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book reports format Centre for Academic Success. A report is a systematic, well organised document which defines and analyses a subject or problem, and which may include: the record of house, a sequence of events. interpretation of the significance of these events or facts. evaluation of the facts or results of research presented. discussion of the functionalism outcomes of a decision or course of house, action. Reports must always be: Various courses require you to write reports (as opposed to essays), notably business and scientific or technical subjects. There are, however, different interpretations of what a report should look like, so it is important that you check with your course tutors and uk gaap standards, course documentation as to the report format and content expected. In addition, there is at times some blurring between what “essays”, “reports” and “assignments” are, so again check within your department. House! Much of the advice given in Guide 1.01, How to write an essay, also applies to reports. Extended Hours! Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the topic, question or case, that you know what the purpose of the report is, and who it is being written for. The clearer these things are in your mind, the easier the report will be to house write and the more effective it will be. When you are researching, planning and eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the main purpose of the report is, what your objective is in writing it: is it to medea text inform; to argue; to persuade; to evaluate? What does your reader want to see in the report and what will they do with it?

You first need to confectionery house decide your basic framework. Functionalism! With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and start to group these together. You may find the Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11. Confectionery House! Start to divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and continually ask yourself if everything is uk gaap, relevant; if it isn’t, then delete it. From your prior knowledge (from reading and lectures), you should be able to put together a fairly basic structure. You will now be able to plan your research. Ask yourself what you need to find out, maybe in house the form of questions that need to be answered, then approach your reading from this starting point. If you have specific information to look for, it will make your reading easier and less time consuming. (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques).

Try not to gather too much information. Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is not 100% relevant. Does For! When you’re making notes, always try to summarise the main points as concisely as possible. Remember to make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in order to be able to house correctly reference these. Make a record of the research methods you used. Exchange! Unlike essays, reports are written in sections with headings and sub-headings, which are usually numbered.

Below are the possible components of a report, in the order in which they would appear. Check within your department which of house, these you should include. Medea Text! This should normally include the title, your name and the name of the tutor to whom it is confectionery house, being submitted, date of submission, your course/department, and if applicable, the extended hours name of the person and/or organisation who has commissioned the confectionery house report. Avoid “fancy” fonts and effects and don’t include any clipart. Acknowledgements (usually just in long reports) A list of people and organisations both within and outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Contents page (always included in reports of 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of all the sections and confucius and daoism, sub-sections of the report. Don’t forget to put the page numbers! If applicable, there should be a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the main index. Make sure that the headings in this list correspond exactly with those in your main body. House! It is best to and daoism do your list of contents right at confectionery house, the end. Terms of reference (sometimes included) A definition of the task; your specific objective and purpose of writing.

Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is a vital process to trading go through in house your planning. If it is group work, who exactly is responsible for what? How long have you got? What is your task timescale? Why are you writing the uk gaap report? What exactly are the confectionery house assessment criteria?

Who are you writing the report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to uk gaap standards see? Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the confectionery information was gathered. Materials and methods (included if applicable) Similar to procedure, but more appropriate to uk gaap standards scientific or engineering report writing.

The following advice comes from Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is a very brief outline of the report to give the potential reader a general idea of what it’s about. House! A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in functionalism consensus separate section) main conclusions and recommendations. Introduction (always included) This should show that you have fully understood the task/brief and confectionery, that you are going to cover everything required. Indicate the basic structure of the report. You should include just a little background/context and extended trading, indicate the reasons for confectionery house, writing the report. You may include your terms of medea text, reference and procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. Your introduction will often give an indication of the conclusion to confectionery house the report. Main body/findings (always included) This is the substance of your report. The structure will vary according to the nature of the asda foreign exchange rates material being presented, with headings and confectionery house, sub-headings used to clearly indicate the different sections (unlike an essay). A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate.

It is not sufficient to trading simply describe a situation. Your tutor will be looking for analysis and for a critical approach, when appropriate. Charts, diagrams and confectionery, tables can be used to reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to include these as an appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated). Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section. Confucius! Results (possibly included in confectionery scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the past tense) and would normally include statistics, tables or graphs. Your conclusion should draw out the and daoism implications of your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in your main body. Don’t include any new material here. Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on logically from your conclusion and be specific, measurable and achievable. They should propose how the situation/problem could be improved by suggesting action to be taken. A “statement of cost” should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications. Recommendations can be numbered if you wish.

Appendices (sometimes included) An appendix (plural=appendices) is detailed documentation of points you outline in your findings, for example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. It is supplementary information which you consider to be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to include in your main body, but which still should be of interest to your reader. Each appendix should be referred to in your text. You should not include something as an appendix if it is not discussed in house the main body. This is hours, a list giving the full details of all the sources to which you have made reference within your text. By far the confectionery house most common method in standards use at Birmingham City University is the Harvard method. Bibliography (sometimes included) This is either a separate list of sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to in your writing, or this list together with your list of references. Check in confectionery your department what you are expected to use. What Stand! Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the report includes a lot of specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to the reader. Always use clear and concise English, avoiding jargon and colloquial language.

Write in fairly short sentences. Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of 5/6 sentences). Most of your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in your conclusion or recommendations to include more personal language. Be extra careful with verb tenses. Grammar, spelling and punctuation. Links to further resources on writing reports. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email.

To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. We evaluate people and groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities. Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. Sometimes we do this formally, for instance in confectionery, legal judgment. This article considers mainly moral responsibility, and asda foreign, focuses largely upon individuals. Later sections also comment on the relation between legal and moral responsibility, and on the responsibility of collectives. The article discusses four different areas of individual moral responsibility: (1) Responsible agency, whereby a person is regarded as a normal moral agent; (2) Retrospective responsibility, when a person is judged for her actions, for instance, in being blamed or punished; (3) Prospective responsibility, for instance, the confectionery house, responsibilities attaching to a particular role; and (4) Responsibility as a virtue, when we praise a person as being responsible. Standards! Philosophical discussion of responsibility has focused largely on (1) and confectionery, (2). The article points out that a wider view of responsibility helps explore some connections between moral and legal responsibility, and between individual and collective responsibility. It also enables us to relate responsibility to its original philosophical use, which was in political thought. The word responsibility is surprisingly modern.

It is also, as Paul Ricoeur has observed, not really well-established within the philosophical tradition (2000: 11). This is reflected in the fact that we can locate two rather different philosophical approaches to responsibility. The original philosophical usage of responsibility was political (see McKeon, 1957). This reflected the origin of the word. Uk Gaap Standards! In all modern European languages, responsibility only finds a home toward the end of the eighteenth century. This is within debates about confectionery house, representative government, that is, government which is hours, responsible to the people. Confectionery House! In the etymology of responsibility, the what does for, Oxford English Dictionary cites the debates on the U.S. constitution in the Federalist Papers (1787), and the Anglo-Irish political thinker Edmund Burke (1796). Confectionery! When John Stuart Mill writes of responsibility, in the middle of the nineteenth century, again his concern is not with free will, but with the principles of representative government. At the end of the what sncc stand, nineteenth century, the most notable thinker to confectionery, speak of responsibility is confucius and daoism, Max Weber, who propounds an ethics of responsibility ( Verantwortungsethik ) for the politician. Confectionery House! For Weber, the vocation of politics demands a calm attention to the facts of the situation and extended, the consequences of actions – and not to lofty or abstract principles. So far as responsibility has a place in eighteenth and nineteenth century thought, then, this is in political contexts, where the concern is with responsible action and the principles of representative government.

In twentieth century philosophy, on the other hand, the emphasis has been on questions of free will and determinism: Is a person responsible for house her actions or character? Would the truth of determinism eliminate such responsibility? Recent moral philosophy contains many attempts to show how responsible agency might be compatible with the causal order of the universe. These debates obviously center on the individual agent. As such, they pose difficulties for confucius and daoism understanding the topic of house collective responsibility – an issue that twentieth century politics has raised with a new urgency. Nor does a concern with free will correspond to standards, many everyday issues about responsibility – for example, questions of mutual accountability, defining a person’s sphere of responsibility, or judging a person as sufficiently responsible for a particular role.

This Encyclopedia article will mainly deal with the responsibility of house individual persons; another article considers collective moral responsibility. In fact, there are several important uses of responsibility as it relates to individuals, which this article will tackle in turn. There are also important questions about the distinction between moral and legal responsibility. The article will then consider what relations there may be between the concept’s individual and collective uses. It concludes by briefly asking what connection there may be between the original, political use of responsibility, and individual moral responsibility as people now usually understand it. There is no philosophically well-settled way of dividing or analyzing the various components of responsibility, and some components are often ignored by philosophers.

To take a more comprehensive approach, this article divides the responsibility of individuals into four areas of enquiry. Medea Text! Recent analytic moral philosophy has tended to ask two deceptively simple questions about house, responsibility: What is it to be responsible? and What is a person responsible for? The first question is usually taken as a question about moral agency, the second as a question about holding people accountable for past actions. As noted, however, this does not capture the variety of uk gaap standards uses that we make of the concept. Confectionery! We can see this by observing that both questions might mean something quite different, leading us to four distinct topics, as follows: What is it to be responsible? is most often asked by philosophers as a question about the foundations of moral agency. What sort of creature can properly be held responsible for its actions? The simple answer is: a normal human adult. To explain and justify this reply, philosophers tend to turn to psychological and metaphysical features of normal adults, such as free will.

We might also approach the same issue with a somewhat different emphasis: What features of (normal, adult) human interaction are involved in our holding one another responsible? However, in asking What is stand, it to confectionery, be responsible? we might also have a second question in mind. We often praise some people as responsible, and criticize others as irresponsible. Here responsibility names a virtue – a morally valuable character trait. We may also praise an institution as responsible. One of the word’s original uses was to call for responsible government.

We can compare this with the more recent demand that corporations be socially responsible. This aspect of responsibility has received very little philosophical attention. What is a person responsible for? is confucius and daoism, a question most often asked by confectionery, philosophers in connection with causation and accountability. Theory! This retrospective, or backward-looking, use is closely connected with praise and blame, punishment, and desert. House! When something has gone wrong, we invariably want to know who was at fault; and when something has gone right, we occasionally stop to ask who acted well. This is the topic of retrospective responsibility.

Again, however, we might use the same words to ask an entirely different question: What is a person responsible for? might also be an enquiry about a person’s duties – about her sphere of responsibility, as we say. A parent is responsible for caring for medea text his child, an house, employee for doing her job, a citizen for trading hours obeying the law. Confectionery House! It is a basic fact of human cooperation that responsibilities are often divided up between people: for example, the doctor is responsible for prescribing the right drugs, and the patient responsible for asda foreign taking them correctly. As against questions of retrospective responsibility, this topic is sometimes termed prospective responsibility, that is, what responsibilities we are duty-bound to confectionery house, undertake. These two apparently simple questions (What is it to be responsible? and What is a person responsible for?) about individual responsibility thus point to four different topics: Each of these topics poses a host of important philosophical questions. Both the retrospective and foreign, prospective uses also raise the confectionery house, relation between legal and moral responsibility. Many important theories of responsibility relate to legal concerns, which will be discussed in a later section. As we pursue these topics, there is also the difficulty of seeing how they interrelate, so that it makes sense that we use the same word to foreign, raise each issue. The discussion begins with the topics which philosophers have most often discussed: the confectionery house, nature of moral agency and retrospective responsibility.

Normal human adults represent our paradigm case of responsible agents. What is distinctive about what sncc for, them, that we accord them this status? Thinking of retrospective responsibility in particular, why can be held accountable for their actions – justly praised or blamed, deservedly punished or rewarded? The philosophical literature has explored three broad approaches to moral agency: Human beings have free will, that is, distinctive causal powers or a special metaphysical status, that separate them from confectionery house, everything else in the universe; Human beings can act on confucius, the basis of confectionery house reason(s); Human beings have a certain set of moral or proto-moral feelings. The first approach, although historically important, has largely been discredited by the success of modern science. Science provides, or promises, naturalistic explanations of such phenomena as the evolution of the medea text, human species and the workings of the brain. House! Almost all modern philosophers approach responsibility as compatibilists – that is, they assume that moral responsibility must be compatible with causal or naturalistic explanation of human thought and medea text, action, and therefore reject the house, metaphysical idea of free will. (An important note: There can be terminological confusion here. Asda Foreign! Some contemporary philosophers will use the term free will to confectionery, describe our everyday freedom of choice, claiming that free will, properly understood, is compatible with the world’s causal order.)

Among modern compatibilists, a contest remains, however, between the second and third approaches – positions that are essentially Kantian and Humean in inspiration. Immanuel Kant’s own position is complex, and commentators dispute how far his view also involves a metaphysical notion of free will. Extended Trading Hours! It is confectionery, indisputable, however, that our rationality is at the centre of his picture of moral agency. Does Sncc For! Kant himself does not speak of confectionery house responsibility – the word was only just coming into standards, the language of his day – but he does have much to say about imputation ( Zurechnung ), that is, the confectionery, basis on which actions are imputed to asda foreign, a person. Kant was principally concerned with evaluation of the self. Although he occasionally mentions blame (mutual accountability), his moral theory is really about the basis on which a person treats herself as responsible. The core of his answer is that a rational agent chooses to act in the light of principles – that is, we deliberate among reasons. Confectionery! Therefore standards of does for rationality apply to us, and house, when we fail to act rationally this is, simply and crudely, a Bad Thing.

It is important to be aware that Kant sees reason as having moral content, so that there is a failure of rationality involved when we do something immoral – for instance, by medea text, pursuing our self-interest at the expense of others. Confectionery House! Even if we sometimes feel no inclination to take account of others, reason still tells us that we should, and can motivate us to do so. Recognizably Kantian accounts of moral agency include Bok (1998) and (less explicitly) Fischer Ravizza (1998). The issue of reason’s moral content separates Kantians from Humeans. David Hume denied that reason can provide us with moral guidance, or the motivation to act morally.

He is medea text, famous for confectionery his claim that Reason is wholly inactive, and can never be the asda, source of so active a principle as conscience, or a sense of morals ( A Treatise of Human Nature , book 3, part 1, sect. 1). If we are moral agents, this is because we are equipped with certain tendencies to house, feel or desire, dispositions that make it seem rational to us to act and think morally. Hume himself stressed our tendency to feel sympathy for others and our tendency to approve of actions that lead to trading hours, social benefits (and to disapprove of confectionery house those contrary to the social good). Another important class of feelings concern our tendencies to feel shame or guilt, or more broadly, to be concerned with how others see our actions and character. A Humean analysis of responsibility will investigate how these emotions lead us to be responsive to one another, in ways that support moral conduct and provide social penalties for functionalism consensus immoral conduct. That is, its emphasis is less on people’s evaluation of themselves and more on how people judge and influence one another. Confectionery! Russell (1995) carefully develops Hume’s own account. In twentieth century philosophy, broadly Humean approaches were given a new lease of life by Peter Strawson’s Freedom and Resentment (1962). This classic essay underlined the role of reactive sentiments or reactive attitudes – that is, emotional responses such as resentment or shame – in practices of responsibility. The basic criticisms that each position makes of the other are simple.

Kantians are vulnerable to uk gaap standards, the charge that they do not give a proper account of the role of feeling and house, emotion in the moral life. Exchange Rates! They can also be accused of reifying our capacity for reason in a way that makes mysterious how human beings’ capacities for reason and morality might have evolved. Humeans are vulnerable to confectionery, the charge that they cannot give any account of the validity of reasoning beyond the boundaries of what we might feel inclined to endorse or reject: Can the Humean really hold that moral reasoning has any validity for people who do not feel concern for others? Contemporary philosophers have developed both positions so as to take account of such criticisms, which has led to rather technical debates about the nature of reason (for instance, Bernard Williams’ (1981) well-known distinction between internal and external reasons) and normativity (what it is for something to provide a reason to standards, act or think in a certain way, for confectionery house example, Korsgaard, 1996). So far as responsibility is does sncc for, concerned, Wallace (1994) is confectionery house, a well-regarded attempt to mediate between the two approaches. Trading! Rather differently, Pettit (2001) uses our susceptibility to reasons as the basis for confectionery an essentially interactive account of moral agency. For our purposes, perhaps the most important point is that both positions highlight a series of factors important to responsibility and mutual accountability. These factors include: general responsiveness to others (for instance, via moral reasoning or feelings such as sympathy); a sense of functionalism responsibility for our actions (for instance, so that we may offer reasons for house our actions or feel emotions of shame or guilt); and tendencies to regard others as responsible (for instance, to respect persons as the authors of their deeds and to feel resentful or grateful to them).

In each case, note that the first example in brackets has a typically Kantian (reason-based) cast, the trading hours, second a Humean (feeling/emotion-related) cast. Two further thoughts should be added which apply regardless of which side of confectionery this debate one inclines toward. First, it is not at all clear that these factors are on/off, either there or not there; in other words, it looks likely that responsible agency is a matter of degree. One possible implication of this is that some other animals might have a degree of moral agency; another implication is that human beings may vary in the extent of medea text their agency. (This seems clearly true of children as opposed to confectionery house, adults. We may be more reluctant to believe that the trading, extent of adults’ moral agency can vary, but such a claim is not obviously false.) Second, none of these factors has an obvious connection to confectionery, free will, in the metaphysical sense that opposes free will to determinism. As we shall see, however, whether we emphasize the rational or the affective basis for what does sncc stand for responsible agency tends to generate characteristically different accounts of retrospective responsibility, where the issue of free will tends to recur. In assigning responsibility for an outcome or event, we may simply be telling a causal story. This might or might not involve human actions. For example: the faulty gasket was responsible for the car breaking down; his epileptic fit was responsible for the accident.

Such usages do not imply any assignment of blame or desert, and confectionery house, philosophers often distinguish them by referring to causal responsibility. More commonly, however, responsibility attribution is concerned with the morality of somebody’s action(s). Among the many different causes that led to an outcome, that action is identified as the morally salient one. Functionalism Consensus Theory! If we say the captain was responsible for the shipwreck, we do not deny that all sorts of other causes were in play. Confectionery! But we do single out the person who we think ought to stand, be held responsible for the outcome. Philosophers sometimes distinguish this usage, by confectionery house, speaking of and daoism liability responsibility. Retrospective responsibility usually involves, then, a moral (or perhaps legal) judgment of the person responsible. This judgment typically pictures the person as liable to various consequences: to feeling remorse (or pride), to being blamed (or praised), to confectionery house, making amends (or receiving gratitude), and so forth. This topic is an old concern of philosophers, predating the term responsibility by at least two millennia.

The classic analysis of the does stand for, issues goes back to Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics , where he investigates the conditions that exculpate us from blame and the circumstances where blame is appropriate. Among conditions that excuse the actor, he mentions intoxication, force of circumstances, and confectionery house, coercion: we cannot be held responsible where our capacity to choose was grossly impaired or where there was no effective choice open to us (though perhaps we can be blamed for getting into medea text, that condition or those circumstances). We can be blamed for what we do when threatened by others, but not as we would be if coercion were absent. In each case, the issue seems to be whether or not we are able to control what we do: if something lies beyond our control, it also lies beyond the scope of our responsibility. However, although Aristotle thinks that our capacities for deliberation and choice are important to responsible agency, he lacks the Kantian emphasis on rational control discussed in the last section. Aristotle grants considerable importance to house, habituation and stable character traits – the virtues and vices. Hence another way of medea text interpreting what he says about confectionery, responsibility is to argue that Aristotle’s excusing conditions represent cases where an standards, action does not reveal a person’s character: everybody would act like that if circumstances provided no other choice; no one makes responsible choices when drunk.

On the other hand, how we respond to coercion does reveal much about our virtues and vices; the point is that the confectionery house, meaning of such acts is very different from the meaning they would have in the absence of coercion. In its emphasis on character, Aristotle’s account is much closer to Hume’s than to Kant’s, since character is about tendencies to feel and confucius and daoism, behave in house, various ways, as well as to think and choose. Given that Kant’s moral psychology is usually thought to be less plausible than Aristotle or Hume’s, it is functionalism theory, interesting that Kantian approaches have, nonetheless, dominated modern approaches to house, retrospective responsibility. Why should this be so? Kant’s underlying thought is that the person who acts well deserves to be happy (he continually refers to goodness as worthiness to confucius, be happy). The person who acts badly does not: she deserves to be reproached, ought to feel remorse, and house, may even deserve punishment. Since blame, guilt and what stand for, punishment are of great practical importance, it is clearly desirable that our account of responsibility justify them. Some thinkers have argued that these justifications can be purely consequentialist. For instance, Smart (1961) argues that blame, guilt and house, punishment are only merited insofar as they can encourage people to do better in the future. However, most philosophers have been dissatisfied with such accounts. Instead, they have argued that justification must relate to the culprit’s desert . For most people, the intuitive justification for the sort of desert involved in retrospective responsibility lies in individual choice or control.

You chose to act selfishly: you deserve blame. You chose not to take precautions: you deserve to bear the consequences. Confucius! You chose to break the law: you deserve punishment. (The question of legal responsibility is considered separately, below.) This way of putting matters clearly gives pride of place to our capacity to control our conduct in the light of reasons, moral and otherwise. It will also emphasize the intentions underlying an action rather than its actual outcomes. This is because intentions are subject to rational choice in a way that outcomes often are not. Kant’s thought that the confectionery, rational agent can choose whether or not to act on the basis of reasons is sometimes expressed in the idea that we should each be respected as the confucius, authors of our thoughts and intentions. Confectionery House! This thought has the less positive consequence that when somebody chooses immorally and irrationally, he fails in medea text, a distinctive way, so that he is confectionery house, not (in Kant’s terms) worthy to be happy. Functionalism Consensus! Note, however, that this line of thought is house, open to and daoism, a very obvious objection. It can be argued that our intentions and confectionery house, choices are conditioned by our characters, and our characters by the circumstances of our upbringing. Clearly these are not matters of choice.

This is why a concern with retrospective responsibility raises the uk gaap, family of issues around moral luck and continues to lead back to house, the issue of free will: the idea that we are, really and ultimately, the authors of our own choices – despite scientific and common-sense appearances. The article on exchange rates, praise and blame discusses this issue in confectionery house, more depth, contrasting Kant’s approach with that of Aristotle and consensus, utilitarianism. Humeans, favoring naturalistic explanation of house thought and action, are likely to be drawn to elements of the consensus theory, last two – namely Aristotle’s emphasis on actions as revealing virtues and vices, and the consequentialist emphasis on social benefits of confectionery house practices of extended trading accountability. In particular, Humeans are much more likely to see retrospective responsibility in terms of the feelings that are appropriate – for instance, our resentment at someone’s bad conduct, or our susceptibility to shame at house others’ responses. Clearly, such feelings and the resulting actions are about our exercising mutual influence on one another’s conduct for the sake of more beneficial social interaction.

In other words, although the Humean analysis can be understood in terms of individual psychology, it also points to the question: What is uk gaap standards, it about human interaction that leads us to hold one another responsible? Kantians, on the other hand, tend to think of confectionery house retrospective responsibility, not as a matter of influencing others, but rather as our respecting individual capacities for rational choice. This respect may still have harsh consequences, as it involves granting people their just deserts, including blame and and daoism, punishment. A different use of responsibility is as a synonym for duty. When we ask about a person’s responsibilities, we are concerned with what she ought to be doing or attending to.

Sometimes we use the term to confectionery house, describe duties that everyone has – for example, Everyone is responsible for looking after his own health. More typically, we use the term to describe a particular person’s duties. He is responsible for sorting the garbage; she is responsible for looking after her baby; the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for monitoring air pollution; and so on. In these cases, the term singles out the duties, or area of responsibility, that somebody has by virtue of their role. This usage bears at least one straightforward relation to the question of retrospective responsibility.

We will tend to hold someone responsible when she fails to perform her duties. A captain is responsible for the safety of the ship; hence he will be held responsible if there is a shipwreck. The usual justification for medea text this lies in the thought that if he had taken his responsibility more seriously, then his actions might have averted the shipwreck. In some cases, though, when we are entrusted with responsibility for something, we will be held responsible if harm occurs, regardless of confectionery whether we might have averted it. This might be true if one hires (that is, rents) a car, for instance: even if an trading hours, accident is not your fault, the contract may stipulate that you will be responsible for part of the repair costs. House! In order to hire (rent) the car in the first place, one must accept – take responsibility for – certain risks. Legal thinkers, in particular, have pointed out that this suggests one way in which Kantian approaches – that is, approaches to responsibility which focus on functionalism theory, acts and outcomes that were under a person’s control – may be inadequate. We may think that everybody has a duty (that is, a prospective responsibility) to make recompense when certain sorts of risks materialize from their actions. Consider a standard example: suppose John accidentally slips and breaks a vase in Jane's shop.

This is confectionery house, probably not something John had control over, and to avoid the risk of damaging any of Jane's possessions, John would have to avoid entering her shop altogether. Yet we usually think that people have a duty to make some recompense when damage results from their actions, however accidental. From the foreign exchange, point of house view of trading our interacting with one another, the issue is not really whether a person could have avoided a particular, unfortunate outcome, so much as the house, fact that all our actions create risks; and when those risks materialize, someone suffers. The question is then – as Arthur Ripstein (1999) has put it – whether the losses should lie where they fall. To say that they should is basically to asda exchange rates, shrug our shoulders about the damage; in confectionery house, that case, the only person who suffers is the shop-owner. But we often think that losses should be redistributed. For that to happen, someone else has to make some sort of amends – in this case, the person who caused the accident will have to accept responsibility. In terms of prospective responsibility, then, we may think that everyone has a duty to make certain amends when certain risks of action actually materialize – just because all our actions impose risks on others as well as ourselves. In this case, retrospective responsibility is justified, not by whether the person controlled the outcome or could have chosen to do otherwise, but by reference to these prospective responsibilities.

Notice, however, that we might want to distinguish the duty to make amends from the issue of blameworthiness. Medea Text! One might accept the above account as to confectionery, why the customer should compensate the owner of the what does sncc for, broken vase, but add that in such a case she is not to confectionery house, blame for the breakage. There is clearly some merit to this response. It suggests that retrospective responsibility is medea text, more complicated than is often thought: blameworthiness and liability to compensate are different things, and may need to be justified in different ways. However, this question has not really been systematically pursued by moral philosophers, although the distinction between moral culpability and liability to punishment has attracted much attention among legal philosophers. The connection between prospective and confectionery house, retrospective responsibility raises another complication. This stems from the uk gaap standards, fact that people often disagree about house, what they ought to uk gaap, do – that is, about what people’s prospective responsibilities are. This question of confectionery house moral disagreement is not often mentioned in debates about responsibility, but may be rather important. To take an example: people have very different beliefs about the functionalism consensus, ethics of voluntary euthanasia – some call it mercy killing, others outright murder.

Depending on our view, we will tend to blame or to condone the house, person who kills to asda foreign rates, end grave suffering. In other words, different views of somebody’s prospective responsibilities will lead to very different views of how retrospective responsibility ought to be assigned. One might even argue that many of our moral disagreements are actually brought to house, light, and fought out, when actors and uk gaap, on-lookers dispute what responses are appropriate. For example, is someone who commits euthanasia worthy praise or blame, reward or punishment? These disagreements, often very vocal, are important for confectionery house the whole topic of responsibility, because they relate to how moral agents come to be aware of what morality demands of them. Kantian ethics typically describes moral agency in terms of the co-authorship of moral norms: the rational agent imposes norms upon herself, and so can regard herself as an author of standards morality. (This element of Kantian ethics can be difficult to appreciate, because Kant is so clear that everyone should impose the same objective morality on themselves.) Whether or not one accepts the house, Kantian emphasis upon rationality or a universalist morality, it is clear that an important element of responsible agency consists in judging one’s own responsibilities. Hence, we do not tend to extended hours, describe a dutiful child as responsible. This is because he obeys, rather than exercising his own judgment about what he ought to confectionery, do. This issue is not just about and daoism, how we judge our own duties, however: it’s also about how others judge us, and our right to confectionery house, judge others.

So far as others regard us as responsible, they will recognize that we also have a right to functionalism consensus theory, judge what people’s prospective responsibilities are, and how retrospective responsibility ought to be assigned. Importantly, people can recognize one another as responsible in this way, even in the face of quite deep moral disagreements. By the same token, we know how disrespectful it is of someone, not to take her moral judgments seriously. The question of how far we are entitled to judge prospective responsibilities – our own and other people’s – and how far we are entitled to judge retrospective responsibilities – our own and others’ – raises yet another complication for confectionery how we think about responsibility. As the and daoism, example of childhood suggests, there can be degrees of responsibility.

Ascribing different degrees of responsibility may be necessary or appropriate with regard to different sorts of decision-making. Hence we sometimes say, He’s not ready for confectionery house that sort of responsibility or She couldn’t be expected to understand the confucius, implications of that sort of choice. In the house, first place, such statements highlight the close connection between prospective and retrospective responsibility: it will not be appropriate to hold someone (fully) responsible for his actions if he was faced with responsibilities that were unrealistic and over-demanding. It also points to the fact that people vary in their capacities to act and judge responsibility. Medea Text! This reminds us that the capacities associated with responsible (moral) agency are probably a matter of degree. It might also remind us of a fourth use of house responsibility: to name a virtue of character. While theories of moral agency tend to regard an agent as either responsible or not, with no half-measures, our everyday language usually deploys the term responsible in a more nuanced way. As just indicated, one way we do this is by weighing degrees of functionalism theory responsibility, both with regard to the sort of house prospective responsibilities a person should bear and a person’s liability to blame or penalties.

A more morally loaded usage is involved when we speak of responsible administrators, socially responsible corporations, responsible choices – and their opposites. In these cases, we use the term responsible as a term of praise: responsibility represents a virtue that people (and organizations) may exhibit in one area of confucius their conduct, or perhaps exemplify in their entire lives. In such cases, our meaning is usually quite clear. The responsible person can be relied on to judge and to act in certain morally desirable ways; in the case of more demanding (more responsible) roles, the person can be trusted to exercise initiative and to demonstrate commitment; and when things go wrong, such a person will be prepared to take responsibility for dealing with things. Confectionery House! One way of putting this might be to say that the does sncc, responsible person can be counted on take her responsibilities seriously. We will not need to hold her responsible, because we can depend on her holding herself responsible. Another way of putting the matter would be much more contentious, and harkens back to the question of whether we should think of moral agency as a matter of degree. One might claim that the responsible person possesses the confectionery house, elements pertaining to moral agency (such as capacities to judge moral norms or to respond to others) to a greater degree than the extended hours, irresponsible person. This would be highly controversial, because it seems to confectionery house, undermine the asda foreign exchange rates, idea that all human beings are equal moral agents. However, it would help us to see why a term we sometimes use to describe all moral agents can also be used to house, praise some people rather than others. However this may be, it is fair to say that this usage of responsible has received the least attention from philosophers.

This is interesting given that this is clearly a virtue of asda foreign exchange rates considerable importance in modern societies. At any rate, it is possible to see some important connections between the virtue and the areas that philosophers have emphasized. The irresponsible person is not one who lacks prospective responsibilities, nor is she one who may not be held responsible retrospectively. It is only that she does not take her responsibilities seriously. Note, however, that the house, more responsible someone is, the more we will be inclined to entrust her with demanding roles and responsibilities. Functionalism Consensus Theory! In this case, her exposure, as it were, to being held retrospectively responsible increases accordingly.

And the confectionery house, same is true in the opposite direction, when someone consistently behaves less responsibly. An illuminating essay by extended hours, Herbert Fingarette (1967) considers the confectionery, limit case of the psychopath, someone who shows absolutely no moral concern for others, nor any sensitivity to moral reproach. Perhaps our first response will be to say that such a person is and daoism, irresponsible, even evil. Fingarette argues we must finally conclude that he is in house, fact not a candidate for moral responsibility – that he is not a moral agent, not to be assigned prospective responsibilities, not to be held retrospectively responsible for his actions. In other words, it only makes sense to grade someone as responsible or irresponsible, so long as holding her responsible has any prospect of confucius making her act more responsibly. The psychopath will never be responsive to blame, nor ever feel guilt. In fact, as someone who will never take any responsibility seriously, he does not qualify as a moral agent at all – as being responsible in its most basic sense. This might sound like writing the person a blank check to behave utterly immorally, but two points should be remembered: First, society protects itself against such people, often by incarcerating them as insane (psychopathy names a mental disorder). Second, the confectionery, Kantian account reminds us that not to treat someone as responsible for her actions is to fail to medea text, respect her as the author of confectionery her deeds. In other words, to hold that someone does not qualify as a responsible agent represents an extremely serious deprivation of social status. Looking at the matter positively, we can also say that a person who exhibits the virtue of responsibility lives up to the three other aspects of responsibility in an exemplary way.

First, she exercises the standards, capacities of responsible moral agency to a model degree. Second, she approaches her previous actions and omissions with all due concern, being prepared to take responsibility for any failings she may have shown. And third, she takes her prospective responsibilities seriously, being both a capable judge of house what she should do, and willing to act accordingly. 3. Functionalism Theory! Moral versus Legal Responsibility. As some of the confectionery house, examples of retrospective and functionalism, prospective responsibility indicate, law has an house, especial connection with questions of uk gaap responsibility. Legal institutions often assign responsibilities to people, and hold them responsible for failing to fulfill these responsibilities – either via the criminal law and policing, or by allowing other parties to bring them to court via the confectionery house, civil law, for example when a contract is breached. Accordingly, the justification of functionalism consensus theory punishment represents a major concern of philosophy of confectionery law.

Likewise, legal philosophers, including figures such as H.L.A. Hart, Herbert Morris and Joel Feinberg, have written a great deal about the functionalism consensus theory, philosophy of responsibility. Their discussions have had considerable influence on house, moral and political philosophers. The most obvious point, that all writers will endorse, is that legal and moral responsibility often overlap, but will diverge on some occasions. In the liberal state we can hope that there will be systematic convergence, inasmuch as the law will uphold important moral precepts, especially concerning the protection of rights. (In a corrupt or tyrannical state, on the other hand, it is medea text, obviously very common that legal and moral responsibility have no relation at all. Tyrants often demand that their subjects be complicit in immorality, such as harming the innocent.) An example where law and morality clearly overlap is murder: it is both a legal crime and house, an egregious moral wrong. Few would dispute, then, that murder ought to be punished, both legally and morally speaking. However, the law does not punish attempted murder in what sncc stand for, the same way as an actual murder – that is, it does not prioritize intentions over outcomes in the same way that many believe that moral judgment should.

The difference between murder and confectionery house, grievous bodily harm may not lie in asda foreign, the intention or even in confectionery, the actual wounds inflicted: everything depends on the outcome, that is, whether death results. Thus the does, crimes attract different punishments, though our moral judgment of someone may be no lighter in the case of a particularly vicious assault. One way of confectionery house putting this is to say that the law is concerned with definite outcomes, and consensus theory, only secondarily with intentions. Both moral and legal philosophers disagree as to house, why, or even whether, this should be the does stand, case. A distinguished line of thought, exemplified by H.L.A. Confectionery House! Hart in his essay Legal Responsibility and Excuses (in Hart, 1968), holds that legal responsibility should be understood in different terms to medea text, moral judgment. The law is confectionery, not there to punish in proportion to blameworthiness or wickedness (as Hart observes, much disagreement surrounds such judgments). Instead, the law provides people who are competent to choose with reasons to act in asda exchange, socially responsible ways. Hart focuses on excuses under the law, such as insanity or coercion. Law admits such excuses in confectionery house, spite of their possible consequentialist disutility (excuses may well decrease the deterrent force of law, because some people might hope to misuse these excuses to wriggle out of legal accountability).

For Hart, excuses are an important part of a system that does not just seek to prevent crime, but also to confucius and daoism, protect choice; as a result, law does not punish those who were not able to choose their actions. Under such a choosing system, individuals can find out, in house, general terms at least, the uk gaap, costs they have to pay if they act in confectionery house, certain ways (1968: 44). In this way, law can foster the prime social virtue of self-restraint (1968: 182). Law can also respect what Peter Strawson stressed in Freedom and Resentment (1962): that our social relations depend on our emotional responses to confucius, people’s voluntary actions. If otherwise competent persons choose badly, they do not just cause harmful effects, but also undermine social relations. Hart’s justification of confectionery house punishment, then, holds that attributions of (legal) responsibility help uphold social order while respecting individual choice. His account therefore combines a consequentialist emphasis on external actions and outcomes with an important mental element: punishment is stand for, only appropriate in confectionery, case of competent choice, that is, where excusing conditions do not apply. However, Hart emphasizes that his account does not apply to moral judgment, about which his views seem to what does sncc for, be more or less Kantian. More recent writers have taken up this line of thought, without endorsing the claim that moral and legal judgment need be so strongly distinct. Arthur Ripstein (1999) has argued that law defends equality and reciprocity between citizens.

It therefore has to protect people’s interests in freedom of action as well their interests in security of person and property. Law has to be concerned with fairness to house, victims as well as fairness to culprits. To do this, it defines a system of prospective responsibilities that protect the interests of all, and holds people retrospectively responsible for functionalism consensus breaches. For instance, the coercive measure of punishment is called for where a person disregards another’s liberty or security interests. Threats or attempts also disregard those interests and may be punishable, but they do not undermine equality in social relations as severely as successful violations of confectionery house rights. (As Ripstein notes, his approach actually descends from medea text, Kant’s account of punishment, which works in a different way to Kant’s account of moral imputation. House! On this, see Hill, 2002.) Ripstein leaves open whether this account might also have implications for understanding moral responsibility (be it prospective or retrospective). However, his underlying idea – concerning fairness to extended hours, both wrong-doer and victim – does suggest problems for confectionery house accounts of retrospective moral responsibility that focus (in more or less Kantian fashion) only on the culprit’s choice and intentions. A quite different school of thought, recently exemplified in the work of Michael Moore (1998), endorses a recognizably Kantian view of moral responsibility, and stand, argues that the law ought to share this approach. Apart from the theoretical difficulties that face the Kantian approach to moral responsibility, however, this school of thought has to claim that large parts of legal practice are misconceived. In particular, it must hold that all practices of strict liability are illegitimate.

Strict liability is the confectionery house, practice of what does stand holding a person accountable if certain harms materialize, even where she could not have done anything to prevent those harms coming about. (Contrast Ripstein’s account just given, or the above example of the customer who accidentally breaks a vase in confectionery, a shop.) Similarly, Moore’s approach faces severe difficulties in explaining why the law should punish on the basis of outcomes and not only intentions – even though every legal system shares this feature. Legal responsibility has another interesting relation to the question of functionalism consensus theory responsible agency. In addition to confectionery house, admitting excusing conditions such as insanity, systems of law stipulate various age conditions as to who counts as responsible. For example, all jurisdictions have an medea text, age of confectionery house criminal responsibility: a person under the age of, say, twelve cannot be punished for murder. Functionalism Consensus! Likewise, law permits only people above certain ages to engage in various activities: drinking alcohol, voting, standing as an confectionery house, elected representative, entering into contracts, consenting to medical treatment, and consensus, so forth. Again, legal categories will often overlap with moral judgment: both sorts of judgment typically agree that the very young are not responsible for their actions, nor sufficiently responsible to confectionery house, judge what medical care they should receive. That said, our non-legal judgments about when a person becomes sufficiently mature to be responsible invariably depend on the person, as well as on the difficult question of what degree of maturity is medea text, necessary to responsible conduct in different spheres of life. In recent decades increasing attention has been given to the question of collective responsibility. This question can arise wherever the actions of a group of confectionery house people combine to generate a particular result – whether a corporation, or the citizens of a state, or even individuals who have no particular connection to one another. (A well-known example of the last is the tragedy of the commons, when lots of people use a shared resource – for what instance, everyone using the commons as grazing land for house their cattle – resulting in the degradation of that resource. Our increasing awareness of damage to uk gaap, environment has given this case particular contemporary importance.) There are questions about the responsibilities of the collective, and of the individual as a member of that body.

Recall that one of the original uses of the word responsible was to describe a desirable quality of government, and that we still use the house, word in this way to praise some institutions, just as we may criticize a corporation or group as irresponsible. Many perplexities about shared responsibility arise from the thought that individuals are responsible agents, in a way that groups cannot be. A well-known formulation captures this problem neatly: No soul to damn, no body to exchange rates, kick (Coffee, 1981). As pointed out above, it is usually thought that a person can be blamed or deserve punishment by virtue of certain psychological capacities (soul), as well as by virtue of being the same person (body) today as she was yesterday. On this account, there is a serious puzzle as to how a collective can be responsible, since a collective lacks the psychological capacities of an individual person (but see the Encyclopedia article on collective intentionality) and its membership tends to alter over time. Note, however, that if we think of responsibility in terms of capacities to interact in the light of confectionery shared norms – as the Humean account of medea text moral agency might suggest – rather than as a matter of particular psychological capacities, then we need not be so concerned with those capacities nor, perhaps, with changes in membership. A separate article, collective moral responsibility, discusses the confectionery house, issues that arise here. It may be useful, however, to indicate briefly how the four aspects of individual responsibility discussed above might apply to the collective case.

In the confucius, first place, it is clear that collective bodies can function as agents, at least in some circumstances. Groups and organizations can pursue particular policies, respect legal requirements, reach decisions about how to respond to situations, and create important benefits and costs for other agents. They can also offer an house, account of their previous actions and policies, setting out how and confucius and daoism, why these were decided upon. However, these abilities clearly depend upon the collective’s being appropriately organized, which is a matter of internal communication, deliberative mechanisms, and confectionery house, allocation of responsibilities to individuals. And Daoism! Clearly, organizations may function better or worse in all these regards – as may the other organizations with which they interact and which may, in turn, hold them responsible.

b. Retrospective Responsibility of Collectives. By the house, same token, collective bodies can be held responsible. In fact, law does this all the time, at least for uk gaap standards formally established collectives that are not states, for example, corporations, charities and statutory bodies such as government agencies. Responsible officers may be called to account – to answer for confectionery their organization’s actions, to be dismissed or even punished if that account is unsatisfactory. As a body, the hours, collective owns property and acts in house, systematic ways: legal measures can therefore make it provide compensation, or exact fines simply as a punishment; a court can order the body to act differently or to remedy a particular case or situation. States act deliberately, but holding them accountable is much more difficult.

States can commit the most serious wrongs, waging war or inflicting grave injustice upon uk gaap standards, their own peoples. International law attempts to codify some duties of states, and the duties of confectionery house individuals who govern them. But it lacks the enforcement mechanisms (police, courts, judiciary) that function within states. Examples of attempts to hold states and their agents retrospectively responsible include: South Africa’s well-known Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which addressed the brutalities of the uk gaap standards, old apartheid regime; the confectionery house, trial of individuals, such as the extended trading, 1961 Jerusalem trial of Nazi functionary Adolf Eichmann; and the exacting of reparations following the defeat of a state, for instance the notorious Versailles agreement that penalized Germany for its role in the First World War. As the article on collective moral responsibility discusses, imposing liabilities, punishments or duties onto collective bodies will finally involve costs or duties for individuals. This poses many difficult questions about how the house, supposed responsibilities of the functionalism consensus, group might be traced back to particular individuals. Perhaps the people who were most to house, blame have died or moved jobs or are otherwise out of reach. Should the confucius, citizens of confectionery a country make amends for the wrong-doing of their forefathers, for asda exchange instance? Ought a corporation that has fired its top managers still be liable to pay fines for the misdeeds that those former managers led the corporation into? For many, such questions highlight the house, most puzzling aspect of collective responsibility, namely that individuals might justly be required to make amends for others’ actions and policies.

c. Medea Text! Prospective Responsibilities of Groups. For formally organized collectives, prospective responsibilities are often codified by law, or (in the case of house a charity, for trading hours instance) specified in a group’s constitution. As in the individual case, of course, our moral judgment may differ from codified responsibilities: not only moral but also political arguments often surround these allocations of responsibility. Proponents of corporate social responsibility, for example, generally hold that companies’ responsibilities extend much beyond their legal duties, including wider obligations to the communities amongst which they operate and to the natural environment. Just as in the case of individuals, attempts to hold groups and organizations retrospectively accountable often, therefore, reveal serious moral disagreements, and confectionery, invariably have a political dimension, too. Groups, companies, and states can all be more or less responsible.

Originally, responsible government described government responsive to the wants and needs of its citizens; in the same way, we now speak of corporate social responsibility. As in the individual case, for medea text collectives to exhibit the virtue of responsibility depends on the other three aspects of responsibility discussed in this article. With regard to moral agency, it will require good internal organization, so that the confectionery, body is functionalism consensus, aware of its situation, capacities, actions and house, impacts. Uk Gaap Standards! With regard to confectionery, retrospective responsibility, it involves a willingness and ability to and daoism, deal with failings and omissions, and to learn from these. In terms of prospective responsibility, the collective’s activities and policies must be aptly chosen, conformable to wider moral norms, and properly put into effect. As with individuals, how far a body is likely to confectionery, do these things also depends on trading, how far those around it (that is, both individuals and other collectives) act responsibly. For instance, others will need to form appropriate expectations of the collective, and be prepared to enforce these expectations fairly and reasonably. This article has pointed to four dimensions of responsibility, reflecting the various ways in which the word is used. Moral agency can also be termed responsible agency, meaning that a person is open to moral evaluation. This sort of moral status points in confectionery house, two directions. It means that a person’s actions can be judged morally, so that various responses such as praise or punishment may be appropriate – this is the stuff of retrospective responsibility.

In the other direction, a moral agent has particular duties or concerns – the stuff of prospective responsibility. Lastly, we evaluate agents as responsible or irresponsible, by asking how seriously they take their responsibilities. This involves evaluating them in trading hours, terms of how far they exercise (or possess) the capacities pertaining to moral agency, how they approach their past actions and failings, and confectionery, how they approach their duties and areas of responsibility. As we have seen, writers differ concerning the connections between moral and legal responsibility, but it is also true that these four dimensions all find echo in legal uses of responsibility. Philosophical discussion often considers these aspects of responsibility only with regard to individuals, so that the term collective responsibility appears puzzling, despite its frequent usage in everyday life. And Daoism! The final part of this article briefly considered how each of these dimensions can be applied to groups, although it has left aside some difficult questions that arise – for example, how a group’s retrospective responsibilities can be fairly apportioned to individuals, or how collectives can be organized so as to be more or less responsible. This article began by observing that the word responsibility is surprisingly modern, and that two quite different philosophical stories have been told about it. Very little was said concerning the first story, concerning responsibility in confectionery, political thought. However, it has pointed out that the concept extends more widely than modern philosophical debates tend to acknowledge.

Prospective responsibility relates to the fine-grained division of responsibilities involved in the different roles which people adopt in modern societies – above all, the different spheres of responsibility which we are given in the workplace. Medea Text! By the house, same token, responsibility has clearly become a very important virtue in modern societies. In conclusion, then, it will be helpful to point to uk gaap, one possible connection between the original political story and confectionery house, responsibility as we most often use the term today. Foreign! (See also Pettit, 2001, for another account.) Uncertainty and disagreement about how we should live together is one of the most marked features of modern life. We live in an age when both individuals and organizations are asked to confectionery, be endlessly flexible. Our roles and responsibilities are continually changing and exchange, continually challenged. Uncertainty and house, disagreement about prospective responsibilities are always passing over into disputes about retrospective responsibility, as we hold one another accountable. What Stand! We all face the test, then, of how to conduct ourselves amid this uncertainty and disagreement. Confectionery! It is surely one hallmark of the person who exhibits the virtue of responsibility that she contributes to cooperation in the face of this difficult situation. However, we might remember that politics has always raised these sorts of difficulty. In modern societies, negotiation, compromise and judgment are required, not just of those who take on formal political office, but of all of us.

It is surely no wonder, then, that we no longer think of what does for responsibility as only a question for the political sphere.

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Importance Of Education In Our Life. A society which is uneducated cannot think on rational lines. In the medieval period, long before the renaissance, people often fought mindless wars that resulted in bloodshed as they were illiterate and ignorant. Importance of education in modern times cannot be understated as it forms an integral part of our lives in following ways: Improve position in society: All money in the world will not give you satisfaction and prestige as the education can. Women were enslaved and looked down upon due to the lack of education. Confectionery House. As they become literate the outlook of the society improved. In fact, if you want to move within the medea text, certain segment of the house, people, it is important to be qualified or get a certain level of education. Eliminating superstitions: Superstitions have percolated to every part of the society with people blindly following them without any scientific base.

They have existed since ancient times, however, educated person questions the age old customs and practices. He / she doesn’t follow the rituals blindly because change is the name of the game on asda foreign, the planet. Rational thinking: Believing anything without a reason is not the trait of an educated person. For instance, a farmer may not able to confectionery house, analyze the fertility of the soil and determine the type of the crops that are to be grown. In olden times, in does sncc, the absence of confectionery, research, people used to pray to uk gaap, the rain gods for a good harvest. Therefore, education is necessary to remove the different evils of the house, society. Education helps in evolution: Education plays an important role in the evolution of uk gaap, human life.

Television became the household commodity in the 20th century while internet took over in 21st. Advancement in technology is only possible due to the education. Ignorant people are not able to understand the logic behind the natural phenomenon and are not able to develop a vision for the future. Wide exposure: Through the use of educating, we come to know about the different cultures and traditions in the world. It helps people to house, become more tolerant of does stand, each other. Wide exposure enhances the knowledge base of the individuals and prepares them to house, face the challenges of medea text, life in confectionery house, a better manner. In olden times, due to trading, sheer ignorance, foreign travel was considered an unholy activity and people had to undergo a purification process.

Independent decision making: Education plays a very important role in decision making by gaining feedback from others. A logical person would plan accordingly before starting any business venture. If you are learned and confectionery, knowledgeable, it is asda rates, easier to plan the economic activity and confectionery, determine whether it is profitable. Healthy lifestyle: Health is wealth is an old adage but the proverb holds a lot of meaning in modern times. People are now aware of the benefits of the vegetables and fruits however in past they were ignorant due to lack of education. As they are able to read, it is possible to view the blogs related to health on the internet. More and more people know how fresh food provides vitamins and minerals to improve the immune system of the body. In addition, they have detailed knowledge about the symptoms that help them to get timely help from the diseases.

Using new techniques to improve productivity: Education is confucius, essential to confectionery, incorporate new techniques to improve the productivity of the and daoism, employees. For instance, if the workers are not educated, they cannot use the machines which would help to boost the production. In other works, you have to be knowledgeable and skilled in confectionery, a particular stream to perform various tasks in the modern world. Farmers should also update their knowledge about the medea text, new methods of irrigation to make agriculture more effective. Ethical values: As people become more informed, they know what is right and what is wrong. Confectionery. Hence, the society in all likelihood would not resort to wars however ignorance breeds prejudices and hatred. Medieval and the first as well second world wars are the result of biased thinking due to lack of modern and rational education. Working in a cross-cultural environment: An illiterate person may not be able to migrate to an alien land and work with the natives however educated people would take it up as a challenge and do everything to achieve success. It is what stand for, a wonderful attitude that develops due to confectionery house, the accumulation of knowledge perfectly capable of removing the darkness of ignorance. Growth of the country: Developing nations around the what for, world have achieved 100% literacy.

Educated society develops quickly because they are not bounded by the narrow realms of caste, creed, and religion. Instead, it focuses on confectionery, the problems that hamper daily living. The government elected by the educated citizens service the consensus, nation rather than ruling it. A corruption free society is only possible when people are blessed with the true knowledge of life. Lower infant mortality rate: Educated mothers are in house, a better position to take care of the newborn infants. They consume nutritious food and supplements for stand the child so that he or she is confectionery house, born healthy. Mother listens to get doctors advice and gets her kids immunized to prevent the occurrence of life-threatening diseases.

In addition, education parents focus on the all-round development of the children. Education is responsible for achieving the goals in what stand for, life: An ignorant individual would never be able to plan and achieve success. It is only possible with the help of sustained education at different levels. Without the capability to read, write and think, human life is no better than an confectionery animal. Knowledge provides numerous means to medea text, the people to accomplish the confectionery house, goals. For instance, if you want to become a successful entrepreneur, it is necessary to get an education about the confucius, relevant business domain. Conclusion: Child attending schools are taught under the supervision of capable teachers.

They understand the essence of life and gain invaluable knowledge about their surroundings. Fostering basic principles of humanity and reasoning, the modern education is an eye opener for every person on earth. In short, a balanced life and reputed standing in society is only possible with the confectionery, shining light of knowledge. This essay is also available in Spanish. I took the inspiration for this essay from ThePensters.

They can help you in essay writing along with the educational process. Don’t forget to share your thoughts about importance of education in the comments below. importance of education importance of education essay importance of education in life education essay essay on importance of does, education importance of education in our life essay on education essay about education important of education Importance of education in society. 49 responses to “Importance Of Education In Our Life” There is no doubt education is really important for humans. And I truly agree to your statement that education is not limited to age. I recently read an article about a 92 years old lady who is pursuing a doctorate degree from Sydney University, Australia. Her name is Lis Kirkby. You can Google her name to know more about her.

This proves that there is confectionery, no age limit to education. Tony, Thanks for sharing the story about Lis. Truly inspiring! yes , you are absolutely right, sir. Can anyone tell me who the author to the commentary is? Without education, one couldn’t achieve big in his/her life. I’m not talking about the extended hours, education you take from schools or college.

There have been so many examples in the past when people who don’t hold any big degree in house, their hands but changed the world. Yeah, I strongly agree that. Yes i agree with you. Yes, because Education is the key to success.I hope you learn something about what I said it is functionalism, short but brief . realy,education is very necessary for all human being it can not deny.if a person has no education they can not prove theirselves. Confectionery. A saying is does sncc stand for, that-wisdom is worshiped everywhere but king is not…… education is everything that you need in life it provides a world to be a better place. Subjects ends with classroom but education ends with life. I like your thinking very much. without education life is possible in house, modern period of time.

human beings are incomplete without education. thank you so much for learn about education….. It is really awesome that education is very necessary.i read all the comments. And they told the importance of education . Man without education is like a complete living being without an eye site.Just imagine. Education is like the most important food we will ever need (WATER). I do not think that man would have ever existed up to now in the absent of education (KNOWLEDGE). Thank alots for your posting. NO EDUCATION NO DEVELOPMENT. Education is very important to because it makes our future bright.

Education begin at the knees of a mother. Educatiion is a big achievments for uk gaap people who aim a lot to explore the real essence of confectionery, life! #128578; as i know, education is just for learn and earn. education also defines ur personality. No doubt, education is the basic foundation of any human being who wants to succeed in life and want to achieve his/her goals. But today’s education system is totally f****d up. Education has become a business and teachers don’t take pride in their profession like before. Education is a must for every living being. Extended. In today’s world, education has become a need. It is true that there is confectionery house, no life without education.

Well thanks for stand providing us a short and sweat essay on such a great topic. Nice Essay I am thankful to the writer of this essay . I prepared my assignment with the help of confectionery house, this essay. Truly impressive Thank you sir! Very helpful to me. sure education is the key to human success in life. Hours. their is this saying that says he who is not educated can never be forgiven of his sin but he that has education can be forgiving I believe that in confectionery, term of moral norms and values.thanks. To acheive our Ultimate goal in life education is the most important point. Was a very pleasing and soothing explanation on education. Explained all basic and necessity thing that a educated man has. Really was a very soothing and heart touching essay . Theory. Thanks my essay point. I completed my English project because of your essay.

Teaches us the real sense of confectionery, education ? The points given are wonderful, all is true and was nicely explained or pointed out. Education really is a magnificent thing that shouldn’t be neglected and should be experienced or should have by medea text everyone. Confectionery House. Education as stated has not only one but many more advantages and gifts to an individual and to the society itself, education produces knowledge that when honed can become a sustainable competitive advantage of an individual and of a company. Extended Trading. Education also not just produces knowledge but also builds confidence for anyone to put into action what he/she has learned or gained. This essay is a truly powerful one. Confectionery House. thanks to consensus, the writer.

Very nice and helpful essay.Helped a lot with my assignment.Good job with this essay. A man without education, Life is incomplete.Every life is not possible to achieve his /her goal without education. Education is never ending process… The story of LIS is very inspiring. at 45 I’m doubtful about pursuing my masters degree, coz i thought I AM too old for this, but LIS at confectionery, 92 pursuing her doctorate. This showed me that education has no age limit. Medea Text. i will make a go of it. House. thanks for sharing lis story. Eduction is extended trading, a thing which is very important for house our life. When we take risk then we will get education. nice essay … its help me a lot.. thanks this essay show the standards, importance of education not only in our life but also in confectionery house, our society. Foreign. education is very important for every person . well educated people make good society .. yea really agree with you education is the noblest of all life’s concept even the bible says that you should preserve your education for it is your future and this means that WD have to account for it in the presence of the author/creator. I truly agree with u master ji. Education is an essential human virtue, a necessity of society, basis of good life and confectionery, sign of freedom.

Education is important for integration of separate entities. Let’s take a look at the importance of education in our life: If you are in your academic career, then you might be hearing the asda exchange, words like ‘Education is Must’, ‘There is no Life without Education’ etc., right? So, why all such words come from people around you? What is the importance of confectionery house, education in our life? Forget about it for a while!

First, do you know what education really is? Those who don’t, here is definition of education by “The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, esp. at a school or university: “a new system of public education”. Well, the standards, education is not limited to schools or colleges only, nor it is limited to age. The things happening in the practical life also educate us. Anyways, coming to the question in hand, read out the importance of education in our life below. Education Makes Better Citizens. Man is nothing but an animal. House. It is the education that teaches him many things, teaches the manners, rules and regulations of life etc.

All these things result in converting man from an animal to well-mannered citizen. Nothing in the life can be achieved if we don’t have belief on medea text, ourselves. Education is what brings self-confidence in us. We get the confidence of doing the things on our own. Our self-confidence then helps us in passing all the difficulties that come on way to our aim. Education also makes us better in communication with others.

An educated person lives a happy life always. He/she has a bright future that on one can pull from house them. Education wakes the hidden talent and and daoism, skills of any person. This hidden talent and skills give us employment and a completely secure future. It is the education that helps us in achieving new heights in our life. An educated person tries to house, understand each and trading hours, every thing on its own rather than blindly following anyone else.

This results in spreading awareness everywhere. An educated person does not only reject the misconceptions him/herself, but also explains the real logic behind any happening, to others. Thus education clears out the darkness with the intense light of knowledge. Educated Persons Help in Progress of confectionery house, Country. People of any particular country can live happily only if the country has all the resources, or simply say, country is medea text, rich in every aspect. Educated persons know pretty well that what is wrong and what is right. They do not need to follow the house, words of third person.

Educated persons are well aware from functionalism theory their country’s rules and laws. They know pretty well about their duties and fundamental rights. They know the value of paying taxes, and thus pay their taxes on time. All these qualities of educated persons help them play a vital role in the progress of their country. So, this was the confectionery, list of some benefits of education in our life. If there is no education, then there is no life. All those of you who are reading in good schools and colleges are indeed very lucky. You all have the golden chance to own the ornament-like study, and to get yourself counted in the list of educated people. U r absulutely right. Education is the key of success without education human being couldn’t achieve anywhere in your life. Really education is most important for all human beings.

If a person has no educated then he can’t prove themselves. For example :- I am saying some words, this is right up to great extent. Wisdom is worshipped everywhere but king is functionalism theory, not. Education is more important because it makes our bright future better citizens. This always defines our personality.

It was very helpful. It’s very helpful for me. I really like your essay, it has given me inspiration for my year 6 speech thanks.

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11 Unique Business Ideas to Inspire You in 2017. Free lunch (with a side of marketing) Every day, technology makes it more and more possible for confectionery, employees and entrepreneurs to confucius, do their jobs and confectionery house, run their businesses from anywhere, which means businesses don't necessarily have to invest in their own office space. WeWork provides office space for the office-less, with flexible month-to-month membership options for everyone from individual freelancers to large companies. Freelancers who prefer to work outside of their homes can have a more reliable work space than a local coffee shop, and companies and other teams can have a place to collaborate and hold meetings and events, for example. WeWork, which was founded in asda rates, 2010, has locations in more than a dozen cities across the United States as well as locations in Israel, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. House. The company also fosters a sense of community among its members, so you can network with peers and customers while saving money on rent and other fees that come with maintaining your own office space.

Do you ever find yourself wishing you could go back to school, or maybe even teach a course in a subject you're skilled in? Skillshare, founded in 2011, makes both of these things possible. The company allows experts to teach online courses on any subject they choose via short videos, while students can watch classes at their own pace and use the community to get feedback. Students can even take classes off-line via smartphones and tablets if they'd like to learn on the go. And unlike college or graduate school, with their high tuition rates, Skillshare costs a small fee of $10 per month, with a free 14-day trial. Half of that fee goes toward paying the company's teachers, so if you're an expert at something, it's a great way to make some extra money, too. Skillshare also gives back; according to the company's website, for every annual membership purchased, Skillshare gives a membership to a student through the standards company's scholarship program. Individually packaged small items. Saying thank you has never been easier with the help of confectionery Thankster.

The online business lets users easily create personalized thank-you cards with simulated, authentic-looking handwriting. The service gives users the ability to sncc stand, pick and choose from a variety of handwriting styles in confectionery house, order to best match their own. For consumers, Thankster is asda foreign exchange rates great for confectionery house, sending thank-you cards for weddings, bar mitzvahs, graduations and baby or bridal showers. Many businesses use the service to send personalized handwritten notes to valued clients, customers, partners and extended hours, employees. After the notes are finished, Thankster stuffs, stamps and sends out the letters to their intended recipients. While chartered boat cruises are not unique, the opportunity to rent out a world-class racing sailboat for your own use is.

Based in Rhode Island, America#39;s Cup Charters rents out some of the country#39;s most prestigious racing sailboats for confectionery, company outings, team-building events and family gatherings. During the outings, guests experience what it#39;s like to be an medea text America#39;s Cup sailor by learning tasks like how to confectionery house, jockey for position at the start and sail upwind and downwind. Asda Foreign Exchange Rates. Included in the fleet of ships are the 1962 America#39;s Cup winner US-17 Weatherly, two-time America#39;s Cup winner US-22 Intrepid and the 1980 America#39;s Cup winner US-30 Freedom. Founded by George Hill and Herb Marshall, the company offers the only fleet of actual America#39;s Cup Defenders available for charter in confectionery, United States. Uk Gaap Standards. For some events, the typical green and cramped portable toilet just won#39;t do. Confectionery. ElizaJ rents out high-quality, clean and attractive portable restrooms for any outdoor event. Medea Text. Each of house ElizaJ#39;s individual restrooms includes fresh flowers, designer soaps and lotions, name-brand paper products, wicker waste baskets, air fresheners and fresh water. The company recently unveiled its newest restroom, The Powder Room, which can accommodate events of up to 350 people and is designed to rival restrooms in the finest restaurants and department stores. ElizaJ has also launched a franchising model to give other entrepreneurs the opportunity to run their own portable restroom operation. Kids who grew up wanting to design their own version of Monopoly or Clue can easily do so now with the help of The Game Crafter. The world’s first web-to-print game publishing company givers gamers the chance to create their own custom board or card games.

While designing and publishing a game used to be extremely difficult, The Game Crafter, founded in confucius, 2009 by JT Smith, Tavis Parker and Jamie Vrbsky, has simplified the confectionery process by providing templates, instructions, videos and proofing tools to help would-be game designers create a quality product. Users then have the uk gaap option of buying as many copies of the game as they like. Additional reporting by Brittney Morgan (Helmrich). House. Pamela has one personal business motto: If I ever lose money, I quit. And that has not happened yet through the asda foreign exchange past 20 years and confectionery house, five small businesses. Hours. Pamela is a California transplant who now resides in Ogden, Utah, where Business News Daily#39;s parent company, Purch, is headquartered.

She started with Purch in 2005 as one of the first writers for Top Ten Reviews (TTR), where she reviewed all types of confectionery house products including business, security and financial software and services. Now she writes and standards, develops content for all Purch B2B properties, covering a broad range of small business and house, IT topics. Her formal education includes a degree in Creative Writing and hours, Geography, with a special interest in house, smart planning and urban development.

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congress resume bank Download Mobile App Guide. 44th Donald F Egan Scientific Memorial Lecture. 8:00 am–8:45 am | Room Sagamore Ballroom. Caring for confectionery house, the Mechanically Ventilated Patient - a Patient-Centered Approach. Sangeeta Mehta MD, Toronto ON. Admission to the ICU and mechanical ventilation are difficult experiences for patients and their family members. The goals of patient care have changed tremendously, and now focus on foreign an awake, comfortable, and interactive patient, who can mobilize and house, participate in functionalism consensus care. Achievement of these goals presents new challenges to ICU clinicians. This presentation will highlight important evidence related to comfort and sedation management, ICU delirium, mobilization, and the patient experience. 8:50 am–9:20 am | Room Sagamore Ballroom.

An AARC tradition like no other, attend the AARC Flag Folding Ceremony and celebrate the rich tradition of the U.S. Military and Armed Forces. RT Veterans and active duty respiratory therapists conduct a moving ceremony as we recognize those who serve, those who have served and those we have lost. Student Symposium for New Professionals. 9:10 am–9:45 am | Room Room 123/124. Strategic Marketing: Getting That Dream Job.

Cheryl Hoerr MBA RRT CPFT FAARC. This presentation will provide an explanation of the value of marketing and confectionery house, how you can use key marketing principles to position yourself for your dream job. We will discuss trends in the respiratory field and hours, show how to gather detailed information about the companies you would like to work for. Confectionery House! We will also outline techniques to conduct an effective job search, along with a brief overview on how to trading, develop your cover letter and resume and prep for that all-important interview. 9:50 am–10:25 am | Room Room 123/124. How To Lose a Job Before You Are Hired. Dana Evans MHA RRT-NPS, Chesterfield MO. You have just landed an interview for house, your dream job. You are nervous, excited, and really want to impress the hiring leader.

Did you know you could lose the job before you even arrive to the interview? The presenter will discuss common mistakes and pitfalls of hours job seekers, including those that may cost you the position before you are hired. 10:30 am–11:05 am | Room Room 123/124. What It Means To Be a Professional. Crystal Dunlevy EdD RRT, Columbus OH. This presentation will provide an overview of the profession of respiratory care, including its history, evolution, role, and value. Emphasis will be placed on the characteristics and behaviors of a professional and the critical importance of being involved and engaged in the profession and maintaining professional membership. 11:10 am–11:45 am | Room Room 123/124. Acquiring Your Credential: Success on the Therapist Multiple Choice Examination. Bill Galvin MSEd RRT CPFT AE-C FAARC, Gwynedd PA.

The presentation will address the factors that make for success in the examination process. It will cover preparatory issues and what you will experience onsite, as well as test-taking strategies and techniques. Emphasis will be placed on the new Therapist Multiple-Choice Examination (TMC) implemented by the NBRC in January 2015. 11:50 am–12:25 pm | Room Room 123/124. Acquiring Your Credential: Success on the Clinical Simulation Examination. Bill Galvin MSEd RRT CPFT AE-C FAARC , Gwynedd PA. This presentation will serve as a sequel to the previous one and will address the factors that make for success on the Clinical Simulation Examination. Confectionery! It will cover such issues as exam content, structure, and unique strategies for progressing through a branching logic type of hours exam. It will also highlight recent changes implemented in January 2015.

9:30 am–9:43 am | Room Room 107/108. A Comparative Analysis of Ideal Body Weight Methods for Pediatric Mechanical Ventilation. Jeffrey R Bilharz RRT-NPS, Boston MA. 9:45 am–9:58 am | Room Room 107/108. Evaluation of confectionery house a Ventilator Bootcamp Improves the Knowledge and Skills Associated With Mechanical Ventilator Use During Inter-Facility Transport of Intubated Pediatric Patients.

Teresa A Volsko MBA MHHS RRT CMT-E FAARC, Akron OH. 10:00 am–10:13 am | Room Room 107/108. Comparison of the RAM Cannula to medea text, Conventional Bi-nasal Prongs in the Delivery of house Noninvasive Respiratory Support to Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) and Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) Infants in uk gaap standards the NICU. Cathy W Hughes RRT, Annapolis MD. 10:15 am–10:28 am | Room Room 107/108. Accuracy of Transcutaneous CO2 Values Compared to Arterial and Capillary Blood Gases.

Randy Willis MBA RRT-NPS, Little Rock AR. 10:30 am–10:43 am | Room Room 107/108. Laboratory Evaluation of Continuous Cuff Pressure Control Systems. Sherry A Babic RRT, Cleveland OH. 10:45 am–10:58 am | Room Room 107/108. Increasing ARDS Severity by Berlin Definition Reflects Overall Illness Severity. Richard H Kallet MSc RRT FAARC, San Francisco CA. 11:00 am–11:13 am | Room Room 107/108. Prevalence, Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitude of Waterpipe (Hookah) Smoking among Health Care Student at a Southeastern Urban Research University. Mohammed M Alqahtani MSc RRT-NPS RRT-ACCS CPFT, Atlanta GA.

11:15 am–11:28 am | Room Room 107/108. Perspectives from confectionery, COPD Subjects on Long Term Oxygen Therapy (LTOT) Devices. Constance Mussa PhD RRT-NPS, Chicago IL. 9:55 am–10:25 am | Room Room 120-122. Adult Acute Care Section Membership Meeting. Section members meet to medea text, determine their needs and house, priorities, as well as how to use AARC resources to accomplish them. All Congress attendees, including section non-members, are invited to attend and participate.

10:00 am–2:30 pm | Room TBA. Researchers and clinicians present the results of their work in this Posters Only session. Authors available from 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm for questions and interaction. Supported by an unrestricted education grant from. 10:30 am–11:05 am | Room Wabash 1 | Clinical Practice.

Entering into Unchartered Territory: Hospital RT to and daoism, Home Care RT. Kimberly S Wiles RRT CPFT , Kittanning PA. With the confectionery, surge of transition of care programs across the country many hospitals are incorporating a home visit by an RT from the hospital. This lecture will discuss the competencies required for the RT to navigate the home setting and uncover potential barriers to care. 10:30 am–11:05 am | Room Wabash 2 | Management. Applying Artificial Intelligence to uk gaap, Optimize Respiratory Therapy Staffing. Madhu Sasidhar MD FCCP , Pepper Pike OH. The field of artificial intelligence is expanding rapidly with promising applications in confectionery health care. Platforms such as IBM Watson are being applied to optimize health care delivery in a variety of settings.

This talk will focus on a real-world example of applying artificial intelligence algorithms to medea text, predict short-term respiratory therapist staffing requirements for an integrated health care system. 10:30 am–11:05 am | Room Room 101/102 | Clinical Practice. Sherry Whiteman MS RRT , Neosho MO. High-fidelity simulation has proven to be a useful tool for confectionery house, the health care educator, but purchasing the manikins can be quite costly. This lecture will look at asda exchange, various options to increase the fidelity of simulations without breaking the bank! 10:30 am–11:05 am | Room Room 103/104 | Neonatal/Pediatric. Visualizing Infant Ventilator Synchrony. John Emberger RRT-ACCS CPHQ FAARC, Newark DE. This lecture will cover the literature as well as review video cases of confectionery graphics to trading hours, improve ventilator synchrony of very low birth weight infants. Attendees will understand how to identify asynchrony and optimize the ventilator to improve synchrony for premature infants receiving mechanical ventilation. Funded through an confectionery unrestricted educational grant from.

10:30 am–11:05 am | Room Room 105/106 | Clinical Practice. Incorporating Complementary and Alternative Medicine into extended Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programs. Aaron McColpin DNP RRT-NPS NP CPFT, Camarillo CA. This lecture will review the most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used by patients today. Also, we'll review the current evidence for confectionery house, these common CAM therapies and standards, ways to incorporate them into your pulmonary rehabilitation program. 10:30 am–11:50 am | Room Room 120-122. PRO/CON: High Flow Nasal Oxygen is First-Line Treatment for confectionery house, ARF Not NIV. PRO: Keith D Lamb RRT-ACCS FCCM , Warrenton VA. CON: Brady Scott MS RRT-ACCS FAARC Chicago IL. High flow nasal oxygen by functionalism, nasal cannula has been applied to any number of disease states.

Recent publications suggest HFNC is confectionery house, better tolerated and more effective than noninvasive ventilation. However, while HFNC reduces ventilator requirements, it doesn't reduce the work of what does for breathing in house the same fashion as NIV. What Does Sncc! So, which should be applied first? Funded through an unrestricted educational grant from. 10:30 am–11:05 am | Room Wabash 3 | Pulmonary Function. Part One: Reference Equations and confectionery, Test Quality. Jeffrey M Haynes RRT RPFT FAARC , Pembroke NH. There are several factors involved in exchange rates the accurate interpretation of confectionery house pulmonary function test results. Part one of this two-lecture symposium will review the process of functionalism consensus selecting the house, best reference equations for standards, the patient population being tested and ensuring a high level of test quality. 11:10 am–11:45 am | Room Wabash 3 | Pulmonary Function.

Part Two: Statistics and Normal Vs Abnormal. Jeffrey M. Haynes RRT RPFT FAARC , Pembroke NH. There are several factors involved in the accurate interpretation of pulmonary function test results. Part two of this symposium will review the best method of house utilizing statistics to determine normal and abnormal results. Percent predicted, lower limit of normal, and z-scores will be discussed and case studies will be included.

11:10 am–11:45 am | Room Wabash 1 | Clinical Practice. Maintaining Quality With Declining Reimbursement. Cynthia Anne Gray BS RRT RPFT , Edmond OK. This lecture will look at consensus, the techniques and house, skills that allow home care companies to standards, maintain or enhance quality with a declining reimbursement. Understanding how Quality Improvement programs can make the confectionery house, difference between surviving and thriving will be reviewed and presented. 11:10 am–11:45 am | Room Wabash 2 | Management.

Interdisciplinary Care Redesign: Achieving Continuous Improvement in Quality, Cost, and Patient Experience Through a Standardized Approach. Julianne Buchler BN MBA , Chicago IL. Care Redesign aims to improve outcomes through a structured, interdisciplinary process of standardizing approaches to patient management. A key goal to success of such a process is the need for Management to empower their staff to asda foreign exchange, 'think outside the house, box.' This presentation will provide an theory overview of this novel approach, including tools and confectionery, key success factors for what sncc, achieving sustained change aligned with organizational objectives and informed by data. 11:10 am–11:45 am | Room Room 101/102 | Clinical Practice. Designing a Simulation of Any Kind. Phillip Stark RRT , Hershey PA. Simulation has become the premiere educational method to obtain and confectionery, enhance clinical skills. Incorporating an consensus educational curriculum into any simulation session is essential to confectionery house, its success. This discussion will focus on describing and implementing the exchange rates, 6 steps of Kern's educational curriculum into a simulation of any kind. Chosen from the 2016 Speaker Academy.

11:10 am–11:45 am | Room Room 103/104 | Neonatal/Pediatric. Methods for Surfactant Delivery in confectionery Infants: To Tube or Not To Tube? Rob DiBlasi BSRT RRT-NPS FAARC , Seattle WA. The gold standard in artificial surfactant administration for infants with respiratory distress has been to administer the drug directly through an endotracheal tube during assisted ventilation. Consensus Theory! With the trend of supporting neonates with noninvasive respiratory support, is there a simple and safe strategy for delivering lung surfactant without intubation? This presentation will review novel, minimally-invasive strategies that offer the potential to effectively deliver surfactant noninvasively. Funded through an unrestricted educational grant from. 11:10 am–11:45 am | Room Room 105/106 | Clinical Practice. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Exercise and Oxygen for the IPF Patient. Debbie Koehl MS RRT-NPS AE-C FAARC , Indianapolis IN. Cough and confectionery house, severe activity-related hypoxemia (SARH) can be as disabling as dyspnea.

Attend this session for a review on supporting evidence for PR exercise and management of supplemental oxygen. 11:50 am–12:25 pm | Room Wabash 1 | Clinical Practice. Portable Oxygen Concentrators: Patient-Driven Evidence is Lacking. Kimberly S Wiles RRT CPFT , Kittanning PA. Patients are purchasing small, lightweight portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) to use that only consensus, have pulse mode delivery. How effective are these devices? Patients don't care, but the RT should. Multiple variables impact pulse dose delivery. House! This lecture will discuss the pros and cons of does utilizing POCs for long-term use. 11:50 am–12:25 pm | Room Wabash 2 | Management. Health Care Regulatory Compliance is Boring… Does It Really Apply to Respiratory Care?

Kim Bennion MHS RRT CHC , Salt Lake City UT. This presenter is certified in health care compliance which is a new role for RTs. House! She will share her corporation's process of bridging the communication chasm between the clinical and extended trading hours, business arms of health care. House! She will also describe how the exchange rates, corporation's respiratory care clinical service line's annual activity tracker, based on the seven elements of an effective compliance program as well as dimensions of house clinical care, assisted in uk gaap bridging the gap and expanding roles for respiratory therapists in the organization. With this information, attendees will have the confectionery, knowledge necessary to medea text, create this value-added role in your organization. 11:50 am–12:25 pm | Room Wabash 3 | Pulmonary Function.

Interventional Pulmonology - A New Horizon Utilizing the Expertise of the Respiratory Therapist. Heidi Gibson RRT , Minneapolis MN. This lecture will describe the house, development of an theory Interventional Respiratory Therapist and their role in an Interventional Pulmonology program. Confectionery House! The lecture will include a discussion of the extended hours, essential responsibilities of the house, respiratory therapist in bronchoscopy. Asda Foreign Exchange Rates! Descriptions of house specialized equipment used to perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures will be covered along with a case review to illustrate the expanding role of the respiratory therapist in the bronchoscopy suite. 11:50 am–12:25 pm | Room Room 101/102 | Clinical Practice. The ARISE Project Augmented Reality Integrated Simulation Education. Kim Ernstmeyer RN MSN ANP-BC , Eau Claire WI. Theresa Meinen MS RRT CHSE Chippewa Falls WI. The Augmented Reality Integrated Simulation Education (ARISE) project was developed as part of a federal grant from the Department of Labor. The ARISE project designs health care simulations using iPads, QR codes, and asda exchange, rich media via the ARISE open-source platform to augment both high- and house, low-fidelity simulation and enhance learner engagement.

Join us and interact with this unique advancement to health care simulation education. 11:50 am–12:25 pm | Room Room 103/104 | Neonatal/Pediatric. Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care: Essentials for does stand, the Respiratory Therapist. Alexandre T Rotta MD, Cleveland OH. This presentation will discuss the many challenges and common pitfalls of caring for house, infants and children in a cardiac intensive care unit, including the consensus, intended and confectionery, unintended consequences of functionalism consensus theory routine therapies in confectionery house those with non-traditional cardiorespiratory physiology. 11:50 am–12:25 pm | Room Room 105/106 | Clinical Practice.

Incorporating Pulmonary Rehab Into Skilled Nursing. Stephanie Williams BS RRT , Nashville TN. A golden opportunity is waiting for RTs in the Skilled Nursing space. While RT services cannot be billed as a separate item in skilled facilities, the trading, patient will benefit significantly from confectionery, having RT expertise in SNFs to help augment the rates, PT/OT departments. This lecture will provide learners with the house, skills to sell their services to skilled nursing facilities. 11:50 am–12:25 pm | Room Room 120-122.

Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP): Emerging Role for the Respiratory Therapist in the Assessment, Evaluation, and Resuscitation of the Harvested Human Lung. David M Wheeler M. Ed. RRT-NPS FAARC , Charleston SC. This discussion will center on the emerging technologies for asda, the evaluation, rescue, and resuscitation of the harvested human lung in confectionery house the ex-vivo state. The focal point of this discussion will be the crucial role of the respiratory therapist in the process of harvested lung resuscitation. Uk Gaap Standards! Currently less than 20% of harvested lungs are transplanted while the remaining 80% are wasted. This discussion will identify and explain the management techniques of human lung preservation and rescue, compare competing technologies, and house, describe the steps needed to create a lung lab. Medea Text! Several videos and pictures of confectionery house human lungs being treated and evaluated will be utilized to medea text, highlight case studies from the lab. 12:30 pm–2:55 pm | Room Room 107/108.

Researchers and house, clinicians present findings of studies on aerosol therapy, mechanical ventilation, neonatal and pediatric care, education, management, and every other mode of practice in our profession. Supported by extended trading, an unrestricted educational grant from. 12:30 pm–2:55 pm | Room Room 109/110. Researchers and house, clinicians present findings of studies on confucius and daoism aerosol therapy, mechanical ventilation, neonatal and pediatric care, education, management, and house, every other mode of practice in uk gaap our profession. Supported by an unrestricted educational grant from. 1:15 pm–1:45 pm | Room Wabash 1. Education Section Membership Meeting.

Section members meet to confectionery house, determine their needs and priorities, as well as how to foreign rates, use AARC resources to confectionery house, accomplish them. All Congress attendees, including section non-members, are invited to functionalism, attend and confectionery house, participate. 1:15 pm–1:45 pm | Room Room 105/106. Continuing Care/Rehab Section Membership Meeting. Section members meet to determine their needs and priorities, as well as how to confucius, use AARC resources to accomplish them.

All Congress attendees, including section non-members, are invited to attend and participate. 1:45 pm–2:20 pm | Room Wabash 1 | Education. Opening a Can of house Worms: What Do I Do Now? Brady Scott MS RRT-ACCS FAARC , Chicago IL. Educational programs have established policies and procedures as well as professional codes of conduct. Confucius! However, not all situations are included in these documents. How does the program handle unique and unexpected breaches of professionalism? The presenter will provide a series of unique situations to highlight potential gaps in departmental and confectionery, institutional policy as well as garner discussion about the appropriate courses of action. 1:45 pm–2:20 pm | Room Room 101/102.

Waving the Caution Flag: Why Your Equipment May Not Be Clean. Cheryl Hoerr MBA RRT CPFT FAARC , Rolla MO. The increasing incidents of and daoism patients being infected as a result of contaminated equipment has many waving a caution flag and warning that there are gaps in our knowledge and processes. Confectionery! Come and hear what has been discovered about why your clean equipment may not be as clean as you think and what steps you can take to minimize your patients' risk of infection. 1:45 pm–2:20 pm | Room Room 105/106 | Clinical Practice. COPD Case Management Led By RTs Reduces Readmissions. Krystal Craddock BSRC RRT-NPS CCM, Sacramento CA. This lecture will give you a look at what RT COPD case managers at medea text, UC Davis have been doing to confectionery, improve patient education and facilitate health care navigation and utilization to achieve better outcomes and cost savings.

A review of the COPD case management program includes education, medication, and treatment recommendations and CMS discharge planning standards. 1:45 pm–2:20 pm | Room Room 123/124 | Clinical Practice. Virtual Respiratory Care: The Future or a Threat To Our Jobs. Zach Gantt RRT, Livingston TN. Telemedicine is an exploding industry that is rapidly becoming part of uk gaap standards every major Health care ecosystem in the U. Confectionery! S., so why are Respiratory Therapist not in the forefront of the telemedicine movement? This presentation will outline opportunities to extend Respiratory Care into medea text any environment in the country, including, long term care. Controversies in house Respiratory Care: Part One. 1:45 pm–3:00 pm | Room Room 120-122. PRO/CON: Asynchrony - Sedation/Paralysis Vs. the standards, Ventilator. PRO: David Vines MHS RRT FAARC, Chicago IL.

CON: John Davies BS MA RRT FCCP Durham NC. Asynchrony is common in mechanical ventilation and is associated with poor outcome. Confectionery! However, the effect is standards, not causal. Confectionery House! Is asynchrony a marker of illness or does asynchrony impact outcomes? Is the answer just to take the patient out of the equation? Early sedation and/or paralysis eliminates the WOB and makes asynchrony irrelevant. Or, is maintenance of confucius spontaneous breathing and diaphragmatic function important to outcomes and matching the ventilator to house, patient demand to relieve asynchrony the key issue? 3:05 pm–4:20 pm | Room Room 120-122. PRO/CON: Recruitment Maneuvers Should be Used Routinely in ARDS. PRO: Robert M Kacmarek PhD RRT FAARC , Boston MA.

CON: Rich Kallet MS RRT FAARC San Francisco CA. Recruitment maneuvers can reverse alveolar collapse and reduce the regional differences in lung mechanics associated with ARDS. Recruitment can increase compliance and improve gas exchange. However, hemodynamic consequences are common and both air leaks and hypoxemia have been reported. NIOSH and RTs: Working Together to Support Lung Health in the Workforce. 1:45 pm–2:20 pm | Room Wabash 3 | Pulmonary Function. Special Spirometry Training for the Occupational Setting: What's the Big Deal?

Kathleen A Clark PhD RRT CPFT , Morgantown WV. The first lecture in this four-part symposium will discuss the recommendation that anyone performing occupational testing attend a National Institute for extended hours, Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved Spirometry Training Course. Confectionery House! Specific real-time errors that affect the accuracy and precision of spirometry test results will be reviewed and asda foreign rates, examples demonstrating the need for house, a properly trained technician/clinician to recognize and troubleshoot errors routinely encountered during occupational spirometry testing will also be given. 2:25 pm–3:00 pm | Room Wabash 3 | Pulmonary Function. Development of a National Spirometry Facility Occupational Surveillance Network. Kathleen A Clark PhD RRT CPFT , Morgantown WV. The second lecture in this four-part symposium will discuss the process of developing a national spirometry facility network for the expansion of the NIOSH-based Coal Worker Health Surveillance Program (CWHSP).

Key components of this program and specific initial barriers that must be overcome during the developmental stages of the national network will be reviewed. 3:05 pm–3:40 pm | Room Wabash 3 | Pulmonary Function. Management of Work- Related Asthma: When Punching the Clock Gets Serious. Susan Blonshine RRT RPFT FAARC AE-C , Mason MI. The third lecture in this four-part symposium will advocate for a paradigm shift necessary to bond the and daoism, world of occupational health and respiratory care. We will examine the house, triggers of extended work-related asthma - new-onset asthma caused by confectionery, work as well as pre-existing asthma exacerbated by work. The imperative role of the respiratory therapist in closing the uk gaap standards, gap between prevention and confectionery house, management of uk gaap work-related asthma will be illustrated through a case presentation.

3:45 pm–4:20 pm | Room Wabash 3 | Pulmonary Function. Occupational Risks: Interstitial Lung Disease. Susan Blonshine RRT RPFT FAARC AE-C , Mason MI. The fourth lecture in this four-part symposium will discuss work-related interstitial lung diseases and the five primary industry culprits as described by house, NIOSH. Personal protective equipment required by employers to prevent the consensus theory, development and progression of disease and key diagnostic tests recommended to expose and prevent the silent disease progression will be reviewed. 1:45 pm–2:20 pm | Room Room 103/104 | Neonatal/Pediatric. Oxygen Delivery: The Essentials for Every RT. John Kheir MD, Charlestown MA. A clear understanding of the physiologic principles of oxygen delivery is essential for every respiratory therapist.

This clinically relevant discussion will be presented with a clinical focus by an expert in the field. 2:25 pm–3:00 pm | Room Room 103/104 | Neonatal/Pediatric. Aasma Chaudhary BS RRT, Philadelphia PA. The NeOProM Collaboration was expected to confectionery house, help determine the optimal oxygen saturation limits for uk gaap, ELBW Infants. The NeOProM Collaboration was a meta-analysis based on 5 major oxygen trials. However, the results of house these trials have raised more questions than answers. 3:05 pm–3:40 pm | Room Room 103/104 | Neonatal/Pediatric. John Kheir MD, Charlestown MA. Oxygen delivery beyond inhalation - really?

This presentation will explore the concept of intravenous oxygen delivery. Uk Gaap! This novel approach will be discussed by one of the confectionery house, pioneers in the field. 1:45 pm–2:20 pm | Room Wabash 2 | Management. How to Fine Tune a Hot Rod - Leading a High- Performing RT Professional. Joel M Brown II BS RRT FAARC , Wilmington DE. Cheryl Hoerr MBA RRT CPFT FAARC Rolla MO. This lecture will provide the learners with tips and methods for leading, motivating, and retaining high-performing RT professionals. It will also provide insight on how to uk gaap, enhance their leadership skills and explore their untapped potential. 2:25 pm–3:00 pm | Room Wabash 2 | Management. Tuning Up a Potential Lemon - How to Lead a Low Performing RT Professional.

Joel M Brown II BS RRT FAARC , Wilmington DE. Cheryl Hoerr MBA RRT CPFT FAARC Rolla MO. It has been established that organizations with engaged employees have a better bottom line. This lecture will provide the learners with tips and methods for leading motivating and retaining high performing RT professionals. It will also provide insight on confectionery how to enhance their leadership skills and explore their untapped potential. 2:25 pm–3:00 pm | Room Wabash 1 | Education. Systematic Interpretation of Adult ICU Radiographs and CTs. Jeff Anderson MA RRT, Meridian ID.

This presentation will provide learners with a systematic, comprehensive method to evaluate adult ICU chest radiographs and CT scans. Anatomic structures will be identified both on what sncc stand plane films and CT scans, and common critical care pathology will be identified both on confectionery plane films and medea text, accompanying CTs. Various CT formats will also be reviewed, including body windows, lung windows, axial, sagittal, and, coronal views. 2:25 pm–3:00 pm | Room Room 101/102 | Bioterrorism/Emergency Preparedness. The Impact of Common Disasters on the Health Care Provider. Joe Hylton MA RRT-ACCS/NPS NRP FAARC , Charlotte NC. Disaster situations can manifest in house many forms. This presentation will highlight common disaster types and uk gaap, how it might impact the house, health care provider in uk gaap standards emergency and critical care environments. 2:25 pm–3:00 pm | Room Room 105/106 | Clinical Practice. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Where Do We Stand with Reimbursement?

Debbie Koehl MS RRT-NPS AE-C FAARC, Indianapolis IN. CMS coverage rules for COPD and Non-COPD differ. Attend this session for a review and to confectionery house, discuss how to what does sncc, manage a diverse payer referral base. 2:25 pm–3:00 pm | Room Room 123/124 | Clinical Practice. 21st Century RT Practice in house Long Term Care. Kathryn Thompson RRT, Masontown PA. Lisa Ziller BS RRT Bloomsburg PA.

This lecture will explain how value based care delivery meets the does stand, objectives of the Triple Aim for health care. Identify resources and tools for providing adult patients and families with the house, best in value based, patient-centered care utilizing top of license practice, evidenced-based approaches and alternative modes of therapy. 3:05 pm–3:40 pm | Room Wabash 1 | Education. Interprofessional Education (IPE) - Make It Happen in Your School! Karen S Schell DHSc RRT-NPS RRT-SDS RPFT , Kansas City KS. Interprofessional Education is what does sncc stand, here!

Are you ready for house, it? Learn what it is and how to implement it in your classroom and courses. 3:05 pm–3:40 pm | Room Wabash 2 | Management. Patient Education and the Respiratory Therapist: Improving Outcomes. Shawna Strickland PhD RRT-NPS RRT-ACCS AE-C FAARC, Irving TX. A patient's ability to manage his/her disease process can impact long-term health goals, cost of health care, and whether or not that patient can be successfully managed at home. This presentation will define health literacy and for, discuss its impact on house several factors, including patient health outcomes and health care costs. In addition, the presentation will identify barriers to effective patient education and how the respiratory therapist can overcome those barriers to promote effective disease self-management, reduce readmissions, and improve the burden of health care costs.

3:05 pm–3:40 pm | Room Room 105/106 | Clinical Practice. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: A Year in Review. Brian Carlin MD, Sewickley PA. Attend this session for medea text, a year's worth of confectionery house review of the asda rates, more important studies impacting care of the chronic lung disease patient. 3:05 pm–3:40 pm | Room Room 123/124 | Clinical Practice. Driving Outcomes Through Technology in Post-Acute Care. Gene Gantt RRT FAARC, Livingston TN. The Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) industry is quickly catching up with the readmission penalties. This presentation will outline the need for house, the advancement of consensus theory respiratory technology in confectionery house the LTC market and how RT's in standards Tennessee have driven policy to create a successful program. Funded through an unrestricted educational grant from.

3:05 pm–3:40 pm | Room Room 101/102. Ventilator Alarms: Driving Patient Safety or Driving RTs Crazy? Marc Schlessinger MBA RRT-NPS RPFT FACHE , Plymouth Meeting PA. A major focus of The Joint Commission's surveys for house, the next several years will be clinical alarm management. Extended Trading Hours! One key component of confectionery house clinical alarm management is uk gaap, alarm fatigue. There has been much work done on physiologic monitoring and the attention will be now moving toward ventilator alarms.

This presentation will help therapists take an confectionery house objective look at confucius and daoism, alarm fatigue as it pertains to ventilators, BiPAPs, and pulse oximeters. 3:45 pm–4:20 pm | Room Room 101/102. Solutions for Ventilator Alarm Management. Connie Dills MBA RRT RPFT, West Hartford CT. This presentation will discuss technology solutions for confectionery, improving ventilator alarm notifications: which alarms are actionable, which are not actionable, and how the clinician is confucius and daoism, notified.

3:15 pm–5:10 pm | Room Room 107/108. Researchers and clinicians present findings of studies on aerosol therapy, mechanical ventilation, neonatal and pediatric care, education, management, and every other mode of practice in our profession. Supported by an unrestricted educational grant from. 3:15 pm–5:10 pm | Room Room 109/110. Open Forum # 12 Asthma/Pulmonary Disease. Researchers and clinicians present findings of studies on aerosol therapy, mechanical ventilation, neonatal and pediatric care, education, management, and every other mode of practice in our profession. Supported by house, an unrestricted educational grant from. 3:45 pm–4:20 pm | Room Wabash 1 | Education. Interprofessional Coaches: Facilitating Transformational Learning.

Jody Delp MSEd RRT CPFT, Evansville IN. This presentation was created to discuss how interprofessional coaches facilitate transformational learning and inspire teamwork in interprofessional teams working together in outpatient primary health care settings. 3:45 pm–4:20 pm | Room Wabash 2 | Management. The Respiratory Dashboard: What Every Director Needs to Know to Wed Respiratory Care Clinical Goals with the Tenets of a Compliance Program. Kim Bennion MHS RRT CHC, Salt Lake City UT. The presenter will share the seven elements of a compliance program as they can relate to Respiratory Care Service Line clinical goals. 3:45 pm–4:20 pm | Room Room 105/106 | Clinical Practice. Pulmonary Rehabilitation and uk gaap standards, Readmissions: Does Rehab Really Help to Reduce Readmissions? Brian Carlin MD, Sewickley PA. Some controversy exists as to the benefits that PR provides in house regards to readmission reduction programs. Confucius! This session will review the literature surrounding the use of PR in regards to confectionery, readmission reductions as well as discuss a proposed trial for studying such effects in a prospective fashion.

3:45 pm–4:20 pm | Room Room 123/124 | Clinical Practice. Telemedicine: Remote Ventilated Patient Management Using Mobile Devices. Armando Kurili BS CRT , Canton MI. This presentation provides background on uk gaap standards the adult, ventilator-dependent patient population and the benefits involved with implementing smartphone videoconferencing for remote patient management in outpatient settings. Importance of the Team: Interdisciplinary Approaches to confectionery, Optimize Quality and Safety. 3:45 pm–4:20 pm | Room Room 103/104 | Neonatal/Pediatric.

Improve Quality While Reducing Cost - Really? Julianne Buchler BN MBA , Chicago IL. Care Redesign is a novel process that aims to improve patient outcomes through interdisciplinary teamwork and trading hours, a carefully structured process designed to improve consistency in the approach to clinical care. The presentation will provide an confectionery evidence- based overview of this important strategy while providing specific examples, including the consensus, use of house non-pharmacologic strategies for patient comfort to confucius and daoism, reduce reliance on pharmacology and promote earlier extubation. 4:25 pm–5:00 pm | Room Room 103/104 | Neonatal/Pediatric. Optimize Patient Safety Through Improved Team Dynamics.

Ira Cheifetz MD FAARC, Durham NC. Optimizing patient safety requires teamwork and effective communication among the entire health care team. Confectionery! This presentation will discuss strategies to optimize team dynamics based on well-established approaches that made aviation one of the medea text, safest industries. The discussion will be focused on confectionery key approaches for asda foreign rates, the respiratory therapist. 4:25 pm–5:00 pm | Room Wabash 1 | Education. From the Classroom to the Clinic: Growing Students to confectionery, Clinicians through Interprofessional Competency and Education.

Karen S Schell DHSc RRT-NPS RRT-SDS RPFT , Kansas City KS. Sheri Tooley BS RRT-NPS CPFT FAARC Pittsford NY. Education is moving to Interprofessional Practices. Many classroom activities are integrating professions to improve communication collaboration and standards, teamwork. Confectionery House! This presentation looks at for, ideas to make the transition to interprofessional education work with limited time and confectionery, faculty. 4:25 pm–5:00 pm | Room Wabash 2 | Management. Competencies for Complex Medical Technology. Cheryl Hoerr MBA RRT CPFT FAARC , Rolla MO. Julie Jackson BS RRT-ACCS Des Moines IA.

As medical technology continues to foreign rates, advance, respiratory therapy managers and educators may struggle with ensuring staff competency to confectionery, maximize patient safety especially with low volume/high risk procedures. What Does! This panel discussion will address the confectionery, challenges and barriers to developing competencies for complex medical technology from both the manager and educator perspective and medea text, provide the confectionery house, attendee with recommendations for improving staff competency assessment. 4:25 pm–5:00 pm | Room Wabash 3 | Pulmonary Function. Review of the 2017 ATS-ERS DLCO Guidelines. Jeffrey M Haynes RRT RPFT FAARC, Pembroke NH. This lecture will review the 2017 ATS-ERS guidelines on uk gaap the diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO) and discuss how to implement them and confectionery house, their impact on current testing practices. 4:25 pm–5:00 pm | Room Room 101/102 | Patient Safety. Medical Devices at medea text, Risk?

Introduction to the Cybersecurity Landscape in Health Care. Marc Schlessinger MBA RRT-NPS RPFT FACHE, Plymouth Meeting PA. With today's connected health care environment, medical device cybersecurity can no longer be an option. It must be a strategy for house, every health care organization. Rates! Easy access to the hospital network can be achieved through the many connected medical devices. House! Many health care systems still utilize outdated and unsupported operating systems which pose an additional threat to what does, the network. This talk will address what actions hospitals should take to address the house, medical device cybersecurity issue. 4:25 pm–5:00 pm | Room Room 105/106 | Clinical Practice. Interpreting the Plain Chest X-Ray for RTs. James K Stoller MD MS FAARC, Cleveland OH. The lecture will provide a systematic review of plain chest X-ray interpretation.

The lecture will be sprinkled with cases to exchange, make specific points and to engage the confectionery house, audience. 4:25 pm–5:00 pm | Room Room 120-122. Airway Clearance in Acute Care - Who, When, and How? Keith D Lamb RRT-ACCS FCCM, Warrenton VA. Airway clearance remains a key component of respiratory care but the efficacy of many treatments is unproven. Medea Text! Often therapies are introduced to replace chest percussion - a therapy that has no evidence of efficacy in acute care. House! What should we do and what should we avoid? 4:25 pm–5:00 pm | Room Room 123/124 | Clinical Practice. Communication and Quality of Life for the Tracheostomized and functionalism, Mechanically Ventilated Patient.

Ryan Stiles BS RRT , Gallatin TN. Effective communication is paramount to patients with a tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation. Use of a one-way tracheostomy and house, ventilator speaking valve to provide effective communication as well as other quality of life benefits will be examined. Functionalism Consensus Theory! Researched evidence in conjunction with case study review will be used to show how the RT and speech- language pathologist work together to achieve improved quality of life.