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AnyConnect FAQ: Tunnels, Reconnect Behavior, and the Inactivity Timer. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. View in why the moon landing, various apps on iPhone, iPad, Android, Sony Reader, or Windows Phone. Disorder. View on Kindle device or Kindle app on multiple devices. This document describes in detail some important points about the Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client (AnyConnect) tunnels, the reconnect behavior and Dead Peer Detection (DPD), and the inactivity timer. There are two methods used in order to connect an AnyConnect session: Via the Portal (Clientless) Via the why the moon landing Standalone Application. Based on the way you connect, you create three different tunnels (sessions) on the ASA, each one with a specific purpose: Clientless or Parent-Tunnel: This is the main session that is created in the negotiation in order to set up the session token that is necessary in company uk, case a reconnect is needed due to network connectivity issues or hibernation. Based on the connection mechanism, the Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) lists the why the landing was fake session as Clientless (Weblaunch via the artifact speech Portal) or Parent (Standalone AnyConnect). Note : The AnyConnect-Parent represents the session when the client is not actively connected. Was Fake. Effectively, it works similar to a cookie, in that it is a database entry on the ASA that maps to the connection from walt a particular client. If the client shuts down or sleeps, the tunnels (IPsec/Internet Key Exchange (IKE)/ Transport Layer Security (TLS)/Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocols) are torn down, but the Parent remains until the idle timer or maximum connect time takes effect.
This allows the user to reconnect without reauthenticating. Here is sample output from the two connection methods. AnyConnect Connected via Web-launch: AnyConnect Connected via the Standalone Application: When is a session considered an Inactive Session? The session is considered Inactive (and the timer begins to increase) only why the landing when the SSL-Tunnel does not exist anymore in the session. So, each session is The Importance of Resistance, time-stamped with the SSL-Tunnel drop time. When does the ASA drop the SSL-Tunnel? There are two ways that an SSL-Tunnel can be disconnected: DPD - DPDs are used by the client in order to detect a failure in why the landing, communications between the AnyConnect client and the ASA head-end. DPDs are also used in order to clean up resources on the ASA. This ensures that the head-end does not keep connections in the database if the endpoint is nonresponsive to the DPD pings. If the ASA sends a DPD to the endpoint and it responds, no action is development psychology, taken. If the endpoint is not responsive, the ASA tears down the landing tunnel in the session database, and moves the session into a Waiting to Resume mode.
What this means is that DPD from the head-end has started, and the head-end no longer communicates with the client. In such situations, the ASA holds the Parent-Tunnel up in order to allow the of obsessive compulsive disorder user to roam networks, go to reasons landing was fake sleep, and recover the session. These sessions count against actively-connected sessions and are cleared under these conditions: User Idle-Timeout Client resumes the moral development original session and reasons moon landing was fake, logs out properly. In order to configure DPDs, use the anyconnect dpd-interval command under the WebVPN attributes in the group-policy settings. Dred Definition. By default, the DPD is moon landing, enabled and set to 30 seconds for both the ASA (gateway) and scott case, the client. Caution : Be aware of Cisco bug ID CSCts66926 - DPD fails to terminate DTLS tunnel after lost client connection.
Why do Keepalives need to be enabled if DPDs are already enabled? As explained previously, the why the moon landing was fake DPD does not kill the AnyConnect session itself. It merely kills the moral development tunnel within that session so that the client can reestablish the tunnel. If the client cannot reestablish the tunnel, the session remains until the idle timer expires on the ASA. Since DPDs are enabled by default, customers might often get disconnected due to flows closing in one direction with Network Address Translation (NAT), Firewall and Proxy devices. Enabling keepalives at low intervals, such as 20 seconds, helps to prevent this.
Keepalives are enabled under the WebVPN attributes of a particular group-policy with the anyconnect ssl keepalive command. By default, the timers are set to 20 seconds. AnyConnect Client Behavior in Case of Reconnects. AnyConnect will attempt to reconnect if the connection is disrupted. Reasons Why The Landing Was Fake. This is not configurable, automatically.
As long as the VPN session on the ASA is still valid and if AnyConnect can re-establish the physical connection, the VPN session will be resumed. The reconnect feature continues until the session timeout or the v for vendetta film disconnect timeout, which is actually the idle timeout, expires (or 30 minutes if no timeouts are configured). Moon Landing. Once these expire, you should not continue because the ASA will have dropped the moral VPN session. Reasons Moon Landing. The client will continue as long as it thinks the ASA still has the VPN session. AnyConnect will reconnect no matter how the network interface changes. It does not matter if the IP address of the Network Interface Card (NIC) changes, or if connectivity switches from one NIC to another NIC (wireless to wired or vice versa).
When you consider the reconnect process for AnyConnect, there are three levels of sessions that you must remember. Additionally, the reconnect behavior of film review, each of these sessions is loosely coupled, in that any of them can be re-established without a dependency on the session elements of the previous layer: TCP or UDP reconnects [OSI Layer 3] TLS, DTLS, or IPSec(IKE+ESP) [OSI Layer 4] - TLS resumption is not supported. VPN [OSI layer 7] - The VPN session token is used as an authentication token in order to reestablish the VPN session over a secured channel when there is a disruption. It is a proprietary mechanism that is very similar, conceptually, to how a Kerberos token or a client certificate is used for authentication. The token is unique and cryptographically generated by why the moon landing was fake the head-end, which contains the session ID plus a cryptographically generated random payload. It is of Resistance Training, passed to the client as part of the initial VPN establishment after a secure channel to reasons moon landing was fake the head-end is established. Disney. It remains valid for the lifetime of the session on the head-end, and it is reasons why the landing, stored in The Importance Training, the client memory, which is a privileged process. Tip : These ASA releases and later contain a stronger cryptographic session token: 9.1(3) and 8.4(7.1) A Disconnect Timeout timer is started as soon as the network connection is reasons why the moon, disrupted. The AnyConnect client continues to try to reconnect as long as this timer does not expire.
The Disconnect Timeout is set to the lowest setting of either the Group Policy Idle-Timeout or the Maximum Connect Time . The value of this timer is seen in the Event Viewer for the AnyConnect session in the negotiation: In this example, the session should disconnect after two minutes (120 seconds), which can be checked in the Message History of the AnyConnect: Tip : For the ASA to respond to a client that is attempting to reconnect, the Parent-Tunnel session should still exist in the ASA database. In the event of failover, DPDs also need to be enabled for the reconnect behavior to work. As is visible from the previous messages, the examples of obsessive reconnect failed. However, if the reconnect is successful, here is what happens: The Parent-Tunnel remains the same; this is not renegotiated because this tunnel maintains the session token that is why the, required for the session in order to examples of obsessive compulsive disorder reconnect. New SSL and DTLS sessions are generated, and different source ports are used in the reconnect. All the Idle-Timeout values are restored. The Inactivity Timeout is restored. Caution : Be aware of Cisco bug ID CSCtg33110.
The VPN session database does not update the Public IP address in the ASA session database when AnyConnect reconnects. In this situation where the attempts to reconnect fail, you encounter this message: Note : This enhancement request has been filed in order to make this more granular: Cisco bug ID CSCsl52873 - ASA does not have a configurable disconnected timeout for AnyConnect. AnyConnect Client Behavior in Case of System Suspend. There is a roaming feature that allows AnyConnect to reconnect after a PC sleep. The client continues to try until the idle or session timeouts expire and the client does not immediately tear down the was fake tunnel when the artifact examples system goes into hibernate/standby. For customers who do not want this feature, set the session timeout to a low value in moon, order to prevent sleep/resume reconnects. Note : After the fix of Cisco bug ID CSCso17627 (Version 2.3(111)+), a control knob was introduced in order to disable this reconnect on resume feature. V For Film Review. The Auto-Reconnect behavior for AnyConnect can be controlled through the reasons why the moon AnyConnect XML profile with this setting: With this change, AnyConnect will try to cultural speech examples reconnect when the computer is brought back from sleep. The AutoReconnectBehavior preference defaults to DisconnectOnSuspend. This behavior is different from that of AnyConnect Client Release 2.2. For reconnect after resume, the reasons moon landing was fake network administrator must either set ReconnectAfterResume in the profile or make the AutoReconnect and AutoReconnectBehavior preferences user controllable in the profile to allow users to set it.
Q1. Anyconnect DPD has an interval but no retries - how many packets does it have to miss before it marks the remote end as dead? A. It has to film review miss three retries/four packets. Q2. Is the DPD processing different for AnyConnect with IKEv2? A. Reasons Was Fake. Yes, IKEv2 has a fixed number of retries - six retries/seven packets. Q3. Is there another purpose for the AnyConnect Parent-Tunnel? A. In addition to being a mapping on The Importance of Resistance Essay, the ASA, the parent tunnel is why the moon was fake, used in order to push AnyConnect image upgrades from the ASA to the client, because the client is not actively connected during the upgrade process. Q4.
Can you filter and log off just inactive sessions? A. Moral Psychology. You can filter inactive sessions with the reasons moon show vpn-sessiondb anyconnect filter inactive command. However, there is no command to log off just inactive sessions. Instead, you need to log off specific sessions or log off all sessions per user (index - name), protocol, or tunnel-group. An enhancement request, Cisco bug ID CSCuh55707, has been filed in moral, order to add the option to log off just the inactive sessions. Q5. What happens to the Parent-Tunnel when the DTLS or TLS tunnels Idle-Timeout expires? A. The Idle TO Left timer of the AnyConnect-Parent session is reset after either the SSL-Tunnel or DTLS-Tunnel is torn down. Why The Landing Was Fake. This allows the idle-timeout to act as a disconnected timeout. Cultural Artifact. This effectively becomes the allowable time for the client to reconnect. If the client does not reconnect within the timer, then the reasons moon landing Parent-Tunnel will be terminated.
Q6. What is the point of keeping the session once the DPD timers have disconnected the session and why does the ASA not release the IP address? A. The head-end has no knowledge of the client's state. In this case, the ASA waits for v for review, the client to hopefully reconnect until the session times out upon the idle timer. DPD does not kill an AnyConnect session; it merely kills the was fake tunnel (within that session) so that the client can reestablish the tunnel. Scott Case Definition. If the client does not reestablish a tunnel, the session remains until the idle timer expires. If the concern is about sessions being used up, set simultaneous-logins to a low value such as one.
With this setting, users who have a session in the session database have their prior session deleted when they log in again. Q7. What is the behavior if the ASA fails over from Active to Standby? A. Initially, when the reasons why the was fake session is established, the three tunnels (Parent, SSL, and DTLS) are replicated to the Standby Unit; once the ASA fails over, the DTLS and the TLS sessions are reestablished as they are not synced to the standby unit, but any data flows through the tunnels should work without disruption after the AnyConnect session is disorder, reestablished. Reasons Was Fake. SSL/DTLS sessions are not stateful, so the SSL state and dred scott definition, sequence number are not maintained and can be quite taxing. Thus, those sessions need to moon was fake be reestablished from scratch, which is done with the Parent session and the session token. Tip : In the event of a failover event, SSL VPN client sessions are not carried over to the standby device if keepalives are disabled. Q8. Why are there two different timeouts, the idle timeout and the disconnected timeout, if they are both the same value?
A. When the protocols were developed, two different timeouts were provided for: Idle timeout - The idle timeout is for when no data is passed over a connection. Disconnected timeout - The disconnected timeout is for when you give up the VPN session because the connection has been lost and cannot be re-established. The disconnected timeout was never implemented on the ASA. V For Film Review. Instead, the ASA sends the idle timeout value for both the idle and disconnected timeouts to the client. Reasons Why The Moon Landing Was Fake. The client does not use the idle timeout, because the ASA handles the idle timeout.
The client uses the cultural artifact disconnected timeout value, which is the same as the idle timeout value, in order to know when to give up reconnect attempts since the ASA will have dropped the session. While not actively connected to the client, the ASA will timeout the moon landing was fake session via the idle timeout. The primary reason to artifact speech not implement the disconnected timeout on the ASA was to reasons why the moon landing was fake avoid the addition of dred case, another timer for every VPN session and the increase in overhead on the ASA (although the same timer could be used in both instances, just with different timeout values, since the two cases are mutually exclusive). The only value added with the disconnected timeout is to allow an administrator to specify a different timeout for when the client is not actively connected versus idle. As noted earlier, Cisco bug ID CSCsl52873 has been filed for this. Q9. What happens when the client machine is why the landing was fake, suspended? A. Walt Disney. By default, AnyConnect does attempt to re-establish a VPN connection when you lose connectivity. It does not attempt to re-establish a VPN connection after a system resume by default.
Refer to AnyConnect Client Behavior in Case of System Suspend for reasons why the was fake, details. Q10. When a reconnect happens, does the AnyConnect Virtual Adapter flap or does the development routing table change at all? A. A tunnel-level reconnect will not do either. This is a reconnect on just SSL or DTLS. These go about 30 seconds before they give up. If DTLS fails, it is just dropped.
If SSL fails, it causes a session-level reconnect. A session-level reconnect will completely redo the reasons landing was fake routing. If the client address assigned on the reconnect, or any other configuration parameters that impact the Virtual Adapter (VA), have not changed, then the VA is not disabled. While it is unlikely to have any change in the configuration parameters received from the ASA, it is possible that a change in the physical interface used for the VPN connection (for example, if you undock and go from wired to WiFi) could result in a different Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) value for the VPN connection. Review. The MTU value impacts the VA, and a change to it causes the VA to be disabled and then re-enabled. Q11. Does the ?Auto Reconnect? provide Session Persistence? If so, is there any extra functionality added in the AnyConnect Client?
A. AnyConnect does not provide any extra magic to accommodate session persistence for applications. But VPN connectivity is restored automatically shortly after network connectivity to the secure gateway resumes, provided the idle and session timeouts configured on the ASA have not expired. And unlike the landing was fake IPsec client, the The Importance of Resistance Training automatic reconnect results in moon, the same client IP address. While AnyConnect attempts to reconnect, the AnyConnect Virtual Adapter remains enabled and in the connected state, so the client IP address remains present and enabled on the client PC the entire time, which gives client IP address persistence. Vendetta Review. The client PC applications, however, will likely still perceive the moon landing was fake loss of connectivity to artifact speech examples their servers on why the landing was fake, the enterprise network should it take too long for disney uk, VPN connectivity to why the moon landing was fake be restored. Psychology. Q12. This feature works on all variants of Microsoft Windows (Vista 32-bit 64-bit, XP). Reasons Landing. How about the compulsive disorder Macintosh? Does it work on OS X 10.4? A. This feature does work on Mac and Linux. Why The Moon Was Fake. There have been issues with Mac and Linux, but recent improvements have been made, particularly for the Mac.
Linux still requires some additional support (CSCsr16670, CSCsm69213), but the basic functionality is there as well. With regards to Linux, AnyConnect will not recognize that a suspend/resume (sleep/wake) has occurred. Film. This basically has two impacts: The AutoReconnectBehavior profile/preference setting cannot be supported on Linux without suspend/resume support, so a reconnect will always occur after suspend/resume. Why The Moon Was Fake. Q13. Are there any limitations to the feature in terms of scott case definition, connectivity (Wired, wi-fi, 3G and so on)? Does it support transition from one mode to reasons landing was fake another (from Wi-Fi to 3G, 3G to wired, and compulsive disorder, so on)?
A. AnyConnect is moon landing was fake, not tied to a particular physical interface for the life of the VPN connection. If the physical interface used for the VPN connection is lost or if reconnect attempts over it exceed a certain failure threshold, then AnyConnect will no longer use that interface and attempt to reach the secure gateway with whatever interfaces are available until the idle or session timers expire. Note that a change in physical interface could result in a different MTU value for the VA, which will cause the VA to dred scott case have to be disabled and re-enabled, but still with the was fake same client IP address. If there is any network disruption (interface down, changed networks, changed interfaces), AnyConnect will try to reconnect; no re-authentication is walt, needed on reconnect. This even applies to a switch of reasons landing, physical interfaces: Q14. How is the resume operation authenticated? A. In a resume, you resubmit the authenticated token that will remain for the lifetime of the film review session, and the session is then re-established.
Q15. Reasons Why The. Is LDAP authorization also performed upon reconnect or only the authentication? A. Moral Psychology. This is only performed in the initial connection. Moon Was Fake. Q16. Does pre-login and/or hostscan run upon resume?
A. No, these run on the initial connection only. Something like this would be slated for the future Periodic Posture Assessment feature. Q17. With respect to VPN Load Balancing (LB) and connection resume, will the client connect back directly to the cluster member it was connected to before? A: Yes, this is correct since you do not re-resolve the hostname via DNS for re-estblishment of an existing session.
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Moon landing anniversary: 10 reasons the Apollo landings were faked
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All That Counts Is Getting to a Normal World. Drones need no Churchills and deserve no Lincolns. Publication date Winter 2017. Remember the why the moon landing was fake “Yes We Can” song? It was 2008, and Barack Obama had just lost the New Hampshire Democratic primary to Hillary Clinton. He gave a concession speech that was less a concession speech than a sermon. Sermon became song when a we-are-the-world celebrity assemblage, gathered by human URL will.i.am, sang “Yes we can” to a camera in unctuous, earnest unison over simple chords.
That music video was a watershed in the YouTubification of American politics, then still in its early stages. V For Film Review! I found it embarrassing at the time, even with Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and moon landing Herbie Hancock in moral development the mix. Revisiting that video now is a harrowing experience. It is electrically unwatchable. But at least as a matter of oratory, “Yes We Can” showed that you could sing along to a campaign speech. Why The Landing Was Fake! Obama breathed new life into the form. The speech promised political, national, and spiritual redemption, and its language was often formal. His supporters — you — would “lead this nation out of a long political darkness.” A “chorus of cynics” may tell us we cannot succeed, and that chorus will “only grow louder and more dissonant in the weeks and months to come.” But listen — for company uk beneath that loudness and reasons why the dissonance, you’ll hear the whispers of that truer American story: “Yes we can.” It was “whispered by slaves and abolitionists as they blazed a trail toward freedom through the darkest of nights.” It became a song for “pioneers who pushed westward against an unforgiving wilderness.” Wait — did some of those yes-we-can pioneers own slaves and kill Indians? Probably! But in the “unlikely story that is America,” darkness gives way to light.
To take stock of Obama’s speeches is to be overwhelmed by the prosaic demands of presidential oratory. A modern President makes thousands of development speeches, and reasons why the moon the text of every one of walt disney company them is why the moon landing was fake, posted to the White House website. Case! Some occasions are monumental, and the juxtaposition of monumental occasions can be dizzying: one day you’re in reasons moon landing Cairo announcing a new era of American relations with the Islamic world, the artifact next you’re speaking in front of reasons why the was fake Buchenwald alongside Angela Merkel and The Importance Training Elie Wiesel. Many more occasions are obligatory, redundant, or ridiculous (“Remarks by the President at ‘An Evening of Country Music’”). State of the why the was fake Union slogs, speeches to troops on surprise visits to Afghanistan, hollow exhortations to labor unions, self-deprecations and amateur stand-up at White House Correspondents’ dinners, toasts, eulogies, Weekly Addresses.
The Weekly Addresses are descendants of Franklin Roosevelt’s Fireside Chats, now delivered on YouTube to an indifferent public. It is an of obsessive immense corpus of grandeur and fluff. Warren G. Harding inaugurated the profession of presidential speechwriter in 1921, paying a newspaperman named Judson C. Welliver for words like normalcy . I imagine today’s speechwriters before a diplomatic occasion, Googling inspirational quotes from the major writer of whatever country the President has to address. (Ibsen? Ibsen!) Then they pump the remarks through a teleprompter. This marvelous invention from the 1950s creates a veneer of casualness and reasons why the was fake intimacy with the audience.
It lets you pretend you aren’t reading. But it’s imperfect: in teleprompted speeches delivered straight to a camera, the cultural artifact speech viewer can still see the speaker’s eyes moving across the text. The effect is reasons why the moon, slight but creepy. And yet even after two terms and thousands of telepromptings, Obama’s speeches still have a mystique, and he retains a distinctive voice. Images of his meticulous edits to speechwriters’ drafts make the rounds. Some speeches are too important to cultural artifact examples, be delegated: he has to write them himself . This is what he told Michael Lewis in an interview, and his speechwriters say the reasons why the moon landing was fake same thing.
The New York Times reports that Obama prefers to write these speeches at night, with a lonely legal pad and an austere snack of seven lightly salted almonds. These orations come to us as the lucubrations of a solitary wise man, grappling with American history, with race, with fate and freedom. They suggest writerliness. Consider a classic Obama speech structure. There are those who think X, and there are those who think Y. Both X and Y have rich histories and sympathetic spokesmen. The Importance Of Resistance Training Essay! But the reasons why the moon landing acrimonies of the examples compulsive past have calcified the X and Y perspectives. No wonder some have sunk into cynicism or despair. We could keep spinning those same wheels. [ Pause. ] Or we could see that now is the moment to reach toward Z, because our story — my story — shows the possibility of change.
To embrace Z is not to betray X or Y, but rather to fulfill and pay homage to X and Y even as we transcend them. Reasons Was Fake! At our best, we have risen to such heights before. Let me close with an anecdote, small in scale but deep in import, of people reaching across a divide to affirm their common humanity. The most celebrated speech of this type is disorder, “A More Perfect Union,” the so-called speech on race from March 2008. For a while, it was known simply as The Speech. During the Democratic primary, all eyes turned to Obama’s pastor in reasons Chicago, the Reverend Jeremiah Wright, whose fiery sermons had flayed America for its sins. “God damn America!” Wright had shouted from the pulpit, and all of examples of obsessive disorder Obama’s opponents — from Hillary Clinton to Dick Cheney — pretended to be deeply offended, even though Wright was doing what great American ministers have done since Cotton Mather. The moment called for what political professionals call “damage control.” X was Wright. Y was Obama’s white, good-hearted, but sometimes racist grandmother. The two stood in for generations of black politics (X) and generations of white resentment (Y). The closing anecdote was about reasons landing, a white woman named Ashley.
She had faced hard times but worked to improve the lives of others, and The Importance of Resistance that’s what brought her to Obama’s campaign. Her story struck a chord with an elderly black man also working for Obama’s campaign, who said, when asked why he was there, “I’m here because of Ashley.” Ashley and the unnamed black man were Z. The speech gives voice to all these perspectives. It sits with us “in the reasons why the moon was fake barbershop or around the kitchen table,” where we vent our bigotries. Training Essay! Obama acknowledges our frustrations and forgives us our foibles: I can no more disown [Wright] than I can disown the black community. Reasons Why The! I can no more disown him than I can my white grandmother — a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for uk me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of was fake black men who passed by her on the street, and who on disney company, more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe. Autobiography is central to the speech, and to Obama’s appeal, insofar as his very being is a symbol for the healing of a national racial wound.
He was “the bridge,” as David Remnick called his 2010 biography. The speech juxtaposed the Constitution’s promise of reasons why the was fake a “more perfect union” with Obama’s “own American story”: I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. Moral Psychology! . . . I’ve gone to some of the reasons why the moon landing was fake best schools in America and walt disney company uk lived in one of the world’s poorest nations. Why The Moon Was Fake! I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slave owners. . Dred! . Reasons Moon! . Scott! I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and reasons why the cousins, of every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in examples compulsive no other country on Earth is my story even possible. He’s a one-man Aufhebung ! This, as much as his politics, is what has drawn writers to him.
The speech on race is why the moon landing, justly celebrated; it is as honest as a political speech can be. It assumes the listener is intelligent enough to follow an argument that unfolds over five thousand words, and open-minded enough to hold contradictory ideas in suspension. But none of the of obsessive compulsive celebrations I’ve read capture the speech’s force, which is in some ways cruel: though Obama says he cannot disown his pastor or his grandmother, that is why the landing, precisely what the speech does. Definition! Wright’s “profound mistake,” Obama says at why the moon landing was fake the pivotal moment, “is not that he spoke about racism in our society. It’s that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress has been made.” Wright spoke “as if this country — a country that has made it possible for review one of his own members to run for the highest office in the land and build a coalition of white and reasons moon landing was fake black, Latino and artifact speech Asian, rich and poor, young and old — is still irrevocably bound to reasons, a tragic past.” Obama, in this narrative, is both the beneficiary of America’s progress and the evidence of it. It is progress and the country that have “made it possible” for Obama, one of cultural speech examples Wright’s own congregation, to run for President. Now, by a kind of Hegelian unfolding, Wright’s congregant consigns Wright to a tragic past. This narrative logic is not specific to reasons why the moon landing was fake, the speech on race. It is central to Obama’s voice. His early memoir, Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance (1995), has the same empathy for its characters and the same respect for its reader.
The same Obama patiently watches family, friends, and lovers expend their energies in noble or foolish ways. The book is an account of artifact examples Obama calibrating an identity separate from them. He renders their voices with generosity and care, but writes with the knowledge that in the end, no voice will be as complete, balanced, or wise as his own. Throughout his Presidency, Obama has often been criticized in two ways: either he is sentimental and reasons moon naive or he is professorial and aloof. He can capture with remarkable empathy the experiences of others and v for vendetta film fashion them into a story representing some larger truth. He’s so good at it, in fact, that it comes across as too trusting , as not cunning enough for reasons why the moon was fake real politics.
On the other hand, he seems distant, prone to haughty abstraction, too airy and erudite for moral development real politics. These are contradictory criticisms. How can he be too empathetic and too aloof? The contradiction disappears if we see Obama not as a politician but as a narrator. Narrators in novels have a similar command over intimacy and distance. A third-person omniscient narrator can bring us close to a character and engender empathy for that character, flaws and all. But at key moments, the why the narrator pulls away.
It can read as cold or cruel. Vendetta Film! Forgiveness is granted only in reasons moon landing the unforgiving past tense. The narrator decides, with a terrible unchecked power, whether you’re a character or a caricature. Obama’s speech on race is a masterpiece of narration, which is to say that it is examples of obsessive disorder, a masterpiece of empathy and a masterpiece of landing aloofness. Obama came into office with three significant advantages. Cultural Speech Examples! The first was that he was not George W. Bush.
The second was that he sounded nothing like George W. Bush. Whatever his private intelligence, Bush was a pitiable speaker, blank and blinking, and seemed not to know what he was saying whenever there was a text in front of him. His best moment of landing oratory was an improvisation atop a heap of rubble on September 14, 2001, when someone yelled, “We can’t hear you!” because Bush’s megaphone was poor; Bush, in everyday-guy mode, yelled back, “I can hear you !” The crowd chuckled. Obama, on the other hand, was commanding an adoring crowd of 100,000 in Berlin even before the election. Bush was so loathed that Berliners, only a few years earlier, had stuck tiny toothpick-flags of his face into dog shit on the street; now here was Obama, an American President-to-be, cheered in the heart of Europe, putting words together without embarrassing himself or his country. When Ronald Reagan went to Berlin in 1987, he said, “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” Obama in case 2008 proclaimed in the same city that “the walls between races and tribes, natives and immigrants, Christian and Muslim and Jew, cannot stand. These now are the walls we must tear down.” He spoke to the Mr. Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! Gorbachev in our hearts.
Like country music, all this storytelling starts to psychology, feel false if you listen to reasons why the moon was fake, a lot of disorder it back to reasons moon landing, back. Obama’s third advantage was that he had the story of his own election to tell. He could offer himself as evidence of American progress and cosmopolitanism, especially when speaking to audiences abroad. The fact that “someone like me” held America’s highest office signaled a new era. In Istanbul in April 2009, he put it this way: “We are still a place where anybody has a chance to make it if they try. The Importance Of Resistance! If that wasn’t true, then somebody named Barack Hussein Obama would not be elected President of the United States of America.” It’s rare to hear him say his middle name, but here it feels true, simple, and strong. “Someone like me” is also handy before any audience with a legitimate grievance against American hegemony — at any Summit of the Americas, for reasons why the landing was fake instance. It became a good joke in examples of obsessive front of a 2009 Tribal Nations Conference.
As a Senator, he was ceremonially adopted into Montana’s Crow Nation; he imagined his adoptive parents thinking, “Only in reasons why the was fake America could the adoptive son of of obsessive compulsive Crow Indians grow up to become President of the United States.” The most important of these global speeches was delivered in Egypt in June 2009, where Obama announced “A New Beginning” for American relations with the Muslim world. The crowd at reasons why the moon was fake Cairo University cheered even the most basic greeting — Assalaamu alaykum — because it was noteworthy for company uk an American President to utter it. Obama acknowledged that the war in moon landing was fake Iraq was “a war of choice,” and he gently put away the moral development psychology doctrine of preemptive war the way you put away childish things (“It’s easier to start wars than to end them”). He consigned earlier administrations to the tragic past. This speech makes for poignant viewing in 2016. The atmosphere is reasons why the moon, different now. Walt Company! But it is a good speech, well constructed around the motifs of time and timelessness. Why The Landing! “I am honored to be in cultural the timeless city of Cairo,” he began, and he invoked the “timeless poetry” of the why the was fake Islamic world. “In ancient times and in our times,” he affirmed, “Muslim communities have been at artifact the forefront of innovation and education.” Time returns in reasons why the moon landing was fake the peroration, but in vendetta review a different way: as an expression, Lincoln-like, of humility.
All of us share this world for but a brief moment in time. The question is whether we spend that time focused on what pushes us apart, or whether we commit ourselves to an effort . . . to find common ground, to focus on reasons landing was fake, the future we seek for our children, and to respect the dignity of all human beings. X and Y in this speech were those who are “eager to stoke the flames of division” (X) and those who think “civilizations are doomed to clash,” here nodding to Samuel Huntington (Y). Z is the “one rule that lies at the heart of case every religion — that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us.” Obama closed with quotations from the Koran, the Talmud, and the Bible. For speeches like these, and for not being George W. Bush, Obama received the Nobel Peace Prize in October 2009. Reasons Why The Moon Landing! It was an unwelcome surprise less than a year into his Presidency, and a source of bemusement for everyone else. Obama only deserved it if you collapsed speeches and action, which was easy to do, since Obama inspired a curious faith in oratory as a form of action. It is fitting, somehow, that his Nobel speech was a poor effort. It suffers from a high school history paper’s grand and empty generalizations (“War, in one form or another, appeared with the first man”) and then offers — awkwardly for the occasion — a critique of pure pacifism. The speech is strong only when it acknowledges the inadequacy of walt uk speeches. One constant across Obama’s thousands of why the moon landing speeches is the cultural speech trope of the “story.” My story, our story, the American story.
Sometimes the story has chapters: “the story of our nation is reasons was fake, not without its difficult chapters.” Story links the individual to the nation, as in Obama’s refrain: in no other country on Earth is my story even possible. What I’m describing is not the goofy, hackneyed ritual of plopping some hitherto-unknown prop person next to the First Lady at of obsessive compulsive the State of the Union address and describing his or her life (a move pioneered by reasons Ronald Reagan in 1982 with a good fellow named Lenny Skutnik), though Obama does that, too. Nor is it the ploy of introducing a relatable common man — Joe the Plumber — into a presidential debate to make a point. I’m talking about a narrative tic that suggests a deeper logic. Examples abound. In Cairo: “Islam has always been a part of America’s story.” In a eulogy for Walter Cronkite: “Our American story continues. It needs to be told.” Announcing the compulsive Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act in 2009: “While this bill bears her name, Lilly knows this story isn’t just about her. Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! It’s the examples compulsive story of why the moon landing women across this country still earning just seventy-eight cents for every dollar men earn.” About Gloria Estefan in The Importance Essay 2015: “A humanitarian and a devoted family leader, Gloria Estefan embodies the story of America.” The American story is the immigrant’s story. Reasons Landing Was Fake! “Through tragedy and triumph, despite bigotry and hostility, and against all odds,” Obama tells Irish Americans on St. Patrick’s Day, “the Irish created a place for Training themselves in the American story.” The American story is the landing was fake veteran’s story, too: “Each American who has served in Iraq has their own story.
Each of you has your own story. And that story is now a part of the scott case definition history of the United States of America.” You can have a story, or embody a story, but stories are always about something larger than yourself. You can contribute to the “American story,” because America also has a story, and that story is reasons moon, about something. It might be about democracy, or diversity, or it might just be about its own aboutness: meaning depends on seeing America itself in allegorical terms. There’s a folksy country-music logic to all this storytelling. “After all, that’s what country music is all about — storytelling,” Obama told a group of scott country musicians at “An Evening of Country Music” at the White House, in remarks that were charming precisely because he does not listen to was fake, country music. “It’s about folks telling their life story the best way they know how — stories of love and longing, hope and heartbreak, pride and pain. Stories that help us celebrate the good times and of Resistance get over the bad times. Stories that are quintessentially American.” Like country music, all this storytelling starts to feel false if you listen to a lot of it back to back. Even as cliche, “story” reveals something about Obama’s understanding of the self. Story is the key to landing, selfhood, whether it’s an cultural artifact speech examples individual story, the group story, or the national story. Obama bestows storyhood on us — you have a story, therefore you exist — and inducts us into a common plot in which all characters possess equal narrative value.
Obama’s ascendancy is was fake, concurrent with the ascendancy of critical theory, and with the theories of selfhood and subjectivity that took hold in the multicultural academy in vendetta review the 1980s, when he came of age intellectually. Everything is a text, Derrida insisted, but Obama turns text into story and offers a calm of reconstructionism after the storm of deconstructionism. To have your story told — to be included in the canon — is to be. Before it was the American national motto, e pluribus unum referred to the gathering of different texts into reasons why the moon a magazine or a single volume; before the American Revolution, e pluribus unum was the slogan of the Gentleman’s Magazine, and moral development psychology it appears in reasons moon landing was fake 18th-century poetry collections. In a profound sense, Obama has restored that original meaning of the motto. Pushed to its idealistic extreme, “story” would suggest that politics is moral psychology, not a matter of negotiation, nor even, ultimately, of power. It is a matter of anthology-building.
But stories are not history . Obama sometimes says that “History teaches us” this or that truth, as if History were the great pedant, the source of axiomatic wisdom. But more often, history is the thing you grapple with. In Turkey in 2009, history was a weight: “History is often tragic, but unresolved, it can be a heavy weight.” In Cuba in 2016, history was a barrier: “Havana is landing was fake, only ninety miles from Florida, but to get here we had to travel a great distance — over barriers of history and ideology; barriers of pain and separation.” History is the ocean in which we float or drown. “The blue waters beneath Air Force One once carried American battleships to v for film review, this island.” The same waters “carried generations of Cuban revolutionaries to the United States,” and the “tides of history” brought conflict, exile, and reasons moon poverty in the cold war. “I know the history, but I refuse to be trapped by it,” he pivots, consigning the cold war to the tragic past. The speech can then cross that distance: “And I’ve come here — I’ve traveled this distance — on of obsessive disorder, a bridge that was built by Cubans on both sides of the Florida Straits.” History wounds. Story heals and transcends. A repetition of history signals a failure of politics. The repetition of stories demonstrates progress toward a secular millennium. History is tragic. Story is romantic or comic.
Theories of history are always theories of the future, and Presidents’ theories of why the landing history often involve occult, oracular communications with the future. George W. Bush, as the disaster of his presidency wore on, became a desperate reader of biographies. When Bush said “history will judge,” history was a kindly future biographer who would rescue him from the condemnation of every historian of the present. As time wore on, his speeches amounted to company, little more than clumsy, frantic prayers to reasons why the moon landing, that future pardoner. Examples Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder! When Bush called himself “the decider” and called his memoir Decision Points , he was not just arrogating power to himself or speaking businessman-ese; he was suggesting that history consists of individual decisions, a leader alone in reasons moon a room with limited options, a red pill and a blue pill, time marching mechanically on.
With such a narrow view of history, and such a record of terrible decisions, it’s not surprising that decisiveness was his only remaining virtue. Obama dramatizes not the individual decision but the generational one: the we of examples “yes we can” is a generational we . Rhetorically at least, he is not the why the moon landing was fake one making the decision; he summons a generation and narrates that generation’s decision. Dred Scott! He invokes history not as a future biographer (a great memoirist needs no biographer), but as the many future generations that will judge ours. His theory of history posits not a mechanical series of decision points, but a mystical series of generational moments. In Obama’s speeches, every historical achievement is framed as a generational achievement, even if the demographics are vague: the reasons why the American Revolution, the abolition of slavery, the civil rights movement. Early on, abolition was the generational achievement he called on most often to inspire the present. In February 2009, on Essay, the occasion of Abraham Lincoln’s two-hundredth birthday, Obama gave a stirring transgenerational speech. It is one of his best. “When posterity looks back on reasons why the moon landing was fake, our time, as we are looking back on Lincoln’s,” he said, I don’t want it said that we saw an vendetta review economic crisis but did not stem it; that we saw our schools decline and why the moon landing our bridges crumble but we did not rebuild them; that the uk world changed in the 21st century but America did not lead it; that we were consumed with small things when we were called to why the moon landing, do great things. Instead, let them say that this generation — our generation — of Americans rose to the moment and gave America a new birth of freedom and disorder opportunity in our time. Generation occurs in Obama’s speeches almost as often as story , and it might be the quintessential Obama term.
It has both a biblical and reasons moon landing a marketing resonance: it calls to mind both Ecclesiastes and Adweek . Consider a paragraph from Obama’s Second Inaugural Address: This generation of Americans has been tested by crises that steeled our resolve and proved our resilience. A decade of war is now ending. An economic recovery has begun. America’s possibilities are limitless, for we possess all the Training qualities that this world without boundaries demands: youth and drive; diversity and openness; an why the landing was fake endless capacity for risk and a gift for compulsive reinvention. My fellow Americans, we are made for reasons moon landing this moment, and we will seize it — so long as we seize it together. The “generation” at work here has no demographic coherence or specificity (although I suspect he had in mind every demographic except the boomers), but it does have an essential narrative logic. It exists tautologically: We are made for this moment.
A generation can be defined as the thing that exists in the now of the narrative. In the narrative world of an Obama speech, the protagonist of every story is in some sense a generation, and the climax of every story is review, a moment. For Bush, time was always running out, like Jack Bauer’s clock in 24 . The decision point was that instant when one billiard ball hits the next, and reasons moon God willing, your aim was true. But in the greatest Obama speeches, because of their eloquence and ceremonial grandeur, time itself slows. The moment is a sacred, baptismal pause. Christened as part of a generation, you, American citizen, are given a glimpse of the examples compulsive eternal. When Obama says, “This is our moment,” he means both the why the was fake moment in the story and compulsive disorder the moment in the speech — that dilated, mysterious, oratorical now . Moon Landing Was Fake! “This is our moment” is an incantation, powerful because it collapses speech, story, and cultural speech action into a single, salvific, visionary event. The speech announces the moment, and it is the moment. The particular mood of the late Obama years — that inevitable feeling of loss or coming down among liberals, Democrats, and the center-left — is why the moon, hard to name.
Disappointment is too parental; disillusionment not right, either, because the psychology heights of Obama rhetoric and inspiration were not necessarily illusions. The mood is not simply a product of reasons paralyzed government, of the walt disney company crimes and tragedies of foreign policy, of the Nobel Peace Prizes that brought no peace; it isn’t really about Obama’s failures or his successes, which are not my concern here. The feeling needs one of those compound German words, like Bedeutsamkeitserschopfung : momentousness fatigue. It’s a curious ambivalence to why the moon, want salvation while you’re weary of scott being saved. That mood was itself a luxury. So far I have said little about war. Landing Was Fake! That is partly because modern wars rarely allow American Presidents much scope for oratory. Oval Office speeches solemnly announce the beginning of “military operations” — never outright war, because war is no longer declared but “authorized.” These speeches are pale impressions of Winston Churchill.
They fight on rhetorical beaches, unswerving, unflinching, indomitable, anaphoric, alliterative. Presidential war speeches grow paler and more euphemistic as war drags on. Of Resistance Training! It proves impossible to orate a war’s end if that war has no end. George W. Bush’s attempt — the reasons why the moon landing “mission accomplished” speech aboard an aircraft carrier — was an embarrassment and of Resistance a moral crime. Drones need no Churchills and deserve no Lincolns. Oratorically at reasons why the least, “Commander in Chief” is the worst of all presidential personae.
The title is drawn from a neutral and vendetta film review bureaucratic phrase in the Constitution (Article II, Section 2), but with the rise of the national security state in the 20th century, the term has taken on the weight and reasons why the landing was fake sanctimony of empire. “Commander in psychology Chief” is landing was fake, our imperial cant, a robe and walt disney company uk scepter in verbal form. Reasons Why The Moon Landing! Most Commander-in-Chief speeches betray, consciously or not, a deep and irresolvable guilt. They sublimate that guilt into canned exhortations to “support our troops,” and encomia to “wounded warriors.” They deploy the falsest national “we.” In general, Obama has avoided blustery war speeches. The closest he’s come was his announcement in May 2011 that Osama bin Laden had been killed. It was delivered in dred scott the White House’s East Room, with the podium placed in reasons why the was fake the open doorway of a pillared hall for added pomp. It was one of the rare Obama speeches delivered live to TV stations as an Important Interruption, and cultural artifact examples was spoken to reasons landing, a camera with that awkward teleprompter effect. Vendetta Film Review! As a speech, it is almost as hollow and stilted as Bush’s “Mission Accomplished,” minus the reasons why the landing was fake banner and the aircraft carrier. It is of Resistance Essay, heavy on why the landing was fake, justification, insisting that “Americans understand the costs of war” even though most Americans do not. It rests on cliches about values: “We will be relentless in defense of our citizens and our friends and allies.
We will be true to the values that make us who we are.” The peroration boasts that “America can do whatever we set our mind to” and then clumsily states that “that is the story of of obsessive disorder our history.” It’s a sign of hasty composition, and it raised the tent for the opportunistic PR circus that followed. Obama tried to convey the why the landing was fake sense of an ending, but nothing of disney company uk substance had ended. He presided over why the moon was fake, war that doesn’t feel like war, so why should we expect great war oratory? Drones need no Churchills and deserve no Lincolns. Or perhaps I should put it this way: Obama has given great war speeches, only not about walt uk, war. Obama’s great war speeches have been about domestic shootings. The saddest irony in the Obama corpus is that these moments bring him closest to why the moon landing, Lincoln.
The first was in November 2009, after the shooting at psychology Fort Hood in moon was fake Texas. Obama’s eulogy looked ahead to a future era, “long after they are laid to rest — when the fighting has finished, and development psychology our nation has endured; when today’s servicemen and women are veterans, and their children have grown.” It recalls the Gettysburg Address, in which Lincoln looked ahead to an era that “will little note nor long remember what we say here,” but would “never forget what they did here.” Lincoln’s Second Inaugural likewise deploys a poignant future-perfect tense, imploring us “to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan.” Because the victims of the reasons why the landing was fake Fort Hood shooting were servicemen and women, it was possible to dred definition, see them as martyrs and to reasons landing, state with alliterative confidence that “we press ahead in pursuit of the peace that guided their service.” An archaic style is speech, appropriate when the setting is military, as it was at the Washington Navy Yard in reasons why the moon 2013: “May God hold close the souls taken from us and grant them eternal peace,” Obama said in closing. “And may God grant us the strength and the wisdom to keep safe our United States of America .” Note the pointedly formal word order: hold close the souls and keep safe our United States. After the 2011 shooting of disney company Gabrielle Giffords and reasons why the landing was fake eighteen others in Tucson, Arizona, Obama gave another war speech, though the dred case definition setting was not military. Why The! He spoke of the men and disorder women who had tackled the shooter and why the was fake aided the wounded.
They “remind us that heroism is found not only on the fields of battle. . . . Heroism is here, in the hearts of so many of our fellow citizens, all around us, just waiting to be summoned.” The speech refines grief into patriotism. The historian Garry Wills suggested at the time that Obama’s speech in Tucson was his “finest hour.” Obama echoed Lincoln’s mourning at v for vendetta Gettysburg (“from these honored dead we take increased devotion to reasons why the moon was fake, that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion”), but moved beyond mourning toward the development inspirational rhetoric of why the moon landing was fake Henry V at Agincourt (“For he to-day that sheds his blood with me / Shall be my brother”). There was even a touch of the miraculous, when Obama reported that Giffords “opened her eyes for the first time” while he was in the hospital with her. The devices of scott traditional war oratory give order to chaotic events. At Fort Hood, Obama reflected on who we are : “We are a nation that endures because of the courage of those who defend it.” “We are a nation of laws.” “We’re a nation that is dedicated to the proposition that all men and reasons why the moon women are created equal.” “That’s who we are as a people.” This broader purpose makes a tragedy meaningful rather than meaningless. Artifact Examples! But over reasons was fake, time, the randomness of film review shootings becomes a challenge to oratory, because randomness defies any national purpose or story. And the why the moon affirmations of war oratory erode. “That’s who we are” becomes the deceptive, desperate poetry of “This is not who we are.” Obama first stepped beyond the templates of v for review traditional war oratory in why the moon 2012, after the of Resistance school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut. The speech begins with the standard national “we” and the formal language of eulogy (“I am very mindful that mere words cannot match the depths of reasons landing your sorrow, nor can they heal your wounded hearts”).
But then the language turns normal, and the national “we” turns inward: “This is moral, our first task: caring for our children. It’s our first job. If we don’t get that right, we don’t get anything right. That’s how, as a society, we will be judged.” There follows a set of questions: And by that measure, can we truly say, as a nation, that we are meeting our obligations?
Can we honestly say that we’re doing enough to keep our children — all of them — safe from landing, harm? Can we claim, as a nation, that we’re all together there, letting them know that they are loved, and teaching them to love in return? Can we say that we’re truly doing enough to give all the compulsive children of this country the chance they deserve to reasons landing, live out examples compulsive, their lives in happiness and with purpose? Lincoln’s Second Inaugural posed a knotty theological question about what the reasons why the was fake “mighty scourge of war” revealed about the review Almighty’s judgments upon us. Obama’s straightforward questions in Newtown dispense with reflections on the Almighty’s mysterious purpose: “I’ve been reflecting on this the last few days, and if we’re honest with ourselves, the answer is no. We’re not doing enough. And we will have to change.” The speech arrives at the first names of the twenty children who were killed, stated simply, one after the other: “Charlotte. Daniel.
Olivia. Josephine. Reasons Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! Ana. Dylan. Madeleine. The Importance! Catherine. Chase. Jesse. James. Grace. Emilie. Jack. Reasons Why The Moon Landing! Noah. Caroline. Jessica. Benjamin. Avielle. Allison.” He does not need to of obsessive, assemble their stories because the selection has already been made.
In time, the eloquent clarity and starkness of this speech will erode, too. His second departure from the reasons moon template of war oratory was in June 2015, after nine people were killed in the oldest African Methodist Episcopal Church in cultural artifact examples the South. Reasons Why The! Obama delivered the eulogy for one of the victims, South Carolina State Senator and Reverend Clementa Pinckney. The Importance Training Essay! The first line — “Giving all praise and honor to God,” without any presidential pleasantries — tells us right away that this is not a speech but an actual sermon. Obama recalls Pinckney’s life and is as honest as a President can be about racial terrorism in America. The shooter, he said, “drew on a long history of bombs and arson and why the shots fired at churches, not random, but as a means of control, a way to terrorize and oppress.” Against that terrorism stands the black church and its heroic history. Psychology! The church, “our beating heart,” is where “our dignity as a people is inviolate.” The pivot of the sermon is not the pregnant pause that usually comes before Obama reaches toward that transcendent Z and reasons why the landing consigns X and Y to the past. (There is no X, Y, or Z in this speech, nor was there a teleprompter in development psychology the church where he gave it.) The pivot is a preacher’s pivot: “ Ohhh ,” he says with a gentle laugh, about reasons why the landing, halfway through, “but God works in mysterious ways,” and the congregation erupts in artifact examples knowing cheers. The killer, Obama says, “didn’t know he was being used by God.” This is a new interpretation, untried in any other speech.
To suggest that the shooter was, unbeknownst to why the moon landing, himself, an agent of God’s will, that he was sent not as a punishment for our sins (for Pinckney was no sinner) but as the divine mechanism that allows us to receive and scott case express God’s grace — such an argument could fly only in a sermon. It needs the rhythm of a sermon, it needs the delivery of a sermon, and it needs the affirmations and amens of the why the moon was fake congregation. The congregation, after all, has to follow the preacher into a paradox: that we are saved by tragedy, that while the walt shooter was “blinded by hatred,” his blindness makes us see love. The shooter visited terror upon a church, but in the same moment, “ God has visited grace upon us, for he has allowed us to see where we’ve been blind.” Lincoln could not have made this argument. Nor could Obama have made this argument before. All the reasons moon landing was fake other models of oratory were exhausted. The sermon soars. The band bursts in occasionally, punctuating Obama’s catalog of ways we can “express God’s grace”: by taking down the Confederate flag, as South Carolina’s governor had finally done soon after the shooting; “by recognizing our common humanity by treating every child as important, regardless of the disney uk color of their skin or the station into which they were born.” If we were to change our gun laws, we would “express God’s grace.” Near the why the sermon’s end, after a long pause, Obama sings the first verse of “Amazing Grace.” He picks a key that’s a little low for his voice, but the vibrato is true and tender. The band finds the key and the congregation joins him. How strange and sad that after countless speeches, Obama’s pinnacle would not be his own words or the words of a speechwriter, or even a speech at all, but an 18th-century English hymn.
It is beautiful, and also a last resort. After that the speeches grow bitter. In October 2015, after a shooting at compulsive disorder a community college in Oregon, Obama’s speech acknowledged its own redundancy: “Somehow this has become routine. The reporting is routine. Reasons Why The Moon Was Fake! My response here at this podium ends up being routine.” We’re left with a basic civics lesson recited to a listless classroom: “This is a political choice that we make to allow this to happen every few months in America. We collectively are answerable to those families who lose their loved ones because of our inaction.” In June 2016, after the shooting at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, we are left with a grim, graceless prediction: “If we don’t act, we will keep seeing more massacres like this — because we’ll be choosing to allow them to happen. We will have said, we don’t care enough to do something about it.” We will have said . It is a rare instance in the Obama corpus of the future-perfect tense. Lincoln said at Gettysburg that “we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground.” That refrain has become, in Obama’s late speeches, the pained possibility that our dedications, consecrations, and hallowings are themselves acts of bad faith.
It turns out this is who we are. “Not our President”? Not our Party either. Nothing about this political vision was new. Psychology! It was the power of Obama’s biography that gave the reasons why the was fake rhetoric new appeal. My sister grabbed a sheet, tripped on it, ran out of the moral development room naked. I stepped back, mouth open. Issue 27 The Last Last Summer Joshua Cohen. Issue 27 Old Ship Kristin Dombek.
Issue 27 Don't Be Scared, Homie Sam Frank. Issue 27 In Tbilisi Victoria Lomasko. Look, I was tortured. They say I snitched on a comrade who later died by reasons why the landing soldiers’ bullets. I didn’t snitch. Issue 27 Ward’s Fool Caleb Crain. Some people will do anything to avoid writing. Issue 27 All That Counts Is Getting to a Normal World A. Dred Definition! S. Reasons Why The Moon! Hamrah. For Janowitz, the patriarchal American family is a prison, which subjugates and erases brilliant, sensitive women. Many of Sanders’s campaign proposals rested on unexamined assumptions about gender and race. Online Only This Is Not the Apocalypse George Blaustein.
Online Only Act Normal or Go Away George Blaustein. Online Only On Horseshit George Blaustein. Online Only Letter from Amsterdam George Blaustein. Issue 23 Screw Us and We Multiply George Blaustein. The nomination of a Supreme Court justice is the walt disney company uk closest thing the United States has to the election of a pope.
n+1 is reasons why the, a print and digital magazine of The Importance Essay literature, culture, and politics published three times a year. We also post new online-only work several times each week and publish books expanding on the interests of the magazine.
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The rise and why the landing, fall of nokia Essay Sample. NOKIA was the most successful European company of the The Importance of Resistance Essay, 1990s. The Finnish mobile-phone manufacturer captured the emerging market for mobile phones and built the industry’s most powerful brand. Its handsets virtually defined the industry from the moon landing, time it launched its first GSM phone, the 1011, in 1992. Uk! From 1996 to 2001 its revenues increased almost fivefold, and by 1998 it was the world’s biggest mobile manufacturer. In 2005, it sold its billionth handset, an reasons why the moon landing, 1100 to a customer in Nigeria. Despite being the v for review, market leader in the mobile phone market since 1998, the company saw a decline in moon was fake its brand value since the moral development, early 2000.
It was once a firm with turnover exceeding the tax revenue of the country it was based in. However, the company not only first lost its number one ranking, a position it had held for 14 years but reach to sell-off in less than 10 years. So the most valid question from all is what happened to Finland’s most beloved company? This case is all about why the moon landing analysis of examples NOKIA’s strategies responsible for why the moon was fake, its market domination to sell-off . Snapshot of NOKIA’s History. To understand the cultural examples, Rise and Fall of NOKIA, it is important to track the history of NOKIA on a single canvas. The same is attempted through following short liners in this regard:
A wood pulp mill was set up by a mining engineer named Fredrik Idestam at moon landing the Tammerkoski Rapids in south-western Finland. 1871: The name NOKIA was born based on the name of Nokianvirta river on the on the banks of The Importance of Resistance Essay which Idestam opens a second mill. Was Fake! 1898: Eduard Polon founds Finnish Rubber Works, which later becomes NOKIA’s rubber business, making everything from rubber boots to examples disorder tyres. 1912: Arvid Wickstrom sets up Finnish Cable Works, the foundation of NOKIA’s cable and electronics business.
1967: The official merger of NOKIA Ab, Finnish Cable Works and Finnish Rubber. 1979: NOKIA creates radio telephone company Mobira Oy as a joint venture with leading Finnish TV maker Salora. 1981: Launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone service, the world’s first international cellular network, and the first to allow international roaming. 1982: NOKIA introduces the first car phone – the Mobira Senator – to why the moon the network. That same year, the NOKIA DX200, the company’s first digital telephone switch, goes into operation.
1984: NOKIA launches the Mobira Talkman portable car phone – a chunky piece of moral development psychology kit but a start. Reasons Why The Moon Was Fake! 1987: NOKIA introduces the Mobira Cityman, the first handheld mobile phone. It weighs in at 800g and comes with a price tag of walt disney uk 24,000 Finnish Marks (about ?3,400). The Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, is moon was fake pictured using one to make a call from Helsinki to his communications minister in Moscow. 1991: The Finnish prime minister, Harri Holkeri, makes the world’s first “global system for mobile communications” call, using NOKIA equipment. 1992: NOKIA launches its first digital handheld GSM phone, the NOKIA 1011.
The NOKIA president and chief executive, Jorma Ollila, decides to focus on mobile phones and telecommunications, and Essay, the process begins of selling. off its rubber, cable and consumer electronics divisions. 1994: NOKIA launches the why the moon was fake, 2100 series, the first phones to feature the NOKIA Tune ringtone. It goes on to sell 20m phones worldwide in the 2100 series. NOKIA’s target had been 400,000. 1998: NOKIA becomes the world leader in the mobile phones market. NOKIA’s turnover increases almost fivefold from ˆ6.5bn to of Resistance Training Essay ˆ31bn. NOKIA launches the NOKIA 7110, a phone capable of rudimentary web-based functions, including email. Why The! It uses the cultural artifact speech, Orange network to access the internet using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP).
2000: NOKIA does a deal with music publisher EMI enabling users to choose their favourite tunes as their ringtones. 2001: NOKIA launches its first phone with a built-in camera, the NOKIA 7650. But a profits warning, blamed on a slowdown in reasons why the was fake the mobile market, stuns investors.
It announces plans to cut 1,000 jobs, but things start to look up by the end of the year. 2002: NOKIA launches its first video capture phone, the NOKIA 3650. It also launches its first 3G phone, the NOKIA 6650. With 3G technology, phones can now be used to development browse the web, download music, watch TV on the move, and more. Moon Was Fake! 2004: NOKIA reveals that although it is still the market leader it is losing share to its rivals, with its 35% share comparing with a target of 40% as it falls behind with its new product range. 2005: NOKIA sells its billionth phone – a NOKIA 1100 – in Nigeria, and global mobile phone subscriptions pass 2bn. 2007:
NOKIA is The Importance Training Essay forced into one of the world’s largest product recalls after it admits the batteries in 46m phones could be faulty. Reasons Why The Moon Landing! Meanwhile, a longer-term problem emerges: Apple launches the artifact, iPhone. 2008: NOKIA reports a 30% fall in third-quarter profits. NOKIA smartphone sales fall by reasons landing was fake 3.1% during the quarter, while sales of walt company uk Apple iPhones grow by 327.5%. 2009: NOKIA announces plans to cut 1,700 jobs worldwide as the recession hits mobile phone sales.
NOKIA admits it was slow to react to the rise of new devices such as the iPhone and plans to fight back. But it is too late to avoid the first loss in reasons moon landing more than a decade. 2010: Competitors such as the iPhone and Android-based devices are posing a serious challenge to v for NOKIA’s future. Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! It appoints former Microsoft man Stephen Elop as president and chief executive. NOKIA cuts a further 1,800 jobs despite a rise in profits. 2011: CEO of NOKIA warns staff “we are standing on a burning platform”, and v for vendetta film, announces a strategic partnership with Microsoft days later to compete with Apple and Google’s Android platform. Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! NOKIA cuts a further 4,000 jobs worldwide from its 65,000-strong workforce. Elop denies it is in talks about a takeover by Microsoft. NOKIA is overtaken by Samsung and Apple in walt disney company uk the smartphone sector as profits and sales dwindle.
NOKIA launches new smartphones. 2012: NOKIA cuts 4,000 jobs and moves smartphone manufacturing to Asia. Shares fall following a profits warning and it slumps to a ˆ1.3bn loss. Analysts foresee a possible takeover by Microsoft as it cuts 10,000 more jobs and announces its last factory in Finland will close. 2013: NOKIA returns to profit after an 18-month spell of losses. Microsoft buys NOKIA’s handset business for ˆ5.44bn (?4.6bn). NOKIA’s Business Approaches. Whenever we turned on one of NOKIA’s legendary handsets, we always got the same thing:- that famous signature logo, holding hands.
And for more than one generation, it was hand-holding NOKIA did best – carrying people through, bit by bit, the mobile revolution. NOKIA were by no means the first company to reasons why the moon landing was fake release a commercially available mobile phone, but it was the first to do it really well, and dred scott definition, with true mass appeal. Back in the 1990s there weren’t any other big brands parallel to NOKIA. NOKIA were so dominant that people didn’t talk about what brand? it was just about the number, 3210, or whatever you had. NOKIA took users on a journey. So far, so good – but then one presentation changed everything. Complacency had kicked in as they felt they could do no wrong. Then all of moon a sudden, in January 2007, Steve Jobs walked on to a stage and pulled an iPhone out of his pocket and changed the world forever. The fall was swift. According to figures from analyst firm Gartner, NOKIA’s smartphone market share in 2007 was a dominant 49.4%. In subsequent years, it was 43.7%, then 41.1%, then 34.2%.
In the first half of year 2013, it had plummeted to just 3%. V For Review! Many blame this decline, at least in the initial stages, on Symbian, the firm’s mobile operating system. It was, to paraphrase a welter of expert opinion, simply not up to the job. They missed the importance of software, this was experts feeling. NOKIA make great phones, they still do. Why The Was Fake! They went through this incredible decade of innovation in hardware, but what Apple saw was that all you needed was a rectangle with a screen, and the rest was all about the software. It took just a few years for development psychology, NOKIA phones to go from being the must-have handset in reasons landing was fake your pocket, to disorder being the long-forgotten handset, nestled in reasons why the was fake that eternal graveyard of the mobile phone – the kitchen drawer. So why would Microsoft spend ?4.6bn on disorder a business that looks like it’s on the way out?
To use a romantic analogy: they were the only two left at the party who hadn’t paired up with anyone. They were left dancing together, and thought they might as well go home. Reasons Was Fake! This is the feeling of many of us following NOKIA. The above paragraphs are a simple attempt to establish that NOKIA owed its domination of the industry to its innovation culture. However, the complacency at NOKIA, wherein they focused too much about scott case hanging onto its market share and leadership position de-railed them from reasons why the was fake, their main strength of creating new products and adopting innovative technologies to excite customers, made them loose their competitive advantages. Understanding Strategic Management.
The individual firms and the business environment in of obsessive compulsive which firms exist, both are dynamic systems, endlessly in was fake instability. It is a big challenge to attain a fit between both the systems. On of the reason of unstability for a firm is the parallel existance and dynamics of its competitors specially those competitors which can provide exact substitutes. Strategic Management is all about achieving and upholding competitive advantages over such competitors. To understand the strategic management of NOKIA both during its periods of rise and fall, it would be prudent first to case understand strategies specially market-led and landing, resources based strategies. The development of worldwide homogenized marketplaces have opened up the opportunities for walt disney company, multinational organizations to market their standardized products and reasons moon landing was fake, services all over the world, with identical strategies, that leads to lower costs and higher margins. This has generated an important discussion on The Importance of Resistance the effects of the globalization trends on company.
Theodore Levitt (1983) followed the globalization of business and why the moon was fake, emphasizes the focuses on definition the technology as a driving force towards a converging commonality in proletarianized communication, transport and travel. The competitive strategy. There are hardly any cellular devices that only enable a phone conversation. New cellular devices are launched into the market with capability to collaborate information, exchange text messages, connect to corporate information sources etc.. Further, with globalizaton, almost everyone everywhere wants all the things they have heard about, seen, or experienced via the new technology (Levitt 1983:1). Why The Moon Landing! Thus, “Globalization of markets” (Levitt 1983) is an dred scott definition, expression which relates first to demand. Tastes, preferences and price are becoming increasingly universal in customer demands. Secondly, it relates to reasons moon was fake the supply side of the examples compulsive, market. Was Fake! Products and services tend to become more standardized and competition within industries reaches a worldwide scale. Thirdly, it relates to the way organizations, mainly multinational companies, try to design their marketing policies and control systems.
These efforts are done to retain its winner position in the global competition of global products, for global consumers. Michael E. Porter (1979) focuses on a different approach towards a competitive or differential advantage, by identifying the different competitive forces that exist within a competitive market. Knowledge of the cultural speech, underlying forces can shift a corporate focus on their collective strengths and identify the collective weaknesses. Organizations must increase its effort on how to influence the different forces in a corporate favor. Porter also contributed with several books, which entitles organizations to develop an approach to moon gain strategic or differential advantages and film review, identifying the organizations value chain. Planned and emergent approaches to strategic management. It is moon was fake a subject of argument that strategy is deliberate and should be deliberately planned and vendetta, executed.
Managers are always required to predict the moon landing was fake, future and to arrange plans to pursue an intended strategic result. In essence, this approach tends to examples emphasise long-term planning designed to achieve a ‘fit’ between an reasons landing, organisation’s strategy, settings and its environment. However, heavily and profoundly structured planning is clearly inappropriate in times of rapid and unstable change. In addition, it is clearly evident that, in moral psychology practice, many strategies simply emerge from a stream of decisions that are made, which is reasons moon was fake better suited to dynamic and hyper competitive environments. Thus, some people argued that organisations that limit themselves to acting on the basis of what is already acknowledged or understood will not be sufficiently innovative to create a sustainable competitive advantage. However, in examples compulsive disorder practice, planning and emergent approaches are both useful, they should not be seen as independent or mutually exclusive.
A firm can always, but not fully, commit to detailed and coordinated long-term plans, while, simultaneously adapt itself flexibly and opportunistically to relating circumstances. That is, both planned and emergent approaches are necessary, and if an organisation is to succeed, then it is really important for the managers to reasons was fake try and walt company, strike the best possible balance between the two. In backdrop of above, it would be interesting to mention that NOKIA had planned to develop the high-end mobile phone and invested heavily on its advanced products; meanwhile, the company also, as was earlier planned underwent an why the moon was fake, internal reorganisation aiming for the future sustainable growth. However, during the year 2003-2004, NOKIA suffered the fall in the mobile phone market. Since the company then realised that the market was not yet ready for this new technology and operating system. The company emergently then adjusted its strategy again, and designed five new models of the mobile phones to meet the customer’s needs; meanwhile, the company followed the simply market trends and cut the price of phones. Soon the company recaptured the loss in the market share. In addition, the company gradually changed its stand and started to cooperate with the mobile network operators. These emerging strategy changes showed that NOKIA no longer stuck to the strategies that were previously planned, while simultaneously adopted some emergent strategies in order to meet the customer needs and dynamic business environment. The Core Competence.
Part of NOKIA’s core competence was the knowledge and experience in the wireless, cellular and network services industry. NOKIA got recognization for focusing on superior products and services. Disney Uk! Introducing new product modifications and technological enhancements was part of the company’s product leadership. With a wide range of products, NOKIA had applied products independently of technical standard or geographical location. NOKIA also participateed in several developing new global standards for future telecommunication needs and trends. With its leading position as mobile phone manufacturer and supplier of digital mobile networks, NOKIA’s participation in reasons moon landing was fake development of future technologies enabled and helped them to deliver excellent products. V For Review! The NOKIA products were mostly targeting to specific market segments. Reasons Landing! NOKIA was the first mobile phone manufacturer who adopted models for new ways of artifact thinking into their marketing operations.
The general management urged marketing managers to think of companies as repositories of why the moon was fake skills, rather than the portfolios of products. A marketing team observed the way that mobile phones were becoming fashion accessories. This unusual approach resulted in a superior product design and development psychology, control of consumer segment. NOKIA attached a unique value of trends, lifestyles, freedom, power, and technology among others, into reasons why the was fake their products. Market-led and Resource based approaches. Firms should try to adapt themselves to market developments and they should build on the strengths of their resource bases and activity systems. Some people argue that an organisation needs to adapt itself to its environment. Managers should take the environment as the dred scott case, starting point, then they should choose an advantageous market position and then gradually set up the resource base and activity system necessary to apply this choice. On the other hand, some argue that the organisation can adapt the environment to itself.
Managers must take the organisation’s resource base as the starting point and select an landing was fake, environment to fit with its internal strengths. According to the first view, successful companies are externally oriented and market-driven and this view is referred to as ‘outside-in’ because of its focus on the environment The companies with this view take the environment as the starting point, set on definition developments in reasons why the moon landing was fake the market-place and adapt themselves to the external opportunities and threats encountered. Moral Development Psychology! They make use of the signals from customers and competitors for deciding their game plan. Why The Moon Landing! The proponents of this market-driven approach tend to of obsessive compulsive disorder emphasize that an insight into why the was fake markets and speech examples, industries is essential. They argue that not only the general structure of markets and industries need to be analyzed, but also specific demands, strengths, positions and intentions of all main forces need to why the moon was fake be determined. As to examples compulsive Porter’s view this approach has spawned five forces, generic strategy and value chain frameworks. Many market-driven advocators suggest firms to initially lead market and industry to change, therefore, they can get the benefit from the reasons why the moon was fake, altered rules of the game.
Smirchich Stubbart agreed with this opinion, and pointed out that firms can, in part, create their environments through strategic alliances with stakeholders, investments in of obsessive leading technologies, advertising and a variety of was fake other activities. Lieberman and Montgomery argued that firms that are market-driven are always the first ones to recognize that new resources or activities need to be developed. So those firms are better positioned can benefit from the ‘first mover advantage’. More significantly, Market positioning is vital for of Resistance Essay, the company’s success. However, some argued that market positioning is vital, but it must take place within the boundaries set by reasons moon was fake the resource-driven strategy. That is, the market position selected should fit the organization’s resource base. So for being successful, companies must firstly build up a strong internal resource base, and then on the basis of this they can access to unfolding market opportunities in the medium and short term.
In essence, this ‘inside-out’ approach assumes that competitive advantage depends upon the behavior of the organisation, rather than its competitive environment.The proponents of this approach also stressed on cultural examples the importance of a firm’s competences over its tangible resources. Strategists have referred to the basis of this strategy as ‘competence based’ or ‘capabilities –based.Collis and Montgomery pointed out why the landing was fake that having core competencies can be a very attractive basis for competitive advantage, since rival firms normally takes a long time to catch up. Even if competitors are successful at v for vendetta film identifying the competencies and imitating them, the company with an initial leading position can still upgrade its competencies and stay ahead. Therefore, ‘for success, resources should be leading, and market following’. In practice, it is found both positioning and reasons was fake, resource deployment issues critical for dred scott case, creating a competitive advantage. They argued that competitive advantage stems from the ability to align positional advantages and resource-based elements of strategy. Some other experts further suggest that the two approaches should be viewed as complementary, since organisations need to develop both internal and external focus to develop knowledge-based core competences and market driven strategies sensitive to customer needs.Therefore, both approaches must be considered and balanced simultaneously in making the strategic choice. Application of market-led and resources led strategies at NOKIA. NOKIA was able to achieve a great success in the mobile phone industry because it aligned both the strategies – market-driven strategy and resource based strategy during the process of its development.
And once it failed to do so, the company immediately suffered the fall, lost market share and decreased sales revenue. But, when the company aligned these two approaches again, it recovered soon. Since those early days, NOKIA has evolved into a multinational encircling several industries. With the reasons moon landing was fake, collapse of the USSR in 1990, NOKIA suffered the high pressure to survive in so many different areas. Based on disney uk the new market opportunity the company predicted in mobile phone industry and reasons why the, its internal strengths-advanced technology on mobile phone sector.NOKIA finally decided to focus on mobile phone industry. Soon NOKIA achieved the success in the mobile phone industry and moral development, became the largest mobile phone company in the world. Moon Was Fake! Without the external threats, the new market opportunities and its internal strengths on the mobile phone sector, NOKIA may have not entered into the mobile phone industry at all. Therefore, both internal and external factors influenced NOKIA’s strategic choice simultaneously.The big success NOKIA quickly achieved in disney the mobile phone industry justified that the company’s choice was right, but this choice was made on reasons why the was fake the integration of market opportunities and NOKIA’s internal strengths.
A successful firm can develop the required potential to adopt or to shape the external environment, such as a new product, technological and market change. Over time, NOKIA felt the cardinality of the moral, design in mobile phones. Moreover, they also realised that the landing was fake, phone would not be limited to moral just a communicating device role, but would also become fashion symbols. So further the company first broke explored the new ground and launched its fashionable and innovative handset -8210 instead of the previous bulky and brick sized device, the company transformed the customer needs and led the market change. For NOKIA, this strategy not only earned the ‘first mover advantage and increased its market share, but also established a healthy brand name in the mobile phone industry and gained an extensive lead over competitors in this area. Furthermore, based on the different booming innovations from employees, such as text message, NOKIA’s internal antennae design etc, NOKIA kept updating its capability and gradually became the market leaders. Obviously, this change required both overall capability to why the produce the custom products, which is differentiate with the competitor’s, and an outside-in capability for understanding the evolving requirements of customers and energizing the organization to respond to them. Meanwhile, it also implied that market-led strategy and resource-based strategy have a reciprocal relationship, indeed, they complement each other.
Following these successes, NOKIA further solidified its market position based on its strong internal resource; meanwhile, company’s ability of sensitive of market trends lead the company to update its competence in a race to stay ahead. Definition! In the early 2000s, NOKIA’s strategy changes further justifies the importance of the integration of moon landing was fake these two approaches. NOKIA just concentrated on launching the high-end mobile phones and The Importance Essay, the complicated software tending to supply the technologically advanced products and exceed the competitors, while paying less attention to reasons why the other developments. Actually, at that time, the market was not ready for speech, such devices. Eventually, the slow growth of landing was fake customers’ demand for the advanced mobile phone caused NOKIA to wait for examples, the market. Thus, the company’s distinct competence on technologically advanced products did not improve its performance and bring the competitive advantage due to its failure to meet the customers’ needs and reasons moon landing was fake, its blunt market sense. Since NOKIA realised what mistakes it had made, it soon adjusted the strategy.
Followed the market trends, NOKIA aggressively launched several new models of phones in June 2004 based on its strong resource capability, meanwhile, reduced the price of the phone. The company quickly recaptured its market share and increased revenue. The reason why the disney company uk, company recovered so soon was the reasons moon landing was fake, ability that the company integrated again its inside-out capabilities and outside-in capabilities that matters. Based on the above analysis, marketing-led strategy and resource-based strategy both played key role in The Importance of Resistance Training Essay NOKIA’s process of success. Indeed, these two approaches have a related and complementary relationship. The NOKIA in 2007, at landing time of launch of Iphone was an innovative brand. In 2007-08, in addition, based on NOKIA’s internal resources and external business environment, an development, assessments were made about NOKIA’s dominance in mobile phone industry through Porter’s five forces (Porter, 1985, 1998) and Barney’s framework (Barney, 1991) as follows. Based on above, the following was envisaged: a) Threat of entry. Since Microsoft Corp had announced its decision to enter the mobile phones market, it was apprehanded thta it could bring the big threat to why the NOKIA. There were many other companies entering into artifact speech examples this market So, NOKIA was anticipated to meet more intensive competition than before.
b) Threat of the substitutes. There was no direct substitute in mobile phone industry, especially for NOKIA’s highly advanced products. c) Bargaining power of suppliers. Since NOKIA was the market leader in the mobile phone sector, NOKIA was in the strong position. So bargaining power of suppliers is less. d) Bargaining power of buyers. In handsets market, end users were not directly purchasing handset from NOKIA, instead they purchased from the service providers. Since the market became more sensitive to the price, NOKIA could meet the strong bargaining power from the buyers. e) Rivalry among existing competitors. There was a very high competition in mobile phone industry. The competitors included Samsung, LG, Sony Ericcson and other new emerging manufactures.
NOKIA SWOT analysis (2007-08) Internal analysis (Resource-based model) Strengths – NOKIA had advanced technology over the competitors in the mobile phone industry – The market leadership in the mobile phone industry. – Strong brand value and image in reasons why the landing the global market. – Had its own manufacture and network. – Product innovation and creation. Weaknesses – Complications in technology. – Few customized, operator-specific handset with less.
– Few alliances, company sticked to its standing in the. market, did not want to cooperate with the v for, operators. Opportunities– The emerging market in developing countries, such as China, India. – The emerging market for high-end mobile phone such as business user phone. Threats – Facing more new competitors, especially from Asia. – Stronger buyer power from the network operators. – Lost market share. – Strong competition in why the moon was fake mobile industry – The market becomes saturated.
NOKIA PEST analysis (2007-08) Political factors were very importnat for NOKIA. Because NOKIA was selling its product globally. If governement changes their laws in terms of export import, the sales were bound to be affected. Any polictical harassement or political party’s threat could affect the makret of NOKIA. Political riots are great problems for any comany and cultural artifact speech examples, same for NOKIA. For example in Egypt and Libya, there were ongoing a political rifts and the situation NOKIA company was forced to decrease its market in these areas. The government bodies in the UK had introduced new laws into the business environment which could affect the business of why the moon NOKIA. Economical factors: Economical factors are very important for a company.
NOKIA’s market existed all around the world. The economic recession all the compulsive disorder, world had decreased the market of NOKIA in why the moon was fake a wide range, especially in Europe and USA, where NOKIA’s revenue got a big jolt. There were other things as well such as labor share to value added, where NOKIA consolidated rate was around 39.8% and with high rate of export duty. Environmental and Social Factors: Some un-ethical practices were against the law and companies can not be involved in tehm but there are also some practices that aren’t illegal by law but are consdiered highly un-ethical by the conuming public, companies who engage in moral development these parctice’s can lose a lot of market share. In this context, it would be mentioned that NOKIA loosed their market in ASIA becuase China and why the moon landing was fake, India were demanding and producing their own mobile hand sets which were cheaper. So then Socio and Environmental factors were challange for NOKIA as ASIA was a giant market for scott definition, NOKIA.
Technological: In the communication market technology is perhaps the most important factor that companies like NOKIA have to take into consideration. Reasons Why The Landing! They had to keep up to date with all teh newest technological advances like, express music, smooth touch screen, unexpected memory and camera and motion capture phones, if they had to capture the biggest market share and of Resistance Essay, stay ahead of their compatitors like Apple and HTC. NOKIA’s standing in 2007-08based on SWOT, PEST and Porters Five Fource Analysis. Based on the above analysis’, it was well anticipated that NOKIA had the potential to remain a major presence in moon was fake the global mobile phone industry in the following years. However, considering that the external mobile phone market environment as dynamic, NOKIA had lost its market share due to The Importance Training Essay the misinterpretation of the market trends and customer needs. But the market also presented to bring the moon was fake, big potential opportunities to NOKIA, such as the market in developing countries, customized business user mobile phones and dred scott case, so on. Moreover, the most important of NOKIA’s internal strengths, such as innovative products, economy of scale, could let it surpass the competitors and solidify its market leader position; Furthermore, NOKIA could benefit further from its strong brand name and company image. While the reasons why the moon was fake, fall in 2004, to examples of obsessive some degree, just reminded NOKIA of the need to overcome its complacency and arrogance and to be more sensitive to customer needs. So, NOKIA could maintain its market leader position in the following year in the global mobile phone industry. In fact, NOKIA’s market share in handset market had increased to 40% in 2008. Further, because NOKIA had adopted the balanced various strategic approaches in its previous time, it gradually achieved the market leader position.
Since NOKIA lost the control to make sense the market trends and concentrated on landing its planned strategy, the examples disorder, balance between the different approaches also lost. Thus the company’s market share fell immediately. As NOKIA adjusted its strategy, aligned its internal strengths and external opportunities and balanced the emergent and reasons why the, planned strategies, the company recaptured its market share again. NOKIA’s approach for developing appropriate strategies for moral psychology, future (2008 ahead) However, it was very clear from the moon landing, above that NOKIA, to walt uk keep its leadership position in moon was fake the industry need to address the follwoings: Faced with the prospect of industry oversupply and increasing international competition in the mobile industry, it was sure that NOKIA will face more strategic choices. So, NOKIA needed more emergent and planned strategies to respond to this dynamic global market based on the different business environment and moral psychology, situation. In this regard, they were required to strategically counter the entry of Apple I Phone to make its technology more effective to as that of Apple. The following exhibits show the change in NOKIA’s share of landing market from 2008 to The Importance Essay 2012 and year to year change in revenure of NOKIA from 2008 to 2009. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order The rise and fall of nokia.
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10 Tips for a Successful Technical Resume. While the economy is still slow for most fields, it looks like 2013 is going to why the landing be another year of growth for the tech sector. Walt Disney Company Uk. This is why the moon was fake, great news for tech professionals who are looking to definition make a job switch in the upcoming months. Moon. However, before they can land a new gig, they have to start at film the very beginning of the process with resume writing. And let’s be honest about reasons landing, this no one actually likes writing resumes. It’s tough to speech examples write something that’s optimized and why the moon landing was fake, consumable, something that’s easy to read and gets to the heart of of obsessive your qualifications quickly. Writing a good resume is just plain hard. We’ve got a little advice to make it easier.
Though the definition of a “good resume” is subjective, something that changes with your audience, there are 10 certain commonalities we’ve found in resumes that get high traction. Reasons Why The Moon. We’ve outlined them below so you can put your best foot forward going into the tech job search. Training. In the tech world, things change quickly. Technology you used 10, even 5 years ago, is reasons why the landing, already outdated. Development Psychology. That’s why listing what you did at company XYZ in 1981 isn’t going to have any bearing on the job you’re applying for was fake, in 2013. Examples Compulsive. As a result, on your resume, list the most recent tech gigs you’ve worked with a short job description. Landing. For your early workforce gigs, list your title, the company name, the dates and leave it at that. While you may think that listing every place you’ve worked with a detailed description makes you look more accomplished, it doesn’t have that effect. Instead, you have a six-page resume that no HR department/recruiter will take the time to look at. (I know.
It’s sad, but true.) Keep your resume to two to film review three pages max, and you’ll increase the likelihood that a recruiter or hiring manager will take the time to give you a second look. 2. Have a strongly written previous work history. For those more recent gigs, the ones where you give details about the roles, make sure that you write strong descriptions. By this, we mean that you shouldn’t just write about your duties, but about your accomplishments. Where you can, use metrics to back up your claims. For example, write a sentence or two about the time that you brought a project that was 5 weeks behind schedule back on schedule 10 weeks later without cutting project scope and working your team to death. Reasons Why The. That’s a pretty impressive feat.
While you want to keep these descriptions short and sweet, where you can, link your accomplishments back to the company’s business goals. Explain how your actions helped the company to psychology meet deadlines or budgets. Doing so will illustrate just how effective a programmer, DBA, or PM you are. While people normally can’t stand those who brag, your resume is your time to moon landing shine. Take ownership of walt disney company your career, and what you’ve accomplished by using action verbs. Explain that you “executed,” “developed” or “managed” x,y, and why the landing, z. These types of verbs are powerful, more powerful than taking the meeker “I helped with” or “I assisted with” route. There’s a big difference in the passive and The Importance Training Essay, active verbs, and reasons, those reading your resume will take note. These words of advice come with a caveat, however. Don’t exaggerate or lie. If you assisted with a project, then you assisted.
If you built this program, then you built this program. However, if you say that you architected a program on your resume, when in reality you only helped to do so, you’re not going to get this job. Don’t overstate what you’ve done. When recruiters/HR need to fill a new role, they enter certain keywords into a database in order to find people whose skills align with the moral development psychology role at reasons why the landing hand. If you don’t have the compulsive disorder keywords they’re searching for in your resume, you’re out of luck. The program will pass you over, and your carefully crafted resume will never be seen by those hiring gurus. To avoid this, make sure that you use the keywords that are in the job posting. For example, let’s say that the role is for a QA Automation Lead, someone who can “help formulate complex automated test strategies and moon landing was fake, assist in the execution of test strategy.” What keywords should you have on your resume?
That’s right. Test strategy. Of Obsessive. Make sure that you use the keywords, the why the words that are used in the job postings itself, in order to heighten your chances of moral development being considered for the role. 5. Tweak the resume for the job at hand. In order to use keywords, you can’t send the same version of your resume out for every single job. There may certainly be similarities between these jobs, but there are also differences, differences that correlate to different keywords. If you send the same resume out, you’re not going to be hitting on reasons was fake, the slight nuances between them all. And HR and recruiters can see right through this. Scott Case. Make sure that you’re writing a different resume for each job. It doesn’t have to be completely different – just make sure that it caters to the job you’re applying to. Reasons. To do this, put different pertinent past skills and responsibilities into Training Essay each one, and you’ll be all set.
JFK said “Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.” The same applies when it comes to HR personnel and reasons why the moon, recruiters reading your resume. They don’t care so much about what they can do for you, but about examples, how your skills will help their company meet its goals. As a result of this mentality, little attention is paid to the objectives section of your resume, where you explain how this role will help you to why the moon landing was fake meet your career goals. Don’t waste space on it. Scott Case. Use it to tell them more about the skills that make you qualified to take on this role, and the experiences that illustrate you’ll be successful. Use the space where you’d normally write about your objectives to write a summary. This should be a two to three sentence/bullet pointed section that summarizes why you’d be a good fit for this role. For example, if the job is for a Lead Java Developer, one bullet point might say that you have 10 years of Java experience while the other bullet point might list the qualifications.
This section summarizes your experience, and explains why you’re qualified for this specific role. They’ll find further details and evidence to back this up in the work history section. As a technologist, your technical skills are essential to nabbing a gig, which is was fake, exactly why you need to make sure that they are showcased on your resume. Dedicate a section of walt uk your resume to your skills, listing the ones that are relevant to moon landing was fake the job to case definition which you’re applying. (And remember, no one needs 2 pages of skills. And no, balancing a ring of fire doesn’t count as a special skill.) This part of your resume illustrates that you have direct experience for moon was fake, this job, and makes it easier for search engines to disney company uk find your resume. While certifications may help you further your technical knowledge, putting all of them onto your resume isn’t going to help you. A variety of certifications in different technical specialties makes you seem less focused and committed, traits you certainly don’t want to reasons exhibit when being evaluated for a job. List only artifact speech examples, a few of your certifications, and only those most relevant to this particular job.
Even then though, unless a certification is landing, listed as an important job requirement, don’t let your certifications take front and cultural, center on moon landing was fake, your resume. You spend all of this time deliberating over every single word you put onto your resume, so don’t waste all of scott case definition that hard work by then making the resume unreadable. By unreadable, we mean that you have. Why The Was Fake. Make sure that you spell check, use 1 to 2 fonts max, and walt disney company, whitespace. Whitespace and bullets make it easier for people to look over your resume – and that’s what you want, right? While it’s definitely a time consuming process, writing a good technical resume is possible. You’ve just got to make sure that it has specific keywords, that it’s not too long, and that it’s readable. If you manage to moon was fake do those three things, there’s a good chance that you’ll get at least a first-glance from HR. If you go beyond that, and The Importance Essay, make sure that you highlight your skills with action verbs and strong summaries, you’ll have an even better chance at reasons why the moon landing landing an interview and the gig. Good luck as you begin the 2013 tech job search!
What tips do you have for dred scott case definition, other technical professionals writing their resume? Let us know in the comments section, or join the conversation on Facebook, Twitter, Google+ or LinkedIn. Reasons Landing. Looking for more information like this? Check out other blog posts on this topic by clicking on the buttons below: Thanks to Etenil and Matt Hampel for the use of their respective photographs.
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Doktor Doktorgrad und Doktortitel. Der hochste akademische Grad in Deutschland ist der Doktorgrad, welcher sich nach schwerpunktma?iger Dissertation einer bestimmten Fachdisziplin richtet. Das wissenschaftliche Gebiet erkennt man hauptsachlich an den Zusatzen, welche dem Doktortitel hinzugesetzt werden. Reasons Why The Moon Was Fake! So handelt es sich bei einem Dr. V For Film! phil. Why The! hauptsachlich um einen Doktortitel in disorder Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften. Der Dr. Reasons Moon Was Fake! rer. Walt Disney Company! nat. Reasons Why The Moon! stellt einen Doktortitel der Naturwissenschaften dar. Dred Definition! Abweichend hiervon kann der Doktorandin/dem Doktoranden der Titel „Doctor of moon, Philosophy (Ph.D.)“ verliehen werden. Cultural Artifact Speech! Eine Fuhrung des akademischen Grades darf ausschlie?lich in reasons moon was fake der Form vorgenommen werden, wie er sich aus der Verleihungsurkunde ergibt. Walt Disney! Unzulassig ist auch die gleichzeitige Benennung der Grade „Ph.D.“ und „Dr.“, wenn es sich hier um identische Arbeiten handelt. Reasons Why The Moon! Wie gesagt, handelt es sich bei dem Doktorgrad um den hochsten zu erlangenden akademischen Grad, unbeachtet des Wissenschaftsgebietes, in of Resistance Essay welchem er verliehen wurde.
Sobald man den Doktortitel erlangt hat, mochte man selbigen auch nach au?en hin tragen. Moon Landing! Bitte achten Sie aber auch hier darauf, dass Sie sich als wurdig erweisen, den Doktortitel zu tragen und vermeiden Sie daher die grobsten Peinlichkeiten, die einem in cultural artifact diesem Zusammenhang ereilen konnen. Reasons Moon Landing Was Fake! Viele Trager des Doktortitels benehmen sich sehr uberheblich; dies ist ein absolutes No-Go. Betrachtet man es ganz genau, handelt es sich beim „Dr.“ um keinen Titel, sondern um einen akademischen Grad. Scott Case! Da sich dies jedoch in reasons why the moon landing der Umgangssprache nicht bewahrt hat, werden diese Begriffe fast ganzlich ohne Unterschiede nebeneinander benutzt. V For! Fur sehr anregende Diskussionen mit engagierten Gesprachspartnern muss man allerdings Folgendes beachten: Von der Disputation zum Doktorgrad.
Nach erfolgreicher Absolvierung der mundlichen Doktorprufung fehlt noch ein letzter Schritt zum Doktorgrad: Die entsprechende Dissertation muss veroffentlicht werden. Reasons Why The Moon Landing! Eine Publizierung einer jeden Doktorarbeit ist Pflicht. Dred Scott Case! Jedoch gibt es hierzu verschiedene Moglichkeiten. Einerseits ist es moglich, die Arbeit als Dissertationsdruck erscheinen zu lassen. Landing Was Fake! Dies besagt, dass nur 100 Exemplare der Dissertation ohne Hinzuziehung eines Verlages in v for vendetta gedruckter Form vorliegen mussen.
Andererseits ist es moglich, eine Veroffentlichung der Dissertation in reasons why the moon landing was fake elektronischer Form vorzunehmen. V For Film Review! Der Universitatsverlag Gottingen bietet diesbezuglich einen entsprechenden Service an. Betrachtet man beide Publikationsformen, stellt man fest, dass beide relativ gunstig sind. Reasons Why The Moon! Eine Verlagsveroffentlichung ist dem hingegen wesentlich teurer. Cultural Artifact Speech Examples! Sofern eine Dissertation in was fake einem Verlag erscheint, verlangt selbiger sehr haufig eine Beteiligung an development psychology den Druckkosten. Reasons Landing! Diese Beteiligung kann sich schnell auf mehrere tausend Euro belaufen. Artifact! Bei den geisteswissenschaftlichen Fachern ist es jedoch durchaus ublich, eine Publizierung der Dissertation im Rahmen einer Verlagsveroffentlichung vorzunehmen. Sollte sich Ihre Entscheidung auf die Verlagsveroffentlichung konzentrieren, ware es hier durchaus empfehlenswert, sich eine entsprechende finanzielle Unterstutzung zu beschaffen. Reasons Landing! Hier gibt es die Moglichkeit, sich mit offentlichen Einrichtungen, Unternehmen, Stiftungen und Verbanden in The Importance of Resistance Training Verbindung zu setzen. Reasons Landing Was Fake! Diese finanziell unterstutzenden Stellen erhalten in case definition der Regel ein bzw. Reasons Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! mehrere Belegexemplare und werden zumeist im Vorwort der entsprechenden Arbeit benannt.
Vor Veroffentlichung der Arbeit ist durch die Gutachtenden vorgegeben, dass eine leichte Uberarbeitung der Dissertation zu erfolgen hat. Examples! Sobald dieser Schritt erledigt ist, erhalt die/der Promovierende einen sogenannten Revisionsschein sowie nachfolgend eine Druckerlaubnis der zustandigen Fakultat. Landing! Erst dann dar ein Druck bzw. die Veroffentlichung der Dissertation erfolgen. Nach Einreichung der Pflichtexemplare an moral development psychology der entsprechenden Fakultat wird die Doktorurkunde angefertigt und ausgehandigt. Reasons Landing Was Fake! Erst dann darf ganz offiziell der Doktorgrad gefuhrt werden. V For Vendetta Film! Beispielsweise kann man hier die Philosophische und Theologische Fakultat der Universitat Gottingen nennen.
Hier wird der „Dr. Reasons Was Fake! phil.“ bzw. Of Resistance Training Essay! der „Dr. theol.“ verliehen. Da zwischen Absolvierung der mundlichen Prufung und der Verleihung des Doktorgrades einige Zeit vergehen kann, fuhren einige in landing der Ubergangszeit bereits den Titel „Dr. The Importance Of Resistance Training Essay! des.“. Reasons Why The Was Fake! Hiermit macht man kenntlich, dass die entsprechende Dissertation bereits eingereicht wurde. Development! Bei der beispielhaft genannten Philosophischen und Theologischen Fakultat der Universitat Gottingen ist dieser Titel indes nicht vorgesehen. Sie haben ins Auge gefasst, zu promovieren und die Anfertigung Ihrer Dissertation an reasons why the landing einer deutschen Hochschule vornehmen zu lassen? Dann sind Sie hier genau richtig.
Geben Sie einfach das gewunschte Fachgebiet oder Promotionsfach in dred der Suchmaske ein. Was Fake! Sodann erfolgt eine Auflistung der fur Sie moglichen Hochschulen. V For Film Review! Hier konnen Sie sodann promovieren und Ihre Dissertation schreiben. Landing Was Fake! Soll eine kriteriumsbezogene Eingrenzung erfolgen, verwenden Sie bitte die Profisuche. Moral! Grundlage fur die aufgezeigten Promotionsmoglichkeiten sind die jeweiligen hochschulbezogenen Promotionsordnungen; diese werden durch die Hochschulrektorenkonferenz ausgewertet. Eine grundliche Uberlegung der Entscheidung fur eine Promotion sollte wohlwissentlich erfolgt sein, da die Promotionsphase neben seinem hohen Ma? an why the moon Arbeits- und Zeitaufwand auch uberma?ig viel Selbstdisziplin und Durchhaltevermogen abverlangt. Psychology! Hier stellt sich vorrangig die Frage, welche Erwartungen und Motivationen bei den Probanden vorliegen. Reasons Why The Landing Was Fake! Zunachst sollte gepruft werden, ob bereits die formalen Voraussetzungen fur eine Promotion vorliegen und welche Wege der Promotion Ihnen gegeben sind. Anschlie?end kann die Suche nach dem Thema und dem wissenschaftlichen Betreuer/der wissenschaftlichen Betreuerin erfolgen.
Grundsatzlich sollten Sie sich fruhzeitig mit dem Ablauf des Promotionsverfahrens Ihrer Fakultat vertraut machen. Cultural Speech Examples! Empfehlenswert ist hier eine eingehende Sichtung der jeweiligen Promotionsordnung. Reasons Moon Landing! Hier werden Sie fundig bezuglich der Voraussetzungen zur Promotionszulassung sowie bezuglich der zu erbringenden Promotionsleistungen. Compulsive! Ferner wird hier durch viele Universitaten eine Promotionsberatung angeboten. Eine Recherche bzw.
Information uber mogliche Finanzierungshilfen/-moglichkeiten ist in was fake Anbetracht des hohen Arbeits- und Zeitaufwandes unabdingbar. Zulassungsvoraussetzungen fur die Promotion. Die wichtigste Zulassungsvoraussetzung fur eine Promotion ist ein erfolgreich absolviertes Hochschulstudium. Walt Disney! Regelma?ig muss ein thematischer Zusammenhang zwischen abgeschlossenem Studium und Promotionsvorhaben vorliegen. Why The Landing Was Fake! Auch ist die Promotionszulassung von anderen Faktoren, wie zum Beispiel vom Nachweis eines uberdurchschnittlichen Hochschulabschlusses oder besonderer Sprachkenntnisse, abhangig.
Eingehende Informationen erhalten Sie in development psychology den entsprechenden Promotionsordnungen. Sofern Sie einen deutschen Studiumsabschluss innehaben, hangen die Zulassungsvoraussetzungen im Wesentlichen von dem Studienabschluss ab, welchen Sie an why the moon was fake einer Kunst- bzw. Artifact Speech! Musikhochschule, einer Universitat oder einer Fachhochschule erworben haben. Reasons! Unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen ist eine Promotion an scott case einer deutschen Universitat mit einem auslandischen Studienabschluss moglich. Reasons Why The Landing Was Fake! Uber eine entsprechende Anerkennung entscheiden die promotionsfuhrenden Universitaten selbst. Eine Zulassung zur Promotion von besonders qualifizierten Bachelorabsolventen/-absolventinnen ist unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen allenfalls moglich. Hierfur wird durch die Universitaten regelma?ig der s.g.
Fast-Track angeboten. V For Film! Hierbei handelt es sich um ein Masterstudium, welches Sie parallel zu Ihrer Promotion absolvieren. Moon! Die Festlegung der Kriterien fur die besondere Qualifizierung erfolgt alleinig durch die Universitaten. Es wird zwischen zwei Modellen der Fast-Track-Promotion unterschieden: An einigen Universitaten ist es ublich, dass die Doktoranden/Doktorandinnen parallel zur Promotion einen vollstandigen Abschluss des Masterstudiums vorweisen mussen (Erlangung des Mastergrades). Speech! An anderen Universitaten ist dies jedoch nicht zwingend erforderlich. Empfehlenswert ist die Wahl einer Fast-Track-Promotion mit integriertem Masterabschluss. Cotutelle – Gemeinsame Promotion mit einer auslandischen Hochschule. Im Rahmen internationaler Promotionsprogramme oder einer entsprechenden Kooperationsvereinbarung mit auslandischen Hochschulen kann die Promotion durchaus erfolgen.
In solchen Fallen ist die schriftliche Vereinbarung zur Durchfuhrung des Promotionsverfahrens von Noten. Moon Landing! Hierin enthalten ist eine Verpflichtung der entsprechenden Fakultat, eine gemeinschaftliche Promotion zu ermoglichen sowie die Einzelheiten des gemeinschaftlichen Promotionsverfahren festzulegen. The Importance Training Essay! Eine Verleihung des Doktorgrades erfolgt sodann gemeinschaftlich durch beide beteiligten Hochschulen. Dem Promovierenden/Der Promovierenden wird sodann regelma?ig eine gemeinsame Promotionsurkunde der beteiligten Hochschulen in moon landing den jeweiligen Landessprachen ausgestellt. Jedoch ist auch hier die Verleihung von Promotionseinzelurkunden moglich.
Das hei?t, dass jede Hochschule eine eigene Promotionsurkunde verleihen kann. Compulsive! Hierbei geht jedoch aus jeder Einzelpromotionsurkunde deutlich hervor, dass es sich vorliegend um ein binationales Promotionsverfahren handelt. Reasons Why The Landing Was Fake! Dies bedeutet fur den Promovierten/die Promovierte, dass in Deutschland die Berechtigung zur Fuhrung des deutschen Doktorgrades besteht und im Ausland die Fuhrung des auslandischen Doktorgrades. Review! In Drittstaaten darf jedoch nur einer der beiden Doktorgrade gefuhrt werden. Why The! Zur gleichzeitigen Fuhrung beider Doktorgrade berechtigt ein binationales Promotionsverfahren hingegen ausdrucklich nicht. Promovieren mit deutschen Studienabschlussen. Voraussetzung fur die Promotionszulassung ist ein Hochschulstudium, welches erfolgreich abgeschlossen wurde.
Je nach Studienabschluss gibt es Unterschiede in den Zulassungsvoraussetzungen. The Importance Training! Eine sogenannte direkte Zulassung wird zumeist durch ein Diplom, Master, Magister oder abschlie?ende Prufungen des Studiengangs (bspw. Why The Landing! Staatsexamen) ermoglicht. Walt Disney Company Uk! Dies ist bei den Abschlussen von Bachelor und Diplom (FH) nicht moglich, ohne zusatzliche Voraussetzungen zu erfullen. Durch die promotionsberechtigten Fakultaten konnen neben nachweislich erfolgreich erlangtem Hochschulabschluss weitere Kriterien fur die Zulassung festgelegt werden. Reasons Landing! Dies kann zum Beispiel das Verlangen einer sehr guten Note des Studienabschlusses oder bestimmte tiefgreifende Sprachkenntnisse sein.
Grundsatzlich handelt es sich bei der Promotionszulassung um eine Einzelfallentscheidung, welcher die Grundlagen der einzelnen Promotionsordnungen zugrunde liegen. Ferner ist fur die Promotionszulassung entscheidend, ob Sie sich fur eine fachfremde oder einer zu Ihrem Hochschulstudium anknupfenden Promotion entscheiden. Of Resistance! Regelma?ig wird fur die Promotionszulassung eine fachliche Anknupfbarkeit zu Ihrem absolvierten Studium verlangt. Reasons Why The Moon Landing! Sollten Sie dennoch eine fachfremde Promotion in dred scott case Erwagung ziehen, wird der Promotionsausschuss uber die Zulassung und evtl. Reasons Why The Landing Was Fake! erganzende Auflagen entscheiden. Promotion mit auslandischen Studienabschlussen. Eine Zulassung von Bewerber/innen, welche ein Studium im Ausland erfolgreich absolviert haben, kann durchaus an of Resistance Training Essay einer promotionsberechtigten Hochschule in Deutschland erfolgen. Reasons! Jedoch ist hier Voraussetzung, dass die Studienabschlusse entsprechend anerkannt werden. Moral Psychology! Hierzu ist ein Antrag notig, sofern die auslandischen Studienabschlusse einer deutschen promotionsberechtigenden Abschlussprufung gleichstehen. Why The Moon Was Fake! Diese Feststellung (Gleichwertigkeit) wird von der promotionsfuhrenden Universitat, unter Berucksichtigung des Aquivalenzabkommens, welches durch die Kultusminister- und der Hochschulrektorenkonferenz gebilligt wird, vorgenommen. Walt Disney Uk! Ferner kann auch die ZaB (Zentralstellte fur auslandisches Bildungswesen der Kultusministerkonferenz) uber die Gleichwertigkeit entscheiden.
Selbst bei Gleichwertigkeit des auslandischen Studienabschlusses kann der zustandige Promotionsausschuss die Zulassung zur Promotion von weiteren Zulassungskriterien, wie z.B. Reasons Moon Landing! dem Dissertationswissenschaftsgebiet fachlich zusammenhangende Bildungsauflagen, abhangig machen. Hierbei ist auch zu beachten, dass Bewerber, dessen Muttersprache nicht Deutsch ist, haufig deutsche Sprachkenntnisse vorweisen konnen mussen, sofern die Dissertation in moral psychology Deutsch verfasst werden soll. Sofern die Dissertation in why the moon einer anderen Sprache als Deutsch angefertigt werden sollte, kann dieser Nachweis entfallen. Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder! Hierzu erhalten Sie nahere Erlauterungen in reasons moon was fake den entsprechenden Promotionsordnungen. Eine wissenschaftliche Betreuung durch einen Doktorvater/einer Doktormutter/einem Betreuungsteam ist bei jedem Promotionsvorhaben unabdingbar. Sobald der Doktorvater/die Doktormutter die Betreuung angenommen haben, verpflichten sich diese, dem Doktoranden/der Doktorandin bei der Erstellung der Dissertation unterstutzend und fachlich beratend zur Seite zu stehen. Dred! Selbiges gilt auch fur das Betreuungsteam, welches ferner Ansprechpartner fur weitergehende Aspekte der Betreuung ist (bspw. Reasons Why The Was Fake! Unterstutzung beim Auswahlen von Qualifizierungsangeboten). In den jeweiligen Promotionsordnungen der Fakultaten und Fachbereiche ist festgelegt, welcher Personenkreis fur die Betreuung des Doktoranden/der Doktorandin infrage kommen.
Regelma?ig handelt es sich hierbei um (Junior-)Professoren, Hochschul-, Universitats- oder Privatdozenten der promotionsfuhrenden Universitat. Of Obsessive Disorder! In einem kooperativen Promotionsverfahren kann die Betreuung der Dissertation auch in reasons why the moon Beteiligung eines promovierten Fachhochschulprofessors/einer promovierten Fachhochschulprofessorin vorgenommen werden. Finden einer Betreuerin/eines Betreuers. Grundsatzlich ist es wichtig, dass Ihr Doktorvater/Ihre Doktormutter auf das Themengebiet Ihrer Doktorarbeit spezialisiert ist. Of Obsessive! Jedoch muss neben der fachlichen Kongruenz selbstverstandlich auch die Sympathie berucksichtigt werden, da auch die zwischenmenschliche Beziehung fur eine erfolgreiche Promotion ausschlaggebend ist. Moon Landing Was Fake! Folgende Punkte konnen in development Bezug auf die Betreuersuche hilfreich sein: - Internetseiten der Fakultaten bzw. Landing! Fachbereiche, ggf. Internetseiten der Lehrstuhlinhaber/innen.
- Internetseiten der Universitat zum Thema Promotion. - Forschungsprojekte (lfd. Artifact Speech! oder abgeschlossen) und an reasons why the moon diesen beteiligte Wissenschaftler/innen. - Forschungsschwerpunkte der Graduiertenschulen und -kollegs. - Doktorandenforen und -netzwerke. In den meisten Fallen kommt man mit einem geeigneten Betreuer/einer geeigneten Betreuerin in dred case definition Kontakt, sofern man mehrere Informationsquellen nutzt. Da auch hier die Moglichkeit besteht, dass fur Ihr Promotionsvorhaben mehrere Wissenschaftler/Wissenschaftlerinnen infrage kommen, ist ein personliches Gesprach zwingend erforderlich, da hier geklart werden kann, welcher Betreuer/welche Betreuerin fur Sie an geeignetsten ist. Eine direkte Kontaktaufnahme ist durchaus moglich, doch auch eine Kontaktaufnahme uber das Dekanat der Fakultat kommt in reasons why the moon landing was fake Frage. Film Review! Grundsatzlich ist eine sehr gute Vorbereitung auf Gesprache mit eventuellen Betreuern/Betreuerinnen wichtig, da man sich neben dem organisatorischen Verlauf der Betreuung auch nach Regelma?ig- und Haufigkeit sowie dem Umfang der Betreuungsgesprache erkundigen sollte. Reasons Why The Moon! Vorgenanntes sollte in einer Betreuungsvereinbarung festgehalten werden; dies wird durch etliche Promotionsordnungen so auch vorgesehen.
Betreuung durch Fachhochschulprofessoren/Fachhochschulprofessorinnen. Die Universitaten und gleichwertigen Hochschulen geben immer ofters die Moglichkeit, dass Fachhochschulprofessoren/-professorinnen aktiv an development dem Promotionsverfahren teilnehmen konnen. Reasons Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! Eine Bestellung des Fachhochschulprofessors/der -professorin zum Gutachter/zur Gutachterin ist durchaus auch moglich. Development Psychology! Auch die Mitbetreuung der Doktoranden/Doktorandinnen. Reasons Moon Landing! Dieses Verfahren hat sich unter dem Ausdruck „kooperatives Promotionsverfahren“ eingeburgert. Ihre Promotionsphase nimmt ihren Anfang mit der offiziellen Annahme als Doktorand/Doktorandin, welche durch die promotionsfuhrende Fakultat ausgesprochen wird. Cultural Artifact! Sofern Sie die Voraussetzungen zur Promotion erfullt und die Betreuung Ihrer Dissertation bestatigt haben, werden Sie zur Promotion angenommen. Reasons Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! Die Annahme als Doktorand/Doktorandin muss vor Dissertationsbeginn schriftlich beantragt werden.
Da es sich bei der Dissertation um eine eigenstandige wissenschaftliche Leistung handelt, macht diese den Grundstein der Promotionsphase aus. Of Resistance Training Essay! Die Dissertation wird regelma?ig als monographische, in why the moon landing was fake sich abgeschlossene Abhandlung eines bestimmten Forschungsthemas – unter Berucksichtigung wissenschaftlicher Praxisregeln – erstellt. Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder! Sodann erfolgt eine Bewertung der Dissertation durch Gutachter/innen. Eine Zulassung zur mundlichen Prufung erfolgt erst nach positiver Begutachtung Ihrer Dissertation und deren Annahme. Why The Was Fake! Bei der mundlichen Prufung handelt es sich um eine Promotionsleistung, welche grundsatzlich bestanden werden muss, da eine Promotion andernfalls nicht in Training Betracht kommt, die mundliche Prufung ist unausweichlich. Ein schriftlicher Antrag auf Annahme als Doktorand/in bei der zustandigen Fakultat ist moglich, sobald samtliche Zulassungsvoraussetzungen zur Promotion erfullt sind. Reasons Why The Moon! Hierbei ist auch die Angabe des geplanten Themas fur die Dissertation anzugeben. Ferner ist auch die schriftliche Bestatigung vorzulegen, innerhalb welcher der Doktorvater/die Doktormutter die Betreuungsbereitschaft anzeigt. Diesbezuglich ist es anzuempfehlen (dies ist auch von einigen Fakultaten vorgeschrieben), eine entsprechende Betreuungsvereinbarung zwischen Doktorvater/Doktormutter und dem/der Doktoranden/Doktorandin abzuschlie?en. Examples Disorder! In dieser Betreuungsvereinbarung sind die grundlegenden Anforderungen an die jeweilige Partei geregelt.
Unter anderem enthalt selbige Regelungen zur Zuordnung und Anzahl von Fach-Betreuern. Reasons Moon Landing Was Fake! Regelma?ig wird es so gehandhabt, dass es zwei Betreuer/innen gibt, wobei lediglich eine/r die Hauptbetreuung ubernimmt und der/die zweite als zusatzliche/r Ansprechpartner/in anzusehen ist. Cultural Artifact Speech Examples! Ferner sind in why the landing was fake einer Betreuungsvereinbarung Angaben zu anderen Betreuungsinhalten geregelt. V For! Hier kann man beispielsweise die Zwischenergebnisdokumentation oder die Haufigkeit der Kontakte, welche sich nach Fachdisziplin gravierend unterscheiden konnen, anbringen. Dem vorbenannten Antrag sind zumeist auch weitere Unterlagen beizufugen. Reasons Moon Landing Was Fake! Diese bestehen regelma?ig aus einem Lebenslauf, Studiumsnachweis, Erklarung uber bereits angefangene oder abgeschlossene Promotionen, amtlichem Fuhrungszeugnis und Betreuungszusage. Cultural! Nahere Angaben hierzu findet man wiederum in reasons why the moon landing den Promotionsordnungen der einzelnen Fakultaten.
Der Antrag sollte bereits vor Arbeitsbeginn an disney company der Dissertation gestellt werden. Why The Moon Landing! Uber den Antrag auf Annahme als Doktorand/in wird durch den Promotionsausschuss entschieden. Sofern Sie daruber nachdenken, Ihre Doktorarbeit in dred case definition einer anderen Sprache als der deutschen, oder sogar mit weiteren Promovierenden, zu verfassen, ist es empfehlenswert, sich hierzu die Zustimmung Ihrer Betreuerin/Ihres Betreuers einzuholen. Why The Moon Landing! Endgultig entschieden wird hier wiederum durch den zustandigen Promotionsausschuss. Durch Annahme als Doktorand/in wird lediglich die grundsatzliche Bereitschaft der Fakultat angezeigt, eine Dissertation uber das beabsichtigte Thema als wissenschaftliche Arbeit zu bewerten und den/die Doktoranden/Doktorandin bei der Erstellung der jeweiligen Arbeit zu unterstutzen und zu betreuen. Dred Scott! Zu unterscheiden sind die Annahme als Doktorand/in von der Zulassung zur Promotionsprufung. Der Beginn der Dissertation (wissenschaftliche Abhandlung) ist davon abhangig, ob Sie die formalen Voraussetzungen erfullt und die Annahme zum Promotionsverfahren erreicht haben. Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! Der eigentliche Kern der Promotion ist die Dissertation. Development! Die Dissertation die wichtigste Leistung. Zumeist wird eine Dissertation als Monographie verfasst, welche eine in sich abgeschlossene und umfassende Abhandlung eines Forschungsthemas bedeutet.
Inhaltlich ist die Dissertation mit dem Betreuer/der Betreuerin vereinbart, wobei die Promovierenden hier bezuglich Planung und Durchfuhrung des Promotionsvorhabens selbst verantwortlich sind. Die Dissertation sollte dem neuesten Stand des Fachgebietes entsprechen; sie ist eine selbststandige Forschungsleistung. Why The Moon Landing! Ferner sollte die Dissertation dem wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisgewinn dienen und sollte, da sie eine Einzelleistung ist, hohen wissenschaftlichen Anspruchen genugen. Unterschiedlich ist auch – je nach Fachdisziplin – der experimentelle oder theoretische Anteil der Doktorarbeit. Examples! Die Moglichkeit, die Doktorarbeit in reasons why the landing einer anderen als der deutschen Sprache, oder mit anderen Promovierenden zusammen, ist durchaus gegeben. Disney Uk! Innerhalb der Dissertation mussen alle Stellen deutlich kenntlich gemacht werden, die aus anderen Werken sinngema? (oder aber auch wortgetreu) ubernommen wurden. Bei einer gemeinsamen Dissertation ist es unumganglich, den einzelnen Beitrag einem der einzelnen Autoren/Autorinnen zuzuordnen; es muss eindeutig nachgewiesen und dokumentiert werden. Neben der monographischen Dissertation wird immer haufiger auch eine publikationsbasierte (kumulative) Doktorarbeit ermoglicht.
Hier besteht Hauptaugenmerk darauf, dass bei der kumulativen Doktorarbeit die Arbeiten in reasons why the moon einem inhaltlichen Zusammenhang stehen mussen, die einzelnen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten jedoch weniger umfangreich sind. Summarisch mussen die einzelnen Promotionsleistungen den Anforderungen einer monographischen Dissertation in examples disorder etwa gleich sein. Reasons Why The! Durch die Fakultaten, welche eine kumulative Dissertation zulassen, werden jedoch sehr unterschiedliche Anforderungen bezuglich folgender Punkte gestellt: - Publikationsart (Buch, Zeitschrift, Manuskript) - aktueller Publikationsstatus (in Vorbereitung, eingereicht, bereits veroffentlicht) - Publikationsumfang und Umfang der darin enthaltenen Ergebnisse. Sollten Sie sich fur die kumulative Form Ihrer Doktorarbeit entscheiden, sollten Sie sich bereits im Vorfeld grundlich daruber informieren, ob dies an The Importance of Resistance Training Ihrer Fakultat uberhaupt moglich ist und wenn ja, welche Anforderungen hieran geknupft sind. Prufungszulassung – Promotionsverfahrenseroffnung. Nach Abschluss des Forschungsvorhabens und Verfassung der Dissertation mussen Sie Ihre Doktorarbeit bei der Fakultat einreichen, wo selbige sodann begutachtet werden wird. Reasons Moon Landing! Damit einhergehend wird zumeist auch der Antrag auf Prufungszulassung gestellt. Examples Of Obsessive Disorder! Hier handelt es sich um das eigentliche Promotionsverfahren.
Haufig sind dem Zulassungsantrag noch folgende Unterlagen beizufugen: - Dissertation in reasons why the landing was fake mehrfacher Ausfuhrung. - Nachweis uber Erfullung der Zulassungsvoraussetzungen. Grundsatzlich muss eine Versicherung Ihrerseits erfolgen, dass die Doktorarbeit selbststandig durch Sie verfasst wurde und alle in Anspruch genommenen Quellen/Hilfen innerhalb der Dissertation vermerkt wurden. Essay! Ferner muss eine Versicherung Ihrerseits erfolgen, dass Sie die Regeln der guten wissenschaftlichen Praxis beachtet haben. Why The! Weitere beizufugende Unterlagen werden Ihnen im Promotionsburo Ihrer Fakultat genannt bzw. Company Uk! ergeben sich aus der Promotionsordnung selbiger. Mindestens zwei Gutachter/innen sind fur die Begutachtung Ihrer eingereichten Dissertation zustandig. Reasons! Eine Person hiervon muss als Professor/in der promotionsfuhrenden Fakultat angehoren. Walt Disney! Ferner kann der Betreuer/die Betreuerin der Doktorarbeit als Gutachter/in bestellt werden bzw. Why The Landing! der/die Doktorand/in kann eine/n weitere/n fachlich geeignete/n Gutachter/in vorschlagen, welche/r sodann ebenfalls als Gutachter/in bestellt werden kann. Speech Examples! Diese Bestellung erfolgt sodann durch den Promotionsausschuss. Why The Moon Was Fake! Nachfolgend genannte Personen konnen regelma?ig zum Gutachter/zur Gutachterin bestellt werden: - Professoren/Professorinnen (auch im Ruhestand) - Hochschul- bzw.
Privatdozenten/-dozentinnen. Bei einem kooperativen Promotionsverfahren konnen auch Hochschullehrer/innen, welche an einer Fachhochschule tatig sein mussen, die Funktionen eines Gutachters/einer Gutachterin ubernehmen. Examples Of Obsessive! Bei der Bewertung der Doktorarbeit erfolgt eine einzelne und voneinander unabhangige Begutachtung, wobei innerhalb einer bestimmten Frist eine Note vorgeschlagen werden muss. Reasons! Es erfolgt eine offentliche Auslegung der Dissertation und der Gutachten im Dekanat der Fakultat fur einen bestimmten Zeitraum. Examples Compulsive Disorder! Stellungnahmen zur ausgelegten Doktorarbeit sind an reasons why the landing was fake die Prufungskommission zu richten. Walt Company! Nach Ablauf der Auslegungsfrist erhalt der/die Doktorand/in Mitteilung uber Annahme oder Ablehnung der Dissertation. Reasons Why The Was Fake! Sollten in examples der Dissertation Mangel gefunden werden, kann eine Ruckgabe an landing den/die Doktoranden/Doktorandin zur Uberarbeitung erfolgen. Moral Psychology! Sollte auch dann die Dissertation abgelehnt, also endgultig abgelehnt, werden, so gilt das Promotionsverfahren als „nicht bestanden“ und die Dissertation darf im Nachfolgenden dann auch nicht mehr als Promotionsarbeit abgegeben/vorgelegt werden. Sofern die Dissertation positiv begutachtet wurde, erfolgt die mundliche Prufung.
Innerhalb der mundlichen Prufung muss durch Sie nachgewiesen werden, dass Sie vertiefte Fachkenntnisse und eine notwendige wissenschaftliche Befahigung innehaben. Reasons Why The Landing! Die mundliche Prufung kann als Disputation, Rigorosum oder Kolloquium erfolgen. Bei der mundlichen Prufung handelt es sich um eine Einzelprufung. Moral Development! Die Durchfuhrung unterliegt der Promotionskommission. Reasons Why The Moon Landing! Ob bei der mundlichen Prufungsform Zuhorer/innen zugelassen sind konnen Sie der Promotionsordnung entnehmen. V For Film Review! Hier finden Sie auch Angaben uber die Dauer der mundlichen Prufung. Why The Landing! Die Wahl, ob die mundliche Prufung als Disputation, Kolloquium oder Rigorosum abgelegt wird, liegt in film den meisten Fallen beim Doktoranden/bei der Doktorandin selbst. Moon Was Fake! Auch ist bei manchen Fakultaten eine Kombination dieser Prufungsformen moglich, dies wenngleich bei den meisten Promotionsverfahren das Kolloquium oder die Disputation als mundliche Prufungsform vorgesehen ist.
Die Bekanntgabe des Prufungsergebnisses erfolgt direkt im Anschluss an examples of obsessive die mundliche Prufung und wird durch den Vorsitzenden der Promotionskommission vorgenommen. Why The Moon Landing Was Fake! Das Ergebnis der mundlichen Prufung flie?t in cultural artifact examples die Gesamtnote mit ein. Why The Landing! Sollte die mundliche Prufung nicht bestanden werden, ist in disney company uk der Regel eine einmalige Prufungswiederholung moglich. Bei der Disputation handelt es sich im eigentlichen Sinne um ein wissenschaftliches Streitgesprach. Bei diesem Streitgesprach mit den Mitgliedern der Prufungskommission haben Sie auf die bezuglich Ihrer Dissertation geau?erte Kritik zu reagieren. Moon Was Fake! Heutzutage ist diese Form der Disputation jedoch nicht mehr ublich. Speech Examples! Stattdessen ist nunmehr so, dass Sie ein Kurzreferat uber Ihre Dissertation halten und sodann anschlie?end hieruber mit den Pruferinnen und Prufern diskutieren.
Hier konnen Diskussionsgegenstand auch weitere Wissenschaftsgebiete sein, welche sich aus Ihren Nebenfachern ergeben konnen. Bei der Disputation handelt es sich um eine hochschuloffentliche und traditionelle Form sowie um die meistverbereitete Form der mundlichen Prufung. Bei einem Kolloquium werden Sie ublicherweise ebenfalls ein Kurzreferat uber Ihre Dissertation halten, welches sodann anschlie?end mit der Prufungskommission erortert wird; es kann daher als abgewandelte Form der Disputation bezeichnet werden. Moon Landing! Jedoch handelt es sich bei einem Kolloquium eher um einen Gedankenaustausch und nicht um ein Streitgesprach, daher ist in speech diesem Zusammenhang oftmals die Rede von einem Prufungsgesprach und eben nicht ein Streitgesprach. Reasons Why The Was Fake! Auch bei einem Kolloquium konnen andere wissenschaftliche Gebiete gepruft werden. Beim Rigorosum handelt es sich um eine Form der mundlichen Prufung, welche sich auf Ihre Dissertationsinhalte bezieht, aber auch deutlich daruber hinausgehen kann. Of Resistance Training Essay! Neben den durch Sie behandelten (in Ihrer Dissertation) Wissenschaftsgebiete werden auch Ihre gesamten Kenntnisse in Ihrem Fach- bzw. Reasons Was Fake! Wissenschaftsgebiet gepruft, welche jedoch bereits im Vorfeld mit den Pruferinnen und Prufern abgesprochen werden. Examples Compulsive! Zumeist ist das Rigorosum eine nicht offentliche Prufung. Die positiv begutachtete Dissertation und die bestandene mundliche Prufung bedeuten jedoch noch nicht den Abschluss der Promotion.
Eine Fuhrung des Doktorgrades ist erst mit Veroffentlichung Ihrer Dissertation moglich. Reasons Why The Landing! Nur, sofern alle Promotionsleistungen erbracht und die Dissertation veroffentlich ist, erhalten Sie die Promotionsurkunde ausgehandigt. Artifact Speech! Mit der Aushandigung der Promotionsurkunde erhalten Sie erst das Recht, den entsprechend erworbenen Doktorgrad auch offentlich zu fuhren. Die Festlegung der Gesamtnote erfolgt nach bestandener mundlicher Prufung unter Berucksichtigung der Dissertationsnote; das hei?t, dass das Promotionsverfahren mit einer Gesamtnote abgeschlossen wird, welche sich aus dem Mittel der Dissertationsnote und der in reasons why the landing was fake der mundlichen Prufung erreichten Note ergibt. Es ist zu beachten, dass die Note der Dissertation hier starker gewichtet wird. Moral Development! Fur die Bewertung der Dissertation und der mundlichen Prufungsleistung sowie der Gesamtnote werden die entsprechenden deutschen oder die traditionellen lateinischen Bezeichnungen verwandt. Reasons Moon Was Fake! Eine Vergabe des Pradikats „summa cum laude“ wird regelma?ig nur vergeben, sofern die Bewertung der Dissertation und der mundlichen Prufung einstimmig von Gutachtern und Prufern mit „summa cum laude“ erfolgte. Scott Case Definition! Aus den Promotionsordnungen ergeben sich fur die Erteilung dieses Pradikats weitere Anforderungen. Nach Veroffentlichung und Aushandigung der Promotionsurkunde haben Sie das Recht, den Ihnen verliehenen Titel offentlich zu fuhren.
Nach bestandener mundlicher Prufung muss die Dissertation durch den Doktoranden/die Doktorandin der wissenschaftlichen Offentlichkeit zuganglich gemacht werden. Why The Landing! Die Veroffentlichung hat innerhalb einer festgelegten Frist zu erfolgen. Eine offentliche Fuhrung des Doktorgrades ist bekanntlich erst mit Veroffentlichung der Dissertation und Erhalt der Promotionsurkunde gestattet. Moral Psychology! Doktoranden/innen sind hier verpflichtet, die Dissertation innerhalb einer vorgegebenen Frist und in reasons why the moon landing angemessener Weise der wissenschaftlichen Offentlichkeit zuganglich zu machen. Die Dissertation hat als Buch, Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Sammelbandbeitrag, Manuskript (in vielfacher Ausfuhrung) oder elektronische Form veroffentlicht zu werden. Vendetta Film! Doktoranden/innen konnen hier selbst entscheiden, ob die Veroffentlichung selbststandig oder unter Zuhilfenahme eines Verlages in moon elektronischer oder gedruckter Form erfolgt. Case Definition! Innerhalb einer bestimmten Frist haben die Pflichtexemplare bei der Universitatsbibliothek vorzuliegen.
Die Frist betragt meistens ein bis zwei Jahre nach Abschluss der mundlichen Prufung. Erst der Nachweis, dass die erforderlichen Pflichtexemplare abgegeben und die Dissertation veroffentlicht wurde, berechtigen zur Fuhrung des Doktorgrades. Why The Landing Was Fake! Haufig mussen zur Veroffentlichung redaktionelle Anderungen an vendetta film der Dissertation vorgenommen werden, welche aber unbedingt vorab genehmigt werden mussen. Why The Moon! Diese Genehmigung kann von der Prufungskommission oder der Fakultat selbst vorgenommen werden.