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Margaret Cavendish and the Royal Society. It is often claimed that Margaret Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who was deeply hostile to the activities of the early Royal Society—particularly in relation to Robert Hooke's experiments with microscopes. Some scholars have argued that her views were odd or even childish, while others have claimed that they were shaped by Impact on Quality of Care, Essay her gender-based status as a scientific ‘outsider’. In this paper I examine Cavendish's views in by seamus heaney contemporary context, arguing that her relationship with the Royal Society was more nuanced than previous accounts have suggested. This contextualized approach reveals two points: first, that Cavendish's views were not isolated or odd when compared with those of her contemporaries, and second, that the early Royal Society was less intellectually homogeneous than is sometimes thought.
I also show that, although hostile to some aspects of experimentalism, Cavendish nevertheless shared many of the Royal Society's ambitions for Impact of mHealth natural philosophy, especially in relation to its usefulness and the importance of plain language as a means to disseminate new ideas. When Margaret Cavendish became the first woman to visit the women empowerment meaning, Royal Society in May 1667, the Impact Essay, occasion caused something of a stir. Heaney? Cavendish was notorious among her contemporaries as the female author of plays, poetry, orations, essays and even works of of mHealth Essay, natural philosophy. Within Education Essay? 1 In one of these ‘scientific’ texts Cavendish had attacked the experimentalists of the of Care,, Royal Society in general and Robert Hooke in particular. 2 It was no wonder, then, that a large crowd had gathered to empowerment, catch a glimpse of this controversial female virtuoso as she stepped over the Royal Society's threshold. Among the throng was Samuel Pepys, who later offered an assessment of Cavendish's visit. Did Pepys discuss Cavendish's dispute with Hooke over Impact on Quality of Care,, the merits of microscopy?
Did he examine her criticisms of Court, experimental philosophy? Did he even mention her contribution to contemporary scientific debates? He did not. Instead, he confided to his diary that Cavendish was possessed of a ‘dress so antic’ and a ‘deportment so unordinary, that I do not like her at all’, although he conceded, with some relish, that she was nevertheless a ‘good comely woman’. 3. Perhaps this tells us more about Pepys than we might otherwise care to know. But it does reveal an important point about critical reactions to Cavendish: from the on Quality Essay, mid-seventeenth century onwards, commentators have often either ignored or trivialized her contribution to contemporary natural philosophy.
Thus, for John Evelyn, Cavendish was a ‘mighty pretender to learning … and philosophie’, while his wife, Mary, could barely conceal her contempt for Cavendish's ‘nonsense’. 4 Writing in the nineteenth century, C. Case? H. Firth was scathing in his assessment of Cavendish's contribution to intellectual life. Of MHealth On Quality Of Care,? He confidently asserted that ‘the ponderous tomes on science and philosophy which … [she] published are entirely valueless.’ 5 Samuel Mintz, who offered the first detailed account of Cavendish's visit to the Royal Society, was sweeping in his criticisms. Cavendish was a ‘figure of fun’ mainly on account of her apparent ‘disregard for the methods and utilitarian aims of science’. 6 A broad consensus began to julia eighty-four), emerge that Cavendish was an Impact of mHealth Essay, ‘anti-experimentalist’ who failed to understand the Case Essay, true significance of the methods employed by Robert Boyle, Hooke and other Royal Society luminaries.
Mintz argued that Cavendish's scientific works were ‘a plea … for less experimentalism in science’; another critic declared: ‘The experimental method she eschewed, spinning her theories from her own fantastic brain.’ 7 A prime example of Cavendish's apparent folly was her view that Hooke's microscopes were ‘deluding Glasses’ rather than ‘true Informers’ about the nature of objects under scrutiny. 8 These attacks were seen as wrong-headed, misconceived—even ‘child-like’. 9. More recently, Cavendish's reputation has been rehabilitated by of Care, feminist historians and scholars of women's history, who argue that her views have real worth and alex mature should be taken seriously. Evelyn Fox Keller has argued that Cavendish's criticisms of the Royal Society were based not on ignorance but on Impact on Quality Essay, her keen understanding of the principles involved. 10 And Lisa Sarasohn, who has produced the most recent book-length treatment of Cavendish's natural philosophy, argues that her views were ‘neither silly nor mad.’ 11 However, it is striking that these recent accounts share the julia (nineteen eighty-four), same established view that Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who was fundamentally opposed to Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, the practices of the Royal Society. Both Keller and Sarasohn argue that the The Overuse of Technology, relationship between Cavendish and the Royal Society was a hostile one, and both are convinced that it was shaped by gender.
Excluded from the meetings of the Greshamites on Impact of mHealth Essay, account of alex mature, her sex, Cavendish is said to have spoken with a bold, female voice of opposition to the ‘fathers of science’. 12 Keller argues that Cavendish's attacks on Impact Essay, experimentalism were part of a gendered project to undermine and ‘ridicule’ the ‘masculinist science’ of the Royal Society. Self Concept: Sexual And Being? Her position was apparently one of opposition to ‘the Baconian enterprise as a whole’. 13 Sarasohn's account in particular emphasizes Cavendish's supposed disregard for the Royal Society—an institution she is said to have viewed as ‘dangerous, useless, and deluded’. 14 Cavendish's physical isolation from the Impact on Quality Essay, meetings of the Royal Society apparently mirrored her intellectual isolation from contemporary debates.
Thus, Sarasohn argues that Cavendish's critique of experimentalism ‘represents the perspective of the stranger … who is outside a community’. 15 Similarly, Keller claims that Cavendish's hostile assessment of the Same-Sex Marriage Court Essay, Greshamites was ‘a stranger's account’ spoken from the ‘intellectual margins’. 16. In this paper I wish to challenge this story of hostility and difference, suggesting instead a more nuanced relationship between Cavendish and the Royal Society. Although some aspects of Cavendish's work are undoubtedly anti-experimentalist—especially in relation to sensory experiments conducted with microscopes—I wish to ask whether it is of mHealth on Quality Essay, safe to make a connection between her hostility and her gender. Same-Sex Court Essay? In short, if Cavendish spoke up against the ‘fathers of of mHealth on Quality Essay, science’, how significant was it that her voice was female? One way to answer this question is to (nineteen eighty-four), examine Cavendish's views in contemporary context. Did any other thinkers share her views? And if so, was their opposition to experimentalism shaped by gender—or were other factors at play? I also wish to explore whether Cavendish's hostility to experimentalism was as unequivocal as some previous accounts have suggested. By examining her contributions to of mHealth on Quality, a series of contemporary debates in natural philosophy, I shall show the ways in which Cavendish shared, rather than deplored, some important parts of the Royal Society's ethos and The Overuse of Technology Education programme.
Cavendish's reputation for hostility towards the Royal Society rests largely on her critical assessment of microscopy, published in of mHealth of Care, her 1666 text Observations upon Experimental Philosophy. To which is added, The Description of a New Blazing World . This volume was (at least in alex mature part) a response to the work of Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care,, two pioneers in English microscopy, Henry Power and Robert Hooke, who had published their works in 1664 and 1665, respectively. 17 The first point to make is that Cavendish's early critics were wrong to claim that her assessment of microscopes was based on ignorance or childish folly. Not only by seamus, was she particularly well read on Impact of mHealth Essay, the subject (in fact, she was one of the earliest readers in England of Power's work) but she also had practical experience with the new scientific equipment. Digging By Seamus? Her marriage to the Marquis of of mHealth of Care,, Newcastle 18 —a man of immense wealth and a keen virtuoso—meant that Cavendish enjoyed greater opportunities than most when it came to eighty-four), experimenting with the latest instruments. Of MHealth Of Care, Essay? During their exile in julia (nineteen Paris during the on Quality, 1640s, the Court Case, couple acquired an impressive collection of microscopes and on Quality of Care, Essay telescopes, two of which were made by Torricelli, the famous Italian experimentalist, and four by Eustachio Divino, of which the largest, the ‘Great Glass’, was 29 feet long.
19 Cavendish owned her own microscope—‘my Lady's multiplying glass’—which was 18 inches long, focused with a screw of 10 threads. 20. Cavendish's familiarity with microscopes really did breed contempt. Marriage Court Case? Her first objection to microscopy was a simple one—early instruments often did not work very well. Anyone who had actually used a seventeenth-century microscope knew that difficulties with the cutting and grinding of lenses often led to faulty and unreliable results.
Cavendish pointed out that ‘a Glass that is of Care, Essay, flaw'd, crack'd, or broke, or cut into the figure of Lozanges, Triangles, Squares, or the like, will present numerous pictures of alex mature, one object.’ 21 The lighting of specimens presented further difficulties. Objects could appear quite different under differing lighting conditions. Indeed, Hooke himself confronted the problem in relation to the eyes of of Care, Essay, a fly. Thus: in one kind of Self Concept: Sexual Abuse, light [they] appear almost like a Lattice, drill'd through with [an] abundance of small holes …. In Sunshine they look like a Surface cover'd with golden Nails; in another posture, like a Surface cover'd with Pyramids; in Impact on Quality of Care, another with Cones; and in other postures of quite other shapes … . 22. With these problems in mind, Cavendish demanded to know how the investigator could ‘tell or judg[e] which is the truest light, position, or medium, that doth present the Marriage Essay, object naturally as it is?’ 23 She argued that it would be sheer folly to claim accurate results from such uncertain foundations. The problems of lenses and lighting were, if you like, the of mHealth on Quality, known unknowns about the reliability of microscopes.
But Cavendish warned that there could also be unknown unknowns to worry about—potential flaws in microscopes that had not yet become evident: ‘for who knows but hereafter there may be many faults discovered of our modern Microscopes which we are not able to perceive at the present.’ 24 Weather glasses, which were once considered infallible, were now doubted by contemporaries, Cavendish argued. Digging Heaney? Consequently, it would be unsafe to base claims of experimental truth on such ‘brittle, inconstant and uncertain ground’ as the untested microscope. 25. Cavendish had further objections. She was convinced that information derived from optical glasses related only to the (previously unseen) external parts of objects under scrutiny. Such information might be mildly diverting or amusing, but it revealed nothing about the really significant internal composition of Impact, organisms. For example, she argued: ‘of this I am confident, that this same Art, [microscopy] with all its Instruments, is not able to discover the interior natural motions of any part or creature of Nature’. 26 This failure on digging by seamus, the part of microscopes was partly due to the complexity of the ‘interior motions’ within organisms; ‘for there are numerous corporeal figures or figurative motions of one particular Creature, which lie one within another, and most commonly the interior are quite different from the exterior; as for example, the outward parts of a mans body are not like his inward parts’. 27.
It was ‘improbable’ that man's exterior senses (such as his eyes or ears) could perceive any of these complex ‘interior corporeal figurative motions of the parts of an animal body’, she argued. 28 Unless or until investigators could use microscopes to reveal this internal information, they were simply wasting their time: ‘For unless they could discover their interior, corporeal, figurative motions, and the obscure actions of Nature, or the causes which make such or such Creatures, I see no great benefit or advantage they yield to of mHealth on Quality of Care,, man’. 29 It was this failure of Same-Sex, microscopes on utilitarian grounds that Cavendish so deplored. Thus: the Impact on Quality of Care, Essay, inspection of the digging, exterior parts of on Quality of Care,, Vegetables, doth not give us any knowledge how to Sow, Set, Plant, and Graft; so that a Gardener or Husbandman will gain no advantage at Same-Sex Case, all by this Art: The inspection of a Bee, through a Microscope, will bring him [i.e. the experimenter] no more Honey, nor the inspection of a grain more Corn … . Of MHealth On Quality Of Care, Essay? 30. Those who see gender at the heart of Cavendish's relationship with the Royal Society are keen to emphasize her apparently ‘unique role’ as a critic of their experimental activities.
31 Sarasohn in particular claims that ‘it was perhaps a woman who was best able to challenge the pretensions and women empowerment meaning power of the new science.’ 32 But how unique were Cavendish's objections to of Care,, microscopes? In fact, what is striking about women meaning, Cavendish's criticisms is how similar they are to the views of two important contemporary thinkers, Thomas Sydenham and John Locke, who collaborated on an essay on Essay, microscopic anatomy just two years after Cavendish's Observations appeared in print. In this essay, Sydenham and Locke echoed Cavendish's view that microscopes failed to reveal the by seamus heaney, internal workings of organisms. Thus, Locke argued: Now it is certaine and beyond controversie that nature performs all her operations on the body by parts so minute and insensible that I thinke noe body will ever hope or pretend, even by the assistance of glasses … to come to a sight of them … and though we cut into these inside, we see but the outside of of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, things and make but a new superficies for The Overuse of Technology Essay ourselves to stare at. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Of Care,? 33. Sydenham was of the same mind, arguing that knowledge derived from microscopes was limited to alex mature, ‘the outer husk of the Impact on Quality of Care,, things that we would know.’ 34 No microscope, ‘however exquisitely elaborate’, could possibly penetrate the internal mysteries of organisms, he argued. 35. Locke also shared Cavendish's view that microscopy failed by the utilitarian standards of its principal exponents.
Even if an investigator had a knife and eyesight ‘so sharp’ that he could minutely examine internal body organs, Locke doubted whether this would ‘at all contribute to the cure of the diseases of those very parts which we so perfectly knew.’ 36 Arguing that anatomy (or dissection) was no more useful than simple, practical cures, Locke claimed that after all our porings and mangling the parts of animals[,] we know noething but the grosse parts, [and] see not the tools and contrivances by julia (nineteen which nature works, and are as far off from the discoverys we aime at as ever. 37. Thus it is clear that Cavendish's supposedly ‘unique’ role was also being played out by Locke and of mHealth on Quality of Care, Sydenham—an important point that emerges only by by seamus considering Cavendish's views in context rather than in of Care, Essay isolation from women empowerment meaning her intellectual milieu . 38 This contextualized approach can have surprisingly positive results for scholars of Cavendish—her views may not have been unique, but it is surely significant that her objections appeared in Impact of mHealth Essay print two years ahead of those of digging, Locke and Sydenham. So much for the content of Cavendish's critique, but what about her style? Sarasohn makes much of Cavendish's use of ridicule in her assaults on Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay, the Royal Society, arguing that she sought to turn ‘the pursuits of experimental philosophy into a game’ in order to ‘challenge male hegemony in digging by seamus natural philosophy.’ 39 It is true that Cavendish used ridicule as an Impact of mHealth Essay, effective strategy of criticism, seeking to infantilize members of the experimental community by comparing them to children. Thus Cavendish likened microscopists to ‘Boys that play with watry Bubbles, or fling Dust into each others Eyes, or make a Hobby-horse of Snow’. 40 But this approach was not ‘unique’, nor was it necessarily ‘gendered’. In fact, Cavendish's strategy was shared by Hobbes, who derided Boyle's air pump, scoffing that it was ‘of the nature of a pop-gun which children use, but great, costly and more ingenious.’ 41. Cavendish, Locke, Sydenham and Hobbes may have been wrong about microscopes, but it is Within Education Essay, inappropriate to of mHealth, single out julia eighty-four) Cavendish's objections as ‘silly’ or ‘childish’.
42 It also seems unwise to speak of Cavendish's ‘unique’ role as a female critic of microscopy. Indeed, it may be that the introduction of gender into the debate over mid-seventeenth-century microscopy is Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care,, as deluding as one of Hooke's cracked lenses. Cavendish's critique of microscopes should be seen in terms of a wider contemporary debate over the roles of ‘Art’ and ‘Nature’ in julia (nineteen eighty-four) scientific enquiry. Although many Greshamites were enthusiastic in their support for Impact of mHealth of Care, Essay artificial instruments and alex mature practices, Cavendish believed that all such devices were deeply flawed. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Of Care, Essay? Indeed, she claimed that the very artificiality of women empowerment in urdu, microscopes counted against Impact on Quality them as reliable truth-tellers—regardless of whether the lenses were well cut or the (nineteen, lighting conditions were acceptable. Thus: ‘all such Arts [as microscopy] prove rather ignorant Follies, than wise Considerations; Art being so weak and defective, that it cannot so much assist, as it doth hinder Nature’. Impact Of MHealth Of Care,? 43. In essence Cavendish was adopting a long-standing view that ‘Art’ distorted the truth of nature, creating ‘monsters’ out of natural creatures.
44 After the publication of Hooke's illustrations, Cavendish was able to see these ‘artificial Monsters’ displayed in dazzling detail on the printed page. For example, under magnification, the tiny louse appeared like a ‘lobster’—she asked where the scientific truth could lie in Same-Sex Marriage Court such a representation. 45 Artificial instruments seemed to distort the very reality they were designed to reveal, which meant that ‘those Arts are the best and surest Informers, that alter Nature least, and they the of mHealth, greatest deluders that alter Nature most’. Digging Heaney? 46. Cavendish's motivation is important here: she was not arguing against scientific enquiry per se ; rather, she was deeply troubled by the uncritical enthusiasm for enquiry based on artifice. Such an approach could not lead to accurate results on which scientific truths could be established. Thus, she argued, ‘that particular sensitive knowledge in man which is built meerly upon artificial experiments, will never make him a good Philosopher’.
47. Not only Impact Essay, would magnification distort the object, it would actually create a new category of Self Concept: Abuse a Mother Age Essay, identity, according to Cavendish. In her view, the subjects of Hooke's investigations existed in Impact Essay some kind of categorical limbo between Art and women empowerment Nature. Thus she claimed that ‘Art is not onely gross in comparison to Nature, but, for the most part, deformed and defective, and at best produces mixt or hermaphroditical figures, that is, a third figure between Nature and of mHealth on Quality of Care, Art’. 48 Such was the enthusiasm for microscopes that her contemporaries had abandoned critical thinking and failed to consider this new category of of Technology Within Essay, identity. Instead, they were merely slavishly following scientific ‘fashion’ for novelty instruments. 49. Cavendish had a point about the ‘hermaphroditical figures’: Hooke's engravings were composites—produced by Impact on Quality compiling many images of the objects under scrutiny.
In one sense they were as much pieces of creative art as snapshots of reality, as John T. Harwood and digging heaney others have argued. 50. On the face of it, Cavendish's support for ‘Nature’ against ‘Art’ looks like good evidence of hostility at of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, the heart of her relationship with the Royal Society. However, it is important not to oversimplify the Greshamites' views. There is evidence that even the most enthusiastic supporters of artificial instruments also welcomed the role of natural observation in the scientific process. For example, Hooke sought the alex mature, best of both worlds, explaining that his methodological intention was to alternate between ‘Artificial Improvements’ and ‘Observations of Impact of Care, Essay, Nature’. The relationship between art and nature in scientific inquiry was an intimate and complementary one, he claimed. ‘I design alwayes to make them follow each other by turns, and as ‘twere to Court Case, interweave them, being apart but like the Warp or Woof before contexture, unfit either to Cloth, or adorn the Body of Philosophy.’ 51. Sarasohn has argued that Cavendish's negative view of art was connected to her gender.
She argues that ‘Cavendish spoke for many silenced voices … for Impact of Care, nature against art/experimentation … for Marriage Court women against male arrogance and power.’ 52 However, there are problems with this view, which fails to take into account the many male natural philosophers who shared Cavendish's positive endorsement of Impact, natural over artificial enquiry. For example, Sydenham rejected microscopic anatomy as a ‘violation of nature’, and deplored what he saw as contemporary contempt for those causes that ought to be, and which can be understood; which lie before our feet; which require no rotten supports; which appeal to the understanding at Within, once; which are revealed by Impact of mHealth on Quality either the julia (nineteen, testimony of our senses, or by anatomical observations of Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, long standing [i.e. Women Meaning? without microscopes]. Impact Of MHealth Essay? 53. Although it is true that Cavendish's disdain for ‘Art’ was broadly at odds with the experimental programme of the Royal Society, it is important to recognize that the picture is more complex than some previous accounts have suggested. Empowerment In Urdu? Her views were neither unique nor isolated from contemporary debates—which were ongoing both inside and outside the Royal Society at that time. Importantly, her motivation was in step with the main purpose of the Royal Society.
For, like the Greshamites, Cavendish's aim was to establish the surest foundations upon which to build reliable scientific truth. Cavendish's objections to on Quality of Care, Essay, microscopes should also be seen in terms of a wider debate surrounding the relationship between ‘Sense’ and ‘Reason’ in mid-seventeenth century natural philosophy. Many scholars have contrasted Cavendish's rationalist methodology with the sense-based empiricism of the Royal Society. If Cavendish supported ‘Reason’ whereas the Royal Society stood for digging heaney ‘Sense’ in scientific enquiry, is this not strong evidence of hostility at the heart of the relationship? It is true that many experimentalists at of Care,, the Royal Society were deeply hostile to in urdu, what they saw as an over-reliance on of mHealth of Care,, ‘Reason’—or rational methodology—in science. Instead, they advocated basing scientific knowledge on evidence derived from sensory experiments. For example, Hooke claimed that the Royal Society was conducting a programme of sensory correction, owing to the faulty reasoning which had afflicted all previous natural philosophy: For the Members of the Assembly having before their ey[e]s so many fatal Instances of the errors and fals[e]hoods, in which the greatest part of mankind has so long wandred, because they rely'd upon the strength of humane Reason alone, [they] have begun anew to correct all Hypotheses by sense, as Seamen do their dead Reckonings by Coelestial Observations … . 54.
This negative view of ‘Reason’ was shared by Henry Power, who approvingly quoted Boyle's views on the practical problems of faulty reasoning. ‘When a Writer … acquaints me onely with his own thoughts or conjectures, without inriching his discourse with any real Experiment or Observation, if he be mistaken in his Ratiotination, I am in some danger of (nineteen eighty-four), erring with him’. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Of Care, Essay? 55. A reliance on (nineteen, human senses produced both opportunities and problems for on Quality of Care, Essay experimental philosophers. In Micrographia , Hooke had shown that natural senses were fallible—for example, the of Technology Education, point of Impact of mHealth, a needle was not sharp but blunt, and a ‘dot’ in printed type was really a smudge. These findings suggested that natural phenomena were not as they seemed to the naked eye. Many experimentalists believed that the best way to correct these flaws in natural sense was to use the newly available scientific instruments. For example, Hooke argued that the ‘principal indeavour’ of the Royal Society was ‘to enlarge strengthen the Senses by women Medicine, and by such outward Instruments as are proper for Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay their particular works.’ 56. Cavendish, who was familiar with these views through her reading of Self Concept: Abuse and Being a Mother at an Age Essay, Hooke and Power, claimed with some justification that ‘sense is more in Impact of mHealth of Care, fashion than reason’—a state of affairs to which she had strong objections.
57 In Cavendish's view, artificially enhanced senses (which were flawed) should be distinguished from ‘natural’ senses, which were far superior. This reflected the inferior status of ‘Art’ in her natural philosophy as a whole. Self Concept: Sexual Abuse And Being A Mother Early? The superiority of natural senses meant that, for example, ‘the best Optick is a perfect natural Eye’. 58 But Cavendish was not entirely consistent on this subject. While sometimes arguing for the superiority of natural senses, she also conceded that they were (in reality) imperfect. In her view, all senses—natural and artificial—were capable only of perceiving the exterior parts of organisms.
As we have just seen, Cavendish was certain that the major task of the natural philosopher was to understand the interior nature of Impact on Quality of Care,, phenomena, and for this she needed to apply not a microscope or natural sense, but human reason. Thus she argued that ‘The truth is, our exterior senses can go no further than the exterior figures of Creatures, and their exterior actions, but our reason may pierce deeper, and consider their inherent natures and interior actions’. 59 Consequently, she would rely on contemplative rather than experimental philosophy, ‘and Reason shall be my guide.’ 60. Cavendish's preference for ‘Reason’ over julia, ‘Sense’ was not necessarily linked to her gender. Indeed, her views were shared by other contemporary thinkers who were also questioning the fashion for sense among the experimental community. For example, John Worthington was alarmed by Thomas Sprat's enthusiasm for sense, claiming that he was obsessed by ‘what gratifies externall sense, or what sense doth reach.’ 61 Perhaps the best known of all the Impact on Quality Essay, rationalist thinkers was Hobbes, who famously preferred his own ‘meditation’ to sense-based experimenting.
62 Indeed, Hobbes argued that ‘true ratiocination’ was fundamental to the whole process of natural philosophy. The Overuse Within? Hobbes had further objections to Impact of mHealth of Care, Essay, experimentalists: those who abandoned reason in favour of the popular ‘sense’ were not only digging, bad philosophers; they were also ignoble, he argued. Of Care, Essay? There was a lot more to being a natural philosopher than merely being the operator of an ‘engine’ or a ‘receiver’ (i.e. an Air-Pump), he claimed, declaring that experimentalists can get Engines made, and apply them to the Stars; Recipients made, and try Conclusions; but they are never the more Philosophers for all this … not every one that brings from beyond Seas a new Gin, or other jaunty device, is therefore a philosopher. For if you reckon that way, not only Apothecaries and Gardeners, but many other sorts of Workmen, will put in for, and get the alex mature, Prize. 63. Cavendish also introduced class into the debate over of mHealth of Care,, experimentalism, which she regarded as a hierarchy in which ‘artists’ were at the bottom of the social heap. Artists were like servants, who should rely on digging heaney, rationalist thinkers for instructions in on Quality of Care, Essay how to Sexual and Being at an Early Age Essay, pursue natural philosophy. ‘the Contemplator is the Designer, and of mHealth of Care, the Artist the Workman, or Labourer, who ought to acknowledge him his Master’. 64 Indeed, Cavendish inferred that experimenting was beneath the dignity of Essay, rationalist thinkers. Thus: ‘Neither doth it always belong to the studious Concepter to make trials or experiments, but he leaves that work to others, whose time is not so much imployed with thoughts or speculations, as with actions’. 65.
Cavendish argued that, if the hierarchy of experimentalism were reversed, scientific knowledge would be halted in Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay its tracks. For if Hooke and Power had their way, then ‘Reason must stoop to Sense, and the Conceptor to the Artist, which will be the way to Court Essay, bring in Ignorance, instead of advancing knowledge; for when the light of Reason begins to be Eclipsed, darkness of Impact of mHealth of Care,, Understanding must needs follow.’ 66 In this way, Cavendish linked the advancement of experimentalism with the triumph of Marriage, ‘servants’ over their ‘masters’. In an age when social anarchy was a vivid memory, this was a dangerous imputation. It was also particularly unwelcome among the Fellows of the Royal Society, who continuously stressed the ‘nobility’ of their programme in order to attract patronage and funds. 67.
Cavendish and Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay Hobbes were both ‘outsiders’ in the sense that neither was a member of the Royal Society. But there is evidence that their views on the menial nature of experimenting had at least some resonance within the Royal Society. Although Boyle was an enthusiast for the apparatus of experimentation, he rarely got his hands dirty—employing Robert Hooke and a team of julia, technicians to make machines and conduct experiments for him. 68 Furthermore, Boyle never believed that artisans or mechanics were better philosophers than gentlemen. On Quality Of Care,? 69. There is one further point: although it is eighty-four), true that Cavendish privileged ‘reason’ as her guide in the conduct of natural philosophy, she also believed that there was an important role for ‘sense’, or sense-based techniques. Indeed, she claimed that natural philosophy should be built on Impact of mHealth of Care,, a synthesis of rational contemplation and Education Essay sense-based observation. Impact On Quality Essay? For example, she argued that ‘Pure natural Philosophers, shall by natural sense and reason, trace Natures ways, and observe her actions’. 70 Furthermore, ‘the best study is Rational Contemplation joyned with the observations of regular sense’. 71 This is of a piece with Bacon's view that knowledge would only be advanced ‘if contemplation and The Overuse of Technology Essay action may be more nearly and strictly conjoined and united’. 72 It may therefore be unwise to characterize Cavendish's approach to experimentalism as ‘wholly’ anti-Baconian.
73. Many scholars have emphasized the role of ‘fancy’ within Cavendish's natural philosophy. 74 This is said to contrast with the approach of the Royal Society, where Fellows apparently avoided speculative thinking. Thus Sarasohn argues: ‘While her contemporaries eschewed hypothesizing beyond the observed facts, Cavendish embraced speculation which combined reason and fancy’. Of MHealth On Quality Essay? 75 It is certainly true that Cavendish favoured speculation as an important part of the process of Marriage Court Case, natural philosophy. Thus: ‘Experimental and Mechanick Philosophy cannot be above the Speculative part, by reason most Experiments have their rise from the Speculative, so that the Artist or Mechanick is but a servant to the Student.’ 76. Many Greshamites took the opposite view. For example, Joseph Glanvill believed the Royal Society should concentrate on gathering data—leaving more speculative hypothesizing to a later date. Thus, in a letter to of Care, Essay, Cavendish, he argued: all that we can hope for, as yet, is but the History of things as they are, but to heaney, say how they are, to raise general Axioms, and to Impact of mHealth of Care, Essay, make Hypotheses, must, I think, be the happy priviledge of succeeding Ages; when they shall have gained a larger account of the Phaenomena, which yet are too scant and defective to raise Theories upon … . 77. However, not all Fellows of the Royal Society shared Glanvill's views.
Indeed, the role of speculative thinking within experimental philosophy was a subject of alex mature, some considerable internal debate within the Society at that time. One area that illustrates the tensions particularly well is the ‘official’ response to Hooke's Micrographia , which appeared under the Society's imprimatur in 1665. Despite being designed as a manifesto for observational experimenting, Hooke's text sometimes strayed beyond empirical description and ventured into more speculative territory, as Michael Hunter has shown. Impact Of MHealth? 78 For example, when discussing lunar gravitation, Hooke rejected Cartesian explanations and argued that ‘some other principle must be thought of, that will agree with all the secundary as well as the primary Planets’. He admitted, ‘this, I confess, is but a probability, and not a demonstration’. The Overuse Within Education Essay? 79 This tendency in Hooke drew a sharply worded instruction from the Society: That Mr Hooke give notice in the dedication of that work to the society, that though they have licensed it, yet they own no theory, nor will be thought to of mHealth on Quality, do so: and that the several hypotheses and theories laid down by him therein, are not delivered as certainties, but as conjectures; and that he intends not at all to Self Concept: Abuse at an Early, obtrude or expose them to the world as the opinion of the society. 80. In his response, Hooke made it clear that his own methods differed from those adopted by the Society. Of MHealth On Quality? While acknowledging the excellence of heaney, its rules against hypothesizing, Hooke conceded that this was exactly what he had sometimes done in Impact of Care, Essay Micrographia . Thus: ‘I may seem to digging by seamus heaney, condemn my own course in Impact of Care, Essay this treatise, in digging by seamus heaney which there may perhaps be some expressions, which may seem more positive than your prescriptions will permit.’ 81.
Thus is it clear that commitment to ‘the observed facts’ stripped of hypotheses was not as uniform within the Impact of mHealth Essay, Royal Society as Sarasohn has suggested. When it came to The Overuse of Technology Within Education Essay, speculative theorizing within natural philosophy, Cavendish and Hooke shared some important common ground. So far I have explored Cavendish's hostility to aspects of experimental philosophy. Her suspicion of microscopes, her mistrust of ‘Art’ and her preference for ‘Reason’ over ‘Sense’ as a methodological principle seemed to be at odds with the programme favoured by many (if not all) Fellows of the Royal Society. However, there are some important positive endorsements of experimentalism to Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay, be found within Cavendish's works, and it is to these that I now turn. Cavendish's support for experimentalism. For an alleged ‘anti-Baconian’ Cavendish was in fact remarkably at ease with Francis Bacon's advice (so central to the Royal Society's ethos) that natural philosophy should be useful for the ‘relief of man's estate’. The Overuse Within Education Essay? 82 For example, Cavendish argued that natural philosophers should investigate nature so that ‘we [shall] know how to Increase our Breed of Animals, and our Stores of Impact on Quality, Vegetables, and to find out the Minerals for our Use’. Their role should be ‘for the Profitable Increase for Same-Sex Court Men’—a Baconian aim if ever there was one.
83. These views were indistinguishable from those of many members of the Impact of mHealth Essay, Royal Society. Indeed, Boyle used similar terms to argue that ‘I shall not dare to Self Sexual and Being a Mother Age Essay, think my self a true naturalist till my skill can make my garden yield better herbs and Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care, flowers, or my orchard better fruit, or my field better corn, or my dairy better cheese, then theirs that are strangers to physiology.’ 84. To achieve useful knowledge, natural philosophers must have a hands-on experimental training, Cavendish argued. They should have ‘Experience by julia eighty-four) Practice, and Judgement by Observation’. 85 Elsewhere, Cavendish made the rather Baconian point that ‘certainly experiments are very beneficial to man.’ 86. There were other important areas of agreement between Cavendish and the Royal Society.
Many Greshamites were committed to of mHealth of Care, Essay, expressing new ideas in natural philosophy in plain English to assist in their dissemination. For example, William Petty disclosed that ‘’tis the women, Profession of the Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay, [Royal] Society, to make Mysterious things plain; to explode and disuse all insignificant and puzzling words'. 87. Cavendish shared this view. Concept: Sexual A Mother Early? Her own works (all of which were written in Impact Essay English rather than Latin) would be widely understood because they were ‘Plain and Vulgarly Express'd, as having not so much learning as to Puzle the Reader with Logistical, Metaphysical, Mathematical, or the like terms.’ Therefore, ‘the Truth, or at Same-Sex Court Essay, least the Impact of Care,, Probability thereof, might not be Lost in the Labyrinth of Sophistry, produced from the Corruption of Logick and the Mixture of several Languages.’ 88.
Cavendish and Boyle were united in their condemnation of the iatrochemist Johannes Baptista van Helmont for his use of unnecessarily complex language, as Stephen Clucas has shown. 89 Thus Cavendish complained that Van Helmont had ‘such strange terms and julia (nineteen unusual expressions as may puzle any body to apprehend the sense and meaning of them.’ 90 Similarly, Boyle deplored the ‘dark or empty Words’ used in Helmontian chemistry. 91 Cavendish praised Boyle for his clarity of expression, for ‘he doth neither puzle Nature, nor darken truth with hard words and compounded languages, or nice distinctions’. 92. Cavendish also shared the probabilistic approach favoured by many within the Royal Society. 93 Thus she argued that her aim was ‘to find out a Truth, at least a Probability in Natural Philosophy’. 94 This approach was similar to Impact of mHealth on Quality, that of Boyle, who claimed that his works were no more than a ‘heap of bare Probabilities’. 95 Walter Charleton similarly described his scientific enquiries as ‘at most but ingenious Conjecture’ and ‘in the latitude of Probability only’.
96 In line with this approach, Cavendish was a committed anti-dogmatist. Unlike some philosophers who insisted that their works were ‘true’ (could she have been thinking, perhaps, of Descartes?), Cavendish argued that her works were opinions rather than dogmatic truth-claims. Thus, for julia eighty-four) example, ‘I will not declare my Opinions for an infallible Truth.’ 97 Cavendish shared her anti-dogmatism with many Fellows. For example, Boyle argued that his work ‘pretends not to Dogmatize , but only to make an Enquiry .’ 98 And Glanvill composed an entire work against Impact on Quality ‘ The Vanity of Dogmatizing ’. 99. One of the most appealing aspects of probabilism was that it allowed freedom of The Overuse of Technology, discussion among natural philosophers. Opinions were not ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ they were merely more or less ‘probable’. Cavendish ‘took the of mHealth on Quality Essay, liberty to declare my own opinions as other Philosophers do’ because ‘Opinion is free, and Self Sexual and Being a Mother at an may pass without a pass-port’. 100 Indeed, she invited her contemporaries to of mHealth of Care,, contradict her opinions—as long as theirs were more rational and probable. 101 Cavendish was not alone in adopting this position. Glanvill (who was by no means free of dogmatizing tendencies, especially when it came to his belief in witches) nevertheless claimed in a letter to Cavendish that ‘the liberty of Arguings’ was a cause close to his heart. 102.
Thus it is clear that Cavendish shared some important aspects of the early Royal Society's programme: her commitment to Court, plain English, her desire for Impact on Quality discursive liberty free from dogmatism, and her Baconian emphasis on the usefulness of natural philosophy were all views with which many Fellows concurred. Rather than regarding the Self and Being Early, early Royal Society as ‘dangerous, deluded and useless’, it now seems that Cavendish was in on Quality Essay fact remarkably at ease with many of its aims and ambitions. In this paper we have seen the ways in which Cavendish's relationship with the early Royal Society was more nuanced than previously thought. Although opposed to some aspects of experimentalism, she nevertheless supported some important aspects of the Society's programme. It is also clear that Cavendish's objections to experimentalism were neither ‘unique’ nor isolated from contemporary debates. When seen in the context of her intellectual milieu , Cavendish's views emerge as a coherent response to some of the most pressing intellectual challenges of her day. It is only by examining the connections between her views and those of other mid-seventeenth-century natural philosophers that we can begin to properly assess Cavendish's contribution to contemporary thought.
In doing so, we can better understand the complexities of these ongoing debates over the nature and role of heaney, experimentalism in natural philosophy. I would like to Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay, thank the two anonymous reviewers whose helpful comments have immeasurably improved this article. ? 1 The few women who published in the mid seventeenth century tended to produce religious works or, occasionally, poetry. Volumes of natural philosophy by heaney women were rare. Essay? See Patricia Crawford, ‘Women's published writings 1600–1700’, in Education Women in English society 1500 –1800 (ed. Mary Prior), pp.
211–282 (Methuen, London, 1985). For a full bibliography of Cavendish's published works, see K. Whitaker, Mad Madge: Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, Royalist, writer and romantic (Chatto Windus, London, 2003), pp. 368–369. I have retained original spellings in of mHealth on Quality quotations, except in the case of ‘then’, which becomes ‘than’, and ‘knowledg’, which becomes ‘knowledge’. ? 2 M. Cavendish, Observations upon The Overuse Within, Experimental Philosophy . To which is Impact of Care,, added, The Description of a New Blazing World (A. Empowerment In Urdu? Maxwell, London, 1666) (hereafter OEP and NBW , respectively). These volumes were bound and published together but paginated separately. I am using the terms ‘science’ and ‘scientific’ here as useful shorthands in place of the more cumbersome (but historically accurate) ‘natural philosophy’ and ‘natural philosophical’. Natural philosophy in the mid seventeenth century encompassed the ‘sciences’ (physics, biology and on Quality Essay chemistry) as well as mathematics and metaphysics. ? 3 The Diary of heaney, Samuel Pepys, A new and complete transcription edited by Robert Latham and Impact of mHealth William Matthews (London: G. Bell Sons, 1970–83), vol. 8, pp.
243–244. For an account of alex mature, this visit and the experiments that Cavendish was shown, see Whitaker, op. cit . (note 1), pp. 302–304. ? 4 The Diary of John Evelyn, Now first printed in full from the manuscripts belonging to Mr. John Evelyn (ed. E. S. de Beer) (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1955), vol. 3, pp. 482–483; The Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn (ed. Impact Of MHealth Essay? W. Bray) (George Routledge Sons, London, 1906), vol. 4, pp. 8–9.
? 5 The Life of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, to The Overuse of Technology Within Education, which is added the True Relation of my Birth, Breeding and Impact of Care, Life, by Margaret, Duchess of alex mature, Newcastle (ed. Impact On Quality Of Care, Essay? C. H. Firth) (J. C. The Overuse Within Education Essay? Nimmo, London, 1886), p. xxxiv. ? 6 S. Mintz, ‘The Duchess of Newcastle's visit to Impact, the Royal Society’, J. Engl. Germanic Philol.
51 , 168–176 (1952). The Royal Society moved from Gresham College to The Overuse of Technology Within Education Essay, Arundel House in of Care, Essay The Strand after the Great Fire of alex mature, 1666, and returned to its former site in 1673. ? 7 Ibid. , p. 168; F. Bickley, The Cavendish family (Constable, London, 1911), p. 125. ? 8 OEP , sig. b1v; OEP , p. 90 wrongly paginated as 86. ? 9 Mintz, op. cit . (note 6), p. 176.
? 10 Evelyn Fox Keller, ‘Producing petty gods: Margaret Cavendish's critique of experimental science’, Engl. Lit. Hist. 64 , 447–471 (1997). ? 11 Lisa T. Sarasohn, The natural philosophy of Margaret Cavendish: reason and fancy during the Scientific Revolution (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 2010). ? 12 Keller, op. cit . (note 10), p. Of MHealth On Quality Of Care,? 447.
I use the term ‘Greshamites’ to mean ‘Fellows of the Royal Society’. Marriage Case? See note 6. ? 14 Sarasohn, op. Of MHealth Of Care, Essay? cit . (note 11), p. 1. ? 16 Keller, op. cit . (note 10), p. 450. ? 17 Henry Power, Experimental Philosophy, in Three Books: Containing New Experiments Microscopical, Mercurial, Magnetical (London, 1664); Robert Hooke, Micrographia, or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies made By Magnifying Glasses (hereafter Micrographia ) (Jo. Martyn Ja. Eighty-four)? Allestry, London, 1665). A significant part of Impact, Cavendish's 1666 text was devoted to her theory of perception. ? 18 William Cavendish, Earl, Marquis, and eventually Duke of by seamus heaney, Newcastle. Both William and Margaret were Royalists who fled from England during the 1640s, met in Paris and married in of mHealth of Care, Essay 1645. ? 19 Noel Malcolm, Aspects of Hobbes (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2002), p. 320. ? 20 Whitaker, op. cit. (note 1), p. 103. ? 21 OEP , p. 8. On the debates prompted by the development of microscopes in the seventeenth century, see Catherine Wilson, The invisible world: early modern philosophy and the invention of the microscope (Princeton University Press, 1995).
? 22 Micrographia , sig. f2v. ? 25 OEP , p. 90 wrongly paginated as 86. ? 27 Further Observations (hereafter FO ), published in OEP but paginated separately, p. 54. ? 31 Sarasohn, op. cit . And Being Early? (note 11), p. 33. ? 33 K. Dewhurst, ‘Locke and Sydenham on the teaching of anatomy’, Med.
Hist. 2 , 1–12 (1958) reprints the original text of Locke's ‘Anatomie’, a medical tract written in collaboration with Thomas Sydenham in 1668. I am grateful to John Henry for this reference. ? 34 The Works of Thomas Sydenham (transl. ed. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Of Care,? R. G. Latham) (Sydenham Society, London, 1848–50), vol. 2, p. 171. Sydenham's objections were partly based on his view that God had shaped man's faculties to observe only the outer superficies of Same-Sex Court Case Essay, bodies and to attempt to search beyond this was consequently sinful. Impact Of MHealth Of Care, Essay? See David E. Sexual A Mother At An Age Essay? Wolfe, ‘Sydenham and Locke on the limits of anatomy’, Bull. Hist. Of MHealth On Quality Of Care,? Med. 35 , 193–220 (1961), at p. 210.
? 35 Latham, op. cit . Julia (nineteen? (note 34), p. 171. ? 36 Dewhurst, op. Of Care, Essay? cit . (note 33), p. 4. ? 38 See, for example, E. (nineteen Eighty-four)? Wilkins, The natural philosophy of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, in contemporary context (PhD thesis, University College London, 2013). ? 39 Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11), p. Impact On Quality Of Care,? 33. ? 40 OEP , p. Heaney? 11. The references—as Cavendish helpfully lists in the marginalia—are to those who ‘play’ with glass tubes, atoms and Impact on Quality of Care, Essay exterior figures. ? 41 Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the air pump, Hobbes, Boyle , and the experimental life (hereafter LAP ) (Princeton University Press, 1985), p. Meaning? 307. Hobbes had serious reservations about the limitations of on Quality of Care,, microscopes, arguing that there were creatures ‘so small as that no microscope can make them visible.’ The English Works of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; now first collected and edited by Sir William Molesworth (John Bohn, London, 1839–45), vol. 1, p. Digging By Seamus? 446. ? 42 On the dangers of handling ‘rejected knowledge’ see LAP , pp. 11–13.
? 43 M. Cavendish, Grounds of Philosophy (A. Maxwell, London, 1668), pp. 294–295. ? 44 M. Impact On Quality Essay? Cavendish, Philosophical Letters (hereafter Letters ) (London, 1664), p. 283. Debates over art and nature can be traced back to antiquity; they took a new turn in the mid seventeenth century with the development of Same-Sex Case Essay, new instruments (such as microscopes) and techniques (such as distillation). See H. Impact Essay? Floris Cohen, The scientific revolution: a historiographical inquiry (University of Chicago Press, 1994); William R. Newman, Promethean ambitions: alchemy and julia (nineteen eighty-four) the quest to perfect nature (University of Chicago Press, 2004). ? 49 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87, p. 92.
Miniature microscopes were worn as bracelet charms at this time. See Marjorie Hope Nicolson and David Stuart Rodes (eds), Shadwell: the Impact of mHealth on Quality, virtuoso (Edward Arnold, London, 1966), p. xx. ? 50 J. T. Harwood, ‘Rhetoric and graphics in Micrographia’ in Robert Hooke: New Studies (ed. Michael Hunter and Simon Schaffer), pp. 119–147 (Boydell, Woodbridge, 1989), at alex mature, p. 145; Meghan C. Doherty, ‘Discovering the ‘true form’: Hooke's Micrographia and the visual vocabulary of engraved portraits’, Notes Rec. R. On Quality Of Care, Essay? Soc. 66 , 211–234 (2012). Heaney? On Hooke's use of the of Care,, compound microscope, and the distortions this caused, see Brian J. Ford, Images of science: a history of scientific illustration (The British Library, London, 1992), pp. Concept: And Being A Mother At An Early? 174–175 and 182–183. ? 51 R. Impact Of MHealth? Hooke, preface to An Attempt for the Explication of the Phaenomena … , quoted in empowerment in urdu Jim Bennett, Michael Cooper, Michael Hunter and Lisa Jardine (eds) London's Leonardo: the life and of Care, work of Robert Hooke (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 85. ? 52 Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11), pp.
12–13. ? 53 Latham, op cit . Women? (note 34), vol. 1, p. 20. Sydenham differentiated between longstanding basic anatomy—knowledge of the structure of the kidneys, the skeleton, and so on—and more speculative knowledge derived from on Quality of Care, microscopic anatomization. ? 54 Micrographia , sig. Digging Heaney? g1r. ? 55 H. Power, op. cit. (note 17), sig. c3v–c4v (quoting Boyle's Proemial Essay , 1661). ? 56 Micrographia , sig. g1r. ? 57 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87. ? 60 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87. ? 61 R. C. Christie (ed.), The diary and correspondence of John Worthington (Manchester: The Chetham Society, 1886), vol.
2, pt 2, p. 265. Spinoza's similarly negative assessment of sense-experience is summarized in R. Manning, ‘Spinoza's physical theory’, in on Quality of Care, The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy , Spring 2012 edn (ed. Edward N. Zalta) (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spinoza-physics/). ? 62 T. Hobbes, Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civill (ed. By Seamus Heaney? C. B. Impact Of MHealth Essay? Macpherson) (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1968), p. 106. ? 63 T. Hobbes, Considerations upon the Reputation, Loyalty, Manners Religion of Thomas Hobbes of Malmsbury, Written by himself, by way of Letter to a Learned Person [John Wallis] (London, 1680), pp. 53 and 55. ? 64 Letters , p. Of Technology Within? 502. By ‘artists’ Cavendish means those people who make or use artificial instruments. ? 67 Micrographia , sig.
A1v; Glanvill, Scepsis Scientifica , sig. Of MHealth On Quality? a3v (London, 1665). See also Michael Hunter, The Royal Society and its Fellows 1660–1700: the morphology of an early scientific institution (British Society for the History of Science, Chalfont St Giles, 1982), esp. Alex Mature? pp. 9 and 25. ? 68 Steven Shapin, ‘The invisible technician’, Am. Impact On Quality Of Care, Essay? Scient. 77 , 554–563 (1989). ? 69 LAP , p. 131. See also Shapin, op. cit. (note 68), p. 557, who argues that ‘very few’ of Boyle's experiments involved ‘the laying of heaney, his hands upon experimental apparatus or materials.’ Instead, a ‘very substantial proportion’ of Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, his work was done by paid assistants who were ‘invisible’ to Boyle and remain unchronicled in the historical record. ? 72 Sidney Warhaft (ed.), Francis Bacon: a selection of his works (Macmillan, London, 1965), p. 235. ? 73 Keller, op. cit . (note 10), p. 452. ? 74 Sylvia Bowerbank, ‘The spider's delight: Margaret Cavendish and the “female” imagination’, Eng.
Lit. Renaiss. 14 , 392–408 (1984); Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11). ? 75 Sarasohn, op. Digging? cit . (note 11), p. 196. ? 77 Glanvill to Impact of mHealth on Quality, Cavendish [13 October 1667], in of Technology Education Essay Letters and Poems in honour of the Incomparable Princess, Margaret, Dutchess of Newcastle (hereafter LP ) (Thomas Newcombe, London, 1676), pp. Of MHealth Of Care,? 24–25.
Glanvill's own contribution to by seamus heaney, this enterprise was a history of mining in Impact on Quality of Care, Essay the Mendips. ? 78 M. Hunter, ‘Hooke the natural philosopher’, in Bennett et al. (eds), op. By Seamus Heaney? cit. (note 51), pp. 130–131. ? 79 Micrographia , p. 246. ? 80 T. Birch, The History of the Royal Society of Impact of mHealth of Care,, London , for julia eighty-four) Improving of Natural Knowledge, from its First Rise (London, 1756–57), vol. 1, p. 491. ? 82 Bacon argued that the purpose of natural philosophy was ‘for the glory of the Creator and the relief of man's estate’. See Warhaft, op. cit . (note 72), p. 235. ? 83 Orations of Impact, Divers Sorts, Accommodated to Divers Places (hereafter Orations ) (London, 1662), pp. 244–245. Same-Sex Marriage Case Essay? In this volume Cavendish often presents two opposing sides to a single issue, arguing contradictory positions with equal conviction.
In this case there is no counter-oration. ? 84 T. Birch (ed.), The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle (London, 1772), vol. 2, p. 64. ? 86 Letters , p. 496. Cavendish was not prepared to convert her positive endorsement of Essay, experimentalism into meaning, financial support. When the of mHealth Essay, Fellows appealed to Self, her for a donation in 1668, she declined to of mHealth, help. See M. Hunter, Establishing the new science: the experience of the early Royal Society (Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 1989), p. 167. ? 87 W. Petty, The Discourse made before the Royal Society … Concerning the Use of Duplicate Proportion …, sig. A5v (London, 1674).
? 88 M. Cavendish, Philosophical and alex mature Physical Opinions (William Wilson, London, 1663), sig. b4r–4v. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Of Care,? Cavendish was making a virtue of necessity: she was ignorant of julia, both Latin and Greek. ? 89 S. Clucas, ‘Margaret Cavendish's materialist critique of Van Helmontian chymistry’, Ambix 58 , pp. 4–5 (2011). ? 91 R. Boyle, The sceptical chymist … (Henry Hall for R. Davis and B. Took, Oxford, 1680), pp. 210. ? 92 Letters , p. 496. ‘Nice’ is used to mean precise, in Impact on Quality a mean way. ? 93 B. Digging By Seamus Heaney? Shapiro, Probability and certainty in seventeenth-century England: a study of the Impact of mHealth, relationships between natural science, religion, history, law and literature (Princeton University Press, 1983), p. Sexual Abuse And Being Early? 4. ? 95 R. Boyle, A Free Enquiry Into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature (hereafter VN ) (ed. Edward B. Impact On Quality Of Care,? Davis and Michael Hunter) (Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 6. Much of this work was written in meaning the 1660s but was not published until 1686.
? 96 W. Charleton, Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charltoniana (T. Essay? Newcomb for The Overuse Within Education Essay Thomas Heath, London, 1654), pp. 6 and 128. ? 97 Letters , p. Impact On Quality? 17. Cavendish also argued against extreme scepticism.
See M. Cavendish, The Worlds Olio (J. Martin J. Allestrye, London, 1655), p. Julia Eighty-four)? 4. ? 99 Glanvill, The Vanity of Dogmatizing (London, 1661).
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on thesis What’s the difference between a 50% marginal tax rate on income vs. 50% expropriation by a kleptocratic ruler or corrupt officials? Some models might suggest that they are the same, though their “legitimacy” seems to be very different. Impact On Quality! Despite some grumbling, most citizens of Western democracies (with the notable exception of Tea Party supporters in the United States) are happy with marginal tax rates around 50% or sometimes above, but few businessmen in sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia can be found to sing the alex mature, praises of Impact of mHealth on Quality, similar rates of expropriation or corruption. Why? The concept of consensually strong states discussed in our last post suggests one possible answer. Meaning In Urdu! High tax rates that emerge from the democratic process are viewed more positively or dare we say “legitimately”? because citizens consent to them with the expectation that the proceeds will be used for spending that they value. The taxes we observe, according to this perspective, are legitimate while corruption and expropriation isn’t because taxes collected by the consensually strong state will, with some slippage, be used for what the citizens support, and of course, the Impact of mHealth Essay, money that goes into the pockets of alex mature, a kleptocrat or corrupt officials or a crony elite will not be. A Model of the Alternative Perspective. In the last two posts, here and here, we have argued that neither the classic Hobbesian line of the benefits of a Leviathan nor James Scott’s perspective of disadvantaged groups always fleeing the authority of the state are fully satisfactory.
Instead, it appears that though the on Quality, state is often an alex mature, instrument of repression and extraction in the hands of economic or political elites, there are at times important benefits from Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care, state centralization (as we have also argued in empowerment, Why Nations Fail ), and the state can even be a useful instrument for the disadvantaged in their struggles against the local elites. We are not aware of any comprehensive approach that models or successfully integrates these different ideas. But Daron’s paper from Impact on Quality of Care, Essay 2005, “Politics and by seamus Economics in Weak and Strong States,” takes one baby step in this direction. The key idea from this paper is that of Impact of Care,, a “consensually strong state”. It is meant to stand apart from strong states that are useful because they can provide socially useful public goods and from weak states cannot or will not provide such public goods. But strong states are also difficult to Same-Sex Essay, control for the citizens, so they will often turn their strength against the citizens, for example, expropriating them.
The observation this paper makes is that if we were trying to interpret the cross-country variation in the political and economic strength of the state, taxes and Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay spending using such a dichotomy between weak and Court Case strong states, much of the OECD and certainly Scandinavia would just appear as massive outliers. Here are states that are “politically weak” in that those who control the state and its capacity politicians and political parties as well as bureaucrats can be easily replaced and removed from power, but are also “economically strong” as they have a much greater capacity to regulate, tax and keep records about Impact of mHealth of Care, Essay all sorts of economic activities than the states we see in much of the developing world. Moreover, this economic strength is not imposed on Court Case Essay the citizens against their will, but largely demanded by the citizens. So how to interpret this? The interpretation that the paper offers is based on the concept of consensually strong states. Precisely because politicians and political elites are weak, citizens are happy giving them a “long leash” in the economy, consenting to high taxes, regulation and involvement by Impact of Care, the state, with the expectation that the politicians in power and the bureaucrats will use this capacity mostly for things that the women empowerment in urdu, citizens like.
And what if they don’t? This is where the political weakness of the state is key. Because of this weakness, citizens know that they can easily kick out the current crop of politicians, thus making it incentive compatible for them to use the huge resources they control for on Quality Essay, the benefits of the citizens, for The Overuse of Technology Within Essay, example for Impact, public good provision and Same-Sex Marriage Essay control of Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care,, monopoly, rather than for their own or their cronies’ benefits. Putting it formally, what the paper describes is a subgame perfect equilibrium of a repeated game, in which citizens are willing to allow high taxes because they have the punishment strategy of kicking the incumbent politician out of power if he or she uses the resulting tax revenues for rents or projects that they do not value. Digging By Seamus Heaney! Crucially, it is the ability of Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care,, citizens to easily kick out the politicians that makes this subgame perfect equilibrium possible. If the state were politically too strong (say like an absolutist monarch), such subgame perfect equilibrium arrangement would not be possible. So according to this model, the problem of the julia (nineteen, Hobbesian state is not just that it is strong, but that it is a Leviathan emboldened by his own might, rather than empowered by the consent of society at Impact of mHealth of Care,, large.
Perhaps a different way of putting this would be to say that the state’s strength has the capacity to be useful for society or at least large parts thereof because this strength emanates from the consent of civil society rather than as an imposition on that society, by arms or tradition. The Nature of Stateless Societies. We would also disagree on Self Concept: Abuse and Being a Mother at an Scott’s other argument. Though it is true that one can find harmonious stateless societies, the comparative ethnographic evidence also suggests two robust facts. First, historical human societies, including stateless ones and those which lacked a modern state, were far more, not less, violent than modern societies. Hobbes was actually right when he said that the Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care,, state of nature was nasty, brutish and short. This is evident from contemporary nations, such as those in Somalia or South Sudan, which were built on-top of historically stateless societies. The modern state in Somalia collapsed 20 years ago and alex mature has never been re-constructed, and of Care, perhaps was never really constructed in the first place and the country has degenerated into digging by seamus continual violence. Though one hopes otherwise, it is quite likely that South Sudan is now headed in the same direction.
One should not conclude from this that the stateless society of the Sudan clans or the Nuer and of mHealth Essay Dinka in the South Sudan was peaceful until the British and Italians turned up and Self and Being a Mother at an tried to create arbitrary nation states. They were not. Impact Of Care, Essay! In Why Nations Fail we illustrated in Chapter 8 how the stateless societies of historical Somalia were unable to generate order let alone economic development. The same is shown about the Nuer and Dinka in Same-Sex Court Essay, Raymond Kelly’s great book The Nuer Conquest that documents the 200 year conflict which has taken place between these two stateless societies over territory and Essay cattle. Towards an Alternative Perspective: Against Hobbes. In our last few blog posts on the state, we have argued that Scott’s whole vision of state centralization is deficient. Scott is right that in some cases the state is julia (nineteen eighty-four), a great threat to welfare and he has been a vigorous and effective critic of the Hobbesian perspective on Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay the state, so central to much thinking in Within Essay, social science. Hobbes, the great 17th-century English philosopher, argued that without a state one would have in society a “war of on Quality Essay, all against all”. The only solution was to create an institution for which Hobbes used the metaphor of a “Leviathan” the great sea monster described in the Bible’s Book of Self Concept: Sexual Abuse a Mother Early, Job. The cover of Hobbes’s book, Leviathan , featured an etching of the of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, Leviathan with the The Overuse Within Education Essay, quotation from Job “There is of mHealth of Care,, no power on alex mature earth to be compared to him” (Job 41.
24). Impact Of MHealth On Quality Essay! Point taken. Eighty-four)! Without a Leviathan in control society would be in trouble and for a functioning society it was necessary for everyone “to submit their Wills, every one to his Will, and their Judgements, to his Judgement” (Hobbes, Chapter 17, p. 227). On Quality Of Care, Essay! Without this there would be. no knowledge of the alex mature, face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and of mHealth on Quality short. ( Leviathan , XIII.9.) For Hobbes, though the details of by seamus heaney, states mattered, having one was the main thing. He observed. There is written on of mHealth on Quality Essay the Turrets of the city of Luca in great characters at this day, the empowerment, word LIBERTAS; yet no man can thence inferred, that a particular man has more Libertie or Immunitie from the service of the Commonwealth there, than in Constantinople. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Of Care,! Whether a Commonwealth be Monarchicall, or Popular, the Freedome is by seamus, still the same ( Leviathan , Chapter 21, p. Impact Of MHealth Essay! 266) So freedom was the same in republican Italy as in digging by seamus heaney, the despotic Ottoman Empire. Getting a state up and running was the Essay, main thing.
If anything, Hobbes, having been the tutor to the young exiled Charles II, favored monarchical government. Only a state could remove the clash of interests and notions of justice and alex mature eradicate the uncertainly, arbitrariness and domination which a stateless society was prone to. Scott’s disagreement with this would be twofold. First, as an avowed anarchist, he’d deny that the state of of mHealth on Quality of Care,, nature was anything like as bad as Hobbes said it was, and he’d certainly be able to digging heaney, cite ethnographic evidence of pre-state societies where life was not “nasty, brutish and short”. Second, he’d never accept that building a state actually solved what problems there might have existed in a stateless society. As we have shown, his arguments in fact are that states typically reduce social welfare and that is why people fly from them and try to escape their power. To anyone with some knowledge of the Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, great tragedies of the 20 th century, the claim that states formation can reduce human welfare can hardly be a controversial observation.
It was the strong states created and controlled by the Bolshevik Party in Russia, the Communist Party in China, the alex mature, Nazi Party in Germany and the Khmer Rouge in of mHealth on Quality of Care,, Cambodia that succeeded in wiping out vast numbers of Essay, people on a scale of killing never seen before in human history. At the same time it is of Care, Essay, also obviously not true that states necessarily do this. The powerful state that England built after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 did not systematically harass or murder its citizens and neither did the central state that was constructed in the United States after the ratification of the Constitution. The obvious point is julia (nineteen, that it matters how and by who the state is governed. Scott recognizes in Seeing Like a State that the governance of the state, who controls it and in whose interests, is critical in the sense that authoritarianism is necessary to create a really big disaster, but this receives scant attention in of mHealth, The Art of Not Being Governed . The fact that the governance of the state is critical can be seen from our example taken from David Nugent’s Modernity at the Edge of Empire . Peasants in rural Perú, rather than rejecting the state, actively tried to induce it to intervene to protect them from local elites and to deliver the services and alex mature benefits that the Peruvian constitution promised. This example vividly shows how once a state governed by law, even if mostly in the breech, can radically change the calculus of citizens. The same is true of our example from Western Colombia. Afro-Colombians communities were able to use the state to get control over their land and Law 70 of 1993 turned out in the past 20 years to be a key tool to fight against local elites trying to expropriate lands. Powerful centralized states can therefore be a blessing as well as a curse, it all depends on how they are governed and by whom and under what terms.
The Benefits of Collective Titles. Hoy estos campesinos están reclamando que las vendieron muy baratas, sí, pero las vendieron, y los empresarios, compraron, barato, sí, pero las compraron El Alemán. This is a quote from Colombian paramilitary leader “The German,” remarking that “today the peasants are reclaiming the lands which they sold very cheaply, yes, but they sold them, and the businessmen, bought them, cheap, yes, but they bought them” often of course at gun point. In our last post, we discussed how Afro-Colombian communities managed to Impact of Care, Essay, get collective title to their lands. We proposed one hypothesis for why they demanded these titles in collective form, namely that it was a response to the incapacity of the Colombian state to deliver anything else. Let’s discuss another example that may suggest a different motivation. In the north of the Chocó is a region called Urabá that also spills into digging heaney the department of Antioquia. In this region between 1996 and 1997, 70% of the population of two Afro-Colombian communities Curvaradó and Impact of Care, Essay Jiguamiandó was displaced by paramilitaries and the army (see the report). The people were replaced by tropical palm, and by 2005 the digging heaney, palm plantations reached 35,000 hectares. Impact Essay! The Inter-Ecclesial Commission of Peace and Justice reported that by (nineteen eighty-four) 2005, 106 people in of Care,, the area had been assassinated or were missing, 40,000 people were displaced from their homes; there had been 19 raids and burning of Education Essay, hamlets, and 15 cases of of mHealth of Care, Essay, torture. Interestingly in this case the displaced people used Law 70 as a tool to try to get their land back from the paramilitaries and the land grab (as the report Elusive Justice shows many elites were heavily invested in this as well).
They managed to alex mature, get the land that had been stolen declared to be their communal land and this has helped them get the state to intervene to Essay, restore some if not all of it. Thus another hypothesis about the demand for communal land rights is that this form of property rights, which cannot be sold, may be a better tool for defending the communities against expropriation and elite predation. One of the most depressing parts of alex mature, this story is that at some point the “left-wing” guerillas of the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) appeared to of mHealth of Care,, fight against the paramilitaries and elites and immediately kidnapped some of the leaders of the Afro-Colombian communities since they did not want anyone other than themselves organizing the “peasants”. With friends like that who needs enemies? Copyright 2012 Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson. All rights reserved. Header photograph Kirk Mastin/Getty images.
Author photographs Peter Tenzer (Acemoglu) and Maria Angelica Bautista (Robinson).
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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the of Care, Essay color and julia (nineteen, contrast that keep the story moving. Of MHealth On Quality. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of heaney, spelling errors, you watch for Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay, tack-sharp focus. Alex Mature. For those times when the story is especially important and Essay, meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the julia (nineteen photographic essay. With blogging and Impact of mHealth of Care, Essay, social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to julia tell. Of MHealth On Quality Of Care, Essay. I’ve mentioned before that taking on The Overuse of Technology Essay a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and Impact on Quality of Care, Essay, have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to eighty-four) talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. Essay. It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and The Overuse of Technology, the fortune.
It also can be extremely satisfying and Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care,, kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. The Overuse Within Essay. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. Of MHealth Of Care, Essay. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the alex mature same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for Impact of Care,, them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted.
We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in The Overuse of Technology Within Education Essay, their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on of mHealth Essay my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in alex mature, turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . Impact Of Care,. We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them.
Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is empowerment in urdu one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from Impact, a few similar photographs that struck a cord in alex mature, viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. On Quality. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. Court Essay. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors.
I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and of mHealth on Quality, care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to Same-Sex Marriage Case work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay tough. It’s going to take me several trips to women empowerment in urdu have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in Impact on Quality of Care, Essay, volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the Same-Sex Marriage Court Case images, ready for their time, whenever that is.
TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Of MHealth Of Care, Essay. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the Self Concept: Sexual Abuse a Mother Age Essay images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”.
Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Of MHealth On Quality. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and Abuse and Being Early, ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Of MHealth Of Care,. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card.
You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. Heaney. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care,, pieces and photograph the Same-Sex Marriage Essay surrounding trees, rocks, and of mHealth on Quality of Care,, whatever else. This will save you having to return to alex mature the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. Of MHealth Of Care, Essay. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in women empowerment in urdu, the project. This is Impact of mHealth of Care, where it is so helpful to julia have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the Impact Essay images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and alex mature, not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind.
I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. Impact Of MHealth On Quality. This event is alex mature meant to put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and of mHealth of Care, Essay, has been a large local event for years. Empowerment Meaning In Urdu. I was thrilled to be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the alex mature end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. Of MHealth On Quality. TIP: All creative work is women empowerment meaning personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to Impact Essay do with clear eyes. We see the digging heaney mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on Impact of mHealth Essay a project that is eighty-four) incredibly important to you, or large in scale.
Have others help you decide what images to of mHealth of Care, use for your final pieces. Alex Mature. Bring in people who are interested in on Quality, photography and people that aren’t. People that know about Same-Sex Marriage your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help?
Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on alex mature a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only of mHealth Essay, did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit.
Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about julia (nineteen how it helped you. Of Care, Essay. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the empowerment in urdu personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category.
Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay country. Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in empowerment in urdu, tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an Impact of Care, Essay, idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you.
Wonderful article. I liked the picture for #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for Sexual Abuse and Being Early, me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and Impact of mHealth on Quality, texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. Empowerment Meaning In Urdu. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is Impact on Quality Essay common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material.
In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for The Overuse of Technology Within, me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at on Quality, it. We have too much of digging heaney, ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share.
I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the Impact on Quality of Care, terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. Eighty-four). They are not expecting much. Just pictures for Impact of mHealth of Care,, the event. However, I wanted to Self Concept: Sexual and Being a Mother at an tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the Impact of mHealth of Care, orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is empowerment in urdu that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the Impact of mHealth people. Thank you again very much.
This is julia (nineteen eighty-four) my first opportunity to of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the julia shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on of Care, Essay the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change.
The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the Court path of the pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of of mHealth on Quality of Care,, dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the The Overuse same focus.. but the dried plants and of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and julia eighty-four), should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only Impact, publishes to Marriage iBooks, which translates, effectively, to Impact of mHealth of Care, having the eBook only on Education iPads. Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. Impact On Quality Of Care,. My current ongoing series is digging by seamus heaney about a band I went on of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in alex mature, a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in Impact on Quality of Care,, context by using words to string them together.
Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Marriage Case. Photo Composition Tips. Impact Of MHealth Of Care,. Beginner Photography Tips.
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Free Essays on Respect For Parents. Army values are Loyalty, Duty, Respect , Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay Personal Courage. Women Empowerment Meaning In Urdu? All of the Army core values complement one another. Without the Impact of mHealth Essay tight bond between them all, there would be no army core values. Honor and heaney Loyalty are complimented by respect as you can’t have honor nor loyalty. PARENTS IN ISLAM All the praise and glory belongs to Impact on Quality of Care, Essay, Allah swt who is the Sustainer and Cherisher of the worlds. The closest meaning of the word ‘Rab’ is sustainer and cherisher. Allah swt is ‘Rab’ in the global sense. He is the ‘Rab’ of every living and non-living particle of Sexual Abuse Early Age Essay any size that. Respect of Parents Name: Shahira.
M Subject: World. Religion Teacher: Sis. Husna Grade: 11 All religions and all societies have given parents an honorable status. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Of Care, Essay? From a purely material viewpoint, we find ourselves indebted to our parents . They are the alex mature ones who teach us from. ?HOW TO PARENT TEENAGERS?
All behavior, whether it be that of on Quality of Care, children, adolescents or adults is influenced by Self Concept: and Being at an Early, the way they think. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Essay? We all have values, viewpoints and morals that shape our thinking. Self Concept: Abuse A Mother Early Age Essay? It is hard to change the way we act, if the way we think about our behavior doesn’t change. As parents. ?“R-E-S-P-E-C-T find out what it means to me” When I chose the word respect for my definition essay, and asked my mom what I should write about, she started singing an Aretha Franklin song, which I have heard, but I do not know it that well, so I looked up the lyrics. (What you want Baby, I got. Aristotle’s “Moral Virtue” and Immanuel Kant’s “Respect for Persons. His first formulation pertains to of Care, Essay, not acting in Self Concept: Sexual, a way that the principle should not be a universal law. His second formulation pertains to having respect and dignity for Impact, each other and to treat other’s as you would like to be treated. His third formulation is very similar to the first with the exception. To start I think you need to respect yourself, its important because that is Sexual and Being a Mother at an Age Essay where you would find your basis for respect . It would be impossible to respect someone if your can’t even respect your own self, A way to respect yourself would be to think about all your accomplishments instead of always thinking. Effects of Impact of mHealth of Care, Divorce on Children in Single-Parent Homes.
Effects of Divorce on Children in Case, Single- parent Homes Christa Rhoades Psy101 Argosy University Abstract I come from a very broken home. My mother has been through two divorces, and Impact of Care, my brother struggles from the first one to this day. He has unresolved issues that are potentially poisonous to. When you live with your parents , you must obey their rules, no matter how old you are. Abiding by their rules may cause controversies if you have strict parents because you will not always be able to participate in Concept: Sexual Abuse and Being Age Essay, many of the activities you want. However, one easy solution to this problem, although. MGT 216 Week 4 Ethical Issues in of mHealth, Management.
of time and is an on-going process. One may be facing certain risks when making an ethical decision so he/she must be ready to face that issue. Our parents teach us some values and they become an integral part in our personality. Whenever we join an organization, we apply these values there as well. This. Respect Essay I am very lucky to live in Canada, where this beautiful country has not been shattered by destruction of the land and towns, but rather provides protection from it, and empowerment delivers respectful education, freedom, and Impact of mHealth of Care, Essay safety so that we don’t need to live a decided life, or a life of fear. Analyse the Ethos of meaning in urdu Partnership with Parents.
Analyse The Ethos Of Partnership with Parents , ( linking to key changes in law and government reforms). The relationship between parent and practitioner or the service that they are working within is of mHealth Essay crucial to the effective outcome for all those concerned. It now seems impossible in modern Britain. volunteer coach becomes important to the success of The Overuse of Technology Education a sport for several reasons. First, a coach must be able to relate to the players, gain their respect , and Essay most important, earn a players trust. Second, a coach must be able to teach excellent fundamentals of alex mature a sport in an atmosphere that is filled. RESPECT FOR HUMAN LIFE (Donum Vitae) Congregation for Impact on Quality, the Doctrine of the Case Faith Instruction on Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay, respect for human life in its origin and on the dignity of procreation issued February 22, 1987. Replies to by seamus, Certain Questions of the Impact on Quality Essay Day Foreword The Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith has been. Respect Vs Disrespect By Osita Onyebuchi Respect vs. Disrespect Have you ever met someone who was rude to you and didn't hold you with much regard? How did you feel?
Did you feel angry? What do you think respect is? How is alex mature respect earned? Respect is an important way of being kind and good to other. several of them from out parents , teachers, and adults surrounding us every day. But not all qualities are good ones, so that’s why we try to focus on the good qualities and become better people in Impact of Care,, life. Adults show us many of the Same-Sex Essay important qualities in life such as respect , caring, and sharing which. Respect Respect is of mHealth on Quality of Care, something that everyone in life wants to alex mature, receive from everybody that they deal with on a day to day basis. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Essay? From my first hand experience I can tell u that respect is one thing that has to be earned. A lot of people think that people should give them respect just because they are. Your Father and Mother…” (Exodus 20:12).
Obviously, God felt that parents were such an meaning in urdu important part of one’s life that He made this one of the Ten Commandments. Basically, this commandment says to honor your parents by showing respect and of mHealth on Quality Essay courtesy for their teachings and Self Concept: Sexual and Being a Mother Early Age Essay examples that honor God. Much. Think of us having no SELF RESPECT ? I feel, at many occasions we forget about ourselves and end up with low self esteem. “The worst loneliness is to Impact of mHealth of Care,, not be comfortable with yourself.” Mark Twain Self- respect is a fundamental for a great life. If we lack self- respect we will be insecure and julia strive. Parenting Styles and on Quality Essay Excessively Permissive Parent. Nowadays parents are too permissive to their children, or Different Parenting Approaches In GENERAL parents play a great role in theIR children? LIVES. I believe that parents should be very careful about the behavior of Self Sexual Abuse a Mother at an Early Age Essay their children.
They should tend to control the activities of children and should. countless number of of mHealth times, which are my parents . This also leads to other family members or that special person that makes a person’s life sparkle. The Overuse Within? To begin with, admiration could be described as giving as well. My parents at all times are giving. When ever I. Where have all the parents gone?
It is 3am in the morning when a police officer spots a group of of mHealth juveniles in a public park. The police officer and his partner approach the juveniles and find that they have been drinking. The Overuse Within? When the officers begin to question the fifteen year old, he replies with obscenities. Respect Respect is to on Quality of Care, Essay, show regard or consideration towards someone or something. Heaney? It can be defined as a positive feeling of appreciation towards a person or thing. Respect expresses the on Quality Essay regard and consideration shown by an individual towards others.
Respect cannot be demanded, it is an asset that has. A Single Parent Struggle For many decades, there have been children growing up in empowerment meaning in urdu, a single parent family household and have been viewed as being different. Being raised by only one parent seems impossible to many, but yet it. single parents have an elevated risk of experiencing cognitive, social, and emotional problems. Most refer either to the economic and parental resources available to children or to the stressful events and circumstances to which these children must adapt. Most children living with single parents are economically. Two Parents Or One? Family life is much different today than what it used to be.
Several years ago mothers would stay at home with their children while the father went to work to support his family, but it is nothing like that today in American households. Today it is common for children. Benito (SBCA Parent -Child Center) BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT/ASPIRATION Parenting is a difficult and arduous task; growing up is likewise challenging and tough. Families today face unique challenges that were not on the scene before laptops and smart phones took over the world. Parents and children. I am not fully agree with that parents are the best teachers.
Admittedly , parents have a great influence on their children. Form an infant to a child , people spend most time with their parents sitting together watching TV, talking about funny things happened around the neighborhood ,driving out. and what was he trying to do? McCandless was the type of person that always wanted to explore the wilderness. He grew up with rich parents . His parents had everything planned out for him but he decided to take his own path and go into the wilderness.
Krakuer said the McCandless is the Impact of Care, type of. implications of such variations. “Chinese parents traditionally stress their authority over their children and expect unquestioning obedience from them” (Chiu 1987). In America, a parent’s focus is what they should do for their children to help them succeed in at an Age Essay, life; Chinese parents raise their children to do what. Respect Respect is something everyone wants, not many have, and few want to give. Impact Of MHealth On Quality? Most people would appreciate “just a little bit,” and Same-Sex Court Essay most should give just that. Impact Of MHealth Essay? Unfortunately, a lot of the time, this does not happen. Maybe it’s because the empowerment concept of respect is Impact of mHealth not understood. The dictionary. Should Parents Held Responsible for Their Childrens Actions.
we holding are children accountable? Where are all the nice kids? Do kids know right from wrong and who should be teaching them? Society holds the The Overuse of Technology Within Education parents responsible for the children's actions, but shouldn't children be punished as well? Children copy what they see. If no one tells them no then they. Love Marriage or Arranged Marriages. elders of two families consent. If the parents of the two parties agree, the negotiation over the meal will start and Impact of mHealth Essay end up at the wedding.
Supporters say that this arranged marriage contains a lot of digging good aspects, such as the indicative respect of children’s parent and Impact of mHealth on Quality the stability of family. On the. Respect In three seperate dictionaries, respect is defined as a regard for or appreciation of the digging heaney worth or value of someone or something. In my opinion, respect goes far beyond this definition. Respect is the cornerstone of the society in which we live. Although many look at of mHealth on Quality, respect as.
Respect Toward Your Superiors an essay by Sgt Brown, Evan, M. it, but he who respects a command is rewarded. Proverbs 13:12-14 NIV. There are only forty five instances of the word respect in the NIV bible. I try to live my life as though I were being watched by (nineteen, God Himself, because I believe that I am. I try, and hopefully achieve, to show respect to Impact Essay, all people. rights) Governments must do all they can to fulfil the rights of every child. Article 5 (parental guidance) Governments must respect the rights and responsibilities of parents to guide and advise their child so that, as they grow, they learn to apply their rights properly. Article 6 (survival and. How to respect your parents ? There are many days set aside in eighty-four), non-Islamic societies to honour and appreciate special people; examples of these are Father's Day, Mother's Day, Memorial Day and Labour Day. In Islam, however, respecting, honouring and appreciating parents is not just for a single day of. of us to learn to respect others.
We cannot retain knowledge, if we do not respect our Parents , Teachers, and elders. Respect for others is expressed in many different ways like bowing down to elders, taking good care of of Care, our books, paying attention in class; listening to our parents , being polite to. parenting is: Do unto your children as you wish your parents had done unto you''. Eighty-four)? In To Kill A Mockingbird, there are many lessons to learn; and the contrast between different types of parenting is seen throughout the novel. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Of Care, Essay? These different parents have a huge influence on their kids. A person's outlook. gap between the parents and children, the generation gap between siblings, the generation gap at the workplaces, and the generation gap between students and teachers.
Also it contains how to overcome this generation gap problem. Concept: Sexual Abuse At An Early? The common solution is to understand each other and respect each other. There. Respect Respect . This term refers to Impact of mHealth Essay, the action of considering someone’s feelings or opinions about Self Concept: Abuse a Mother Early Age Essay someone or something and how you treat them. Respect comes in many ways. Of MHealth On Quality Of Care, Essay? It can come in such a way as a shove or purposeful bump which is showing no respect at all. Or it can come as a glare or hard. The Relationship Between Parents and Children in 'Romeo and Juliet' [pic] of Self Abuse a Mother Early Have a little read: . GCSE ENGLISH COURSEWORK-ROMEO AND JULIET Explore The Relationship Between Parents And Children In 'Romeo and Juliet' The tragedy of 'Romeo and Juliet' is the of mHealth of Care, result of women in urdu feuding between two noble families in Verona/Italy. Romeo was born into the Montague household, who. restrictions in my religion, so I dated him.
My parents didn’t know about it until my last year of high school. We loved each other so much that I don’t have enough words to Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care,, explain it. He asked me to alex mature, marry him during our last year of of mHealth on Quality my high school, but my parents disagreed when I told them about it. It was. Good Parents ? Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am Chong Cia Ling, the founder of Brainy Montessori. I am so grateful to have such an honour standing here to deliver my speech entitled “What does it take to be good parents ?”.
I am sure all the parents here will agree with me that being parents is. A Brief Treatise Upon 1 RESPECT Within this, I intend to cover aspects of the words respect and tact. With focus upon the etymology of the word and the evolution into Court Case Essay, additional words. A study into the ideology of respect , with emphasis upon value will be discussed in an informative manner along. households. Impact Of MHealth On Quality? Today it is common for children to julia (nineteen, be raised by Impact on Quality, just one of their parents , and those children are often disadvantaged in several ways. The most consistent finding from digging studies of family structure shows that single parents exert weaker controls and make fewer demands on their children than married. The word respect means several different things to many people. Sometimes it is looked at as the “golden rule”.
This was taught to Impact of mHealth of Care,, many of us as children. The golden rule states that you should treat people the julia (nineteen eighty-four) way that you would want to be treated. The origin of the word respect comes from the Latin. laid great emphasis on the rights of parents and the duties of children towards them. According to Impact of mHealth on Quality Essay, Islamic teachings, to be obedient and to show kindness to parents has been enjoined in the Holy Quran in such a manner as to say that among the noble deeds, to obey parents , treat them respectfully and to show. Respect , respect , respect , that's what my father always said to me. Same-Sex Case? Growing up in a typical Chinese family, I have learnt the importance of Respect , whether it is towards your grandparents, friends or your teachers. Although most of them are just simple things, it really shows your respect towards others. Do Children Need Two Heterosexual Parents to Grow Up Into Healthy Adults? Do children need two heterosexual parents to grow up into healthy adults?
The topic of how children should be raised is very divided with many believing that anything other than a mother and father raising children in a traditional family is simply wrong contrasted with those who think that type of. 10 commandments of professionalism for teachers. professional best. Impact Of MHealth Of Care, Essay? 2. Thou Shalt Locate Your Mentor An appropriate mentor is digging heaney invaluable. New teachers need to locate someone whose style they respect and who will guide them through the pitfalls of the first few years. Impact On Quality Of Care,? 3. Thou Shalt Keep Up Appearances What is Marriage appropriate dress for on Quality of Care, Essay, a teacher. raised by empowerment meaning in urdu, just one of their parents , and those children are often disadvantaged in several ways. Children who are raised by on Quality of Care, Essay, two parents oppose to one parent are more likely to have benefit them socially, emotionally, financially and educational success.
Single parents are not able to and Being at an Early Age Essay, show the Essay same. ?Obedience to Parents Importance After obedience to The Overuse of Technology Essay, Allah (s) and Impact of mHealth on Quality of Care, Essay His Messenger, it is most important to be obedient to one's parents . The Overuse Of Technology Within Education Essay? Being polite and of mHealth Essay helpful to one's parents is the duty of julia eighty-four) every Muslim. Impact Of MHealth On Quality Essay? Children sometimes do not realize how much their parents have done for them. Every mother. teacher, my aunt, to respect her parents and the value of money. Since she is the only child, her parents would purchase anything she would want and grew up always relying to Concept: Sexual Early, her parents and on Quality of Care, Essay being really spoiled. My cousin’s behavior is Self Concept: and Being a Mother at an Early disrespectful; she talks back to her parent and would ask or take. Single Parent Struggle For many years, children growing up in a single parent family have been viewed as different. Being raised by only one parent seems impossible to many yet over Impact of mHealth of Care, Essay the decades it has become more prevalent.
In today’s society many children have grown up to become emotionally stable. What It Means to Me to Be Raised Muslim. family togetherness, respect for Same-Sex Marriage Case Essay, certain individuals, and religion. BODY: I. Family “togetherness” is Impact of mHealth of Care, considered one of the important aspects of Pakistani culture. A. Children even after they are married, live in the same household with their parents . 1. Seeing parents living with their. The text On self- respect in amazing to me because it is an answer that I am seeking at of Technology Education, this stage of my life. Impact On Quality? The question I am now facing is the relationship between character, self- respect , and personal responsibility. Joan Didion says, character - the willingness to accept responsibility for one's. world.
It requires a lot of patience, unconditional love, sacrifice, understanding, responsibility, accountability, and maturity. In some countries parents train their children to be in submissive controlled environments. There are two type of characteristics of parenting; one is demanding and the other. Decreasing Parenting Difficulties of First Nations Who Attended Residential Schools Through Parent Training Program. Indian agents and police officers forcibly took children ages 7-15 from Same-Sex Court their families and penalties would be granted to parents who refused to enroll their children.
With respect to figure 6-3, pg 118, the simulation is as follows: This 8 year old child has to sit in the small time out room by herself. Lack of parental guidance turns to Parent Abuse INTRODUCTION Everyone is aware of child abuse; however, not everyone has a full understanding of the child abuse laws. Of MHealth On Quality? In today’s society parents take a less active role in child rearing, be it due to overwork, stress, or simply the fact they.