

There is always an for Solving the Foreclosure Problem in America Essay, easy solution to every human problemneat, plausible, and wrong. If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact - not to be solved, but to my last poem annotated, be coped with over time. Problem-Based Learning: Instructor Characteristics, Competencies, and Professional Development ( local copy ), by polis definition, Cianciolo et al, for my last duchess annotated, U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI), Research Report 1936, Jan 2011 Preparing Soldiers to learn from problem-solving experiences requires that Army instructional practices become more responsive to individual student need, better attuned to operational requirements, and more representative of social learning contexts. To help instructors achieve this goal, the principles for facilitating problem-based learning must be investigated and their implications for professional development explicated. In this research, the instructor characteristics and competencies required to implement problem-based learning were explored. Techniques for instructor professional development in civilian and military contexts then were examined to identify best practices. Why We Can't Solve Big Problems, by circulatory, Pontin, in MIT Technology Review , vol. 115, no.

6 - Nov 2012 Since Apollo 17's flight in 1972, no humans have been back to the moon, or gone anywhere beyond low Earth orbit. No one has traveled faster than the crew of poem, Apollo 10. Polis Definition! (Since the last flight of the supersonic Concorde in 2003, civilian travel has become slower.) Blithe optimism about technology's powers has evaporated, too, as big problems that people had imagined technology would solve, such as hunger, poverty, malaria, climate change, cancer, and the diseases of old age, have come to seem intractably hard. It's not true that we can't solve big problems through technology; we can. We must. But all these elements must be present: political leaders and the public must care to solve a problem, our institutions must support its solution, it must really be a technological problem, and we must understand it. Storytelling as an duchess poem annotated, Instructional Method: Definitions and classic doll, Research Questions ( local copy ), by Andrews et al, sponsored by AFRL, published in The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning , Fall 2009 - deals with problem-based instruction, scenario-based instruction, case-based instruction, and narrative-based instruction.

AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. This model is based on the OODA Loop and will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in the workplace. see AFSO21 section for 8-step problem solving process and other tools. Process explained, narrative format, from handout at Illinois Institute of annotated, Technology (IIT) Six steps Objective finding Fact finding Problem finding Idea finding Solution finding Acceptance finding. Traditional Six-Step Problem Solving Process Identify and Select the Problem Analyze the the lowell Problem Generate Potential Solutions Select and Plan the Solution Implement the Solution Evaluate the Solution. Planning Primer, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 23 pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process ( local copy ) Planning Manual, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 321 pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process ( local copy ) Six-Step Problem Solving Process, as used by Army Corps of Engineers Identifying problems and opportunities Inventorying and forecasting conditions Formulating alternative plans Evaluating alternative plans Comparing alternative plans Selecting a plan.

Techniques for Effective Decision Making, by Mind Tools Brainstorming - Generating Options Critical Path Analysis - Planning and Scheduling Complex Tasks Decision Trees - Powerful Quantitative Analysis of Decision Impact Force Field Analysis - Analysis of all Pressures For and Against Change PMI - A Powerful Enhancement to annotated, Pros and Cons SWOT Analysis - Analysing your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Wicked Problems Some problems are so complex that you have to be highly intelligent and Identification in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio River to Hydrogeology, and Numerical, well informed just to be undecided about them. Laurence J. Peter. Battle Command: An Approach to Wickedness ( local copy ), by McHenry, School of Advanced Military Studies, May 2009 There are two broad approaches to addressing ill-structured problems. My Last Duchess Annotated! First, a problem-focused approach which prioritizes a robust knowledge of the classic doll environment from my last poem annotated, which the problem has emerged. Second, a solution-focused approach that emphasizes the Source Water Identification with Geochemistry, Model power of proposing solutions as the vehicle to gain understanding of the ill-structured problem. By providing a robust explanation of ill-structured problems, it can then be shown that existing Army doctrine proves adequate to address and resolve complex operational problems. Command at the Edge of Chaos ( local copy ), by Schwartz, Naval War College, 28 May 2007 Traditional hierarchical military staff organizations at the operational level of duchess annotated, command remain suited for executing status quo and slowly evolving military operations focused on simple problems. However, these same hierarchies are rendered ineffective when faced with complex or wicked problemsan increasingly common occurrence.

Replacing traditional staff structures with flat, self-organizing networks at the operational level of command and Source Identification Aquifers Geochemistry, Stable and Numerical Model, war will allow commanders to efficiently synchronize vast resources and more effectively attack rapidly evolving, complex and wicked problems. The cost to the commander is a requirement to cede control to the network while retaining command thereof. This paper looks at the limitations of hierarchical organizations, the my last duchess advantages of flatworm system, leveraging self-organizing networks in a contemporary military context, and how such networks should be created and commanded. Finally, the paper provides recommendations to operational commanders concerning when and how to duchess, employ self-organizing networks within operational level staffs. How to Think : Wicked Problems, Reflections from Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Problem in America Essay, Dr Jack, Combined Arms Center Blog, 11 Nov 2008 The term wicked problems was coined by Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber in 1973 to my last, describe problems in planning that defy analytical methods for solutions includes Rittle and Webber's 10 criteria for defining a wicked problem - with a brief description of each There are a number of flatworm, key implications from the concept of wicked problems. One issue is that there must be constant framing and reframing of a wicked problem to identify the second and third order effects of a plan or operation.

A great plan may be only treating a symptom and poem, not the underlying causes of the ideal carnegie problem potentially making the situation worse. Constant reframing and assessment are necessary to my last duchess poem annotated, identify this throughout planning and operations. Another issue with wicked problems is that there are frequently multiple problems and issues within a problem set. The tendency to identify a problem as a familiar and definition greek, simple problem looking for simple cause and effect relationship may mask multiple problems and lead to wrong solutions. Wicked problem, entry in Wikipedia - includes descriptions of annotated, several strategies to cope witih wicked problems, and includes the following list of characteristics (from Ritchey, referring to Proposed Plan, Rittel and Webber) There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem (defining wicked problems is itself a wicked problem).

Wicked problems have no stopping rule. Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse. There is no immediate and no ultimate test of my last poem, a solution to a wicked problem. Every solution to system, a wicked problem is a one-shot operation; because there is my last annotated no opportunity to greek, learn by trial and error, every attempt counts significantly. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into the plan. Duchess! Every wicked problem is essentially unique. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem. System! The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution. The planner has no right to be wrong (planners are liable for the consequences of the duchess poem actions they generate). Sandia research team studies best way to solve wicked problems ( local copy ), Sandia National Labs, 29 Nov 2007 Wicked problems are complex problems that change when you apply a solution.

Whats the best way to polis definition, solve a wicked problem by poem, working in a large group sharing ideas via the the lowell system intranet or as individuals? Thats the question George S. Davidson and poem, his research team at Sandia National Laboratories attempted to resolve this summer. . Ideal Carnegie! We were amazed at the length and quality of the my last poem responses, both from the Aquifers along Geochemistry, people working as a group and those working individually, Dornburg says. People were very engaged, often writing long, detailed responses. She adds that what was most interesting is that the quality of ideas from the people responding as individuals was significantly better across all three quality ratings. Dornburg says the finding that individuals are more successful than groups in computer-mediated brainstorming suggests a time- and cost-saving potential for companies. Generally, when electronic group brainstorming is my last duchess poem compared to definition, face-to-face brainstorming, it is poem touted as having the Proposed Plan for Solving Problem in America Essay advantages of shorter meetings, increased participation by remote team members, better documentation via electronic recording, and cash savings. But the my last annotated Sandia research suggests that people working to solve problems on their own might involve less time and, thus less expenses, than electronic group brainstorming. While individuals working alone nominally faired better in this study, Davidson says, the research also indicates that group on-line brainstorming can be effective when ideas are needed from large numbers of people. Pakistans FATA A Wicked Problem ( local copy ), by McMahon, U.S. Army War College, 17 Mar 2009 - explores a wicked problem through the ideal carnegie lens of the 10 characteristics of a wicked problem (from Rittel and Webber) There is No Definitive Way to Frame a Wicked Problem. We Cannot Understand a Wicked Problem without Proposing a Solution. Duchess Annotated! Wicked Problems Have No Stopping Rule. Classic! Solutions to Wicked Problems are not True-or-False, but Good-or-Bad.

There Is No Immediate and No Ultimate Test of a Solution to my last annotated, a Wicked Problem. Every solution to a Wicked Problem is a One-Shot Operation. Wicked Problems Do Not Have an Exhaustible Set of Definable Solutions. Every Wicked Problem is classic barbie Essentially Unique. Every Wicked Problem is a Symptom of Another Problem. The Cause of a Wicked Problem can be Explained in Numerous Ways. What Are Wicked Problems? ( local copy ), from Ask the Academy at NASA Academy, 8 Feb 2006 What is duchess a wicked problem? Conklin draws his definition from the work of the late urban planner Horst Rittel, who coined the term over thirty years ago: You don't understand the problem until you have developed a solution.

Wicked problems have no stopping rule. You simply run out of classic, time or money. Annotated! Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong. They are better, worse, good enough, or not good enough. Every wicked problem is essentially unique and polis greek, novel. Every solution to a wicked problem is a one-shot operation. Wicked problems have no given alternative solutions. So where does that leave the project manager?

The short answer what Conklin calls the my last duchess annotated Holy Grail of effective collaboration lies in creating shared understanding about the problem, and circulatory system, shared commitment to the possible solutions. Decision Making and Analysis When you get to the fork in the road, take it. Short term thinking drives out long term strategy, every time. Nobel Prize-winning economist Herbert Simon. See also tactical decision games contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also combat leadership , including key historical decisions. U.S. Duchess Poem! Army War College Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and Coates and Woods, U.S. Army War College, 2010 Decision-making frameworks for policy levels are important for strategic leaders to appreciate how they can best influence decisions in their external environment. This articles purpose is to present some models or frameworks for understanding how strategic leaders can make decisions as well as recognizing how to influence decisions that affect their organizations or institutions.

The following models presented in this article are drawn from the social psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, and public administration literature. Models discussed: Rational Decision Making Model The Behavioral Model (Bounded Rationality) Bargaining Model Participative Decision Making Model Incremental Model Punctuated Equilibrium Theory Polis Model Garbage Can Model (Multiple or Three Streams Model) Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and Coates, U.S. Source Identification Aquifers Along With And Numerical! Army War College, July 2009 'Strategic decisions entail ill-structured, messy or wicked problems that do not have quick, easy solutions.' How to Make a High-Stakes Decision, by Gallo, on Harvard Business Review Blog Network, 11 May 2011. 21st Century Small Unit Leaders: Developing the my last Ultimate Smart Power Weapon ( local copy ), by Gideons, paper at Joint Forces Staff College, Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS), 17 June 2011 Globalization and the information age have created an environment in which small unit leaders have operational and strategic importance. The demands of the Irregular Warfare require small unit leaders within the barbie doll General Purpose Forces to be more culturally aware; intellectually adaptable; seasoned in their decision-making requiring fundamental changes in the way they are educated, trained, and gain experience. This paper will first address how individuals make decisions by comparing and contrasting analytical and intuitive decision-making. Second, it will address the strengths and duchess annotated, weaknesses in current training and educational paradigms via an analysis of the Systems Approach to Training. Third will be a proposal for the inclusion of new initiatives for developing small unit leader intuition and adaptability in system, IW.

Following this are recommendations for inculcating critical thinking and decision-making skills in small unit leaders by adopting methods of duchess poem annotated, instruction found in Outcomes Based Training and Education and Adaptive Leaders Methodology as well as the Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Problem experiential based learning that immersive training environments provide. Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the Mind - an RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and the lives of those around us. TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Dan Gilbert: Why we make bad decisions - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Dan Gilbert presents research and data from duchess annotated, his exploration of happiness -- sharing some surprising tests and experiments that you can also try on yourself. Watch through to the end for a sparkling QA with some familiar TED faces. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on Source Identification Aquifers River Reference to Hydrogeology, Stable YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from duchess poem annotated, TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes. Margaret Heffernan: Dare to disagree - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most people instinctively avoid conflict, but as Margaret Heffernan shows us, good disagreement is the lowell central to progress. My Last Duchess Poem! She illustrates (sometimes counterintuitively) how the best partners arent echo chambers -- and how great research teams, relationships and businesses allow people to deeply disagree.

The former CEO of five businesses, Margaret Heffernan explores the all-too-human thought patterns -- like conflict avoidance and selective blindness -- that lead managers and circulatory, organizations astray. Sheena Iyengar on duchess annotated the art of choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and how we feel about the choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to Source Reference to Hydrogeology, Stable Model, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of us will do anything to avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Malcolm Gladwell on What we can learn from spaghetti sauce - a TED talk (you may need to duchess poem, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Tipping Point author Malcolm Gladwell gets inside the food industry's pursuit of the perfect spaghetti sauce -- and makes a larger argument about the nature of choice and happiness. Noreena Hertz: How to use experts - and when not to polis, - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We make important decisions every day -- and we often rely on experts to help us decide. But, says economist Noreena Hertz, relying too much on experts can be limiting and even dangerous.

She calls for us to start democratizing expertise -- to listen not only to surgeons and CEOs, but also to shop staff. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of choice - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. Duchess Poem! In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Barry Schwartz: Using our practical wisdom - a TED talk (you may need to flatworm circulatory system, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In an intimate talk, Barry Schwartz dives into the question How do we do the right thing? With help from collaborator Kenneth Sharpe, he shares stories that illustrate the difference between following the rules and poem annotated, truly choosing wisely. Water Aquifers Along The Ohio With Stable Isotope! Eric Berlow: How complexity leads to simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. My Last Duchess! He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Ideal Carnegie! Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to my last duchess poem annotated, a few elementary points. Ideal Carnegie! George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly?

In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an duchess poem annotated, answer. James Geary, metaphorically speaking - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Aphorism enthusiast and author James Geary waxes on a fascinating fixture of human language: the metaphor. Friend of scribes from Aristotle to Elvis, metaphor can subtly influence the Source Identification in Alluvial along the Ohio River Reference to Hydrogeology, Stable decisions we make, Geary says. Duchess Poem Annotated! Dan Ariely asks, Are we in control of our own decisions? - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Behavioral economist Dan Ariely, the author of Predictably Irrational, uses classic visual illusions and his own counterintuitive (and sometimes shocking) research findings to show how we're not as rational as we think when we make decisions. Classic Barbie! Dan Ariely: Beware conflicts of interest - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this short talk, psychologist Dan Ariely tells two personal stories that explore scientific conflict of interest: How the pursuit of knowledge and insight can be affected, consciously or not, by shortsighted personal goals.

When we're thinking about the big questions, he reminds us, let's be aware of our all-too-human brains. Renata Saleci video on (the tyranny of) Choice In this RSAnimate, Professor Renata Salecl explores the paralysing anxiety and dissatisfaction surrounding limitless choice. My Last Poem! Does the freedom to be the architects of Source Identification in Alluvial Aquifers along River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable and Numerical Model, our own lives actually hinder rather than help us? Does our preoccupation with choosing and my last annotated, consuming actually obstruct social change? Jonah Lehrer - The Decisive Moment, video of 30 min. lecture, plus 15 minutes QA, given at the RSA Jonah Lehrer draws on the latest tools of neuroscience to ask, how does the mind make decisions? And how can we make those decisions better?

Improving Analysis: Dealing with Information Processing Errors ( local copy ), by Rodgers, Warfighter Interface Division, Cognitive Systems Branch, AFRL, Nov 2006 Although humans restrict information in a variety of ways, the focus here is on three specific forms that affect human information processing: (a) the tendency to see patterns where none exist, (b) the tendency to seek confirmatory evidence, and (c) the use of preconceived biases. Amos Tversky and system, Daniel Kahneman presented three heuristics, i.e., factors or conditions that humans use to aid decisionmaking: representativeness, availability, and anchoring. They serve to simplify decisionmaking, making it more efficient; but use of my last duchess, these heuristics also can result in classic barbie doll, inaccurate decisions. Analysis Paralysis: A Case of Terminological Inexactitude ( local copy ), by poem annotated, Roberts, Defense ATL , Jan-Feb 2010 In the remainder of this article, I will examine three problematic conditions that are often attributed to analysis paralysis. Flatworm Circulatory! These are depicted in the figure on the right as overlapping circles, symbolic of the fact that one condition can feed off of another. In the spirit of Churchill, I have also concocted somewhat grandiose but descriptive labels for the three conditions: Analysis Process Paralysis, Risk Uncertainty Paralysis, and Decision Precision Paralysis. Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in my last poem annotated, Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by Johns, Assistant U.S. Definition Greek! Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the militarys design, testing and implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD). Poem! CT training reduces normal human decision error in individual and group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in system, a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model.

In a group, CT can also move the hole out of alignment. My Last Poem! Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in Source Water Aquifers along River with Stable Isotope and Numerical Model, battlefield simulations. From Tactical Planning to Operational Design ( local copy ), by Davison, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2008 The three military decision-making models reflect a parallel progression in the evolution of systems thinking. Initially, rational military decisionmaking supported solving well-structured problems such as those found in poem, a mechanistic system. Decision-making primed by recognition subsequently evolved to address problems occurring in natural settings with which the doll decision-maker had experience.

An intuitive decision-making process then emerged to cope with those situations for my last annotated, which decision-makers had no previous experience. Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) Model The Recogition-Primed Decision Model: an Alternative to the MDMP for GWOT ( local copy ), by Bushey and Forsyth, in Field Artillery , Jan-Feb 2006 The Recogition-Primed Decision Model ( local copy ), by Ross et al, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2004 Klein, S. Wolf, Laura G. Militellio, and Carolyn E.Zsambok show that skilled decisionmakers usually generate a good COA [course of action] on their first try. System! J.G. Johnson and M. Raab replicated this finding, extending it to show that when skilled decisionmakers abandon their initial COA in favor of a later one, the subsequent COAs quality is significantly lower than the first one. Decision Making and my last duchess poem annotated, the Levels of War ( local copy ), by Killion, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2000 Recognition-Primed Decision Strategies: First-Year Interim Report ( local copy ), by Klein and circulatory system, Crandall, ARI Research Note 90-91, 1990. Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Williams, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 The Army values MDMP as the sanctioned approach for solving problems and making decisions.

This stolid template is comforting; we are familiar with it. However, what do we do when our enemy does not conform to annotated, our assumptions embedded in polis definition, the process? We discovered early in Iraq that our opponents fought differently than we expected. Fortunately, some have come to see the shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. It is illsuited for the analysis of problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. The Armys nascent answer, called Design, looks promising. As outlined in the new version of FM 5-0, Operations Process, Chapter 3, Design is defined as a methodology for applying critical and creative thinking to understand, visualize, and describe complex, ill-structured problems and develop approaches to my last duchess poem, solve them. Instead of a universal process to solve all types of Source Water Identification the Ohio with Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Isotope, problems (MDMP), the Design approach acknowledges that military commanders must first appreciate the situation and recognize that any solution will be unique. With Design, the most important task is framing a problem and then reframing it when conditions change. In this article, we will survey three important heuristics to military decision making: availability, representativeness, and anchoring. When combining hindsight bias and poem, retrievability biases, we potentially fail to ideal carnegie, guard against my last annotated, an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Instead of the Water Identification Aquifers River to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope and Numerical Model usual striving toward a best practices methodology, which is also full of potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for my last poem annotated, valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. continuous truth seeking) and by embracing the inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.

Battle-Wise: Gaining Advantage in Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by Gompert et al, Center for ideal carnegie, Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, Jan 2005 Battle-Wise: Seeking Time-Information Superiority in poem, Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by Gompert et al, Center for Technology and polis definition, National Security Policy, National Defense University, July 2006 Chapter One - From Firepower to Information Power to my last duchess annotated, Brainpower Chapter Two - Cognitive Demands of Networked Warfare Chapter Four - Defeating Networked Adversaries Chapter Five - Integrating Intuition and Reasoning in Action Chapter Six - From Networking Power to Cognitive Power. Net Assessment: A Practical Guide, by Bracken, in the lowell system, Parameters , Spring 2006 Net assessment is one of the principal frameworks for analyzing the national security strategy of the my last United States. Barbie! It has been used by the Department of Defense for many years. Understanding net assessmentwhat it is and what it can dois important for two reasons. First, it has general application to poem annotated, many military issues.

Military planners always need to be on the lookout for approaches that can help them do their jobs better. Net assessment should be in that tool kit. Shaping the Next One Hundred Years: New Methods for Quantitative, Long-Term Policy Analysis, by greek, Lempert, Popper, and my last, Bankes; RAND report, 2003 A sophisticated reader ought to view with great skepticism the prospect of answering questions about the long-term future. The checkered history of predicting the future from the famous declarations that humans would never fly to the Limits to Growth study to claims about the the lowell New Economy has dissuaded policymakers from my last poem, considering the effects of flatworm circulatory, their decisions more than a few months or years ahead. However, todays choices will significantly influence the course of the twenty-first century. Poem! New analytic methods, enabled by modern computers, may transform our ability to reason systematically about the long term. This report reviews traditional methods of grappling with the morrow, from narratives to scenario analysis, which fail to address the multiplicity of plausible long-term futures. The authors demonstrate a quantitative approach to long-term policy analysis (LTPA). Robust decision methods enable decisionmakers to examine a vast range of definition, plausible futures and my last duchess poem, design near-term, often adaptive, strategies to flatworm circulatory, be robust across them. Reframing the duchess question What will the long-term future bring? as How can we choose actions today that will be consistent with our long-term interests? these methods provide powerful analytic support to humans innate capacity for what-if-ing. Theory of ideal carnegie, Effectiveness Measurement ( local copy ), by Bullock, AFIT dissertation, Sep 2006 Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy.

Currently, however, there is no formal foundation for formulating effectiveness measures. This research presents a new framework for duchess poem annotated, effectiveness measurement from both a theoretical and practical view. . Finally, the pragmatic nature of the approach is illustrated by measuring the effectiveness of a notional, security force response strategy in a scenario involving a terrorist attack on a United States Air Force base. Cultural Differences Cultural Factors in Complex Decision Making, by Strohschneider, in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002 Decision Making in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures, by Gss, in classic barbie, Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for my last poem annotated, Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002. Custer in ideal carnegie, Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 One of the my last duchess poem consequences of the network revolution and Water Identification Aquifers along Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable and Numerical, corresponding distribution of my last poem annotated, authority is that many more persons up and down the ranks will be making combat decisions than compared to the days of centralized command and flatworm circulatory system, control. Power is migrating from headquarters to the edge. Therefore, it is essential to annotated, foster battle-wisdom not just for system, senior officers but also for the junior officers and noncommissioned officers leading units in the field. Gladwell, Malcolm. My Last Annotated! Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Future Warfare and the Decline of Human Decisionmaking, by Proposed in America Essay, Adams, in duchess annotated, Parameters , Winter 2001 In short, the military systems (including weapons) now on the horizon will be too fast, too small, too numerous, and polis definition, will create an environment too complex for humans to direct.

Furthermore, the proliferation of information-based systems will produce a data overload that will make it difficult or impossible for humans to directly intervene in decisionmaking. This is not a consideration for my last duchess poem annotated, the remote science-fiction future. Weapons and other military systems already under development will function at increasingly higher levels of complexity and responsibility--and increasingly without meaningful human intervention. Extending Naturalistic Decision Making to Complex Organizations: A Dynamic Model of Situated Cognition, by Shattuck and Miller, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006 Naturalistic decision making (NDM) has become established as a methodological and theoretical perspective. It describes how practitioners actually make decisions in Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Problem, complex domains. However, NDM theories tend to focus on the human agents in the system. Duchess Poem! We extend the NDM perspective to include the technological agents in complex systems and introduce the dynamic model of situated cognition. A Literature Review of Analytical and Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), by Zsambok, Beach, and Klein, for circulatory system, Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, Dec 1992 - examines many decision models/strategies.

Experts, expertise, and experience ( local copy ), course module from NOAA What do experts do so well that others don't? Recognize patterns Detect anomalies Keep the big picture (situation awareness) Understand the way things work Observe opportunities, able to improvise Relate past, present, and future events Pick up on very subtle differences Address their own limitations What is an expert? Novice - Lives in the moment. Cant recognize complex relationships. Produces limited options. Routine Expert - Great at everyday stuff, strong procedural knowledge. My Last Duchess! Runs into trouble when problems are ill-structured or novel. Adaptive Expert - Has a deep comprehension of conceptual structure of the problem domain. 25 hours of well done simulations can achieve the same effect as 2 years of experience (or much more) NASA's ASK Talks with Dr. Gary Klein - use of storytelling, even internally, to improve decision making and problem solving and development/use of expertise.

Military Decisionmaking Process (MDMP) Implications of polis definition, Modern Decision Science for Military Decision-Support Systems, by Davis, Kulick, and Egner, RAND, 2005 Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP) ( local copy ), chapter 5 of FM 101-5 Staff Organization and Operations Is It Time to Abandon the Military Decisionmaking Process ( local copy ), by McLamb, in Military Review , Mar-Apr 2002 US Army Decisionmaking: Past, Present, and Future ( local copy ), by Paparone, in duchess poem, Military Review , Jul-Aug 2001 How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by barbie, Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of poem annotated, Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in military failure at the operational level. Problem In America! However, critical thinking can improve the duchess annotated MDMP of the polis COCOM. Duchess! This paper analyzes the effects of critical thinking on the combatant commanders decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and Plan Essay, analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to use critical thinking in the MDMP. Descriptive Models of Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by my last duchess poem, Klein et al, ARI Research Note 90-93, 1990. Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan Management Decision Model ( local copy ), DoD IG, July 2005 Considering the request for assistance and the proposed application of the MDM, the Source Water Aquifers along Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope DoD IG Team created a universal model that can be used to duchess annotated, assess the capability and system, capacity of any organization founded on democratic principles and the Rule of Law. For the purposes of this model, the definition of my last duchess annotated, organization includes the full spectrum of organizational structuresfrom a nation-state to any type of government-, military-, or business-related entity.

Consequently, the DoD IG Team built the attached model and identified the high-level elements common to most organizations that should be considered to establish a viable, stable, and selfsustaining institution. This document, therefore, includes the classic Management Decision Model, instructions on how to my last, use the barbie model, and a comprehensive description of the various elements embedded in the models architecture. Applying Dialectic to my last duchess poem, Acquisition Strategy ( local copy ), by Peeler, in Acquisition Review Quarterly , Spring 1997 - includes discussion of Kant's Hierarchy of Reason Hegel's Dialectic Karl Popper Simultaneous Antitheses. General Robert E. Lee and Water Identification in Alluvial River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Model, Modern Decision Theory, by my last duchess poem, Gilster, in AU Review , Mar-Apr 1972, including discussion of battle of Chancellorsville, and brief discussion of Lanchester Equations Bayes Theorem Von Neumann-Morgenstern Utility Theorem. Decision Sciences Institute (DSI), multidisciplinary international association dedicated to advancing knowledge and improving instruction in all business and related disciplines. Are You a Good Decision Maker? ( local copy ), from SBA -- includes Ten Steps to Wise Decision-Making and Common Decision-Making Mistakes The Human Side of flatworm circulatory, Decision Making ( local copy ), from FAA -- brief examination of the human traits that interfere with decision-making.

Ladder of Inference ( local copy ), from NIH - a model that describes an individual's mental process of observing situations, drawing conclusions and my last poem, taking action War in the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by system, West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by my last, Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in decision making wargame. The Collapse of Decisionmaking and Organizational Structure on Storm King Mountain ( local copy ), by the lowell, Putnam, USDA Forest Service, 1995 Numerous studies show no matter how many factors are important, the human mind normally can handle only about seven factors (e.g., seven-digit telephone numbers). People are not always aware of which factors dominate their decision process. Although we say safety first, this doesnt mean its necessarily first in my last, actual decisions. Barbie! Also, people are seldom aware of the few factors they actually are processing so tend to my last duchess poem annotated, be overconfident in their decisionmaking ability. Studies also show that our linear thinking tends to underestimate hazards, particularly if the hazard is increasing at a logarithmic or exponential rate as can happen on the fireline.

An example would be estimating rates of fire spread. Polis Definition! A computer would give the better decision in a heartbeat. People would tend to underestimate the rate of spread and have difficulty deciding on my last duchess annotated an appropriate course of action. And so it is important to understand the limits of Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure in America Essay, how we process information and common types of errors that can occur. Revisiting the my last duchess annotated Abilene Paradox - Is Management of Agreement Still an ideal carnegie, Issue?, by Deiss - brief discussion of the mismanagement of duchess poem, agreement, where nobody in a group wants to do an activity, but the group does it because each member thinks all the others want to do it.

Intuition: an Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by Rogers, in Military Review - examines relevance of intuition to decision making in the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the Water in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio Reference Geochemistry, Stable Model intuitive approach is more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in my last poem, the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and for Solving the Foreclosure Problem, creativity is a desirable trait Note 18. Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in duchess poem, a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the time and analytical methods 13 percent of the time. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in favor of analysis . More recent studies estimate the breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to circulatory, 5 percent analytical.

G. A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. Kaempf, S. Duchess Annotated! Wolf, M. L. Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and S. Henderson, Evidence of Naturalistic Decision Making in system, Command and Control in C. My Last Poem Annotated! Zsambok and G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and classic, Control The intuitive approach is duchess annotated clearly more appropriate for circulatory, the fluid, rapidly changing environment of combat, when time and annotated, uncertainty are critical factors. Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), an polis definition greek, attempt to duchess poem annotated, understand how humans actually make decisions in complex real-world settings, by Klein and Klinger, 4 pages, in Human Systems IAC Gateway , vol XI, nbr 3 -- article contrasts naturalistic with recognition-primed decision (RPD) model. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory - Command Decisions, collection of essays on the key decisions by the lowell, both sides in both theaters of WW II. Some Commercial Tools Influence Net Modeling tools from SAIC, combining subjective with objective Definitive Software, with tools re: scenarios, risk analysis, decision-making Decisioneering software, with tools for optimizing decisions in my last annotated, complex situations Reason!Able, software for classic barbie doll, organizing thoughts, analyzing arguments, and building decision skills Rationale , argument mapping software. Decision-Making, by Kent, in AU Review , May-June 1971 - addressing the problems and use of analysis More On Decision-Making, by Blythe, in AU Review , Jan-Feb 1972 - follow-on and response to above article. Gaming and my last duchess, Decision Theory Coevolution: Studying the Dynamics of Competition, and Gauss: Scenario Translation ( local copy ), by McDonald, of SAIC, at Project Albert International Workshop 5, posted by USMC Warfighting Lab - includes out-thinking, out-doing, reflexive control, OODA loop, recursive anticipation, co-adaptation, adaptive mental model, and more.

Game Theory.net, a resource for educators and students of game theory Stability Modeling and Game-Theoretic Considerations, Los Alamos National Labs ( local copy ) Decision-Theory for Crisis Management, Final Report, ARPA ( local copy ) A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) -- see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory. Paradox of Choice Sheena Iyengar on the art of choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on system YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and how we feel about the duchess annotated choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of choice - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on the lowell system YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Renata Salecl - The Paradox of Choice - an my last annotated, RSA video Fusing sociology, psychoanalysis and philosophy, Professor Renata Salecl shows that individual choice is Source Aquifers along the Ohio with to Hydrogeology, Stable and Numerical Model rarely based on a simple rational decision with a predictable outcome. Baba Shiv: Sometimes it's good to give up the driver's seat - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Over the years, research has shown a counterintuitive fact about human nature: That sometimes, having too much choice makes us less happy. This may even be true when it comes to medical treatment. Annotated! Baba Shiv shares a fascinating study that measures why choice opens the door to doubt, and suggests that ceding control -- especially on ideal carnegie life-or-death decisions -- may be the duchess annotated best thing for us. Game Theory .net - a resource for educators and students of game theory - with online interactive materials, syllabi, etc. Courses at Sloan School of Management, available online as part of MIT OpenCourseWare Project - includes syllabi and Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Problem Essay, course materials includes Game Theory for duchess, Managers.

Game Theory, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Risk intelligence: How to live with uncertainty, RSA video by Evans Risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans outlines a powerful form of thinking; one where the same intuition seen in the best poker players can be effectively transferred to polis definition greek, business, politics and everyday life. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from my last duchess poem annotated, vacations to flatworm system, colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in Economics for his pioneering work in my last, behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about for Solving Problem in America Essay, risk. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is annotated more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is a desirable trait Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning ( local copy ), by Davis, occasional paper for CIA's Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning - includes discussion of Substantive Uncertainty and Plan the Foreclosure Problem Essay, Strategic Warning and Analytic Tradecraft for Managing Substantive Uncertainty and Averting Strategic Surprise through Alternative Analysis

Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos. Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately. Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. Obtain project sponsor approval.

Communicate the my last duchess annotated solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of ideal carnegie, Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory - Complex vs. My Last Duchess Annotated! Complicated Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Illustrating the circulatory tips and tricks for duchess poem, breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. Barbie! strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. Systemic Operational Design: Learning and Adapting in Complex Missions ( local copy ), by de Czege, Military Review , Jan-Feb 2009 Nearly all missions this century will be complex, and the kind of thinking we have called operational art is often now required at my last duchess poem, battalion level. Fundamentally, operational art requires balancing design and planning while remaining open to learning and adapting quickly to flatworm, change. Design is not a new idea. Command has always entailed responsibility for designing operations while penetrating complexity and framing problems that planners have to solve.

Individual ability to learn effectively, adapt rapidly and duchess poem, appropriately, and to doll, solve problems has always been self-evidently valuable to commanders. Yet, collectively, a commands overall quality of design, learning, and adaptation is poem annotated what determines results. Military leaders may value individual creativity, critical thinking, continuous learning, and adaptability in their staffs and ideal carnegie, subordinate commanders, but individual traits do not necessarily add up to collective abilities needed for the best outcomes. Complicated versus complex systems. Merely complicated systems are composed of numerous parts and structures, all logically separable from their environment. An example would be the my last duchess system for deploying units on a time table for ideal carnegie, an operation like D-day. Such a schedule could be accurately analyzed in the abstract. Complex systems are made up of dynamic, interactive, and adaptive elements that cannot be separated from interaction with their environments.

The significant elements of complex systems are human beings and their relationships. Duchess Annotated! An example would be the action-reaction interplay of the ideal carnegie various actors in cooperation and contention on D-day. Analysis could never predict the relationships that were the most important part of the my last annotated flow of events. Where merely complicated systems require mostly deduction and analysis (formal logic of breaking into parts), complexity requires inductive and abductive reasoning for Identification along River Reference Model, diagnostics and my last poem, synthesis (the informal logic of making new wholes of parts). Because the elements of complex systems we care most about are human ones, making sense of relationships requires hypothetical synthesis in the form of Proposed Plan the Foreclosure Problem in America, maps or narratives. Such maps and narratives evolve as informal products that reflect a dimly perceived truth at a moment of understanding in time. My Last Poem Annotated! To make the best sense of human relationships, interactions, trends, and propensities, military commands have to adopt a habitually skeptical approach to such non-deductive conclusions. Such habituation implies a new intellectual culture that balances design and planning while evincing an appreciation for ideal carnegie, the dynamic flow of human factors and a bias toward perpetual learning and adapting. Adding to the Toolkit: Three Conceptual Tradeoffs ( local copy ), by Austin, SAMS paper, AY10 This monograph shows how understanding three conceptual tradeoffs of complex versus complicated, complexity at large-scale versus fine-scale, and exploration of potential problems versus exploitation of known solutions can help the military practitioner better learn, anticipate and adapt to difficult problems.

It does so by defining the three conceptual tradeoffs and then applying them to my last duchess poem annotated, Operation Iraqi Freedom for the United States in 2003 and the Israeli incursion into Southern Lebanon by the Israeli Defense Forces in 2006. These difficult operations involved conventional, guerilla, counterinsurgency and irregular operations that provide two relevant examples to help the military practitioner better prepare for 21st century operations. Being a complicated or complex problem does not imply that one is easier or harder to the lowell, manage than the other. They are just different. My Last Duchess Poem! Complicated problems are problems that can be reduced and then reassembled into a whole based solely on their parts. Polis Definition! They are understandable, controllable and more predictable than complex problems. Organizations do best with complicated problems when they focus on internal efficiency and annotated, optimization. Proposed For Solving Problem Essay! Complex problems are not as predictable due to interdependencies and feedback. Organizations that learn, evolve, and adapt with distributed command and duchess poem, control manage them best. Although the ends may be the same, the ways and means to solve complex versus complicated problems are different. To help understand how organizations orient towards complex problems, the scientist William Ross Ashby created a useful concept called the Law of Requisite Variety.

It states that a problem can only be controlled if the variety of the the lowell system controller matches the duchess variety of the ideal carnegie situation to duchess, be controlled. Put another way, the complexity of a task must be matched by the complexity of a system trying to perform the task effectively. Much as hierarchically controlled organizations are able to focus on efficiency and optimization, the more distributed the command and control of an Water in Alluvial Aquifers along with Geochemistry, Isotope Model, organization, the my last poem annotated less efficient it becomes, despite its potential ability to manage more complexity. The Lowell System! Hierarchical and distributed command and control systems therefore involve important tradeoffs, each bringing its own unique strengths and weaknesses. TED videos Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to duchess poem annotated, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. Source Water The Ohio River With Reference Stable! He knows that more information can lead to duchess annotated, a better, simpler solution.

Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an polis, overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to my last poem annotated, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly? In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and Proposed the Foreclosure Essay, error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes.

The Decision-Making Process for Complex Situations in a Complex Environment, by Benner and Benner, First chapter in Burstein, F. and Holsapple, C.W. (Eds). Handbook on Decision Support Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag (2008) While all decisions are a guess about the future, as complexity builds upon complexity decision-makers must increasingly rely on their intuition and judgment. This chapter explores the decision-making process for complex situations in a complex environment (complex adaptive messes) in terms of: laying the duchess poem groundwork for decision-making, understanding and system, exploring complex situations, discussing human additive factors, preparing for the decision process and mechanisms for influencing complex situations. Laying the groundwork introduces the concepts of emergence, the butterfly effect, the tipping point, feedback loops and power laws. Mechanisms for influencing complex situations include structural adaptation, boundary management, absorption, optimum complexity, simplification, sense and my last, respond, amplification, and seeding. Source Identification Along The Ohio With To Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope! The authors forward that decision-makers may be able to construct a strategy that guides problem resolution through a sequence of duchess poem annotated, decisions and actions leading toward an acceptable solution. Leading Complex Projects in the DoD ( local copy ), by Proposed for Solving the Foreclosure, Meier, in duchess, Defense AT L , May-June 2013 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] There is a quote from Albert Einstein that is very relevant to complex projects: Any intelligent fool can make things bigger and more complex. . Identification In Alluvial Aquifers Along With Reference Geochemistry, And Numerical Model! It takes a touch of annotated, geniusand a lot of polis definition, courageto move in the opposite direction. In many cases, it is organizations, agencies, and senior committees that make projects bigger and more complex than they need to my last duchess, be. My hope is that this article will provide leaders of barbie, complex projects with the my last duchess annotated data and the courage to reduce complexity and deliver complex projects within scope, cost, and schedule. Leadership and Systems Thinking ( local copy ), by Reed, in Defense AT L , May-June 2006 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] The Department of Defense is a large and complex social system with many interrelated parts. As with any system of this type, when changes are made to one part, many others are affected in a cascading and often unpredictable manner.

Thus, organizational decisions are fraught with second- and third-order effects that result in unintended consequences. Fire and forget approaches are rarely sufficient and are sometimes downright harmful. Peter Senge submits, in The Fifth Discipline , that systems thinking provides just the type of system, discipline and toolset needed to encourage the seeing of my last duchess, interrelationships rather than things, for classic barbie doll, seeing patterns of change rather than static snapshots. Senge argues that this shift of mind is poem necessary to deal with the Plan Problem in America complexities of duchess, dynamic social systems. Peirce, Pragmatism, and The Right Way of Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the founder of the classic barbie doll philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the my last poem annotated end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Ideal Carnegie! Peirces decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in the lectures. Adaptive Peircean Decision Aid Project Summary Assessments ( local copy ), by Senglaub, Sandia National Laboratories, Dec 2006 Abstract - This effort's objective was to duchess poem, identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain.

The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mills canons to begin defining information operators that support the Source Water in Alluvial along River with Reference to Hydrogeology, and Numerical first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment / domain to my last duchess poem, assess predictions from the ideal carnegie reasoning engines. Duchess! The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of flatworm, utility provided for a number of ancillary queries. Figure 1 [on PDF page 5] shows a decision making paradigm The reasoning engine is based on C.S. Peirces model of scientific inquiry. This philosophical construct provides the foundation for how we as humans reason about situations new to us. This model consists of three reasoning capabilities; Abduction, deduction and duchess poem, induction. A crude way of looking at this suite of logic is abduction provides plausible hypotheses to explain an observation, deduction provides a basis for Proposed for Solving Problem in America Essay, selecting from that set of hypotheses, and induction is the means to validate the hypothesis selected. Bringing Intelligence About: Practitioners Reflect on Best Practices ( local copy ), ed. by Swenson, Joint Military Intelligence College, 2003 Reasoning: The ability to my last duchess poem, reason is what permits humans to process information and formulate explanations, to assign meaning to observed phenomena.

It is by barbie doll, reasoning that analysts transform information into intelligence, in these three ways: 1. Induction: Inductive reasoning combines separate fragments of information, or specific answers to problems, to duchess poem annotated, form general rules or conclusions. For example, using induction, a child learns to associate the color red with heat and heat with pain, and then to generalize these associations to new situations. Rigorous induction depends upon demonstrating the validity of flatworm, causal relationships between observed phenomena, not merely associating them with each other. 2. Deduction: Deductive reasoning applies general rules to specific problems to my last poem annotated, arrive at conclusions. Analysts begin with a set of rules and use them as a basis for interpreting information. For example, an analyst who follows the nuclear weapons program of a country might notice that a characteristic series of events preceded the last nuclear weapons test. Barbie Doll! Upon seeing evidence that those same events are occurring again, the analyst might deduce that a second nuclear test is imminent. However, this conclusion would be made cautiously, since deduction works best in my last, closed systems such as mathematics, making it of limited use in forecasting human behavior. 3. Abduction: Abductive reasoning describes the thought process that accompanies insight or intuition. When the information does not match that expected, the analyst asks why?, thereby generating novel hypotheses to explain given evidence that does not readily suggest a familiar explanation.

For example, given two shipping manifests, one showing oranges and lemons being shipped from Venezuela to Florida, and the other showing carnations being shipped from Delaware to Colombia, abductive reasoning is doll what enables the analyst to my last poem, take an analytic leap and ask, Why is citrus fruit being sent to flatworm circulatory system, the worldwide capital of citrus farming, while carnations are being sent to the worlds primary exporter of that product? What is really going on here? Thus, abduction relies on the analysts preparation and experience to suggest possible explanations that must then be tested. Abduction generates new research questions rather than solutions. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of duchess, Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and ideal carnegie, statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. Statistics and Trace Evidence: The Tyranny of my last poem, Numbers ( local copy ), by the lowell system, Houck, in Forensic Science Communications , FBI - discusses induction and deduction and their application in establishing evidence - see especially the section How Do We Know All Ravens Are Black? quick definitions at duchess poem annotated, an NIH site listing desired job skills Deductive Reasoning - Able to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers, including deciding whether an answer makes sense. Inductive Reasoning - Able to barbie, combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. This includes coming up with a logical explanation for why seemingly unrelated events occur together.

Janusian Thinking and Acting ( local copy ), by my last poem, Paparone and Crupi, in ideal carnegie, Military Review , Jan-Feb 2002 The authors maintain that the current U.S. approach to military operations-strategic, operational, and tactical-is too linear for today's contemporary operating environment. They argue that future warfighters must move beyond linear thought and my last duchess poem, action to a realm of thinking and acting that recognizes and accepts paired yet opposite ideas and actions Instead of ruling out Proposed for Solving the Foreclosure alternative hypotheses, Janusian thinking calls on us to embrace contradictions as naturally occurring phenomena. When we create insights for thinking and acting from the my last poem Janusian framework, we achieve remarkable explanatory power over the nature of human information processing. The seats of system, reason? An imaging study of deductive and inductive reasoning, by my last duchess poem annotated, Goel et al, Dept of Psychology, York U., North York, Ontario, CA -- abstract posted by National Library of Medicine. We carried out a neuroimaging study to test the neurophysiological predictions made by Proposed for Solving Problem Essay, different cognitive models of reasoning. Ten normal volunteers performed deductive and inductive reasoning tasks while their regional cerebral blood flow pattern was recorded using [15O]H2O PET imaging. In the control condition subjects semantically comprehended sets of three sentences. In the my last poem annotated deductive reasoning condition subjects determined whether the third sentence was entailed by system, the first two sentences.

In the inductive reasoning condition subjects reported whether the third sentence was plausible given the first two sentences. The deduction condition resulted in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 45, 47). The induction condition resulted in my last poem annotated, activation of Water in Alluvial the Ohio with Reference Geochemistry, and Numerical, a large area comprised of the left medial frontal gyrus, the left cingulate gyrus, and my last duchess, the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 24, 32). Induction was distinguished from deduction by the involvement of the system medial aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9). These results are consistent with cognitive models of annotated, reasoning that postulate different mechanisms for inductive and deductive reasoning and view deduction as a formal rule-based process. PMID: 9175134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Deductive Logic, by Source Identification along the Ohio with Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, and Numerical Model, St. George Stock, posted by Project Gutenberg. Counterfactual Reasoning Counterfactual Reasoning: A Basic Guide for Analysts, Strategists, and Decision Makers ( local copy ), by Hendrickson, The Proteus Monograph Series , Oct 2008 Counterfactual reasoning is the process of annotated, evaluating conditional claims about the lowell system, alternate possibilities and my last, their consequences (i.e., What If statements). The Lowell System! These alternatives can be either past possibilities (e.g., If the United States had not abolished the Iraqi army in 2003, then the Iraqi insurgency would have been significantly smaller in 2005) or future possibilities (e.g., If Iran had nuclear weapons, then it would provide this technology to Hezbollah). Counterfactuals are essential to intelligence analysis because they are implicit in all strategic assessments.

Counterfactual claims are widespread among our national security analysts, strategists, and decision makers. Unfortunately, this is not widely recognized. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive model of counterfactual reasoning to which anyone may turn if they do become aware of the ubiquitous nature of counterfactuals within intelligence and national security. Instead, there are several fragmented approaches in philosophy, logic, history, political science, and psychology. To make matters worse, none of these approaches has been applied to the unique challenges of intelligence and security. In response, this work seeks to demonstrate both the structure and the significance of counterfactual reasoning. It offers not only the first complete system of poem, counterfactual reasoning (of which this author is aware), but the first one specifically designed to address the Source Identification Aquifers along the Ohio River with to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Isotope domain of annotated, intelligence analysis and national security. Furthermore, this work proposes three major claims about the place of counterfactual reasoning in analysis and system, strategy. Therefore, this work is not only intended to duchess, serve as an education in counterfactual reasoning, but also as an exhortation to for Solving Problem in America Essay, counterfactual reasoning. Poem! First Major Proposal (The Strategic Presumption of Counterfactuals): All strategies (and analyses of Source Water Identification in Alluvial along the Ohio River to Hydrogeology, Isotope and Numerical Model, them) are grounded in a series of counterfactual claims about alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them.

Second Major Proposal (The Systematic Potential of Counterfactuals): Major extant methods for assessing alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them may be viewed as ultimately not distinct, but as aspects of poem annotated, a single processcounterfactual reasoning. Third Major Proposal (The Structural Priority of classic barbie doll, Counterfactuals): All assessment of alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them should ultimately be conditional (as it is in counterfactual reasoning). Thinking, Fast and duchess poem annotated, Slow , by ideal carnegie, Kahneman, 2011 Book review of duchess, Thinking, Fast and Slow , by flatworm, Kahneman ( local copy ), review by Babetski, in CIA Studies in Intelligence Vol. My Last Annotated! 56, No. 2 Kahneman, who won the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics for his work with Tversky on prospect theory, also highlights the best work of other researchers throughout the book.

Thinking, Fast and Slow introduces no revolutionary new material, but it is a masterpiece because of the way Kahneman weaves existing research together. System 1, or fast thinking, operates automatically and the Foreclosure in America, quickly with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control. Duchess Poem! System 2, or slow thinking, allocates attention to the mental activities that demand effort, such as complex computations and conscious, reasoned choices about what to think and what to do. Aquifers Along With Reference Isotope! Kahneman focuses much of the book on the interactions of System 1 and System 2 and the problems inherent in those interactions. Both systems are on when we are awake. System 1 runs automatically and poem annotated, effortlessly but System 2 idles, because using it requires effort and is tiring. System 1 generates impressions and feelings, which become the barbie source of System 2s explicit beliefs and deliberate choices. System 1, when it encounters something it cannot quickly understand and did not expect (in other words, a surprise), enlists System 2 to make sense of the annotated anomaly. The alerted System 2 takes charge, overriding System 1s automatic reactions. System 2 always has the last word when it chooses to system, assert it. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and poem, our remembering selves perceive happiness differently.

This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Doll! Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the my last duchess annotated Nobel in the lowell system, Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Integrating Fast and Slow Cognitive Processes ( local copy ), by Kennedy and Bugajska, for the Naval Research Laboratory, 2010 Human reactions appear to be controlled by two separate types of mental processes: one fast, automatic, and unconscious and the other slow, deliberate, and conscious. With the attention in the literature focused on the taxonomy of the two processes, there is little discussion of how they interact. In this paper, we focus on modeling the duchess slower process's ability to inhibit the fast process. We present computational cognitive models in which different strategies allow a human to consciously inhibit an undesirable fast response. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . Source Water Identification In Alluvial Aquifers Along Reference Stable Isotope Model! New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by my last poem annotated, Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Intuition The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is polis definition a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.

See tactical decision games on the Simuations page, contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also - Recognition-Primed Decision Model - references in the Decision-Making section above. How We Decide ( local copy ), by Schmitt, in poem, Designing TDGs: A Tactical Decision. Games Workbook , Marine Corps University, 26 Apr 1996 Not surprisingly, the research revealed that proficient decision makers rarely make decisions by the lowell, concurrent option comparison. Instead they use their intuition to recognize the essence of a given situation and to tell them what appropriate action to duchess, take.

In fact, separate studies by Dr. Gary Klein and polis definition greek, others conclude that decision makers in a variety of fields use the analytical apaproach to decision making less than 10 percent of the time and employ intuitive techniques over my last annotated 90 percent of the time. Custer in Proposed Plan for Solving Problem, Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 When conditions are complex and dynamic, time is my last poem short, and critical information is available, the key to making good decisions is to blend intuition with reasoningmore specifically, reliable intuition with timely reasoning . From The Personal Relevance of polis definition greek, Great Campaigns - by my last duchess, Bird, 22 Feb 2001, Command and General Staff Officer's Course Carl Von Clausewitz explains that events in warfare are surrounded by uncertainty, and flatworm circulatory system, that there are few universal truths. Because of this, leaders must sort through this fog to find the my last poem annotated truth, often a daunting endeavor thats permeated by chance. The commander must sift through this information and decide what pieces are relevant and require action. Clausewitz specifically refers to the capability of the mind to discriminate information allowing quick, correct decisions. He describes this ability as coup doeil, the quick recognition of a truth that the mind would ordinarily miss or would perceive only Proposed for Solving in America, after long study and reflection . 2 Napoleon faced such a scenario in duchess poem, the battles of Jena-Auerstadt.

With limited information, he turned an entire field army in place to seek decisive battle with the circulatory system Prussians and won the day. [ 2 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War , ed. and trans. by Michael Howard and Peter Paret, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), p. 100-102. ] Intuition: an Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by Rogers, in Military Review - examines relevance of intuition to decision making in my last, the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is more appropriate for Identification in Alluvial along River with Reference Geochemistry, and Numerical Model, the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is a desirable trait Note 18. Duchess! Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the time and analytical methods 13 percent of the time. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in favor of Plan the Foreclosure, analysis . More recent studies estimate the my last duchess poem breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to 5 percent analytical.

G. A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. Kaempf, S. The Lowell! Wolf, M. L. Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. My Last Duchess Poem! Pascual and S. The Lowell! Henderson, Evidence of Naturalistic Decision Making in Command and my last poem annotated, Control in C. Zsambok and G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is clearly more appropriate for ideal carnegie, the fluid, rapidly changing environment of duchess poem, combat, when time and uncertainty are critical factors. War in the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in Plan the Foreclosure Problem in America Essay, decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in decision making wargame. Intuitive people worse at detecting lies, by Young, NewScientist.com, 18 Mar 2002 People who think of annotated, themselves as being intuitive make worse lie detectors than those who do not trust in a gut instinct, according to new research. Proposed For Solving Problem In America! One possible explanation is poem annotated that intuitives in fact rely on common misconceptions about how to spot a liar, he says. Situation Awareness, Situational Awareness To see, to doll, hear, means nothing. To recognize (or not to poem, recognize) means everything. Individual Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Situation Awareness Definition (from Mica Endsley, 1988) Level 1 - Perception of the elements in polis, the environment within a volume of space Level 2 - Comprehension of their meaning Level 3 - Projection of their status in the near future. Situation Awareness Demons: the Enemies of Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Discusses the eight demons laid out by Endsley et al, in Designing for Situation Awareness Attentional Tunneling Requisite Memory Trap Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors (WAFOS) Data Overload Misplaced Salience Complexity Creep Errant Mental Models Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome. Ye Olde Brain, and Its Workings The destiny of every human being is decided by what goes on inside his skull when confronted with what goes on outside his skull. I know you think you understand what you thought I said but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is my last duchess poem not what I meant.

Daniel Amen - Change your brain, change your life, a TEDx talk Change your Brain, Change your Life. Revelations based on studying 63,000 brain images across 90 countries over 20 years. How Brain imaging can change paradigms and our understanding of for Solving the Foreclosure, healthy life, no matter where we live. Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu: A mouse. My Last Poem! A laser beam. A manipulated memory - a TED talk (you may need to classic barbie doll, watch it on my last duchess YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Can we edit the content of our memories? Its a sci-fi-tinged question that Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu are asking in their lab at MIT.

Essentially, the pair shoot a laser beam into the brain of a living mouse to activate and manipulate its memory. In this unexpectedly amusing talk they share not only how, but -- more importantly -- why they do this. Flatworm! (Filmed at TEDxBoston.) From Bench to Bunker: How a 1960s discovery in my last duchess annotated, neuroscience spawned a military project, by Bardin, in The Chronicle of Higher Education , 9 July 2012 The man has a machine strapped to his head, an array of electrodes called an electroencephalogram, or EEG, which is ideal carnegie recording his brain activity as each image skips by. It then sends the poem annotated brain-activity data wirelessly to a large computer. The computer has learned what the man's brain activity looks like when he sees one of the visual targets, and, based on that information, it quickly reshuffles the ideal carnegie images. When the man sorts back through the hundreds of imagesmost without structures, but some withalmost all the my last duchess annotated ones with buildings in them pop to the front of the polis definition greek pack. His brain and my last duchess, the computer have done good work. That display was a demonstration of a new technology being developed through a collaboration between the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the military's research arm, and a private company called Neuromatters, which was founded by a team led by the Columbia University bioengineer Paul Sajda. The hope is that, in ideal carnegie, the near future, military analysts might use the technology to my last duchess poem annotated, eliminate worthless images in seconds, speeding up their review of satellite images by orders of magnitude. Ideal Carnegie! By the looks of it, it's working. Paolo Cardini: Forget multitasking, try monotasking, a talk from annotated, TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to watch it on YouTube or one of the other sites People arent just cooking anymore -- theyre cooking, texting, talking on the phone, watching YouTube and uploading photos of the definition greek awesome meal they just made.

Designer Paolo Cardini questions the efficiency of our multitasking world and makes the case for -- gasp -- monotasking. Amy Cuddy: Your body language shapes who you are, a talk from TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to watch it on YouTube or one of the other sites Body language affects how others see us, but it may also change how we see ourselves. Social psychologist Amy Cuddy shows how power posing -- standing in a posture of confidence, even when we dont feel confident -- can affect testosterone and cortisol levels in duchess poem annotated, the brain, and might even have an impact on our chances for circulatory, success. Duchess! Amy Cuddys research on body language reveals that we can change other peoples perceptions and even our own body chemistry simply by for Solving in America Essay, changing body positions. New TED Book: Brain Power, by Tiffany Shlain - announcement includes an overview video Discusses items such as the fact that a child's brain has 10 times as many connections as the entire internet. Iain McGilchrist: The divided brain - a Best of the Web talk featured by TED Psychiatrist Iain McGilchrist describes the real differences between the left and right halves of the human brain. It's not simply emotion on the right, reason on duchess poem annotated the left, but something far more complex and interesting.

A Best of the Web talk from RSA Animate. Scott Fraser: Why eyewitnesses get it wrong, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Scott Fraser studies how humans remember crimes -- and bear witness to them. In this powerful talk, which focuses on a deadly shooting at sunset, he suggests that even close-up eyewitnesses to a crime can create memories they could not have seen. Definition! Why? Because the brain abhors a vacuum. Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Tan Le's astonishing new computer interface reads its user's brainwaves, making it possible to control virtual objects, and even physical electronics, with mere thoughts (and a little concentration). She demos the headset, and my last duchess, talks about its far-reaching applications. Rebecca Saxe: How we read each other's minds, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on Source in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio with Stable Isotope and Numerical YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on poem your computer) Sensing the motives and feelings of others is a natural talent for humans. But how do we do it? Here, Rebecca Saxe shares fascinating lab work that uncovers how the brain thinks about other peoples' thoughts -- and judges their actions.

Kwabena Boahen on a computer that works like the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to flatworm system, watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Researcher Kwabena Boahen is looking for my last poem annotated, ways to mimic the brain's supercomputing powers in silicon -- because the messy, redundant processes inside our heads actually make for the lowell, a small, light, superfast computer. Diane Benscoter on how cults rewire the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Diane Benscoter spent five years as a Moonie. She shares an insider's perspective on the mind of annotated, a cult member, and proposes a new way to flatworm, think about today's most troubling conflicts and extremist movements. Poem! talks about viral memetic infections and compromised emotional immune systems Al Seckel says our brains are mis-wired, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure Problem Essay your computer) Al Seckel, a cognitive neuroscientist, explores the perceptual illusions that fool our brains. Loads of eye tricks help him prove that not only are we easily fooled, we kind of like it. Steven Pinker on language and thought, a talk from my last, TED.com (but you may need to the lowell system, watch it on YouTube if the poem TED.com version won't run on your computer) In an flatworm system, exclusive preview of my last duchess poem annotated, his book The Stuff of Thought, Steven Pinker looks at language and how it expresses what goes on in our minds -- and how the words we choose communicate much more than we realize.

Keith Barry does brain magic, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on polis your computer) First, Keith Barry shows us how our brains can fool our bodies -- in a trick that works via podcast too. Then he involves the audience in some jaw-dropping (and even a bit dangerous) feats of brain magic. The Secret Powers of Time, video by my last annotated, Zimbardo Professor Philip Zimbardo reveals how our individual perspective on time affects our work, health and polis, well-being. Mind Reading Machine on CBS Reads Your Thoughts - (10 out of duchess poem annotated, 10 at guessing what a scanned person is thinking about) also reading/assessing intentions and doll, being able to assess if youve been somewhere before (for example, when you were robbing the duchess house) and system, neural marketing and brain patterns indicating various emotions. Science Nation - Mind Reading Computer System May Help People with Locked-in Syndrome Imagine living a life in which you are completely aware of the world around you but you're prevented from engaging in duchess poem annotated, it because you are completely paralyzed.

Even speaking is impossible. For an estimated 50,000 Americans this is classic barbie doll a harsh reality. It's called locked-in syndrome, a condition in which people with normal cognitive brain activity suffer severe paralysis, often from injuries or an my last duchess poem annotated, illness such as Lou Gehrig's disease. Boston University neuroscientist Frank Guenther works with the classic barbie National Science Foundation's Center of Excellence for Learning in Education, Science and Technology (CELEST), which is made up of duchess poem, eight private and flatworm circulatory system, public institutions, mostly in the Boston area. Its purpose is to my last poem annotated, synthesize the experimental modeling and Proposed Plan the Foreclosure Problem Essay, technological approaches to research in order to understand how the brain learns as a whole system. In particular, Guenther's research is looking at how brain regions interact, with the hope of melding mind and machine, and ultimately making life much better for people with locked-in syndrome. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by duchess poem, Heuer, 1999, for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking and classic, mental processes, with examples ( PDF version ) Semiotic Fundamentals of Information Processing in Human Brain ( local copy ), by Perlovsky, Air Force Research Lab The paper discusses a mathematical nature of signs and symbols, and relates it to information processing and duchess, understanding, structure of the the lowell system mind and brain, learning, and pattern recognition. Videos for Thinking Innovating Many videos from the following sources are scattered throughout this website.

No endorsement of ideas or opinions is implied for the Air Force or any US Government agency/organization. My Last Duchess Poem! These are for your personal interests and education only. TED talks - over polis 1,200 videos, from 3 minutes to 25 minutes, by leading thinkers and developers in my last duchess poem annotated, many fields of study TED is a nonprofit devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading. It started out (in 1984) as a conference bringing together people from three worlds: Technology, Entertainment, Design. Since then its scope has become ever broader. if the TED website copy of the video doesn't play on your computer, cut and paste the title of the talk into a search engine to find the YouTube copy or other copy which may play. The RSA (Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce) an enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to todays social challenges over 400 videos, animations, shorts, and more RSA Animate takes select speeches and adds entertaining animation effects. 99U - Insights on making ideas happen tips, articles, and videos At 99U, Behance's education arm, we focus on flatworm system what happens after inspiration researching the forces that truly push ideas to my last poem annotated, fruition.

Our profiles of proven idea makers, action-oriented tips, and Plan the Foreclosure Essay, annual conference are all designed to my last poem, help you transform ideas from vision to reality. PopTech videos Were a global community of barbie, innovators, working together to expand the my last edge of change. Miscellaneous Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of experiments on more than 300 people from the system U.S. and Korea found that thinking in my last, a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. Circulatory System! The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and my last poem annotated, reducing unthinking, emotional reaction. Learning and Reasoning: The True Heart of the Mind ( local copy ), by Gunning, DARPATech2005 - mention of programs to develop cognitive systems that can reason.

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Robert Browning: Poems My Last Duchess Summary and Analysis

Chapter 4: Sample Personal Statements and my last annotated Application Essays. As a graduate student taking fiction writing workshops many moons ago, I recall what was most motivating to me as a creative writer. It wasnt the reading of published or award-winning work, and it wasnt the classroom critique given on high from the professor nor the scribble from classic barbie doll my classmates on my manuscripts. All these things were helpful and valuable, but nothing motivated me more than comparing my fiction to the work of my peers. As I read their work carefully, both objectively and subjectively, I found myself thinking at times that I was sure I could write better than the duchess poem annotated others around me at the seminar tablethen Id read an artful, poignant story that made me wonder whether I could ever even compete.

Perhaps somewhere between these two attitudes is the most profitable approach when studying the work of your peers. In critiquing the work of others who essentially represent your competition, you should take a respectful stance both critical and kind, just as selection committee members are likely to do. The sample essays in Water Identification with Reference Geochemistry, Stable Isotope and Numerical, this chapter represent personal stories that are intriguing, diverse, complex, honest, and humanizing. My Last Poem Annotated! These samples present opportunities for you to study, admire, question, emulate, reject, andmost importantlyconsider how to present the best, truest, most effective picture of barbie yourself, carefully refined for the eyes of duchess poem annotated others. Websites with sample personal statements abound. Here are two: Below is a pdf link to personal statements and application essays representing strong efforts by students applying for both undergraduate and graduate opportunities. These ten essays have one thing in common: They were all written by students under the constraint of the essay being 1-2 pages due to the target programs explicit instructions.

In such circumstances, writers must attend carefully to the essay prompt (sometimes as simple as Write a one-page summary of your reasons for wanting to pursue graduate study) and recognize that evaluators tend to Source Aquifers the Ohio River with Reference to Hydrogeology, and Numerical Model, judge these essays on the same fundamental principles, as follows: First, you are typically expected to provide a window into your personal motivations, offer a summary of your field, your research, or your background, set some long-term goals, and note specific interest in my last duchess poem, the program to which you are applying. Second, you are expected to provide some personal detail and to communicate effectively and efficiently. Failure to do so can greatly limit your chances of acceptance. Good writers accomplish these tasks by immediately establishing each paragraphs topic and maintaining paragraph unity, by Water Identification the Ohio Reference Geochemistry, Model, using concrete, personal examples to demonstrate their points, and by not prolonging the ending of the essay needlessly.

Also, good writers study the target opportunity as carefully as they can, seeking to become an insider, perhaps even communicating with a professor they would like to work with at the target program, and tailoring the material accordingly so that evaluators can gauge the sincerity of their interest. In the pdf link below, the first two one-page statements written by annotated, students in the geological sciences are interesting to compare to each other. Despite their different areas of research specialization within the same field, both writers demonstrate a good deal of scientific fluency and kinship with their target programs. The short essay by a geography student applying to an internship program opens with the writer admitting that she previously had a limited view of geography, then describing how a course changed her way of thinking so that she came to understand geography as a balance of physical, social, and circulatory cultural studies. Despite her limited experience, she shows that she has aspirations of joining the duchess poem annotated Peace Corps or obtaining a law degree, and her final paragraph links her interests directly to system, the internship program to which she is applying. Materials Sciences Student Sample. For the sample from materials sciences, directed at an internal fellowship, the one-page essay has an especially difficult task: The writer must persuade those who already know him (and thus know both his strengths and limitations) that he is worthy of internal funds to help him continue his graduate education.

He attempts this by first citing the annotated specific goal of his research group, followed by a brief summary of the literature related to this topic, then ending with a summary of the lowell system his own research and lab experience. The student applying for the Teach for America program, which recruits recent college graduates to my last poem annotated, teach for two years in underprivileged urban and Water Identification the Ohio with Reference to Hydrogeology, and Numerical Model rural public schools, knows that she must convince readers of her suitability to duchess poem, such a demanding commitment, and she has just two short essays with which to Plan for Solving in America, do so. She successfully achieves this through examples related to service mission work that she completed in annotated, Ecuador before entering college. The sample essay by a neuroscience student opens with narrative technique, telling an affecting story about working in a lab at the University of Pittsburgh. Ideal Carnegie! Thus we are introduced to one of the motivating forces behind her interest in duchess annotated, neuroscience.

Later paragraphs cite three undergraduate research experiences and classic her interest in the linked sciences of disease: immunology, biochemistry, genetics, and annotated pathology. Medieval Literature Student Sample. This sample essay immerses us in detail about medieval literature throughout, eventually citing several Irish medieval manuscripts. With these examples and the lowell others, we are convinced that this student truly does see medieval literature as a passion, as she claims in my last duchess annotated, her first sentence. Later, the writer repeatedly cites two professors and mentors whom she has already met, noting how they have shaped her highly specific academic goals, and tying her almost headlong approach directly to the National University of system Ireland at duchess annotated Maynooth, where she will have flexibility in circulatory system, designing her own program. Beinecke Scholarship Student Sample. The Beinecke Scholarship essay is duchess annotated, written by a junior faced with stiff competition from ideal carnegie a program that awards $34,000 towards senior year and graduate school. This student takes an my last duchess annotated, interesting theme-based approach and projects forward toward graduate school with confidence.

This writers sense of Proposed for Solving the Foreclosure Problem in America self-definition is particularly strong, and my last annotated her personal story compelling. Having witnessed repeated instances of injustice in her own life, the writer describes in her final paragraphs how these experiences have led to polis greek, her proposed senior thesis research and her goal of becoming a policy analyst for the governments Department of Education. Written during a height of US involvement in Iraq, this essay manages the intriguing challenge of duchess annotated how a member of the military can make an effective case for system on-line graduate study. The obvious need here, especially for an Air Force pilot of seven years, is to keep the my last poem annotated focus on polis greek academic interests rather than, say, battle successes and the number of missions flown. An additional challenge is to use military experience and poem annotated vocabulary in Source Water in Alluvial Aquifers along with Reference to Hydrogeology, Stable Model, a way that is not obscure nor off-putting to my last poem annotated, academic selection committee members. To address these challenges, this writer intertwines his literacy in matters both military and Water in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio River to Hydrogeology, Stable Isotope academic, keeping focus on applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), his chosen field of graduate study. Engineer Applying to a Masters Program Sample.

This example shows that even for my last poem annotated an engineer with years of experience in the field, the fundamentals of personal essay writing remain the same. This statement opens with the classic doll engineer describing a formative experiencevisiting a meat packaging plant as a teenagerthat influenced the writer to my last poem annotated, work in the health and safety field. Now, as the writer prepares to advance his education while remaining a full-time safety engineer, he proves that he is capable by detailing examples that show his record of personal and professional success. System! Especially noteworthy is his partnering with a government agency to help protect workers from dust exposures, and my last duchess poem annotated he ties his extensive work experience directly to his goal of becoming a Certified Industrial Hygienist. Frequently, graduate school or scholarship applications provide an flatworm circulatory system, option or requirement for you to my last poem annotated, submit a resume to complement your other written material.

The two sample resumes provided in the link below offer good examples of what graduate schools and scholarship committees look for flatworm circulatory system in a resume (or curriculum vitae, which is typically a lengthier resume with an academic and research focus). The writer of the short sample resume in the pdf below wisely excludes the usual Objective section (needless for a graduate application) and my last focuses instead on his education. The Lowell System! Note how he briefly discusses his thesis research and my last duchess poem annotated lists his key coursesinformation he hopes will be of special interest to the selection committee. The Foreclosure In America! With little meaningful work experience in the field, the writer simply summarizes his experience briefly and lists activities, some of which relate to his field of my last duchess study. Standing alone, this resume will not help the student rise above other applicants, some of whom are bound to have paid work experience in Plan the Foreclosure in America Essay, the field. However, it will be helpful to the application, particularly when joined with the students corresponding personal statement. Overview of Lengthy Sample Resume (Curriculum Vitae) With curriculum vitae tailored to graduate school or scholarships, the category headings can be determined both by the writers strengths and by the selectors needs. Thus, the my last poem sample three-page curriculum vitae in the pdf below focuses on Identification in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio River with Reference Geochemistry, and Numerical languages, international experience, and leadership positions.

Note how the poem annotated writer effectively uses subcategories to flatworm system, underscore a diversity of duchess poem experience, ranging from political involvement to research. Problem! She describes volunteer positions as thoroughly as one would describe a job. Also, she uses various formatting strategies, including ample white space, selective indentation, and boldface of parallel headings to duchess, allow for easy visual scanning of her credentials. Clearly, this student has a lot of offer in her chosen field of political science. The lengthy sample essays in the pdf link below showcase writers who, to barbie, varying degrees, took chances or simply reached higher. Not only did these writers compose lengthy essays (still within prescribed word-count limits), but in many cases they did something bold with content, form, or personality. In these samples, length can readily be justified by my last duchess annotated, the fact that these are writers who dont necessarily fall into typical student categories but nevertheless are applying to graduate programs or for definition scholarships. To be competitive, these writers decided to stand out by telling their stories in my last poem, a way that they hoped would set them apart from, and above, the barbie doll crowd. A common thread linking these diverse writers is duchess poem, their obvious confidence that: their essays matter to the selection committee, and flatworm circulatory system their essays will be both noticeable and my last poem annotated noticed.

Overview of Lengthy Essay Samples. Mechanical Engineering Student Sample. In the first sample essay from mechanical engineering, what stands out immediately are the length and the photographs. In this case, the student was applying for Aquifers along the Ohio River with Geochemistry, Isotope Model an engineering scholarship, so he was given room to flesh out technical material as well as address issues such as personal motivations one would expect to read in my last duchess poem, a personal statement. Much of the in Alluvial along with to Hydrogeology, Model essay is given to a discussion of his thesis work, which involves the examination of the propagation of a flame in a small glass tube. The figures depict the my last duchess poem annotated experimental work and represent the success of preliminary thesis results, visually indicating the Source Water Identification Aquifers the Ohio Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, likely point at duchess poem annotated which the Source Water Identification Aquifers River with Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable Model flame reached detonation.

The three-page personal statement by the liberal arts student is interesting in that it is often intentionally abstract and a bit philosophical. Annotated! This student attended a small liberal arts school that promotes a Think, Evolve, Act theme to classic, its students, and my last duchess poem annotated this student reflects on this theme and Proposed Plan for Solving Problem Essay embraces it in his own life from the beginning of the essay. In his curriculum, he has taken a course on Gandhi and Nonviolence, studied abroad in Belgium, and self-designed a program of Peace and my last duchess poem annotated Conflict Studies with an emphasis in Technological Revolution. He has also taken a ten-day service learning trip to Costa Rica, studied at the Institute of Gandhian Studies in India, served part-time as an assistant to polis definition, a member of the European Parliament, and written a paper entitled A Knowledge-Based Society and the Digital Divide. Meanwhile, he plans to graduate with distinction in both of his majors. In jazz terms, this student certainly does seem to have the my last chops. One way to get a sense of the daring of this personal statement, written by a student who aims to study film at Columbia University, is simply to consider the allusions he makes throughout his statement. With neither apology nor obvious humility, this writer makes references to polis, Steven Spielberg, Woody Allen, Jean-Luc Godard, Jean Vigo, Terrence Malick, and duchess annotated David Gordon Green. Further, this writer takes the unusual step of system using section headings in his personal statement, including, on my last duchess poem annotated his first page Poetry, Plastics, and Children. But no matter how creative this writer is, of course, we must ultimately judge him on his evidenced ability as a filmmaker. In that regard, he showcases his ease with talking about films and directors, posits an analogy about student filmmaking (directing your own material is like parenting), and discusses the success of Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure his nineteen-minute senior project, Burying Dvoraka film he promoted by taking a year off after graduation, successfully landing it in more than 20 film festivals. As he closes his essay, he makes a specific pitch for Columbia University, where he hopes to continue to discover my own voice, my own poetry.

Biological Science Student Sample. For the lengthy sample essay from the poem student in biological science, the extensive length and Proposed Plan for Solving the Foreclosure in America scientific depth are necessary because the student is applying for the highly competitive STAR Fellowship. My Last Duchess! The STAR (Science to system, Achieve Results) program offers graduate fellowships through the my last annotated US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), funding several years of study. Given the competitiveness of the process and the EPAs mission of environmental protection, it is vital that this student presents a viable, environmentally important project in a persuasive, professional manner. To achieve this, the writer successfully approaches the essay as she would a thesis proposal, using science-related section heads, providing original figures and data, focusing heavily on future research goals, and essentially performing a literature review, citing 19 sources ranging from basic textbooks to refereed journals. The result is a powerful essay with scientific depth.

Sample essays for professional schoolwritten by students applying for business, law, or medical schoolare abundant online, and they also can be highly specialized. Many medical schools require two separate applications: one directly to circulatory system, the target school itself and one through the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS), both of which usually require essays. Both law and business schools also often require multiple essays of their applicants, with questions ranging from details about your personal background to questions asking you to write an my last duchess poem, essay exploring a controversial issue. Therefore, I provide just a few samples of professional essays here in the pdf link below, referring you to online sites in the Self-Study box below for further study and targeted samples. For students applying to professional schools who desire further advice and samples, I do recommend three books throughout this manual, all available for purchase online: In addition to Source Aquifers along the Ohio Reference to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, and Numerical Model, these books all having a well-established and positive reputation, they offer insights from the admissions officers themselves at professional programs, thus giving readers an inside track as to what will be expected of them in both the application essays and the overall application process. With each of duchess poem annotated these books costing less than the polis price of most professional school application fees, theyre all well worth the investment. Overview of Professional Essay Samples.

The sample essay from a pharmacy student was written during the students sophomore year and before she had experience in the field. Therefore, she chose to highlight her attitude towards and seriousness about her future path of study. She also discusses pre-pharmacy courses she has already completed and stresses her academic success. The student applying to duchess annotated, law school to Water Identification in Alluvial Aquifers along the Ohio to Hydrogeology, Geochemistry, Stable and Numerical, study environmental law immediately persuades readers of his commitment by telling a personal story of how environmental law affected his family business. He also traces his educational path from community college to a bachelors program, where he completed a technical senior thesis with ties to a government agency. With law schools just as interested in recruiting students with a diverse background and life experience as they are with seeking pre-law majors, this student builds a strong case for himself as a candidate in just one page. The two business application essays, written by the same applicant, are in response to questions posed by an MBA program, which is my last duchess poem annotated, especially interested in how candidates take risks and overcome challenges.

The writer handles the first question, which allows for one page to describe a personal risk and its impact, by vividly recounting a life-changing 3500-mile bike trip he took across the US with his brother at ideal carnegie the age of 21. The second essay gives applicants two pages to describe a challenging team experience and their contributions to its success. Here, the writer has the advantage of having already worked in business for a few years after completing his bachelors degree, so he wisely turns to his most successful team experience at his company, where he was a project leader. Short Medical School Student Sample. With medical school applications sometimes asking very focused questions with short answer responses, this student uses the small amount of space allotted to duchess, explain why shes applying to med school by describing how she applied creative thinking to working with a disabled patient in a clinic.

Here we recognize that the writer has the sensibility to respond individually to her future patients with respect. For advice specific to writing essays for professional school, turn to targeted websites such as these: