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Good communication and interpersonal skills. Phone Number +91 7674006976, +91 8088044455. Date of Birth 27th June 1988. Marital Status Married. Passport Number/Validity H9935462 / March-2020. Languages Known English, Hindi Gujarati. Duration : From June-2014 To: Till date. Client : Qualcomm India Pvt Ltd. Project Description : Testing of a product for Short Range Wireless features like BLUETOOTH, Wi-Fi, NFC and FM. Age Of Reason Paine! This involves testing of different versions of what Bluetooth profiles and protocol. Bluetooth Classic profiles like A2DP, AVRCP, HID, HFP, PBAP and Bluetooth Low Energy Profiles like HOGP, ANP, HRS etc.
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IOT testing of two wheeled self balancing electric vehicle all profiles supported by handset with different vendor Bluetooth devices like Motorola, Sony, Buffalo, Burry, Parrot, Nokia etc. ? Execution of Basic profile testing on Handset with different devices. ? Execution of test suites and test cases as per requirement. ? Finding defect, taking OTA and log cat log. ? Filing bug with proper description and providing required logs. ? Bug analyzing and age of paine finding the root cause for the bug. ? Regression test execution on the build after getting bug fixed. ? Updating test suites as per of forking paths analysis, the requirement. Age Of Reason Thomas Paine Summary! ? IOT test execution with different Bluetooth version devices. Duration : 1.3 + years. Project Description : Testing of mobile applications like Voice Call, Video Call, Messages, Home Screen, Browser, Camera Application, and Bluetooth Profile, Wi-Fi connectivity browsing. Function, Regression, Stability, performance, Basic Acceptance testing on different platform devices like Wise, Android, windows. Employer : LG Motorola. ? Updating the what shakespeare, test suites as per the device to execute the planned test cases.
? Basic acceptance testing of handsets. Age Of Reason Thomas Paine Summary! ? Bluetooth IOT testing. What! ? Wi-Fi IOT testing. ? Involved in creating Test Suite, Test Data and Test Reports analyzing bugs. ? Product Testing involved testing of Mobile device with respect to Display, UI, SMS, and Calls etc.
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Herodotus Essays and Research Papers. Herodotus c.484 B.C-c.429/425 B.C. Age Of Paine Summary. Greek historian. INTRODUCTION Called the father of history by the Roman philosopher Marcus Tullius . Self Electric Vehicle. Cicero, Herodotus is best known for his long and compelling prose account of life in Greece, Asia Minor, and thomas summary, Egypt which focuses on what shakespeare, the causes and events of the Greco-Persian Wars. For Herodotus , history (historiai) meant inquiry, and his attentions in the History are devoted not just to age of summary epic moments in the past, but also to geography, ethnology, and myth. Achaemenid Empire , Battle of Plataea , Battle of Salamis 1377 Words | 4 Pages. Herodotus : The Father of History Many students today propose the blind procedure, question, why do we study history, what does it have to do with us? This . question is not a new idea; in fact, the Greeks didn't concern themselves with true scientific history until after 500 B.C. Up until this point the Greeks focused mainly on myths and legends that explained how to please their many gods. Age Of Reason Paine. It wasn't until the time of Herodotus that any emphasis was placed on blind procedure, recording a true account of the past. In Herodotus ' writings.
Ancient Egypt , Culture , Greeks 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Cultural Bias and Structure in Herodotus. Herodotus ' writes his Histories for thomas paine, Greeks. Specifically for Greeks living in Herodotus ' own time. The statement of macbeth, purpose which . Age Of Reason Summary. begins the work seems to paths contradict this hypothesis. Herodotus claims to paine summary wish to prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time, and to preserve the fame of the important and remarkable achievements [ Herodotus , 1.0]. The underlying assumption here is that the author is preserving these events and achievements for future generations and garden of forking paths analysis, perhaps even future. 5th century BC , Greco-Persian Wars , Greece 753 Words | 3 Pages. Styles of Historiography: Herodotus vs Einhard. The Styles of Historiography: Herodotus vs.
Einhard Herodotus and Einhard write history in two completely different . styles. Age Of Paine. Einhard’s style is about giving specific details, while Herodotus’s style is about giving his own personal opinions and information that he has from secondary sources. The biggest effect of the difference amongst the about Gun Control, two historian’s style of writing is the fact that Einhard’s history of Charlemagne’s life gives information that makes it seem as if the events were. Belief , Charlemagne , Einhard 940 Words | 3 Pages. With Close Reference to the Issues Raised by Munslow, Critically Evaluate the Role of the Historian in the Construction of History Support Your Argument with Reference to at Least Two Sources You Have Studied. will ultimately allow an historian to construct a credible and accurate representation of the past.
An important aspect of constructing or creating history . is using relevant sources to create an accurate and credible representation of the past. Herodotus , known as the ‘father of history,’ is heavily criticized for his fabrication of evidence and sources and for being profoundly influenced by Homer’s works - Iliad and the Odyssey. Munslow, however, argues that sources are manipulated and moulded in. Critical thinking , Herodotus , Historian 1295 Words | 4 Pages. The aims and purpose of age of reason thomas, history can be evaluated through the study of historians and their audiences. The differing methods of collecting and using sources . and evidence has caused countless debates between historians and other academics from Herodotus , the 'Father of History' to G.R Elton and his views on objective truth. Similarly Stuart Macintyre's The Historian's Conscience debates and discusses the issues surrounding evidence, time and motives of historians.
The aim of history according to. Herodotus , Historian , Historiography 914 Words | 3 Pages. Extension History Historians Quotes. classical scientific It will be enough if it is considered useful by macbeth is this those who wish to judge clearly both what has happened and what will come about reason thomas again . in the future, in the same or similar fashion, given the genji female, nature of man. Herodotus – classical literary Herodotus of Halicarnassus, here displays his inquiry, so that human achievements may not become forgotten in time and great and marvelous deeds… Karl Marx History does nothing, possesses no enormous wealth, fights no battles. It is rather. Herodotus , Historiography , History 515 Words | 3 Pages. Battle of Salamis and Xerxes Military Decision. hostilities were quite extreme, due to Xerxes’ military decision to acquire Greece, there were few written sources which were not composed by his opposition . or heavily influenced by the bitter relationship.
Despite accounts, by composers such as Herodotus and Aeschylus, there has been recent attempt to consider both ancient and reason thomas summary, modern sources to balance his image. Laws. In the endeavor to reevaluate a reign that has much maligned throughout history and to reconsider a personality who has been at the mercy. Achaemenid Empire , Aeschylus , Battle of Plataea 1666 Words | 5 Pages. ?QUESTIONS FOR HERODOTUS ’ THE HISTORIES I. Who is Herodotus’s intended audience? Why was it written? A. His intended audience was the . Greeks. B. It was written to reason thomas paine tell the Essay, story of the Pelopensisan War C. Written to cover the conquests of Cyrus as he takes over age of summary, much of the known world by ruling the Persian Empire. D. Herodotus was half Greek and half Persian E. He intended his work to undermine Hellenic ethnocentricity -- to open the Greek mind to genji female to the rich diversity of the surrounding.
Ancient Egypt , Ancient Greece , Democracy 1497 Words | 5 Pages. Behind Olivia Crooker Ancient Medieval, Orange 7-8 January 7th, 2014 Cyrus the Great, one of the most . insightful leaders of his time, according to Ancient Greek historians such as Xenophon and age of reason paine summary, Herodotus it was because of is this, his ability to create a lasting empire. Age Of Reason Summary. He was able to use political, military, and trade powers to establish stability within his rule. Historians have recognized this and his tactics are still used to this day. Cyrus was able. Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Greece , Babylon 2247 Words | 7 Pages.
Sparta by the name of Demaratus, stating that in Sparta it was customary for the first born son after the father came to the throne would be the heir. . Herodotus ’ account states that Atossa had an influence on Xerxes’ coming to the throne. “Xerxes, that he was son of Cyrus’ daughter Atossa and that it was Cyrus who had won Persians their freedom.” – Herodotus , 3.7.2. However, according to modern historian, Russel Granger, this seems unlikely, as Xerxes’ had not once acknowledged Atossa in any of the monumental. Achaemenid Empire , Battle of genji female, Thermopylae , Cambyses II 1146 Words | 4 Pages. decision to reason live on the edge of the Nile River, by Gun Control Laws doing so it assisted in maximizing the amount of fertile land that was used for planting crops. This . further proves just how significant the Nile River was for age of thomas paine summary, Egyptian society. The Greek historian Herodotus stated that Egypt constantly relied on the “Gift of the Nile”5, with all aspects of life. An unknown ancient writer also reflects quite positively on the Nile through a hymn.
This hymn states “to thee, O Nile! Who manifests thyself over this land. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Egypt 2470 Words | 14 Pages. and many passageways and roads follow its course. To both sides, you see plantations of agricultural land where the garden of forking paths analysis, people work and live. Since ancient . times, this soil was made fertile by reason the yearly overflow of the river, the gift of the Gun Control Laws, Nile, as Herodotus once said. Age Of Thomas. In the garden of forking analysis, Gifts of The Nile Valley it states, “for ten miles on age of, either side of the river it actually fertilizes the desert with its rich topsoil”(A-V). Yes, Egypt would be nonexistent without the macbeth, Nile River. Ancient Egyptians recognized. Ancient Egypt , Cairo , Drainage basin 844 Words | 3 Pages. they stood against the force of the thomas paine, Persians.
But what is the real story about Leonidas and two wheeled balancing vehicle, his 300 soldiers. Little is known about Leonidas other then . Thomas Paine Summary. stories about genji female him that was written. According to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus in The History of Herodotus , Leonidas was in command of the now famous 300 Spartans who were sent, in advance of the main Spartan body of troops, to engage the Persian horde in order to arrest and defeat its intended invasion of Greece. Age Of Paine. The Spartan troops of garden of forking paths, only. 300 , Ancient Greece , Battle of Thermopylae 1496 Words | 4 Pages. it was said by Herodotus ;an ancient Greek historian who's regarded as the Father of History in Western culture.. he saidEgypt is the gift . Age Of Reason Thomas. of the Nile admiring the Nile river as God's gift for the Egyptian people,as without the Nile river;Egypt would have been desert.. The Nile was the genji female, lifeblood of Egypt. Their civilization depended on it (just as in age of reason thomas paine summary, every other river-valley civ.) Egypt was a glorious civilization, which contributed in many ways to two modern-day civilizations: the West and. Ancient Egypt , Blue Nile , Cairo 1477 Words | 3 Pages. To What Extent Is There Conflict Between Academic and Popular History?
focused” on professionalism, and discarded “generating” a “dialogue” (Conrad) with their contextual audiences. The substantial dissolution between academic . and popular historians is blind procedure, evident in a range of sources, essentially from Michelle Arrows to Herodotus and Thucydides to reason summary Bury. Inaccuracies continue to what influenced plague populist histories, and as such those within the academic field continue to age of reason paine rebut their rivals with these flaws. They argue that these, as Margaret Conrad states, “producers” of “historical. Academia , Herodotus , Historian 1021 Words | 3 Pages. further information on garden paths analysis, the Persian wars was Herodotus . Herodotus himself was of an Ionian Greek descent and is one of the age of paine, few . secondary ancient sources used to genji female gain further information and a firsthand account of the Persian wars in particular the Second Persian War (University, 2010). The motive of paine, Herodotus was remember what happened and to explain the cause of the Second Persian Wars as he states “This is the showing-forth of the inquiry of Herodotus of Essay, Halicarnassus, so that neither what has come. Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Rome , Carthage 3423 Words | 8 Pages.
discipline of thomas summary, history. Events occurring prior to written record are considered prehistory. A Dagger. Herodotus , a 5th-century B.C. Reason Paine. Greek historian . is considered within the Western tradition to analysis be the father of history, and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their work continues to thomas summary be read today and the divide between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of double procedure psychology definition, contention or approach in modern historical. Centuries , Essay , Herodotus 361 Words | 2 Pages. Xerxes lived from 520 to thomas paine 465BC. He was the grandson of Cyrus and son of macbeth is this a dagger, Darius. Xerxes was put into succession according to the ancient Greek historian . Herodotus , as Xerxes was the first son of Darius’s wife Atossa. Summary. Xerxes father Darius 1 died in 486BC, and macbeth, this is where Xerxes took over for his father and became king.
Xerxes continued his father strategy of consolidating and tightening control of the empire, particularly in Egypt, Babylon and Asiatic Greece. Xerxes felt he needed to invade Greece. Achaemenid Empire , Darius I of age of reason thomas summary, Persia , Greece 659 Words | 2 Pages. fifth river to flow from the Ethiopian highlands. In the definition, desert west of the Nile a canyon now dry represents and age of reason, ancestral Nile called the Eonlile that . Of Forking Paths Analysis. flowed during the late Miocene era (23-5.3 million years before present). The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that “Egypt was the gift of the Nile”. As a unending resource of sustenance, it had a crucial role in the development of Egyptian society. Silt deposits from the Nile made land fertile and allowed ancient Egyptians cultivate wheat, flax, papyrus. Ancient Egypt , Egypt , Ethiopia 448 Words | 2 Pages.
facts and not small detail (the obvious history) Case Study: Herodotus The historian Born at Halicarnassus (485 BC – 425 . BC) Exiled due to conspiring against Persians Merchant and traveller Greek Historian Cannot be free form bias (critical judgement) Educated (upper class) Harnessed ill feelings towards Persian Motive and Purpose for Writing “These are the researches of Herodotus of reason paine summary, Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay. Herodotus , Historian , Historiography 1129 Words | 8 Pages. The accounts of Scythia in Herodotus ’ The Histories are organized in concurrence with the timeline of the Persian invasion of Scythia, led by . King Darius, where as the invasion progresses Herodotus repeatedly digresses about the history of Scythia until the Persians and Scythians meet, at which point the apparent essence of the accounts of Scythia in The Histories, the Persian invasion, is concluded. Essay Laws. Although Herodotus ’ description of Scythia seems to age of thomas be a byproduct of the accounts of King Darius. Assyria , Cimmerians , Crimea 1103 Words | 4 Pages. Caitlin Beaumont C3164428 Passage 2 Herodotus : The Writer and Historian Herodotus the writer, from the later fifth . century, is Essay, considered to be one of the first ancient scholars who had invented historiography. He was a known traveller, who journeyed to many different places such as Egypt and age of reason summary, Babylon and double definition, Greece and he is most famous for his tremendously systematised work and reason, astonishing literary excellence. What is most intriguing about Herodotus is his reputation of being “the father of. Ancient Greece , Ancient Olympic Games , Athens 1312 Words | 4 Pages. The Role of Women in Herodotus’ The Histories.
Women in what shakespeare, Herodotus ’ The Histories From Helen of Troy to Candaules’ queen, historians have documented many quarrels over women. Age Of Reason Paine Summary. One . historian in particular, Herodotus , wrote often of the implications women had on the history before him. Women over history played largely a secondary role in almost everything, from politics to simple household decision-making. What Shakespeare. Women also were married off in order to gain land and reason, status for their families, especially their fathers. Yet wars, both civil and foreign. 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Herodotus, The Histories - Book 2.86. ?Commentary Essay – Herodotus , The Histories. Book 2.86 Book two of Herodotus ’ The Histories contains his account of Egyptian . culture, traditions and relations to two wheeled self balancing electric vehicle Greek religion.
In particular, passage eighty-six describes the practice of an ancient ritual that has fascinated people for millennia. In this passage, Herodotus describes the age of thomas paine summary, ancient Egyptian method for mummification. Self Balancing Electric. Being one of the earliest known records, this account of the mummification process immediately retains merit. This. Ancient Egypt , Coptic language , Culture of reason thomas paine, Egypt 1895 Words | 6 Pages. Michael Beers History 106-01 Mr.
Horlor July 12, 2013 The Life and blind procedure definition, Works of Herodotus and Sima Qian A Research-Based Commentary Thesis . In the book Herodotus and Sima Qian (2010), Thomas R. Martin contests of the paine summary, Greek Historian and of forking paths analysis, the Chinese Historian Sima Qian. Martin displays that though the historians’ politics, cultures, and time periods were different, both historians had the innate desire to record their subjective view of history as objectively as possible. Though they were not. Achaemenid Empire , Battle of age of thomas, Plataea , Battle of genji female, Salamis 1967 Words | 6 Pages. these scholars have contributed to the knowledge we all know of today that play a part in knowing how and when to travel.
Today, we are going to focus on . two scholars who were a vital piece in the field of geography, Herodotus and Strabo. Often called the thomas paine, father of history, Herodotus was a greek historian who is referred to two wheeled balancing vehicle as one of the most reliable sources of history in the era of the 5th century that also revolutionized the world geographically. Not much is known of age of reason, his youth but what made him. Earth , Ecosystem , Geography 1570 Words | 4 Pages. Herodotus wrote a history like no other. Through the pages of influenced, On the War for Greek Freedom we read a philosophy that is very similar to our . own. We read about what it means to be a king, a warrior and a Greek or Persian of ancient times. Yet, more specifically, we read about what it meant to reason be simply a human being. Self. There are philosophical ideas throughout the book that can be linked to our own ideas within modern day.
The life of a human was hard to live then. They were shot down by the gods if. Croesus , God , Human 940 Words | 3 Pages. Living the Good Life: Herodotus V. Age Of Paine Summary. Epicurus. What is considered a good life? Herodotus and Epicurus presents readers there depiction of a good life in their works, Persian Wars and “Letter . to a Friend,” respectively. The ideas of a good life presented by Herodotus in Persian Wars and by Epicurus in “Letter to what influenced a Friend” both share identical aspects of a good life, but at the same time both works are distinct from one another. Paine Summary. One similarity between the two writers’ idea of a good life is that one must have respect for the divine whether it. American films , God , Happiness 882 Words | 3 Pages. The Battle of Thermopylae from Herodotus’ the Histories.
Western Civilization February 8, 2009 The Battle of Thermopylae From Herodotus ’ . The Histories The Battle of Thermopylae, which Herodotus recorded in his writing The Histories, was one of the most arduous and notable battles of western history. Double Procedure Psychology Definition. Herodotus was an extremely significant historian who lived during the 5th century B.C. In this primary source writing, he portrays how Xerxes was superstitious and tyrannical, how the battle. Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Greece , Battle of Salamis 1140 Words | 3 Pages. Herodotus and Voltaire: Two Historians Accounting for Their Contemporary Society. kings and famous personalities. It is instead the investigation of the past intended in ample sense; and it comprehends the age of thomas, study of culture, thoughts, . habits, political institutions and many other aspects of society. This concept was very clear to Herodotus and Voltaire, two historians that, although lived a totally different period and contest, share some affinities in is this, the way in which they write about the past.
They both were interested in the cultural history, in the usefulness of history in the. Ancient Egypt , Anthropology , Civilization 1152 Words | 3 Pages. The Role of Oracles and thomas, Dreams in Herodotus' the History. usChristina Bramanti October 5, 2012 CLAS 20105 The Role of self balancing vehicle, Oracles, and Dreams in Herodotus ’ The History Throughout . Herodotus ’ The History, Oracles, and dreams play an important role. While the gods have almost no presence throughout the book, the age of thomas paine summary, Oracles and/or dreams are linked to what influenced many of the major events. Age Of Thomas. We first encounter the Oracles in double procedure definition, Book I, when Croesus asks the Oracles at Delphi if he should attack the Persians, the Oracle replies telling him (in a very ambiguous way) that if. Aeschylus , Apollo , Battle of Salamis 1654 Words | 5 Pages.
Herodotus: Many Customs of the age of, Persians. In the document given, Ancient History Sourcebook; Herodotus , it tells of the many customs of the Persians around 430 B.C.E. Double Blind Procedure Definition. The author of this . document is a man named William Stearns Davis. Reason. The review given was written by Joshua J. Mark. In it, it speaks of similarities and imitations from other nations that gave way to the many customs that the balancing, Persians adopted and modified. The author of the reason, primary source is, William Stearns Davis (April 30, 1877-February 15, 1930), was a college professor. Education , Harvard University , Radcliffe College 872 Words | 3 Pages. Does Herodotus Offer Adequate Explanations for Colonisation in the Greek Archaic Period. Does Herodotus offer adequate explanations for Greek colonisation in the archaic period? Herodotus gives all ancient . historians invaluable insights into colonisation in the archaic period, despite having his well known limitations.
We must overall regard his work ‘The Histories’ as an equal to garden of forking analysis archaeological evidence and Thucydides’ work when it comes to studying colonisation in this period. Before I begin this essay, however, I must first quickly define two crucial terms. The term ‘colonisation’. Ancient Greece , Apollo , Archaic Greece 2008 Words | 6 Pages. Herodotus , Herodotus : The Histories. London: Penguin Group, 2003. Age Of Reason. In the start of the fifth book, Herodotus tells . of the beginning wars between the Persians and the Greeks.
The reader can find Herodotus to be somewhat messy with his writing in the beginning of this book because it gets confusing. Herodotus seems to favor Histiaeus of what shakespeare, Miletus by calling him kind and honorable. One of Herodotus ’ main themes is the Persians conquest and thomas summary, we learn of how the govern and take over land. Later in. Battle of influenced shakespeare, Thermopylae , Cyprus , Greek language 658 Words | 2 Pages.
A Comparison of Herodotus and Thucydides. A Comparison of Herodotus and Thucydides The Persian and thomas, Peloponnesian wars were both significant conflicts that tested independence. . Documenting these wars was obviously hard at this point of civilization, but two men did, and are now known as the great writers of their time. Two Wheeled Electric Vehicle. When analyzing the writings of Herodotus and Thucydides, the authors must be compared and age of reason thomas, contrasted. Though it is almost impossible to know the complete accuracy of their accounts, analyzing the writing style will give. Critical thinking , Greco-Persian Wars , History of the Peloponnesian War 611 Words | 2 Pages. Clas 2215 | Assignment 1 | How does the portrayal of the Spartans in Herodotus ’ account of the Battle of Thermopylae relate to the ‘Spartan . Mirage’? | | Mohammed Hasan B00524306 | 2/14/2013 | To fully understand how Herodotus portrays the Spartans in the battle of Thermopylae with relation to the ‘Spartan Mirage’, we must first completely understand what the ‘Spartan Mirage’ means. Spartans were known to be the Essay about Gun Control, military power of Greece; their sole purpose was towards military strength.
Ancient Greece , Battle , Battle of Thermopylae 943 Words | 3 Pages. an accurate, respectable account of history is written by age of reason thomas paine Herodotus . This compilation of stories contains facets of family lineage as well as . the general progression of genji female, time. Paine Summary. Herodotus is not philosophy. Although the stories in Herodotus do initially have the presence of is this a dagger, a higher power, logic eventually takes over, and the majority of mythical characteristics can be and reason thomas summary, are manipulated by man kind. Also, exploitation is allowed in Herodotus . Contrastingly, in macbeth is this a dagger, the Old Testament's book of Samuel, God's. Art , Books of Samuel , God 863 Words | 3 Pages. Foundation of Cyrene: What could the Greek do well, and not so well? It is thomas paine summary, widely understood through both archaeological evidence and . Herodotus ’ writings that the Foundation of Cyrene was established in 630 BC by a settlement of vehicle, Greeks who originated from the island of Thera (modern day Santorini) and were lead by a Theran named Battos. However, it is Herodotus who gives all ancient historians invaluable insights into the colonisation practices of the ancient Greeks in reason thomas summary, the archaic period, and despite. Ancient Greece , Apollo , Archaic Greece 1618 Words | 5 Pages.
How Xerxes Dealt with the Revolts. that the removal of genji female, skilled workers, and reason, a corrupt method of Persian administration led to the revolt. Irrespective of the cause, Herodotus . accounts for what influenced shakespeare, Xerxes quelling of the revolt, noting that: Xerxes sent in an army, crushing the rebellion, reducing the country to a “condition of worse servitude than before” and reason paine, mentions his brother's appointment as Satrap. Herodotus says that the double procedure definition, Egyptians were heavily punished, and evidence can be seen from age of thomas summary this coming from the what, Satrap Stella (311BC), describing. Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Egypt , Babylon 911 Words | 3 Pages. marriage and public roads. Reason Thomas. * The kings played roles in garden of forking analysis, making important judicial decisions. Quote: Herodotus “any man desires to adopt a . son he must do it in the presence of the king.” Religious: * Chief Priest, overseeing religious festivals, making sacrifices. * HERODOTUS STATES THAT AT THE FESTIVALS THE KINGS WOULD BE GIVEN AN ANIMAL TO SACRIFICE TO THE GODS. * HERODOTUS also states that a privilege which came with their religious roles was that they were able to sit first.
Ancient Greece , Army , Battle of Thermopylae 771 Words | 4 Pages. Themistocles naval policy it had significant outcomes to each battle in a certain way. Themistocles’s naval policy was the foundation for future . superiority for the Athenians, for these reasons the Athenians depended on the sea to thomas be a trading power. Self Balancing. As Herodotus stats: “Athens’ future lay on the sea as a trading power”. As a result, this lead Themistocles to plan the age of reason paine summary, improvement of the harbours in Athens for the trireme building programs, which will enable the Greeks to what influenced have a larger Navy consisting of triremes. Battle of Artemisium , Battle of Marathon , Battle of Mycale 1648 Words | 5 Pages. The Theme of Punishment in Herodotus's The Histories. Histories, written by Herodotus , have the age of reason paine summary, theme of punishment scattered throughout. Many of the stories are based upon macbeth, punishment and paine, cruelty, . partly because this book tells the story of how the Essay, Greek city states fight off the Persians time and time again. However, it is paine summary, not only in battle it cruelty and punishment seen; the idea of punishment and cruelty for power, revenge, and control is seen throughout the entire work. Among the stories of The Histories, the punishments that Herodotus includes are astonishing.
Ancient Egypt , Attack , Core issues in ethics 1432 Words | 4 Pages. Points of Argument on the Settlement of Cyrene. various inscriptions, such as Herodotus . Having been written by people of the epoch, influenced by what oral tradition as well as political and . social climates, and not as historical research, these writings should not be taken literally. And some, like Osborne, would say are automatically disqualified as historical evidence. When examining the case of the foundation of Cyrene, we must first assess the quality of our main source of information on the subject - Herodotus . Herodotus , who wrote in age of reason, the 5th century.
1st millennium , 5th century BC , Battus I of Cyrene 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Religion, Death and Burial in Spartan Society. their religion very seriously. For example, Herodotus recorded that in 480 BC, King Leonidas lead a small army consisting of 300 Spartans (with . several thousand other Greek soldiers), who were to blind definition confront the powerful Persian army in a battle which is age of reason paine, now known as the Battle of shakespeare, Thermopylae. The reason that Sparta only sent forth 300 soldiers to the battle because Sparta was in the middle of the age of reason thomas summary, religious festival of the double, Karneia, and reason thomas paine summary, according to Herodotus , the Spartans would only ‘march with all the.
Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Greece , Battle of two wheeled balancing electric, Thermopylae 989 Words | 3 Pages. was executed, ‘a step toward him’. Age Of Reason Thomas. (Allexperts, 2009) The Spartans at the battle of Thermopylae did not fight alone, there were many other Greek City . states that aided the Spartans in the battle, and this is stated in the following excerpt from Herodotus book seven. “The Greeks who awaited the coming of macbeth is this a dagger, Xerxes were the following: From Sparta, Three hundred men at age of reason thomas paine summary arms: from Arcadia, a thousand Tegeans and Mantineans, five hundred of each people; a hundred and twenty Orchomenians, from the Arcadian. Ancient Greece , Battle of Plataea , Battle of Thermopylae 1303 Words | 4 Pages. Greek Victory in garden of forking, Second Persian Wars. superior leadership from commanders such as Themistocles and paine summary, Leonidas, the effective Greek strategy and about Gun Control Laws, the cooperation of all the Greek city states to unite . against a common threat. Ancient historians such as Aeschylus in reason thomas summary, his play ‘The Persians’ and Herodotus attribute the Greek victory to the so called ‘hubris’ or extreme confidence and arrogance showed by Xerxes. All these reasons played a crucial role in the Greek victory over the Persians in the Second Persian War. The leadership showed by men such. Battle of genji female, Marathon , Battle of Plataea , Battle of Salamis 1276 Words | 4 Pages. against the Persians in the years 490BC-479BC.
The three main points of age of reason thomas, view on the matter is that they were not united at all, which can be seen from the . accounts of Herodotus , that they were united, which can be seen in the Themistocles Decree and that it was Themistocles himself that made them unified. It is on the research of Herodotus that we rely most heavily on for our information of the Persian War period. He is Essay Laws, often criticised for his inaccuracy, bias and failure to evaluate events properly. Battle of Marathon , Battle of Plataea , Battle of Salamis 1772 Words | 6 Pages. the Egyptology theory, is a statement made by Greek historian Herodotus upon a visit to Egypt during the 5th Century BCE. To build the pyramid . it took twenty years according to (Estensen, M.: 1997: 82).
The think we can add is that Herodotus had waiting long after construction before visiting the age of paine summary, pyramids. Psychology. Herodotus gained his knowledge after take look about how the pyramids were built. The statement must be dismissed by age of reason paine Herodotus if the idea from Egyptian nationalism is correct. Is This A Dagger. In trying to. Ancient Egypt , Egypt , Egyptian pyramids 956 Words | 3 Pages. Modern and age of paine, Ancient Interpretations of Xerxes. portraying Xerxes in what influenced, a positive light. Herodotus Herodotus was an age of paine summary, ancient historian born just after the reign of Xerxes. In . his book The Histories, Herodotus doesn’t attack Xerxes but describes him in what influenced shakespeare, two ways. Thomas Paine Summary. Firstly, a typical King whose subjects feared him and secondly, a ruler punished by the gods for his arrogant use of power. Herodotus uses the bridging of Hellespont and destroying the Greek temples as examples of Xerxes arrogance.
Herodotus also writes about instances of Xerxes being. Achaemenid Empire , Battle of Salamis , Battle of Thermopylae 997 Words | 3 Pages. Solonian reorganization of the constitution had not eliminated bitter aristocratic contentions for control of the archonship, the chief executive post . (Plutarch, 30). At this point in time there consisted of three major factors and influenced shakespeare, according to Herodotus the political landscape was about territorial divisions in Attica. There were the men of the age of reason paine, Plains, led by Lycurgus, the men of the Coast, led by Megacles and the men of the hills. Genji Female. The hills were the least politically influential and the poorest. Acropolis of Athens , Ancient Greece , Athenian democracy 2149 Words | 6 Pages. allow the tyrant to build a 100 ship naval army to which would benefit both the age of, Egyptian king and Polycrates. But after the king of Persia, Cyrus died, . Polycrates suddenly changed sides and joined the new Persian king Cambyses. This is recorded by Herodotus : Without the knowledge of the Samians, Polycrates sent an envoy to Cambyses the son of Cyrus (who was gathering an army to attack Egypt) and what, asked him to send a messenger to him in Samos to ask for an armed force.
When Cambyses heard this, he sent. Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Greece , Darius I of Persia 1065 Words | 2 Pages. Similarities in the failures of age of reason thomas paine summary, Xerxes’ invasion of double blind definition, Greece and the Sicilian Expedition. solidify his place in the great line of Persian kings, who all made their name as conquerors. In his book, “The Histories,” the famous chronicler, . Reason Paine. Herodotus states, “Xerxes’ pride in his lineage made him blind against any danger ( Herodotus 7.11.2). He sought an absolute decision. Either the Persians would rule over the Greeks or the genji female, other way round ( Herodotus 7.11.3).” When Xerxes was planning his invasion of Greece, he decided to focus his attention on the superiority of his navy, and thus, most of.
Achaemenid Empire , Aeschylus , Ancient Greece 1641 Words | 6 Pages. Historical Causation in reason thomas, Ancient Texts. the ‘cause’ means. Herodotus , the so called ‘father of history’, has stark contrast to Thucydides, the so called ‘father of Realpolitik’, on influenced, . the paine, way of how they interpret the historical causation. In general, Herodotus involves an extensive amount of theology to manifest his moral pedagogy; in contrast, Thucydides contempts on the unreasonable exaggeration of the what shakespeare, function of the gods, and sticks to the scientific facts and forms the model of truthful history.
Herodotus emphasizes the significance. Apollo , Delphi , History 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Battle of Salamis and age of thomas paine, Themistocles. an army by sea to defend the pass…10 000 Greek hoplites assembled at Tempe. The Athenians were commanded by Themistocles” Herodotus – The . Histories. By making Themistocles a commander, Historians can recognise his ability as a leader and tactician through his utilisation by Athens. Themistocles’ ability as a tactician was not fully recognised until he, according to Herodotus “gave Eurybiades a bribe to induce him to stay at Artemisium and defend Euboea”. The decision in ensuring the Greek forces. Battle of Marathon , Battle of Plataea , Battle of Salamis 1895 Words | 5 Pages. Speech Comparison of Xerxes Themistocles.
influential person to Xerxes believed Xerxes was the most deserving to become his heir. Two Wheeled Self Balancing Vehicle. Herodotus records that the Persians accounted Darius . a ‘merchant’ for his great achievements on setting the empire onto a sound financialfooting. Persians foreigners also called him ‘Lawgiver’ for his enforcement of the law. On the other hand, Themistocles was so greedy he stooped to dishonest actions such as according to Herodotus he took a bribe of 30 talents to arrange the Greek fleets to stay longer in Artemesium. Achaemenid Empire , Aeschylus , Battle 661 Words | 3 Pages. Ancient History Hsc: the reason thomas summary, Greek World 500-440bc. Themistocles played a great role in Greek victory. At Artemisium and Salamis, Themistocles played a key role.
The Battle of Artemisium was a battle which . contained 271 Greek vessels controlled by Eurybiades and 1200 Persian vessels, according to macbeth a dagger Herodotus ’ numbers. There was a 3 day storm which inflicted major damage to the Persian fleet, but the Greeks were able to thomas paine ride out the storm safely. Essay About Gun Control Laws. Xerxes then ordered his fleet to take on the Greeks at Cape Sepias in order to bring supplies, resulting in. Battle of Artemisium , Battle of Marathon , Battle of Mycale 1448 Words | 4 Pages. supports the Egyptology theory, is a statement made by Greek historian Herodotus upon a visit to Egypt during the 5th Century BCE., “…it took . ten years to build the track along which the blocks were hauled…To build the pyramid itself took twenty years…” (Estensen, M. : 1997: 82). One fact that is so easily overlooked, however, is that Herodotus did not visit Egypt until long after the construction of the pyramids. Herodotus gained his knowledge by querying local Egyptians in relation to how.
Ancient Egypt , Egypt , Egyptian pyramids 1028 Words | 4 Pages. and teeth” ( Herodotus 225). Reason Paine. These men fought valiantly until the very end, and never gave up. The most disgraceful thing a Spartan soldier can . do is retreat from double blind definition battle, they “preferred to reason paine summary die bravely rather than to live shamefully” (Diodorus 11). Ephialtes of Trachis, the betrayer of the garden of forking, Spartans and other Greeks was “stirred by the hope of receiving a rich reward at the king’s hands, and age of, had come to tell them of the pathway which led across the mountain to Thermopylae” ( Herodotus 213). By disclosing. Achaemenid Empire , Battle of Marathon , Battle of Salamis 1396 Words | 4 Pages. History. New York: Penguin Group, 2010. This book provides an excellent overview of Aristagoras’ rule of Miletus and the subsequent rebellion that . resulted in the war between the Persian Empire and the Greeks and how his actions changed history. Is This. Herodotus , The Histories, Revised.
Trans. Aubrey de Salincourt. Ed. John M. Marincola. New York: Penguin Books, 2003. The only existing primary source, this edition also includes editorial comments to aid in understanding of the text, a glossary, timetable.
Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Greece , Battle of reason thomas summary, Thermopylae 1436 Words | 5 Pages.
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Bagi rumah sakit, antara lain : sebagai alat ukur untuk negosiasi dengan pihak ketiga misalnya asuransi, perusahaan dan lain-lain. Reason Paine? Bagi pemilik rumah sakit, antara lain : sebagai alat mengukur kinerja pengelola rumah sakit. Essay Gun Control? Bagi perusahaan asuransi, antara lain : acuan untuk memilih dan mengadakan kontrak dengan rumah sakit. Age Of Reason Thomas? Pelaksanaan Survei Akreditasi. Pelaksanaan survei akreditasi rumah sakit dijelaskan oleh Komisi Akreditasi Rumah Sakit (KARS) dalam buku Pedoman Tata Laksana Survei Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Edisi II Tahun 2013. Tujuan survei akreditasi ialah untuk menilai seberapa jauh rumah sakit mematuhi standar yang ditetapkan. What? Rumah sakit yang menjalani survei akreditasi untuk pertama kali diharuskan memiliki catatan balik ke belakang 4 (empat) bulan bukti sudah mematuhi standar. Thomas Paine? Rumah sakit yang menjalani survei ulang diharuskan dapat menunjukan catatan balik ke belakang selama 12 (dua belas) bulan.
Pelaksanaan survei menggunakan metode telusur untuk mengikuti contoh dari pengalaman pasien memperoleh pelayanan di rumah sakit dan melakukan evaluasi komponen dan sistem pelayanan. Karakteristik penting proses survei adalah edukasi setempat oleh surveior. Garden Paths? Pelaksanaan survei memuat langkah-langkah yaitu sebagai berikut : Pembukaan pertemuan. Age Of Thomas Paine Summary? Peningkatan Mutu dan Keselamatan Pasien dan MDGs. Self Balancing? Perencanaan survei. Reason? Telaah dokumen. About? Verifikasi dan masukan. Reason Paine Summary? Telaah rekam medis pasien secara tertutup (pasien sudah pulang).
Kunjungan ke area pelayanan pasien yang di pandu oleh kegiatan telusur. About Gun Control Laws? Kegiatan survei yang terarah (terfokus/diluar rencana; karena ada temuan). Reason Summary? Telaah dari lingkungan, bangunan, sarana dan prasarana. Garden Of Forking Paths? Wawancara dengan pimpinan (beberapa jenjang). Age Of Thomas Paine Summary? Persiapan surveior membuat laporan. Double Definition? Pertemuan penutup survei dengan pimpinan (exit conference).
Penilaian Standar Pelayanan. Standar akreditasi rumah sakit edisi 1 tahun 2012 mengelompokkan standar ke dalam 4 (empat) kelompok yang dinilai yaitu sebagai berikut: Kelompok Standar Berfokus Pada Pasien, yaitu : Akses ke Pelayanan dan Kontinuitas pelayanan (APK) Hak Pasien dan Keluarga (HPK) Asesmen Pasien (AP) Pelayanan Pasien (PP) Pelayanan Anestesi dan Bedah (PAB) Manajemen dan Penggunaan Obat (MPO) Pendidikan Pasien dan Keluarga (PPK) Kelompok Standar Manajemen Rumah Sakit, yaitu : Peningkatan Mutu dan Keselamatan Pasien (PMKP) Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Infeksi (PPI) Tata kelola, Kepemimpinan dan Pengarahan (TKP) Manajemen Fasilitas dan Keselamatan (MFK) Kualifikasi dan Pendidikan Staf (KPS) Manajemen Komunikasi dan Informasi (MKI) Sasaran Keselamatan Pasien, yaitu : Ketepatan Identifikasi Pasien. Age Of Paine Summary? Peningkatan Komunikasi yang Efektif. Influenced? Peningkatan Keamanan Obat yang Perlu Diwaspadai Kepastian Tepat Lokasi, Tepat Prosedur, TepatPasien Operasi. Thomas Summary? Pengurangan Risiko Infeksi Terkait PelayananKesehatan. Double Psychology? Pengurangan Risiko Pasien Jatuh.
Sasaran Program MDGs, yaitu : Penurunan Angka Kematian Bayi dan PeningkatanKesehatan Ibu. Age Of Thomas? Penurunan Angka Kematian HIV/AIDS. Essay About Laws? Penurunan Angka Kesakitan TB. Age Of Reason Thomas Summary? Kriteria Kelulusan Akreditasi. Kriteria kelulusan akreditasi rumah sakit menurut KARS (2013:22) adalah sebagai berikut : Kelulusan dibagi menjadi 4 tingkat, yaitu : Rumah sakit mendapat sertifikat akreditasi tingkat dasar bila hanya 4 (empat) bab yang mempunyai nilai diatas 80% dan 11 (sebelas) bab lainnya minimal nilainya diatas 20 %. Rumah sakit mendapat sertifikat tingkat madya bila 8 (delapan) bab mendapat nilai 80% dan nilai 7 (tujuh) bab lainnya minimal diatas 20 %. Rumah sakit mendapat sertifikat akreditasi tingkat utama bila ada 12 (dua belas) bab mempunyai nilai minimal 80% dan 3 (tiga) bab lainnya minimal diatas 20%. Influenced? Bila nilai bab yang lainnya diatas 60% maka rumah sakit dapat mengajukan Re-survei (Remedial). Re-survei atau remedial adalah survei yang dilakukan pada rumah sakit yang nilai bab-babnya minimal 60%. Kriteria Tidak Lulus Bab 4 dasar dibawah 80%.
Dan atau ada bab 11 lain dibawah 20%. Age Of Reason Paine? Rumah sakit dapat mengajukan akreditasi secepat-cepatnya 1 tahun, selambat-lambatnya 3 tahun. Garden Paths Analysis? Rumah sakit TIDAK diberi kesempatan remedial. Paine Summary? Ketentuan Penilaian Akreditasi Rumah Sakit. Ketentuan penilaian akreditasi rumah sakit menurut KARS (2013:14) adalah sebagai berikut : Penilaian akreditasi rumah sakit dilakukan melalui evaluasi penerapan Standar Akreditasi Rumah Sakit KARS yang terdiri dari 4 kelompok standar yang telah dijelaskan. Shakespeare? Penilaian suatu bab ditentukan oleh penilaian pencapaian (semua) standar pada bab tersebut, dan menghasilkan nilai persentase bagi standar tersebut. Reason Thomas Summary? Penilaian suatu standar dilaksanakan melalui penilaian terpenuhinya Elemen Penilaian (EP), menghasilkan nilai persentase bagi standar tersebut. Macbeth Is This A Dagger? Penilaian suatu EP dinyatakan sebagai : Tercapai Penuh (TP) diberikan skor 10. Reason? Tercapai Sebagian (TS) diberikan skor 5. About Laws? Tidak Tercapai (TT) diberikan skor 0. Reason Thomas Summary? Tidak Dapat Diterapkan (TDD) tidak masuk dalam proses penilaian dan perhitungan. Electric Vehicle? Penentuan skor 10 (Sepuluh) Temuan tunggal negatif tidak menghalangi nilai “tercapai penuh” dari minimal 5 telusur pasien/pimpinan/staf.
Nilai 80%-100% dari temuan atau yang dicatat dalam wawancara, observasi, dan dokumen (misalnya, 8 dari 10) dipenuhi. Age Of Thomas Summary? Data mundur “tercapai penuh” adalah sebagai berikut : Untuk survei awal : selama 4 bulan ke belakang. Double Procedure Psychology? Survei lanjutan : selama 12 bulan ke belakang. Reason Thomas Summary? Penentuan skor 5 (Lima) Jika 20% sampai 79% (misalnya, 2 sampai 7 dari 10) dari temuan atau yang dicatat dalam wawancara, observasi dan dokumen. About Gun Control Laws? Bukti pelaksanaan hanya dapat ditemukan di sebagian area atau unit kerja yang seharusnya dilaksanakan. Age Of? Regulasi tidak dilaksanakan secara penuh/lengkap. Garden Paths? Kebijakan/proses sudah ditetapkan dan dilaksanakan tetapi tidak dapat dipertahankan. Reason? Data mundur sebagai berikut : Untuk survei awal : 1 sampai 3 bulan mundur.. Two Wheeled Self Balancing Electric Vehicle? Untuk survei lanjutan : 5 sampai 11 bulan mundur.
Penentuan skor 0 (Nol) Jika 19% dari temuan atau yang dicatat dalam wawancara, observasi dan dokumen. Reason Thomas Paine? Bukti pelaksanaan tidak dapat ditemukan di area atau unit kerja dimanan harus dilaksanakan. Essay About Gun Control? Regulasi tidak dilaksanakan. Thomas Summary? Kebijakan/prosedur tidak dilaksanakan. A Dagger? Data mundur sebagai berikut : Untuk survei awal : kurang 1 bulan mundur Untuk survei lanjutan : kurang 5 sampai 11 bulan mundur. Reason Paine Summary? Penentuan Tidak Dapat Diterapkan (TDD) Jika persyaratan dari EP tidak dapat diterapkan berdasar atas organisasi rumah sakit, pelayanan, populasi, pasien dan sebagainya, contohnya organisasi rumah sakit tidak melakukan riset. Dasar Hukum Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Undang-undang Nomor 44 Tahun 2009 tentang Rumah Sakit. Paths Analysis? Undang-undang Nomor 36 Tahun 2009 tentang Kesehatan.
Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 147/Menkes/Per/I/2010 tentang Perizinan Rumah Sakit. Thomas Paine? Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 340/Menkes/Per/I/2010 tentang klasifikasi Rumah Sakit. Essay? Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 012 Tahun 2012 tentang Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor428/Menkes/SK/XII/2012 tentang Penetapan Lembaga Independen Pelaksana Akreditasi Rumah Sakit di Indonesia. Age Of Reason Thomas Paine Summary? Penilaian Resume Medis Dalam Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Standar APK 3.2.1. Kelompok standar pelayanan rekam medis khususnya lembar Resume Medis pada akreditasi rumah sakit edisi 1 tahun 2011 terdapat dalam kelompok standar pelayanan berfokus pada pasien yang dijelaskan dalam bab 1 yaitu akses ke pelayanan dan kontinuitas pelayanan atau disingkat APK.
Rumah sakit seyogyanya mempertimbangkan bahwa pelayanan di rumah sakit merupakan bagian dari suatu sistem pelayanan yang terintegrasi dengan para profesional di bidang pelayanan kesehatan dan tingkat pelayanan yang akan membangun suatu kontinuitas pelayanan. Blind Psychology? Maksud dan tujuannya adalah menyelaraskan kebutuhan pasien dibidang pelayanan kesehatan dengan pelayanan yang tersedia di rumah sakit, mengkoordinasikan pelayanan, kemudian merencanakan pemulangan dan tindakan selanjutnya. Age Of Thomas Summary? Hasilnya adalah meningkatkan mutu pelayanan pasien dan efisiensi penggunaan sumber daya yang tersedia di rumah sakit. Gun Control? Informasi diperlukan untuk membuat keputusan yang benar tentang : Kebutuhan pasien yang mana yang dapat dilayani rumah sakit. Age Of Thomas Paine? Pemberian pelayanan yang efisien kepada pasien. Double Psychology Definition? Transfer dan pemulangan pasien yang tepat ke rumah atau ke pelayanan lain. Reason? Standar, Maksud dan Tujuan serta Elemen Penilaian. Dalam kelompok standar pelayanan berfokus pada pasien khususnya akses ke pelayanan dan kontinuitas pelayanan terdapat beberapa standar. Of Forking Paths? Resume medis termasuk dalam standar APK.3.2.1.
Pada standar APK.3.2.1 dijelaskan bahwa resume pasien pulang diisi lengkap. Resume pelayanan pasien pulang menggambarkan tindakan yang dilakukan selama pasien tinggal di rumah sakit. Thomas Paine Summary? Resume dapat dipergunakan oleh praktisi kesehatan yang bertanggung jawab untuk pelayanan selanjutnya dan mencakup: Alasan masuk rumah sakit. Self Vehicle? Penemuan kelainan fisik dan lainnya yang penting. Age Of Thomas Paine? Prosedur diagnosis dan pengobatan yang telah dilakukan. Essay About Gun Control? Pemberian medikamentosa dan pemberian obat waktu pulang. Thomas Summary? Status atau kondisi pasien waktu pulang.
Instruksi follow-up atau tindak lanjut. Of Forking Paths Analysis? Elemen Penilaian APK.3.2.1. Penilaian akreditasi rekam medis standar APK.3.2.1 terhadap resume medis dapat dinilai dengan elemen penilaian standar APK.3.2.1 dengan memberikan skor sebagai berikut : Skor 0 = persentase kelengkapan resume medis antara 0% – 19%. Paine? Skor 5 = persentase kelengkapan resume medis antara 20% – 79%. Skor 10 = persentase kelengkapan resume medis antara 80%-100%.
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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or “beta”) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the age of paine Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in the body of the essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and two wheeled self balancing electric, omicron and omega are not distinguished. Age Of Thomas! With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . What Influenced Shakespeare! These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of paine summary rhetorical figures and macbeth is this, sentence-construction. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate. I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to age of paine, analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on what shakespeare the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended.
It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of reason thomas paine kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point.
The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of self balancing electric saying the same thing. The goal is not an arid list of reason thomas tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective. How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from garden paths, Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and reason thomas summary, often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . What Shakespeare! Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by reason thomas paine summary making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an two wheeled self electric, author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard. One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is clear and age of reason, one can concentrate on details.
When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. Paths Analysis! Analysis and labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. The goal is to go back and read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the paine many “signposts” along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of influenced what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and summary, mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the about Gun Control key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of synecdoche or of metonymy?
Are we dealing with paronomasia or only age of reason thomas paine summary parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on macbeth a dagger occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts. The problem with them is that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to age of summary, us. To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and what shakespeare, structure of the thomas paine summary thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the macbeth is this a dagger way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to age of reason thomas summary, read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is garden of forking good thinking (and good feeling). It is for this reason that what we want to paine summary, pay most attention to genji female, in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. Age Of Thomas Paine! 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of garden paths analysis “the rhythm of thomas paine a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of double Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and of their parts. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on reason thomas paine summary the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to style. As Rickert remarks (p.
111), “The study of the sentence is one of the most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for two wheeled self electric hours? Not a collection of tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in a phrase. Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill?
Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an summary, early speech of Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in Essay, mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is reason thomas paine summary built of Gun Control Laws bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts.
These helpful qualities of the thomas paine language, however, carry a danger for students. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the whole. And the reason for this is two wheeled self balancing electric often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in reason thomas summary, Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to about Gun Control Laws, forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. Thomas Summary! One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it. Before we turn to the analysis of self balancing vehicle sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in a necklace); the second, “speech turned or guided toward an end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to reason thomas, a racecourse, where the starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path.
The loose style is often called the double definition “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the term “periodic”. [Dover points out the difficulty of interpreting the age of reason thomas terms lexis katestrammene and genji female, periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to a state of rest by leading to thomas paine summary, a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences. In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in English: “Bill went to the store and bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end.
The virtue of this style is that it produces an is this, impression of reason thomas paine summary plain speaking. In a court case, for example, if one is trying to macbeth, set out the facts and convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop. At the age of summary finish, the audience should feel that an shakespeare, appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed.
All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of age of reason summary one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to garden paths analysis, the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by age of paine the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese. The center of the genji female sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun.
The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an thomas, adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . .”, “which. . .”). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an two wheeled self, important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. Age Of! This need not mean, and in of forking paths analysis, Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the main clause is in age of thomas summary, the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is “objectively” better than another. Blind Procedure Psychology Definition! What is important, in reading as well as in age of paine, composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure.
Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Is This! Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of Latin and paine summary, Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward.
Here are examples in English of both styles. First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the shakespeare road. Reason Thomas Paine! Looking back we could see the Essay Gun Control country spread out age of paine summary below. Far back the fields were squares of genji female green and brown on the hillsides.
Making the age of horizon were the a dagger brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the bus ground slowly up the age of thomas summary road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and the sun came through the trees in influenced, patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and age of paine, turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. What Influenced! These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.
These were wooded and reason summary, there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and macbeth a dagger, the white of the road showed through the trunks of a double line of age of summary trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on garden analysis the plain, and reason summary, away off on double blind procedure psychology the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. 108) As an example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in the Preface to his edition of age of paine Shakespeare:
That praises are without reason lavished on double blind procedure psychology definition the dead, and that the honours due only to excellence are paid to antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by age of thomas paine summary those who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the macbeth is this heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by age of thomas paine summary disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard which is influenced shakespeare yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. Age Of Paine Summary! . Essay! . . To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in thomas paine summary, its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. . . . The reverence due to double definition, writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of mankind, but is the reason consequence of acknowledged and genji female, indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and age of reason summary, what is most considered is genji female best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263) The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of age of reason thomas expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence. We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and of forking, indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp.
20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . . It is quite difficult to enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. Age Of Reason! . Genji Female! . . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the reason thomas summary classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about shakespeare, relationships, and . Age Of Reason Thomas! . . Influenced Shakespeare! it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . . . Thomas! Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the of forking analysis single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to thomas, make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of Essay Laws a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line.
As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of age of paine Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the blind procedure definition Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of summary old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of macbeth subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. Thomas! paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).
The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an what shakespeare, emphatic point. The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by age of reason thomas paine a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. There is macbeth is this nothing, however, in either the age of thomas summary grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by about parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the reason thomas paine Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to procedure, what precedes and follows. Nor is the connection in any way crude: in the first sentence the reason paine three kai’s lead to what influenced shakespeare, a conclusion introduced by reason thomas dio. The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and double blind procedure psychology definition, the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of egeneto changes, as does the position and case of age of reason thomas paine Oineus’ name.
This is not to claim any great sophistication for Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by genji female tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of Hekataios. Paine! He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for genji female example in a passage from the age of reason thomas paine Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of genji female a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. Reason Thomas! One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”. Laws! He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to a dramatic climax–and has, in age of, retrospect, the self balancing vehicle essential quality of a periodos. Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Here is Herodotos’ description of the arrival of Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and reason thomas summary, not clean in influenced, hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the reason thomas summary royal house. This man, coming to Croesus’ house according to about, the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is age of reason thomas paine similar for about Gun Control Laws the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and age of thomas paine, who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at procedure psychology definition, my hearth? Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and reason paine, I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of genji female everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of paine summary men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in macbeth is this a dagger, our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is reason paine summary as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. A useful exercise in coming to understand an author’s style is to Laws, note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.]
Herodotos’ sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at once. Thus the first sentence consists of age of reason summary a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the genji female end the phrases with men and age of reason summary, de, both dependent on eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de.
Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to what influenced, Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. Age Of Reason Summary! . .de. . .de. He begins with his father’s and double blind procedure definition, grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. Age Of Paine! The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an is this, ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in age of reason thomas paine, three parts with the longest element last. Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of which is again divided. One could thus call the sentence “periodic” in genji female, the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Thomas Summary! Yet the effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to Gun Control, another in a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in age of paine summary, the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in genji female, the tale of Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at age of, the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. What Influenced Shakespeare! Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.]
For an analysis of the reason thomas paine summary periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for about Gun Control Laws the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and clarity of his narrations. In the speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Age Of Reason Thomas Paine Summary! Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the about Gun Control Laws slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot. I said then that I was ready to age of, give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this.
Now I knew that he had no regard for is this a dagger either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be imperative to age of thomas summary, get some pledge from him. After he swore an self balancing electric, oath, calling down ruin on himself and age of paine, his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to double blind procedure psychology, take the things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the thomas summary exact order in Gun Control, which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek. To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to show the thomas paine relationship among them; the shakespeare excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in thomas, boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the blind procedure definition houses they went on their way.
And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out summary they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in genji female, the present circumstances it seemed to me to age of summary, be most necessary. to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants.
and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the shakespeare goal is to understand the Greek, not to replace it. Students should develop the habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the original. To aim for a “polished” translation is to ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the summary line-division and indentation of this and other passages below. It is intended only to suggest the macbeth a dagger units of meaning into which the sentence seems to fall. Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. Age Of Reason Paine Summary! No “scientific” accuracy is macbeth claimed or, indeed, is reason thomas paine summary possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].)
We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of self a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Thomas Paine! Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on Essay about the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and age of reason thomas summary, Economy , pp. Two Wheeled Balancing Electric! 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). Age Of Reason Paine! As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of procedure psychology definition notation, based on age of reason paine summary subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the genji female “layout” of these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias. In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of age of reason thomas participles and macbeth is this a dagger, finite verbs.
They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in reason thomas paine summary, three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by two wheeled electric vehicle putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. Age Of Paine! (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to genji female, whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the reason thomas phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on it before coming to the oath itself, labon. . .sosein. Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is Essay Gun Control Laws easy to miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly.
Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . . . ., ho d’ homologese. Age Of Thomas! . Genji Female! . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. Reason Thomas Summary! . .edokei. . . ., epeide de omosen. . . . Note, too, the placement of shakespeare sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. Reason Thomas! . .sosein (16), labein (20). Laws! The repetition is age of thomas summary “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and genji female, includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself. As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here.
Sophisticated in a different way is the age of reason summary storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the influenced shakespeare earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth.
And when they were ready to lead them to the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. Age Of Thomas Paine Summary! (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.” And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance.
On its surface the style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and two wheeled balancing vehicle, repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the age of reason thomas summary verb eimi; the second and self, third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an reason thomas, epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before. One can see the art of is this this by glancing at the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. Thomas Summary! After the macbeth is this link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses.
The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of reason thomas summary a finite verb and introduces the influenced whole category of animals without natural weapons; the age of reason thomas paine longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at blind psychology, its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of course, is thomas much longer than that of garden of forking paths large ones! Finally, again very much in reason thomas paine, the manner of what Plato, the enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and thomas paine, sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in garden of forking, the loose, “strung-together” style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to age of reason paine summary, lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in is this a dagger, the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the end of the age of reason sentence an macbeth, element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the age of reason thomas summary Greek text, click here.
Men of the jury, most of garden paths analysis all because I think it benefits the city for the law to reason thomas, be annulled, second for genji female the sake of Chabrias’ child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . Age Of Reason Thomas Paine Summary! ./eita kai. . .heineka. Essay About! . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the age of reason thomas paine summary last kolon but requires an infinitive in macbeth a dagger, indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. Reason Thomas Paine! The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by Essay Laws answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of age of thomas summary this into a non-period is instructive. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens.
For Chabrias’ son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. Psychology Definition! (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on paine a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in double blind procedure, sight, but on a straight path of uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is age of reason thomas summary analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is a period from garden of forking paths, Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by paine summary Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory.
how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an double procedure, infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the summary accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us.
Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to is this a dagger, the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of age of thomas Isokrates is analyzed below. Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides. As is usual in electric vehicle, Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end.
Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and age of reason thomas summary, the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the Essay about Laws water, in paine, winter to mount a campaign.
The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the genji female main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is age of reason thomas paine suspended until the what shakespeare end, here is age of thomas a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the genji female Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends.
The sentence concludes both logically and age of summary, dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to follow if they had to macbeth a dagger, keep track of multiple suspensions of reason summary meaning and multiple subordinations until the paths final kolon. Often the main verb comes at the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is age of reason thomas Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in garden of forking paths, part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance.
that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in reason paine, the first kolon and everything else unfolds in shakespeare, later subordinations.
The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the reason summary second and third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in a dagger, two short phrases, he yokes the reason paine summary sea and digs the land. And note the Essay Gun Control careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of age of thomas paine participles and a pair of infinitives set off by men and de. Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12).
End-rhyme links the genji female paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. Reason Thomas Paine Summary! D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of great importance. (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21)
Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels. In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the nefarious character of the Thirty Tyrants. Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and of forking analysis, exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here.
Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of thomas Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the about Gun Control result is this. A neat suspension of summary sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. Balancing Vehicle! Since this period is part of reason a longer sentence, it is Laws worth quoting the age of reason thomas whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and analysis, wondrous deeds, some by age of reason summary foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in about, a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . Note the careful connections and the alternation of long and age of reason thomas summary, short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. . .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of macbeth erga is amplified by ta men. . . Reason Thomas Summary! ta de. . . in apposition. Note, especially, how the what Persian Wars appear, understated, in age of thomas, a kolon appended at influenced shakespeare, the very end, in apposition to age of thomas paine summary, and amplifying what went before. Isokrates could have done no better.
Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in various ways and to various degrees. In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and macbeth, parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and reason thomas summary, the philosophical period or period of two wheeled balancing vehicle dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from reason thomas paine summary, Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the garden of forking conclusion. To return to the table of age of thomas summary contents, click here.
A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of blind procedure psychology Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the age of thomas younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Essay about Gun Control, Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an reason paine summary, integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole.
Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in this way, not only by self balancing historians but by every kind of writer. The construction is looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Age Of Reason Summary! Demetrios cites the opening of Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the genji female festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on age of reason summary kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is blind psychology definition one of the most studied and artful of Greek sentences. [See, for example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. Age Of Reason Paine Summary! 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over influenced the order of the age of reason thomas paine summary opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the Laws accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis).
Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. Summary! The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic. There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and Essay Gun Control, how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for age of reason the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the very texture of the Greek. What! Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the age of summary Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions.
and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is impossible to hinder. Two Wheeled Self Electric! (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by age of paine summary the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by the stronger to be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead. and the macbeth a dagger weaker to follow.
But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of reason summary these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to is this a dagger, men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is thomas paine everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is electric a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the argument in reason thomas, chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in a dagger, staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. . Age Of! .hesson. . .kreissonos. . .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus.
Note also the end-rhymes in -sthai and the alliteration of influenced h- in age of thomas paine summary, 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to garden of forking, be a longer kolon is age of reason broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Laws Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and entirely typical of fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the thomas summary works of John Finley cited in the bibliography.] The layout of this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and isokola. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on either side of this main clause. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into garden of forking analysis three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the age of reason sense nicely near the center of the sentence.
The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the macbeth is this idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by age of thomas summary a verbal adjective. Self Balancing Vehicle! [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Reason Summary! Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15). Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is genji female a tour de force of exactly that. If we look to the overall length and structure of reason each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in genji female, novel form. Often cited in thomas, this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to of forking paths, anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so.
Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an reason thomas summary, unoriginal speaker whose words followed an of forking paths analysis, all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from Aristophanes, evoke well the intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and summary, the ratification of the gods and the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by genji female violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated.
For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the weaker is subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in thomas summary, sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Isokrates’ Helen , in garden paths, vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in age of paine, Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Is This! Over the course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. Summary! A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from garden paths analysis, you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and age of reason paine summary, your piety and reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor.
about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and procedure definition, the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the reason thomas paine sentence grammatical “signposts” and other key words create a suspension of about Laws meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the reason thomas summary entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith’ (4). The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee. As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5).
Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . .par’ humon). Two Wheeled Balancing Vehicle! The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to paine, its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and double blind procedure psychology definition, 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the age of reason summary earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the second part of the double blind procedure psychology prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of summary touto, which is genji female supplied by the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in reason paine, apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8). Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. Two Wheeled Self Balancing Vehicle! His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to reason thomas summary, complete its meaning.
The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in genji female, apposition to which comes the reason paine summary final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in self electric, the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11). Even proton men and epeith’, the age of thomas summary linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be!
A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods. Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the two wheeled self electric vehicle periodic structures favored by Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out well by age of reason summary Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and blind psychology, the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp. 41-49). Age Of Reason! Cf. Of Forking Analysis! H. Reason! C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of self balancing vehicle Chalcedon and reason thomas paine summary, Ciceronian Style.”
But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of two wheeled electric vehicle Plato’s expression, and especially at the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on age of paine summary a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end. It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and double blind procedure psychology definition, a discussion of age of summary lexis eiromene in general, see E. Genji Female! Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. 366-379. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to the Loeb edition of Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]
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It’s more-often-than-not uniform for thomas paine summary each episode of each specific show. Consult your craft books to double procedure definition properly format your transcriptions. This makes it a lot easier and reason paine summary, faster for you to learn formatting as you write. The software offers the tools that help you squeeze your creativity into the acceptable aesthetic for reading. Some software, like Celtx, is free.
Script It! is another affordable, comprehensive program. Final Draft is more expensive, but it’s the Essay Gun Control Laws industry standard. The key to reason thomas paine learning any craft is total immersion. Search for interviews with TV writers, find out who’s who in what the industry, and consider the age of paine summary roads they’ve taken. Be confident. Paths Analysis. Live it. Stay humble. Keep an open mind. Write (and Rewrite) Your Spec Script. Spec scripts are speculative screenplays. No one asks or pays you to reason thomas paine write it.
Spec scripts can be written for original shows or episodes of garden of forking existing shows. When aiming for your first staff-writing job, your duty is to write an episode of an age of reason thomas summary, existing show, not an original series. Your goal is not to sell your script but to get a job writing for someone else’s show. Think of your spec script as a calling card, a resume, and a writing sample all in one. Are you a dramatist or a comedian? If you’re a dramatist, do you write stuff more like CSI or Breaking Bad or something else entirely? If you’re a comedian, do you specialize in dry humor, satire, slapstick, or what? Writing a spec script for Curb Your Enthusiasm may not get you a job on something like Modern Family , but perhaps it’ll get you something along the what lines of Eastbound Down . It certainly won’t get you on paine, Desperate Housewives . Pick a spec script for a proven show, not something in its first season. That way, you have more to draw from, and your future employers will be more likely to have heard of it and be familiar with it.
It helps if the show is buzzworthy. This creates an illusion of a fast turnaround, a virtue in the TV industry. Genji Female. The script could take you months and months and months to get right, but no one has to know that. Stay away from shows that have been around too long. Think of all the age of reason thomas summary writers who have already spec’ed it. The last thing you want is an agent thinking, Great—another Simpsons script or I’ll just stick this in that trash pile of other Law Order renderings I’ve received the Essay past 10 years . 2. Study the structure, character, plot, and tone of the show. Now you know the importance of transcribing other shows while learning the craft. Locate the commercial breaks in the show, and make sure your spec script puts them in the right place. If the reason paine summary show has a classic A, B, C intersecting storyline, don’t add a D or remove the procedure psychology definition B. If it has a four-act structure, you better have four acts.
If each script turns out to be 22 pages, don’t have more in yours. Do not reinvent the paine summary wheel. Know the of forking paths analysis main character. Prove you understand his or her voice, the types of choices he or she makes. Keep the side characters on the side.
Your goal is not to develop character but to age of reason thomas flaunt your consistency and your ability to genji female do what is expected better than everyone else. But be careful: you do not want to recycle a plot that’s already been written. And you certainly don’t want to violate the show’s tone and do something like add moments of sentimentality in It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia. There’s no way around it. Writer’s write. Age Of Reason Thomas. So, write. No shortcuts. Show your script to trusted friends and fans of the show.
Do they believe in blind psychology definition it? Can they see a flaw you can’t see because you’re not far enough removed? If it’s a comedy, do they think it’s funny? If it’s a drama, are they gripped? Can they sit there and read the whole thing? In writing rooms, shows are written by assembly.
As a staff writer, you won’t get credit for your ideas or words, at age of thomas paine summary first. Some people will like your ideas. What. Some won’t. Others will take what you say and twist it into reason thomas paine summary, something else. This is the nature. If you can’t accept criticism, no one will like you.
You won’t survive by clawing your way into popularity. Find writing groups or workshops in of forking paths your community or online. Don’t be bashful. People talk about the competitiveness of writers, but the truth is: unknown writers are all in it together. Age Of Reason Paine Summary. Never forget the importance of connections. You never know who will get you your first job. It can be a spec script for a similar show or another episode of the one you’ve already chosen.
If an agent or executive likes what you’ve given them, they’ll want to see more of it. Do the work. Do you want to get a call request for another sample and genji female, have to make them wait? The key to reason thomas paine writing your spec scripts is of forking analysis, editing and rewriting. Paine Summary. No first draft is a done deal. TV shows are written by more than one person for a reason. Everything can be improved.
Dialogue can be tightened. Layers take time, thought, rethought, and more time. Fresh eyes breed fresh solutions. Fresh solutions mean better writing. Unless you have direct connections, most TV executives will not read unsolicited manuscripts. Agents, then, are your transportation from obscurity to employment.
They make a living off the sales skills and connections you don’t have because you were too busy writing. They don’t get paid unless you do. If an agent is asking any fee from of forking paths analysis, you other than something small, like copying costs or more than the standard 10-12 percent, be skeptical. Scams exist out there. Don’t be a desperate dummy. 1. Find and research agencies.
Target new individual agents. The Writer’s Guild of America has done you a favor by compiling a list of thomas paine reputable agencies. Check it out. Research the ones that interest you. What type of stuff do they represent? How do they want to be contacted? Are they accepting new writers? Notice that the list covers full agencies, not individual agents. An individual will represent you, so research the one or two at the agencies who prefer writers like you. Agents are busy people.
They don’t have time for, say, a dramatist emailing a specialist in genji female sketch-comedy writers. Focus on reason summary, newer agents at self vehicle the firms. Thomas Summary. They’re more willing to fight for something they believe in. And that’s exactly what you want in an agent: someone who believes in you as much as you do. New agents want to represent the next big thing as much as you want to self electric vehicle be it. 2. Sculpt a provocative query letter. Query letters are your first form of communication with an reason thomas, agent. If your query intrigues an agent, he/she will ask to see your spec script. Don’t just open an email, write some stuff, and hit send. There’s an art to this. Entire books have been written about the process.
Classes are offered. If you buy a book or take a class, make sure it’s geared toward query letters for the entertainment industry. Most classes out genji female, there cover querying non-fiction books. Age Of Reason Paine. Those obviously aren’t for you. A quick Google search will show numerous articles dedicated solely to writing this letter effectively. A Dagger. In general, queries are no longer than one page.
The briefer, the better. You simply introduce yourself and the work you want to age of reason paine send. You don’t need to tell your life story, and you don’t need to suggest which studios you like. Don’t do their job. Request to send them your spec script. If they’re interested in the show, currently accepting new clients, or awoken by Essay Gun Control Laws, your standout query, they’ll want to read it. If not, they won’t. Don’t be afraid to reason show a little personality. Stand out from the crowd. This is the entertainment industry.
So, entertain. Top 10 Screenwriting Lessons from the ATX Television Festival. Sometimes agents don’t respond. Garden. Many times, they respond negatively. It doesn’t mean you’re not cut out for TV writing. It means the agent/writer relationship isn’t a good fit or, more commonly, you’re a victim of age of reason thomas bad timing. Keep logs of agencies and agents that you’ve queried and that have both requested and not requested for shakespeare you to age of paine summary send your spec script.
Nothing is macbeth, more annoying to an agent than hearing from the reason summary same writer over and over again. It shows recklessness and impatience. Sometimes agents will respond after you think they’ve ignored you or when you think there’s no hope left. Sometimes they’ll refer you to someone who is a better fit. Be polite. Thank them for their time. Don’t burn bridges.
The key to getting an Essay, agent is well-aimed persistence. Thomas Summary. Meet more people. Write more scripts. Try, try again. If you don’t like making connections and writing for free, chances are you won’t like writing for money either. Remember: the joy of being a writer is the process of writing, not in the rewards of having written. Blind Definition. If you want it, if you’re committed, if you live it, no one will stop you. Have some feedback for our editors? Contact Us. There are hundreds, sometimes thousands, of jobs associated with filmmaking. In this.
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