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buddha essay topics Buddhism arose in northern India in the 6th century BCE. The historical founder of Buddhism, Siddharta Gautama (c.560-480 BCE) was born in Panther Impact a village called Lumbini into voting united, a warrior tribe called the Sakyas (from where he derived the title Sakyamuni, meaning 'Sage of the The Black, Sakyas'). According to tradition Gautama's father, Suddhodana was the king of a small principality based on the town of Kapilavastu. His mother, Queen Maya, died seven days after Gautama's birth. Following the death of marido de anne Maya, Suddhodana married Maya's sister, Prajapati, by whom Gautama was brought up in great luxury and sheltered from the harshness of the outside world. At sixteen the prince married Yasodhara. Yasodhara bore him a son whom he called Rahula (meaning chain or fetter), a name that indicated Gautama's sense of dissatisfaction with his life of luxury. His apparent sense of Panther Impact Essay dissatisfaction turned to disillusion when he saw three things from the window of his palace, each of which represented different forms human suffering: a decrepit old man, a diseased man, and Recovering From a Natural Essay a corpse. So traumatised was Siddharta by his new found awareness of the transience of pleasure and the universality of The Black suffering, that he decided to embark on de anne hathaway e shakespeare, a life dedicated to Impact Essay true knowledge. Inspired by the example of comic a mendicant monk, Siddharta abandoned his family and life as a prince, cut off his hair and adopted the Panther, lifestyle of in the united have a wanderer.
Siddharta began his spiritual quest under the guidance of two teachers who showed him how to reach very deep states of meditation (samadhi). This did not, however, lead to a sense of true knowledge or peace, and the practice of deep meditation was abandoned in favour of a life of extreme asceticism which he shared with five companions. But again, after five or six years, of self-mortification, Siddharta felt he had failed to achieve true insight and rejected such practices as dangerous and Essay useless. Resolved to growth free continue his quest, Siddharta made his way to a deer park at Isipatana, near present day Benares. Here he sat beneath a tree meditating on death and The Black Impact rebirth. It was here that Siddharta attained a knowledge of the way things really are; it was through this knowledge that he acquired the greek facts, title 'Buddha' (meaning 'awakened one'). This awakening was achieved during a night of meditation, which passed through various stages. In the first stage he saw each of his previous existences.
In the The Black, second he surveyed the death and rebirth of all living beings and understood the law that governs the cycle of birth and death. In the third he identified the four noble truths: the universality of suffering, the cause of suffering through selfish desire, the solution to suffering and free the way to overcome suffering. This final point is called the Noble Eightfold Path, this being eight steps consisting of wisdom (right views, right intention) ethics (right speech, right action, right livelihood), mental discipline (right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration), which ultimately lead to The Black Essay liberation from the source of suffering. Although initially hesitant to share his insight on the grounds that humanity might not be ready for such a teaching, the Buddha decided to communicate his discovery to those willing to listen. His first converts were the five ascetics with whom he had lived when he himself followed the lifestyle of the ascetic. To these he preached his first sermon in the Deer Park at Benares, outlining to them the Four Noble Truths. Out of this small group the community of monks (or sangha) grew to about sixty in size and in Precious included Buddha's cousin, Ananda, and his son, Rahula. Later the Buddha was persuaded by his step-mother and cousin to accept women into The Black Panther Impact Essay, the sangha. The remaining forty-five years of the Buddha's life were spent journeying around the plain of the Ganges, teaching and free receiving visitors.
At the age of 79 the Buddha fell seriously ill and The Black Panther died. During his life the Buddha had taught that no one was to succeed him as leader of the Sangha. Instead, his followers were to take his teaching and rule as their sole guides. Councils and Early Schisms in the Community. Following the Buddha's death, his teachings were gathered together at the first Buddhist council, which is said to have taken place at Rajagrha shortly after the Buddha's Final Nirvana.
A second council, which is said to have taken place a century after the Buddha's death, took place at marido de anne hathaway e shakespeare, Vaisali. The purpose of this council was to The Black Impact consider allegations that certain monks at Vaisali permitted ten practices that contravened the Psychology, rules of Panther Impact Essay conduct of the Vinaya. The Vaisali Council condemned these practices, after which the Council was closed. At some point following the Second Council the Sangha divided into two traditions: the Sthaviravadins ('Elders') and the Mahasanghikas ('the great Sangha'). The difference between the two traditions seems to relate to their perception of the status of the lay person and the status of the marido de anne hathaway e shakespeare, arhant. Whereas the Mahasanghikas were more open to the laity practising Buddhism and tended to believe that the lay person was capable of becoming an arhant, the Sthaviravadins believed that monastic life alone could lead to arahantship and, therefore, nirvana. Sometime in the 3rd century B.C.E. a new group called the Sarvastivadins emerged out of the Sthaviravadins.
The name Sarvastivadin is believed to derive from the phrase sarva asti (everything exists). The Sarvastivadins taught that the dharmas, the most basic elements of existence, exist in the past, present and future which are simply modes of Essay being. The growth of this movement led King Asoka, of the e shakespeare, Maurya dynasty, to call the third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra (c. 250 BCE) which decided against the teachings of the The Black Panther Impact, Sarvastivadins. This decision prompted some of them to emigrate to north India and Psychology Essay establish a center in Kashmir where they survived for about a thousand years. Another group that emerged in the 3rd century B.C.E. were the Pudgalavadins, who derive their name from the word pudgala, meaning 'person'. The Pudgalavadins claimed that for reincarnation to take place, there had to The Black Impact be a person who was reincarnated. This view was criticised by other Buddhist sects who said that Pudgalavadin teaching implied the reality of in Precious a self and, therefore, contradicted the basic Buddhist teaching of anatman (no self). Those Sthaviravadins who did not accept the doctrines of either the Sarvastivadins or the Pudgalavadins came to The Black Panther Impact be called Vibhajyadins ('Distinctionists'). This group formed a number of branches, of which the largest and most important were the Theravadins of Ceylon. The sacred text for the Theravadins of Ceylon and for those throughout south-east Asia is the Tripitaka ('Three Baskets').
These three baskets consist of the Vinaya Pitaka (rules for monks and nuns), the Sutta Pitaka (the discourses given by the Buddha) and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the systematic ordering and analysis of Buddhist doctrine). Accompanying the Tripitaka was a large body of commentarial literature explaining in detail the meaning of particular sutras. Early Mahayana Buddhism. At about the beginning of the common era there appeared texts which did not belong to the Tripitaka of the hathaway, early schools (in so far as the Tripitaka existed at this time). The movement associated with these texts came over time to call itself the Mahayana ('Great Vehicle') in contrast to non-Mahayana schools which were pejoratively named Hinayana ('Lesser Vehicle'). In India Mahayana Buddhism developed through a number of Essay stages. Initially it produced a number of texts that engaged with issues such as the nature of Buddhahood or the philosophy of emptiness. Later identifiable schools such as Madhyamaka and Psychology Essay Yogacara emerged. Then, between the The Black Impact, fifth and in the twenty-first voting in the united states seventh centuries Classical Mahayana Buddhism developed as an attempt to systematise the various schools and teachings within the Mahayana.
Finally, a trend which came to Panther be known as the Vajrayana emerged based on new texts known as Tantras, which were more magical and ritualistic than other strands of Buddhism. Buddhism was not to survive in North India much beyond the 13th and 14th centuries. In the hathaway e shakespeare, south it remained for a few more centuries but had largely disappeared by the end of the 18th century. Panther? It was in free Southeast and Northern Asia that Buddhism was to establish itself as the dominant tradition. The Buddhism of south-east Asia is largely Theraravadin. When Buddhism came to Southeast Asia is unknown. Certainly, there was an established presence by The Black Impact Essay the early centuries of the common era. Growth? Archaeological and inscriptional evidence indicates the presence of The Black Panther Essay southern Buddhism in Central Burma by the fifth century C.E. At about the same time (and quite possibly earlier) the Mon people of Southern Burma and Northern and Central Thailand had adopted Pali Buddhism.
The Buddhism of the Mon was in turn transplanted into the Khmer empire, and supplanted the already present Mahayana Buddhism and Brahmanism. From both the Mon and the Khmer Southern Buddhism was adopted by the Tai peoples, whose principalities emerged in regions now occupied by parts of modern day Thailand, Burma and Laos. In The Rates Have? Northern Buddhism came to be dominant in Essay Central Asia (Tibet) and East Asia (China, Korea and Japan). It was through China that Buddhism was transmitted into Northern and Central Asia. Following its entry into China in the 1st century of the Common Era, it went on to develop in four stages. Up to the 4th century Buddhism gradually spread into China from Central Asia as Mahayana sutras were translated into marido de anne hathaway, Chinese and Indian schools established themselves. During this period Buddhism remained largely a fringe religion. The Black Panther Essay? The second stage came about as a result of the Psychology, fall of the Han dynasty in 220 CE, the invasion of northern China in Impact Essay c. 320 CE and the flight of the royal court to the south. In the Recovering From a Natural Disaster Essay, northern foreign occupied part of the The Black Panther Essay, country Buddhism's status as a foreign religion ceased to be problematic; in the south Buddhism received support from the educated classes with the consequence that distinctively Chinese forms of Buddhism began to emerge.
The third period is represented by the reunion of the country under the Sui and T'ang dynasties. Unification allowed for new transmissions of Buddhism into the country while also fostering the cultivation of indigenous forms of Chinese Buddhism such as T'ien T'ai, Hua-Yen, Ch'an and in the voting in the have Ching-Tu. The fourth stage began with the persecution of Buddhism in Panther Impact the 9th century. This persecution was so severe that it destroyed the T'ien T'ai and in Precious the Hua-yen schools. Later dynasties gave periodic support to various strands of Buddhism. Disaster struck, however, in the 19th century with the The Black Panther, T'ai-p'ing rebellion of facts 1850-1864 which viciously persecuted all forms of Buddhism it encountered. Buddhism enjoyed a brief reprieve under the Nationalist regime, but with the ascendancy of communism in The Black Impact Essay 1949 many monasteries were closed down and Buddhist clergy were forced to return to lay status. Buddhism arrived in Korea from China towards the end of the 4th century.
It was not until the 6th century that Buddhism was recognised as an official religion in Korea. This official religion paved the Psychology Essay, way for Korean monks to visit China in the 6th and 7th centuries and to introduce into Korea various major schools of Chinese Buddhism. It was during the Koryo period (935-1392) that Buddhism enjoyed its greatest period of Panther Essay expansion. However, with the ascendancy of the Yi dynasty (1392-1910) Confucianism received official favour and Buddhism came over time to be severely suppressed. Such was the marido de anne hathaway, degree of suppression that by the 19th century Son (Ch'an) Buddhism remained the only dominant school in The Black Panther Essay the Sangha. Following Japanese control in the 20th century Korean Buddhism underwent a renewal, but this was at the expense of accepting the importation of Japanese styles of twenty-first century, voting in the united states Buddhism. The division of the country into North and Panther Impact Essay South had a major impact on the Sangha. Greek Facts? The land reforms in the North have virtually brought to an end the presence of The Black Panther Buddhism there.
In the South, however, Buddhism has received official support and Buddhism is enjoying a revived role in the life of the country. Buddhism was introduced into Japan from Korea in the 6th century in the form of gifts sent by Korean kings to the Japanese imperial court. During the 7th century Buddhism was integrated into the state apparatus through the support of a series of Buddhist emperors. The close relationship between the court and Buddhism has meant that periods of Buddhist history are identified by the location of the capital city at a particular period of the country's history. Between 710 and 794 the capital was located at Essay, Nara. The six traditions of Buddhism introduced from Korea and China and supported by the imperial court during this period are often referred to as Nara Buddhism. With the move of the capital to Heian (modern day Kyoto) two new forms of Buddhism emerged, Shingon and Tendai, which were founded by Japanese monks who had visited China.
The Kamakura period (1192-1338) saw the rise of a distinctively Japanese form of Buddhism as a number of popular movements arose. The earliest of these new schools are associated with Pure Land (Jodo) Buddhism and its veneration of Buddha Amida. Another important sect was founded by Nichiren (122-1282) who identified true Buddhism with the The Black Essay, Sakyamuni Buddha of the Lotus Sutra. The medieval expansion of Buddhism was curtailed in the 14th - 16th centuries by the outbreak of national unrest and the subsequent destruction of a number of major centres of Buddhism. Buddhism suffered further as a consequence of the establishment of military rule in the 17th century and the concomitant complete cultural isolation imposed on in Precious, Japan by its military rulers. The situation changed with the emergence of the Meiji dynasty in 1867, the acceptance of Shinto as the official state religion and brief persecution of Buddhism.
In the 20th century Buddhism has become open to the rest of the world. This has enabled Buddhist missionaries to travel abroad but at the same time has exposed Japan to the mixed blessings of westernisation. Buddhism entered Tibet surprisingly late. Tibetan historians conventionally understand Buddhism to have entered Tibet in two waves: the first wave, which was sponsored by Tibetan monarchs, took place between the 7th and 9th centuries C.E., and the second wave occurred in the 10th century as a result of Tibetans travelling to India for religious education. It was during this later period that new texts were transplanted into Panther Essay, Tibet and new orders were established. These orders are not based on distinct doctrines but derive from A Comparison of "Last and "Street Essay example, lineages associated with early Buddhist masters (known as lamas). Buddhism in The Black Panther Impact Essay the West.
In the A Comparison and "Street Fight" Essay example, 20th century Buddhism has spread well beyond its Asian origins and has become a global religion. An important early channel for the propagation of Buddhism was the World Parliament of Religions, which was held in The Black Panther Impact Essay Chicago in 1893. Among those attending was a Japanese Rinzai Zen master whose disciples established a number of Zen groups on A Comparison Man Standing" and "Street Fight" Essay example, the West coast of America. Buddhism was further disseminated through the writings of The Black Essay Buddhist scholars such as D.T. Suzuki in the United States and a Natural Disaster Essay Christmas Humphries and Edward Conze in the United Kingdom.
In the Impact Essay, 1950s and 1960s the study of Buddhism became an integral part of higher education through the establishment of Religious Studies or Asian Studies departments. The establishment of Buddhist temples and centres for European and American converts or Asian immigrants has further strengthened the presence of Buddhism in the West.
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Theories of Impact strategic planning (authored with Jurgen C Schmidt and Martyn Laycock) Planning is one of the fundamentals of comic free modern life. We all practice it to a greater or lesser extent. Impact Essay? In our personal lives we plan holidays, careers, the acquisition of assets (e.g. cars, consumer goods, houses); sometimes we do. detailed planning with budgets, on other occasions we do it fairly informally, simply 'work things out in A Comparison Man Standing" and "Street Essay example our heads'. But however we do it, planning, essentially, is the 'organisation of a series of actions to achieve a specified outcome' . In work environments, where we typically refer to it as ' business planning' , we adopt a generally much more systematic, disciplined approach. We plan projects, plan and develop new products and services, new initiatives.
and programmes. We also draw up plans for change, for doing things differently, doing things better. We also discuss, draft and then implement short, medium and longer-term plans as to where, organisationally, we want to get to, what we. want to achieve. In essence such plans are organisational 'route maps' to get us from 'where we are at now' to 'where we want to get to' at some defined point, or points, in The Black Impact the future. They are also the essence of A Comparison of "Last and "Street example what, today, we call strategic planning , something that has, since the early 1960s, grown steadily to become one of the essentials of Impact modern business and organisational life. Planning in Business Environments. Management theorist Henri Fayol (1841-1925) whose work still endures today included planning amongst what he said were the prime responsibilities of management: He described planning as: 'examining the growth comic free future, deciding what needs to be done and developing a plan of action'. ?Strategic planning helps determine the direction and Essay scope of an organisation over the long term, matching its resources to its changing environment and, in particular, its markets, customers and Psychology Essay clients, so as to meet stakeholder expectations.?
Johnson and Scholes, 1993. Strategic planning is a systematic process of envisioning a desired future, and translating this vision into broadly defined goals or objectives and a sequence of steps to achieve them. In contrast to long-term planning (which begins with. the current status and lays down a path to meet estimated future needs), strategic planning begins with the desired-end and works backward to the current status. Impact Essay? At every stage of long-range planning the planner asks, What must be done. here to reach the next (higher) stage?? At every stage of strategic-planning the planner asks, What must be done at the previous (lower) stage to reach here?? Also, in twenty-first states contrast to tactical planning (which focuses at achieving narrowly. defined interim objectives with predetermined means), strategic planning looks at the wider picture and is flexible in choice of its means [i] . 20 th Century Management Thinkers on Strategy and Strategic Planning. Here we look at some of the Impact great thinkers, academics, practitioners, consultants advisers who have made significant contributions in the field of strategic planning: T he following notes are based on an article by marido de anne hathaway, Morgen Witzel, Financial Times, 5 th August, 2003, p11. Henry Mintzberg has been called 'the great management iconoclast' owing to his willingness to attack previously sacred concepts in business and management.
His commonsense approach to management issues has earned him a very wide following. and he is perhaps best known for Panther Impact his work on greek god apollo facts business strategy, where he is said to have exposed the The Black gaps between academic concepts of strategy and free reality. Michael Porter , the other main modern-day strategist, adopted a particular focus on Essay organisational and governmental competence and competitiveness and growth comic free has written several popular books on business strategy; he has also developed a number of. often-used tools and techniques, two of which, his 'Five Forces' and 'Value Chain' models are described later in this module. The following Notes are based on Impact Essay texts within ?Managing Change?, Bernard Burns, 2004, Chapters 6 7: Igor Ansoff is another acknowledged contributor to the development of thinking and practice on business strategy. Regarded by facts, many as one of the pioneers of strategic planning, he was a strong proponent of the 'Planning' school of thinkers. His book 'Corporate Strategy' published in 1965. focused largely on the external, rather than internal, concerns of organisations, including the matching of products to different types of markets - for the analysis of which Ansoff introduced. his well known Matrix ( Ansoff's Matrix ), another strategic planning tool that is still widely used today. Do we need a formal strategic plan?
There is more than one format, but all strategic planning needs to go through a systematic process to determine if a formal plan is required. Choices have to Impact, be made based on a rationale and on information, and a procedure or planning method has to be followed. Beyond making decisions, 'strategic planning' can and should be used to interact with internal and external stakeholders, building understanding and commitment. Depending on the circumstances 'strategic planning' can take one day or several months. The time period reflected in the plan varies, although most authors seem to agree on Man Standing" and "Street Fight" example a time horizon of The Black 3 years or so. The following sections detail all steps. of a strategic plan. Any formal planning exercise requires time and resources; resources can be in terms of money or personnel time as there should be an understanding of the opportunity costs involved as well as real costs. The timing needs therefore to be.
appropriate and the resources mobilised proportional to the task and god apollo intended outcome. Strategic planning is important whether the organisation's direction needs reviewing, whether its priorities have changed or whether the means of achieving desired. objectives need to be updated due to internal or external forces effecting delivery. The first consideration is to determine whether: there are core issues or questions that the strategic planning needs to address the timing is right the Panther level of resources required are available. In other words do we need to greek god apollo, develop a strategic plan or is the one that is currently in place still appropriate? If the answer is Yes , then the Impact Essay next step is to set in motion the processes for developing the strategic plan and determine 'early stage' roles: identify key stakeholders to support the planning process, for example chief executives, department heads, mid-level managers, other internal and external stakeholders, as well as available and necessary sources of information. work with key stakeholders to develop a formal work plan to support the planning process where appropriate set up task forces on specific aspects as these can save time, spread the Essay workload and Panther can provide high quality inputs. The Classic 4-Step Approach to Strategic Planning. Here we introduce a very useful structured approach to strategic and change management planning, which was developed from work done initially by Price Waterhouse (accountants) back in hathaway the.
The 4-Step approach is a simple structure that helps us to look both holistically and in detail at the drafting and development as well as the The Black Impact implementation of our Plan: STEP 1: Where are we now? STEP 2: Where do we want to get to? STEP 3: How are we going to get there? STEP 4: How will we know when we have got there? STEP 1: Where are we now? - Situation analysis. In this stage we establish our present position ? what we sometimes refer to as our ?current reality?. This should be an honest and realistic assessment of our position across key factors in de anne e shakespeare the organisation generally and in our part of The Black Panther the. organisation specifically; any ducking of issues or avoidance of in the century, rates in the existing problems here will have detrimental impacts. The context of the strategic plan (new, update, far-reaching changes) will decide which of the following elements to include.
Too much information can cause 'paralysis by analysis', equally too little can result in mistakes. An organisational audit provides objective data about an organisation's set-up, its performance and its problem areas. Components are: Organisational history is important, events such as its founding, mergers or dissolutions, changes in senior staff, start or end of The Black Impact main programmes on a time line. It is important to capture this information as it will help the. planning process as it will help to understand organisational culture and how the organisation was set up. Organisational profile is a stock-take on de anne all current programmes, grouped as appropriate by The Black Panther Impact, outcomes or beneficiaries, with indication of coverage, costs, and revenue used. The profile includes, as well information on operation, support. functions such as human resources, finances, and governance (board, management team, PEC). Psychology Essay? This is important as it will help to provide a baseline of resources currently utilised and those that might be channelled into new work. Previous and The Black Panther Impact current strategies are the main approaches the organisation has chosen when allocating resources and identifying objectives. It is a Natural, important as it shows where the organisation has concentrated its efforts in the past and.
what investment the organisation has used to reach its position? Financial assessment is The Black, important to establish the stability or volatility of the organisation and to consider previous trends in revenue and expenditure. The organisation will need to consider how much ability it has to move. resources from current programmes to invest in the new strategy. Governance structure assessment is important as this will support the success or failure of the strategic plan. This will include both formal Governance of the organisation as well as all resources required. Stakeholders are people or organizations who either a) stand to comic, be affected by The Black Panther Essay, the programme/project or b) could 'make' or 'break' the programme/project's success. They may be winners or losers, included or. excluded from decision-making, users of results, participants in the process.
Workshops, focus group discussions or individual interviews can be used to allow participation in greek facts the planning process. It is Impact Essay, advisable to engage stakeholders from. the beginning of the strategic planning process to Psychology in Precious Essay, get their views and also to obtain buy-in for the new strategic thinking and the forward planning process. Stakeholder analysis is the Panther Essay identification of a project's key stakeholders, an assessment of their interests in the strategic planning and the ways in which these may affect a project. The reason for doing a stakeholder analysis is to Recovering Essay, help identify: which individuals or organizations to Panther Essay, include in in Precious your planning process what roles they should play and at what stage who you should build relationships with and how you might nurture those relationships. The matrix below outlines how to prioritise stakeholders and The Black Panther make decisions about their importance within the planning process. PESTELI trends analysis. The external environment can be further assessed by de anne hathaway, breaking it down into Impact Essay, what is happening at P olitical, E conomic, S ocial, T echnological, E nvironmental, L egal and I ndustry. level, which may be of relevance to the organisation. Benchmarking is A Comparison of "Last and "Street Essay, a procedure whereby an organisation compares its own performance in specific areas with the performance of The Black peer institutions.
Yardstick Day Surgery Benchmarking is an example in the health sector [ii] . The benchmarking process outlined in 'The Essence of Care: Patient-focused benchmarking for health care practitioners' helps practitioners to take a structured approach to sharing and comparing practice, enabling them to in Precious Essay, identify the best and to. develop action plans to remedy poor practice [iii] . SWOT analysis is a widely used tool to formally analyse the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. Selected staff and board members are to brainstorm until the following table is completed: What are we good at? Anything happening outside which might actually benefit us if we take advantage of it? What do we need to get a grip on?
Anything happening outside which we need to be able to defend ourselves from? SWOT is a powerful tool when correctly used, and generates long and useless lists when it is not. Taking into account the purpose of the organisation, one should try to critically identify the strengths of the organisation in the recent past, what. has definitely been unsatisfactory, and then look at the external environment to The Black Impact, recognise which changes could actually benefit the organisation, if appropriately addressed, and which risks the organisation needs to prepare for Psychology Essay because they can. directly impact on the ability to achieve its purpose. At the Impact Essay end of the century, states situation analysis, there should be a consensus on how much the The Black Panther Impact Essay organisation has accomplished what it set out to do, and how it fares in twenty-first century, voting in the united terms of financial, administrative and governance capacity. STEP 2: Where do we want to get to? - Future direction. This effectively is our Vision . In a large organisation, such as the NHS, there will almost certainly be an overall Vision, often enunciated in a Strategic Plan and supporting/subsequent documents.
It is also necessary to The Black Panther, consider the. local situation ? within the overall Plan what do we have to achieve in our area? Where do we need to in Precious Essay, get to? This is The Black Panther Impact, summarised by the following statements: Mission Statement is an organisation's 'raison d'etre' (reason for being).
Typically it is de anne hathaway, expressed in the form of The Black a formal published Mission Statement, designed to provide a sense of purpose to employees and Recovering a Natural other key stakeholders.The. mission will outline the The Black Essay organisation's: Purpose , or why the Essay organisation exists, Values , or what the Impact organisation believes in, Behaviour standards , or the policies and behavioural patterns that underpin the twenty-first voting in the states distinctive competence and the value system Strategy , or the competitive position and distinctive competence[iv] Vision defines the desired or intended future state of a specific organization or enterprise in terms of its fundamental objective and/or strategic direction i.e. it is a concise model description of what the organisation's environment. would look like if the The Black Essay purpose elaborated above were achieved. A Comparison Of "Last Man Standing" Fight" Essay? Mission and vision, along with a consensus on the organisation's value system (of both organisation and The Black Panther Impact Essay staff) are necessary to convey a clear image of the organisation to the outside. world, and to allow staff buy-in. An increasing number of Psychology organisations also draw attention to Impact Essay, their core Values and Beliefs that are shared among the stakeholders (including employees) of an organisation. Values typically drive an organization's culture and influence their. Aims and Objectives.
Aims are typically quite broad and will give an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions. Objectives are the of "Last and "Street Fight" detailed requirements to The Black Panther Impact, achieve the overall aim, they are statements of god apollo overall desirable achievements, described where possible in quality, quantity, time (e.g., average life expectancy of Londoners increased by at. least 2 years for males and females over the next three to five years). Objectives provide definition and direction to the long-term aims and goals that an The Black Panther Essay organisation seeks to growth comic, realise/achieve and should meet the SMART test: they. should be: S pecific, M easurable , A chievable, R elevant, T ime-bound. STEP 3: How are we going to get there? - Strategy development. This is Impact Essay, especially important; it is of "Last Man Standing" and "Street example, our carefully thought-through 'Route Map' to get us from where we are now to The Black Essay, our vision for the Future.
It will comprise a series of detailed actions and steps that we will take to help us to get to ?where we. want to go?. A core team should be tasked with putting down on paper all the elements of the plan. Any format is fine, as long as it contains: An introduction with comments on the process and the team involved/resources used Overarching goals and supporting core strategies, along with a rationale for free their choice. Programme portfolio and implementation chronology. The Black? Each programme is described in terms of objectives, process, output/outcomes, activities and de anne resources required. A Gantt time table is Impact, useful, either for individual programmes or for the whole. portfolio, depending on complexity.
Where possible, officers in charge should be identified. Risks management strategy Monitoring and Evaluation framework Overall and programme budget, as appropriate. Making explicit choices on the main approaches to be used over the next few years (core strategies), what is going to be implemented (the overall programme portfolio), and what financial, administrative and governance support will be required. This entails deciding which programmes to Essay, grow, to maintain, or to end. Strategies are means to an end. Choices need to be made against explicit criteria, and making best use of the previous analysis. As a guide to decide which programmes to.
either grow/start, maintain, or terminate, the following matrix can be used (Ansoff [v] ): More of the The Black Impact Essay same. Innovation for current users. New programme for new users. The matrix allows making the underlying strategy for a particular choice explicit, while bringing to the attention issues of resources required and risks to be managed. A formal project plan should be developed to support the planning process and Psychology in Precious consideration give to setting up task forces on specific aspects as these can save time, spread the workload and can provide high quality inputs, to undertake the. There are many different types of Health Assessments that should be taken into account when developing strategic plans, a few are mentioned below that were current in December 2008 (others will emerge with due course): Health needs assessment (HNA) ?is a systematic method for reviewing the health issues facing a population, leading to agreed priorities and resource allocation that will improve health and reduce inequalities? [vi] . Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) is a process that identifies current and future health and wellbeing needs in light of existing services, and informs future service planning taking into account.
evidence of effectiveness at a population, rather than individual level. JSNA identifies ?the big picture? in terms of the health and wellbeing needs and inequalities of a local population, it is an The Black Panther Impact essential tool for commissioners to inform. joint service planning and commissioning strategies in the Local Authority and the PCT. In The Twenty-first Voting Rates In The United States Have? For the purpose of JSNA, a clear distinction should be made between individual and population need [vii] . Panther Essay? Health Impact Assessment is defined by the World Health Organisation, HIA as ?a combination of methods, procedures, and marido de anne tools by which a policy, programme or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of population. and the distribution of those effects within the population? [viii] . The Black Panther Essay? It usually assesses the impact on health of Man Standing" and "Street Fight" example policies of sectors, such as housing, urban development, transport, agriculture, or environment. HIA aims to: Outline the potential positive and negative health and well-being impacts of The Black Impact a project or proposal on a defined community. Indicate ways in which any negative impacts could be minimised and any potential positive impacts enhanced. It involves several steps [ix] , Draw up a community profile based on statistics and information about the voting rates in the united have local population. Examine published literature about The Black Essay, health impacts. Examine the policy concerned in relation to marido de anne hathaway e shakespeare, the community profile and the published literature.
Hold a workshop and focus groups to find out what various members of the council and the community think. Summarise all of The Black Panther Impact Essay this information to identify: The potential health impacts. Recovering Disaster? Suggestions for The Black Impact Essay minimizing any negative health impacts. Suggestions for making the in the voting united states have most of positive health impacts. Force Field Analysis relies on The Black Panther Impact the principle that an organisation is not static, but dynamic, and marido de anne hathaway that its current position is The Black Impact, a result of the in Precious balance between opposing forces. Force field analysis is Panther Essay, a. management technique developed by Kurt Lewin, a pioneer in A Comparison of "Last Man Standing" and "Street Essay example the field of social sciences, for diagnosing situations. It is useful when looking at the variables involved in planning and The Black Impact Essay implementing a change programme and of use in team building. projects, when attempting to overcome resistance to change.
Change can be either driven or restrained by forces, ie persons, habits, customs, attitudes. In a planning session, this can be visualised by in the twenty-first century, rates in the united, a Force Field Diagram. Using three columns, list planned change in the middle column, the driving forces. in the left one, the opposing forces in the right one. Check whether the The Black Essay forces listed are appropriate and whether they can they be changed. Of "Last And "Street Essay? Decide which ones are critical, and allocate a score to each (from 1 being extremely weak to 10 being. extremely strong). Decide as well whether any of the forces are actually amenable to change. Panther Impact Essay? Now, progress can occur if an opposing force can be reduced, and/or if a driving force can be strengthened. This exercise will bring up perhaps previously. unforeseen actors, like stakeholders and Psychology in Precious Essay target groups for an intervention.
A force field analysis, if well carried out, will reveal opponents and allies, and The Black Essay suggest possible corrective action. It is inevitable that a number of in the twenty-first century, rates united states possible programmes will not be implemented ? trying to do everything is Panther Impact, no strategy. To decide which programmes to From Disaster, keep, a number of methods for option appraisal and decision-making exist, described in the. health economics module (see Health Economics Module). Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness etc DALYs saved (this assumes people know what DALYs are ? there needs to Panther Essay, be a link to these elsewhere) Cost utility analysis. Other assessments are risk analysis, and growth comic free formal project appraisal. At the very least, one should identify a set of criteria (needs, capacity, funding opportunities etc) against which to set the programmes under review. Once strategies are agreed and the scope and level of activities decided, it will become apparent what kind of support will be needed. The Black Panther? Funding and Recovering a Natural staffing levels, financial and administrative management systems, external communication, and. overall governance of the organisation. STEP 4: How will we know when we have got there?
Monitoring Evaluation (ME) This stage of the planning has to do with key measuring and monitoring aspects. Once we have our journey plan, our Strategic Plan we need to set monitoring points (often referred to as 'milestones' to Impact, check how things are going, assess how. well or otherwise we are performing against Plan. Thus we schedule key review points as part of a PLAN: ACTION : REVIEW approach.
To ensure that we do this effectively we need to determine at the outset a number of in Precious Essay relevant Key. Performance Indicators (KPIs ), these will be critically important areas that we will monitor, measure and Panther Impact assess as we roll-out our Plan. Monitoring and evaluation links strategy to implementation. It is a structured approach to continuously keeping track of progress using a number of measures identified as being reliable instruments. Monitoring is an ongoing analysis of whether planned results are being achieved, so that timely corrective action can be taken. Data on specified indicators are systematically collected to comic, inform management and the main stakeholders on. progress in achieving results and in using allocated funds. Inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts of The Black Panther Impact services are regularly analysed according to an established monitoring framework [x] . The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model [xi] verifies on a small scale if a change or a set of changes actually produces results.
Specifying a measurable aim, a time frame and a target population, a small-scale test of an improvement is carried out, the Psychology in Precious Essay results analysed and The Black Panther Essay those changes that appear successful refined until agreement is reached on which changes have produced the expected result, ready to be applied to a broader population. Three questions guide the setup of the The PDSA cycle, eg. What are we trying to accomplish? Setting Aims How will we know that a change is an improvement? Establishing Measures What changes can we make that will result in improvement? Selecting Changes. After which changes can be planned, implemented, their results observed, and conclusions reached as to greek god apollo facts, the possibility of Panther Impact their wider application.
Usually a series of cycles is required. Evaluation is an assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of an ongoing or completed project, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results. Psychology? The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. The Black Impact? An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the in the twenty-first in the united incorporation of lessons learned into the decision-making process [xii] . As this is an expensive process, judgement needs to be applied as to whether a particular service or intervention warrants a full evaluation. Monitoring and evaluation can only be successful if considered at the beginning of a strategic planning cycle so that baseline data for each indicator has been collected and Impact Essay success can be monitored against these data. Indicators are most. useful when described in measurable terms, ideally as QQT format (quantity, quality, time). Timing of reviews should be indicated. It will, we hope, be obvious from this Module just how important in so many organisations, including the Department of Health and the NHS, Strategic Planning has become.
Strategic Planning is, today, an acknowledged essential discipline, a. vital, systematic and ongoing process that enables - as far as is A Comparison of "Last and "Street Fight", possible - organisations to plan the use and Impact Essay application of their resources, skills, knowledge and competences in order to achieve their organisational missions, goals and. objectives in environments of ongoing, sometimes turbulent, change. It is especially in free times of high levels of change that strategic planning places an organisation in a more agile state, a stated of Panther 'preparedness', more attuned to marido, market and other external conditions and therefore the Essay better prepared. to flex or even substantially change their strategic thrusts and operational plans at local as well as at higher corporate levels when fundamental, sometimes structural economic, political and social change occurs. © Jurgen C Schmidt, Katie Enock, Martyn Laycock 2009.
[i]http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ [ii]http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Healthcare/Secondarycare/ [iii]http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/ [iv] Ashridge Mission Model , in Andrew Campbell and in the twenty-first century, voting in the united states Sally Yeung, Creating a Sense of The Black Panther Impact Mission , Long Range Planning, Vol.24, No.4, pp10-20, 1991 [v] Richard Koch, The Financial Times Guide to Strategy , FT Prentice Hall, 3 rd edition 2006 [vi]http://www.nice.org.uk/aboutnice/whoweare [vii]http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/ [viii] WHO European Centre for Health Policy and WHO Regional Office for Man Standing" and "Street Fight" Essay example Europes; see as well http://www.liv.ac.uk/ihia/, and http://www.who.int/hia/en/ [ix] Public Health Resource Unit (PHRU), at http://www.phru.nhs.uk/ [x] OECD ? 2002b (Focus newsletter #13) [xi]http://www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk/ServiceImprovement/ [xii] European Commission, Project Cycle Management Guidelines, at http://ec.europa.eu/ Registered Office - Sterling House, 20 Station Road, Gerrards Cross, Bucks, SL9 8EL.
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Are you applying for The Black Panther Impact Essay, a Chief Financial Officer position? Do you need to update or tailor your resume for a Chief Financial Officer job? Review our Chief Financial Officer sample resume below to facts, see how to Panther Impact Essay, make the most of your credentials. Chief Financial Officer Sample Resume. Greek Facts! A resourceful financial professional with 30 years experience in financial management, telecommunications, software/multimedia, real estate development and construction, health care and public accounting for a variety of public and closely held companies. Technically proficient: Finance (public and private sources of debt and equity); GAAP, S.E.C. and regulatory accounting; GAAP, S.E.C., regulatory, internal and board reporting; taxes; treasury management; cash management; mergers and acquisitions; asset/liability management; management information systems; human resources; investor relations; facilities; administration. Broad industry knowledge: financial services; commercial banking; internet; direct marketing; software/multimedia; telecommunications; health care; real estate and construction; distribution. Strategic perspective: business strategy development and implementation, tax and acquisition planning; company restructuring or reengineering; creating a new focus; business plans; identifying new businesses or product lines. The Black Panther Essay! Leadership: team building; vision; focus on bottom line and long term goals; motivation; PL responsibility.
Established the Financial Services Division to provide alternative financing vehicles for purchases by free, members. Founded and managed CUShopper Mortgage Services LLC in partnership with a nationwide mortgage banking company. Created an e-Wallet, an online revolving line of credit and implement automated loan underwriting/ approval. Put together alliances with companies to provide alternative, sub-prime financing sources to fund sales. Responsible for finance, accounting, taxes, investor relations, human resources, strategic planning, administration for a start up eTailer specializing in The Black Impact financing consumer product purchases with low cost credit union financing. Acted as interim CEO/COO/CFO until CEO was hired.
Arranged for interim debt financing. Created a strategy to improve earnings by de anne hathaway, diversifying funding sources which resulted in Impact Essay creation of the Financial Services Division. Responsible for in Precious, finance, accounting, reporting, lending, customer relations, direct marketing and compliance for a $34 billion financial services company owned by and lending to credit unions, banks, savings and loans and The Black insurance companies to stimulate investment in residential real estate. Created new financial products and repriced exisiting products to increase online transaction volume from several million dollars daily to several billion dollars daily. Created and implemented a new, aggressive marketing plan. Helped the bank grow profitably in assets by twenty-first century, voting in the states have, over $7 billion in one year. Responsible for overall operations, finance, marketing and coordinating services for a company providing interim and transitional senior corporate management services to a variety of business organizations, including start ups, turnarounds, acquiring companies, companies preparing to sell and companies preparing to go public. Acted as initial CFO/COO/VP of Business Development for a start up with a virtual office technology delivered over the Internet; one of the business development efforts led to a business affiliation agreement that allowed the company to raise it first outside round of funding. Restructured and performed transitional management as interim CFO for a public $160 million mail order specialty pharmaceutical firm that lost $34 million in 9 months and The Black Essay whose founder and his CFO committed fraud..
Resolved issues with the SEC, restructured operations, implemented new cash management systems, controls and processes, implemented new reimbursement systems, controls and Essay processes and helped find a buyer. Successfully brought a construction materials and mining company out of Impact, Chapter 11 Bankruptcy while retaining $4 million in personal assets for the sole proprietor owner and Recovering Disaster arranging for $15 million in debt. Helped restructure and turn around an HMO losing over $1.5 million per month and raise $18 million in new capital by structuring a tri-party private placement. Created an entirely new plan focused on being an The Black Impact Essay, integrated health care delivery system. Revitalized two commercial banks under memoranda of understanding with Federal regulators. Created and implemented new capital plans, asset/liability management policies and procedures and streamlined operations. Prepared a business/capitalization plan and obtained equity ($4 million), equipment ($2 million) financing and operating financing ($2 million) for Recovering From Disaster Essay, an international telecommunications company with operations in California, New York, the U.K., Germany, Finland and Panther Impact Sweden, negotiating with investors and banks Developed an Recovering From Disaster Essay, entirely new focus for a software developer/consulting company, creating a new strategy and business plan and helping to raise capital. Responsible for finance, accounting, investor relations, investments, asset/liability management, MIS, mergers and The Black Panther acquisitions, human resources, strategic planning and subsidiary finance and operations for a public multi-bank holding company. Designed and implemented new analytical and management reporting systems.
Restructured operations to improve earnings. Ran finance and operations in subsidiary banks through CEOs and CFOs of those banks. United Have! Provide those banks accounting, finance, MIS, HR, strategic planning and operations support. San on the loan committee and was involved in Real Estate joint ventures. The Black Panther Impact Essay! (Acquired by Citi National Bank) Responsible for finance, accounting, investor relations, investments, asset/liability management, MIS, mergers and acquisitions, human resources, strategic planning and subsidiary finance and operations for a commercial bank. Comic Free! Took the company public. Created and implemented an investor relations program that helped increase the bank’s stock value. Designed and Panther Impact Essay implemented new investment and Psychology Essay asset/liability management systems, policies and procedures that helped improve earnings without incurring additional interest rate risk. Structured acquisitions.
Converted to new enterprise systems to improve operational efficiencies. (Acquired by Panther Impact, Wells Fargo) Responsible for accounting, finance, treasury, management information systems, asset/liability management, operations, human resources, product development and marketing, investor relations, risk management, facilities, mergers and acquisitions, taxes and strategic planning for a public saving and loan. Helped create and implement a plan to grow the institution from $600 million to $1 billion in assets. Created an investor relations program that increased the market to book value from 50% to 150%. Oversaw the transition when the company was purchased. As CFO and in Precious Essay member of the The Black Panther Essay board of growth comic, directors of its builder/developer subsidiary, devised and implemented a plan to The Black Panther Impact, sell of development projects that sped up and improved earnings while reducing risk. Managed mergers, acquisitions and greek facts divestitures. (Acquired by San Francisco Federal) Responsible for managing overall client relationships, including accounting, audit, consulting, tax, IPO’s and other offerings as well as billing and collections. Developed a practice providing interim CFO-type and other consulting services to companies in various industries. Specialized in financial services, business services, real estate, transportation, IT and distribution companies. Provided services to The Black Panther Impact Essay, real estate developers, builders, owner/investors, helping to structure financing and investment syndications Helped start and take public three financial institutions. Master of Business Administration, 1974 Bachelor of Science, 1973. Taught courses in de anne hathaway real estate, banking, savings and loans, time management, statistical sampling and the CL audit approach.
Co-authored “The Uniform Audit Approach” and Essay the “Internal Control Questionnaire for Commercial Banks”. Reviewed and helped edit courses on “Auditing of in the in the united states, Commercial Banks” and “Auditing of Insurance Companies. Panther! Developed the A Comparison of "Last Man Standing" Fight" Essay reporting requirements for banks in liquidation for the FDIC.
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J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973) was a major scholar of the English language, specialising in Old and Middle English. The Black Panther Impact Essay? Twice Professor of Anglo-Saxon (Old English) at hathaway e shakespeare, the University of Oxford, he also wrote a number of stories, including most famously The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the The Black Impact, Rings (1954-1955), which are set in a pre-historic era in an invented version of our world which he called by the Middle English name of Middle-earth. This was peopled by Men (and women), Elves, Dwarves, Trolls, Orcs (or Goblins) and of course Hobbits.
He has regularly been condemned by the Eng. Lit. establishment, with honourable exceptions, but loved by literally millions of readers worldwide. In the 1960s he was taken up by many members of the nascent “counter-culture” largely because of his concern with environmental issues. In 1997 he came top of three British polls, organised respectively by Psychology Channel 4 / Waterstone’s, the Folio Society, and SFX, the The Black Panther Essay, UK’s leading science fiction media magazine, amongst discerning readers asked to vote for the greatest book of the god apollo, 20th century. Please note also that his name is spelt Tolkien (there is no “Tolkein”). The name “Tolkien” (pron.: Tol-keen; equal stress on both syllables) is believed to be of German origin; Toll-kuhn: foolishly brave, or stupidly clever – hence the pseudonym “Oxymore” which he occasionally used. His father’s side of the family appears to The Black Panther Impact Essay have migrated from Saxony in marido de anne hathaway e shakespeare, the 18th century, but over the century and The Black Essay, a half before his birth had become thoroughly Anglicised. Certainly his father, Arthur Reuel Tolkien, considered himself nothing if not English. Arthur was a bank clerk, and went to South Africa in the 1890s for better prospects of promotion. There he was joined by his bride, Mabel Suffield, whose family were not only A Comparison example English through and through, but West Midlands since time immemorial. So John Ronald (“Ronald” to family and early friends) was born in Bloemfontein, S.A., on 3 January 1892.
His memories of Africa were slight but vivid, including a scary encounter with a large hairy spider, and influenced his later writing to some extent; slight, because on 15 February 1896 his father died, and he, his mother and his younger brother Hilary returned to England – or more particularly, the West Midlands. The West Midlands in Tolkien’s childhood were a complex mixture of the grimly industrial Birmingham conurbation, and the quintessentially rural stereotype of The Black Panther Essay, England, Worcestershire and surrounding areas: Severn country, the land of the composers Elgar, Vaughan Williams and Gurney, and more distantly the poet A. E. Housman (it is also just across the border from Wales). Tolkien’s life was split between these two: the then very rural hamlet of Recovering a Natural Disaster, Sarehole, with its mill, just south of Birmingham; and darkly urban Birmingham itself, where he was eventually sent to King Edward’s School. The Black Panther Essay? By then the family had moved to King’s Heath, where the twenty-first voting rates in the have, house backed onto a railway line – young Ronald’s developing linguistic imagination was engaged by the sight of coal trucks going to Panther Impact Essay and from South Wales bearing destinations like” Nantyglo”,” Penrhiwceiber” and “Senghenydd”. Then they moved to the somewhat more pleasant Birmingham suburb of Edgbaston.
However, in the meantime, something of profound significance had occurred, which estranged Mabel and her children from both sides of the family: in 1900, together with her sister May, she was received into the Roman Catholic Church. From then on, both Ronald and Hilary were brought up in the faith of Pio Nono, and remained devout Catholics throughout their lives. The parish priest who visited the Man Standing" and "Street Fight" Essay example, family regularly was the half-Spanish half-Welsh Father Francis Morgan. Tolkien family life was generally lived on the genteel side of poverty. However, the situation worsened in The Black, 1904, when Mabel Tolkien was diagnosed as having diabetes, usually fatal in those pre-insulin days. She died on 14 November of that year leaving the Essay, two orphaned boys effectively destitute. At this point Father Francis took over, and made sure of the boys’ material as well as spiritual welfare, although in the short term they were boarded with an Panther Essay unsympathetic aunt-by-marriage, Beatrice Suffield, and then with a Mrs Faulkner. By this time Ronald was already showing remarkable linguistic gifts. He had mastered the Latin and marido e shakespeare, Greek which was the staple fare of an arts education at that time, and was becoming more than competent in a number of other languages, both modern and ancient, notably Gothic, and later Finnish. He was already busy making up his own languages, purely for fun.
He had also made a number of close friends at King Edward’s; in his later years at Panther, school they met regularly after hours as the “T. C. B. S.” (Tea Club, Barrovian Society, named after their meeting place at the Barrow Stores) and they continued to correspond closely and exchange and criticise each other’s literary work until 1916. However, another complication had arisen. E Shakespeare? Amongst the lodgers at Mrs Faulkner’s boarding house was a young woman called Edith Bratt. The Black Panther Impact Essay? When Ronald was 16, and she 19, they struck up a friendship, which gradually deepened. Growth Comic? Eventually Father Francis took a hand, and forbade Ronald to see or even correspond with Edith for three years, until he was 21. The Black Essay? Ronald stoically obeyed this injunction to the letter. In the summer of free, 1911, he was invited to join a party on a walking holiday in Switzerland, which may have inspired his descriptions of the Impact Essay, Misty Mountains, and of Rivendell. In the autumn of that year he went up to Exeter College, Oxford where he stayed, immersing himself in the Classics, Old English, the A Comparison of "Last and "Street example, Germanic languages (especially Gothic), Welsh and The Black Panther Impact, Finnish, until 1913, when he swiftly though not without difficulty picked up the threads of de anne, his relationship with Edith.
He then obtained a disappointing second class degree in Honour Moderations, the “midway” stage of a 4-year Oxford “Greats” (i.e. Classics) course, although with an “alpha plus” in philology. As a result of this he changed his school from Classics to the more congenial English Language and Impact, Literature. From? One of the poems he discovered in the course of his Old English studies was the Essay, Crist of of "Last Essay, Cynewulf – he was amazed especially by The Black Panther Impact the cryptic couplet: Eala Earendel engla beorhtast. Ofer middangeard monnum sended. Which translates as: Hail Earendel brightest of angels, over Middle Earth sent to men.
(“ Middangeard ” was an ancient expression for the everyday world between Heaven above and Hell below.) This inspired some of Essay, his very early and inchoate attempts at realising a world of ancient beauty in his versifying. In the summer of 1913 he took a job as tutor and Panther Impact Essay, escort to growth free two Mexican boys in Dinard, France, a job which ended in tragedy. Though no fault of Ronald’s, it did nothing to counter his apparent predisposition against France and things French. Meanwhile the relationship with Edith was going more smoothly. She converted to Catholicism and moved to Warwick, which with its spectacular castle and beautiful surrounding countryside made a great impression on Ronald.
However, as the pair were becoming ever closer, the nations were striving ever more furiously together, and war eventually broke out in August 1914. Unlike so many of his contemporaries, Tolkien did not rush to join up immediately on the outbreak of war, but returned to Oxford, where he worked hard and finally achieved a first-class degree in June 1915. At this time he was also working on various poetic attempts, and on his invented languages, especially one that he came to call Qenya [ sic ], which was heavily influenced by Finnish – but he still felt the Panther Impact Essay, lack of a connecting thread to bring his vivid but disparate imaginings together. Tolkien finally enlisted as a second lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers whilst working on ideas of A Comparison example, Earendel [ sic ] the Mariner, who became a star, and his journeyings. For many months Tolkien was kept in Panther Impact Essay, boring suspense in England, mainly in Staffordshire.
Finally it appeared that he must soon embark for France, and he and Edith married in twenty-first rates in the united, Warwick on 22 March 1916. Eventually he was indeed sent to active duty on the Western Front, just in time for the Somme offensive. The Black Panther Essay? After four months in and out of the trenches, he succumbed to “trench fever”, a form of greek facts, typhus-like infection common in the insanitary conditions, and in early November was sent back to Panther Essay England, where he spent the next month in hospital in Birmingham. A Natural Disaster? By Christmas he had recovered sufficiently to stay with Edith at Great Haywood in Staffordshire. During these last few months, all but one of his close friends of the “T.
C. Essay? B. S.” had been killed in action. Partly as an From act of piety to their memory, but also stirred by reaction against his war experiences, he had already begun to put his stories into shape, “ … in huts full of The Black, blasphemy and smut, or by candle light in bell-tents, even some down in dugouts under shell fire ” [ Letters 66]. This ordering of his imagination developed into Psychology in Precious Essay the Book of Lost Tales (not published in his lifetime), in which most of the major stories of the Silmarillion appear in their first form: tales of the Elves and the “Gnomes”, (i. e. Deep Elves, the later Noldor), with their languages Qenya and Goldogrin. Here are found the first recorded versions of the wars against Morgoth, the siege and fall of Gondolin and Nargothrond, and Impact Essay, the tales of a Natural Disaster Essay, Turin and The Black Panther, of Beren and Luthien. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, although periods of remission enabled him to do home service at various camps sufficiently well to be promoted to lieutenant. It was when he was stationed in the Hull area that he and Edith went walking in the woods at de anne, nearby Roos, and there in a grove thick with hemlock Edith danced for him. Impact Essay? This was the inspiration for the tale of Beren and Luthien, a recurrent theme in his “Legendarium”. Psychology In Precious? He came to think of Edith as “Luthien” and himself as “Beren”. Their first son, John Francis Reuel (later Father John Tolkien) had already been born on The Black Panther Impact 16 November 1917. When the Armistice was signed on 11 November 1918, Tolkien had already been putting out feelers to obtain academic employment, and by the time he was demobilised he had been appointed Assistant Lexicographer on Disaster the New English Dictionary (the “Oxford English Dictionary”), then in preparation.
While doing the The Black Panther Impact, serious philological work involved in this, he also gave one of his Lost Tales its first public airing – he read The Fall of Gondolin to the Exeter College Essay Club, where it was well received by an audience which included Neville Coghill and Hugo Dyson, two future “Inklings”. Growth Comic Free? However, Tolkien did not stay in this job for The Black Essay long. In the Recovering From a Natural Disaster Essay, summer of 1920 he applied for the quite senior post of Reader (approximately, Associate Professor) in English Language at the University of Leeds, and to The Black Panther Essay his surprise was appointed. At Leeds as well as teaching he collaborated with E. In The Voting In The United? V. Gordon on the famous edition of The Black Panther, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and in Precious, continued writing and refining The Book of Lost Tales and The Black Panther Impact, his invented “Elvish” languages. In addition, he and Gordon founded a “Viking Club” for undergraduates devoted mainly to reading Old Norse sagas and drinking beer. Hathaway E Shakespeare? It was for this club that he and Gordon originally wrote their Songs for Panther Impact the Philologists , a mixture of traditional songs and original verses translated into Old English, Old Norse and Gothic to a Natural Essay fit traditional English tunes. Leeds also saw the birth of two more sons: Michael Hilary Reuel in October 1920, and Christopher Reuel in 1924.
Then in 1925 the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford fell vacant; Tolkien successfully applied for The Black the post. Professor Tolkien, The Inklings and Hobbits. In a sense, in returning to example Oxford as a Professor, Tolkien had come home. Although he had few illusions about the academic life as a haven of Essay, unworldly scholarship (see for example Letters 250), he was nevertheless by temperament a don’s don, and fitted extremely well into the largely male world of teaching, research, the comradely exchange of ideas and occasional publication. Twenty-first Rates In The? In fact, his academic publication record is very sparse, something that would have been frowned upon in these days of quantitative personnel evaluation.
However, his rare scholarly publications were often extremely influential, most notably his lecture “Beowulf, the Monsters and the Critics”. Panther? His seemingly almost throwaway comments have sometimes helped to Recovering From a Natural transform the understanding of a particular field – for example, in his essay on The Black “English and Welsh”, with its explanation of the origins of the term “Welsh” and its references to phonaesthetics (both these pieces are collected in The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays , currently in print). His academic life was otherwise largely unremarkable. In 1945 he changed his chair to the Merton Professorship of English Language and Literature, which he retained until his retirement in 1959. Apart from all the above, he taught undergraduates, and played an e shakespeare important but unexceptional part in The Black Impact, academic politics and Psychology in Precious Essay, administration. His family life was equally straightforward. Edith bore their last child and only daughter, Priscilla, in 1929. Tolkien got into the habit of writing the children annual illustrated letters as if from Santa Claus, and a selection of these was published in 1976 as The Father Christmas Letters . He also told them numerous bedtime stories, of which more anon. In adulthood John entered the priesthood, Michael and Christopher both saw war service in the Royal Air Force. The Black Panther Impact? Afterwards Michael became a schoolmaster and in the twenty-first century, rates in the united states have, Christopher a university lecturer, and Priscilla became a social worker.
They lived quietly in North Oxford, and later Ronald and Edith lived in the suburb of Headington. However, Tolkien’s social life was far from Panther Impact unremarkable. He soon became one of the founder members of a loose grouping of Oxford friends (by no means all at the University) with similar interests, known as “The Inklings”. The origins of the name were purely facetious – it had to do with writing, and sounded mildly Anglo-Saxon; there was no evidence that members of the group claimed to have an “inkling” of the Divine Nature, as is sometimes suggested. Psychology In Precious? Other prominent members included the The Black Panther Impact, above-mentioned Messrs Coghill and Dyson, as well as Owen Barfield, Charles Williams, and above all C. S. Lewis, who became one of Tolkien’s closest friends, and for free whose return to The Black Impact Christianity Tolkien was at comic, least partly responsible. The Inklings regularly met for conversation, drink, and frequent reading from their work-in-progress. Meanwhile Tolkien continued developing his mythology and languages.
As mentioned above, he told his children stories, some of which he developed into those published posthumously as Mr. Impact? Bliss , Roverandom , etc. However, according to his own account, one day when he was engaged in the soul-destroying task of marking examination papers, he discovered that one candidate had left one page of an answer-book blank. On this page, moved by comic free who knows what anarchic daemon, he wrote “ In a hole in The Black Panther Essay, the ground there lived a hobbit “. In typical Tolkien fashion, he then decided he needed to find out what a Hobbit was, what sort of a hole it lived in, why it lived in a hole, etc. From this investigation grew a tale that he told to his younger children, and even passed round.
In 1936 an incomplete typescript of it came into the hands of Susan Dagnall, an employee of the publishing firm of George Allen and Unwin (merged in marido de anne e shakespeare, 1990 with HarperCollins). She asked Tolkien to finish it, and presented the complete story to Stanley Unwin, the then Chairman of the firm. He tried it out on his 10-year old son Rayner, who wrote an approving report, and The Black Panther Impact, it was published as The Hobbit in 1937. It immediately scored a success, and has not been out of children’s recommended reading lists ever since. It was so successful that Stanley Unwin asked if he had any more similar material available for publication. By this time Tolkien had begun to marido e shakespeare make his Legendarium into what he believed to be a more presentable state, and as he later noted, hints of The Black Impact Essay, it had already made their way into From Disaster Essay The Hobbit . He was now calling the full account Quenta Silmarillion , or Silmarillion for Impact short.
He presented some of his “completed” tales to Unwin, who sent them to his reader. The reader’s reaction was mixed: dislike of the poetry and praise for the prose (the material was the story of Beren and a Natural Essay, Luthien) but the overall decision at The Black Panther Impact, the time was that these were not commercially publishable. Unwin tactfully relayed this message to Tolkien, but asked him again if he was willing to write a sequel to The Hobbit . E Shakespeare? Tolkien was disappointed at the apparent failure of The Silmarillion , but agreed to take up the challenge of “The New Hobbit”. This soon developed into something much more than a children’s story; for the highly complex 16-year history of what became The Lord of the Rings consult the works listed below. Suffice it to say that the now adult Rayner Unwin was deeply involved in the later stages of this opus, dealing magnificently with a dilatory and temperamental author who, at one stage, was offering the whole work to a commercial rival (which rapidly backed off when the scale and The Black Panther Essay, nature of the package became apparent). It is thanks to Rayner Unwin’s advocacy that we owe the fact that this book was published at all – Andave laituvalmes ! His father’s firm decided to incur the probable loss of comic, ?1,000 for the succes d’estime , and publish it under the title of The Lord of the Rings in three parts during 1954 and 1955, with USA rights going to Houghton Mifflin. It soon became apparent that both author and publishers had greatly underestimated the work’s public appeal. The Lord of the Rings rapidly came to public notice.
It had mixed reviews, ranging from the ecstatic (W. H. Auden, C. The Black Panther Essay? S. Lewis) to the damning (E. Wilson, E. Muir, P. Toynbee) and just about Recovering everything in between. The BBC put on a drastically condensed radio adaptation in 12 episodes on the Third Programme. In 1956 radio was still a dominant medium in Britain, and the Third Programme was the “intellectual” channel. Essay? So far from losing money, sales so exceeded the break-even point as to make Tolkien regret that he had not taken early retirement. However, this was still based only upon hardback sales. The really amazing moment was when The Lord of the Rings went into marido de anne hathaway e shakespeare a pirated paperback version in Essay, 1965. Firstly, this put the book into the impulse-buying category; and secondly, the publicity generated by the copyright dispute alerted millions of of "Last Man Standing" and "Street example, American readers to Panther Impact the existence of Recovering, something outside their previous experience, but which appeared to speak to their condition. By 1968 The Lord of the Rings had almost become the Bible of the “Alternative Society”.
This development produced mixed feelings in the author. On the one hand, he was extremely flattered, and to his amazement, became rather rich. On the The Black Panther Essay, other, he could only deplore those whose idea of a great trip was to ingest The Lord of the Rings and LSD simultaneously. Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick had similar experiences with 2001: A Space Odyssey . Fans were causing increasing problems; both those who came to gawp at A Comparison Fight" example, his house and those, especially from California who telephoned at 7 p.m. (their time – 3 a.m. his), to demand to The Black Impact know whether Frodo had succeeded or failed in the Quest, what was the preterite of Quenyan lanta -, or whether or not Balrogs had wings. So he changed addresses, his telephone number went ex-directory, and eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth, a pleasant but uninspiring South Coast resort (Hardy’s “Sandbourne”), noted for in the century, rates united states the number of Impact, its elderly well-to-do residents. Meanwhile the cult, not just of Tolkien, but of the fantasy literature that he had revived, if not actually inspired (to his dismay), was really taking off – but that is another story, to be told in another place. Despite all the greek god apollo, fuss over The Lord of the Rings , between 1925 and his death Tolkien did write and The Black Impact Essay, publish a number of other articles, including a range of scholarly essays, many reprinted in The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays (see above); one Middle-earth related work, The Adventures of marido de anne hathaway, Tom Bombadil ; editions and translations of Middle English works such as the Ancrene Wisse , Sir Gawain , Sir Orfeo and The Pearl , and some stories independent of the Legendarium, such as the Imram , The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm’s Son , The Lay of Impact, Aotrou and Itroun – and, especially, Farmer Giles of Ham , Leaf by Niggle , and Smith of Wootton Major . The flow of publications was only temporarily slowed by Tolkien’s death.
The long-awaited Silmarillion , edited by Christopher Tolkien, appeared in 1977. In 1980 Christopher also published a selection of his father’s incomplete writings from his later years under the marido e shakespeare, title of Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-earth . In the introduction to this work Christopher Tolkien referred in Impact Essay, passing to The Book of Lost Tales , “itself a very substantial work, of the utmost interest to one concerned with the origins of Middle-earth, but requiring to be presented in a lengthy and complex study, if at all” ( Unfinished Tales , p. De Anne? 6, paragraph 1). The sales of The Silmarillion had rather taken George Allen Unwin by surprise, and those of Panther, Unfinished Tales even more so. Obviously, there was a market even for this relatively abstruse material and they decided to risk embarking on marido this “lengthy and Essay, complex study”. Facts? Even more lengthy and complex than expected, the resulting 12 volumes of the History of Middle-earth , under Christopher’s editorship, proved to be a successful enterprise. (Tolkien’s publishers had changed hands, and names, several times between the start of the enterprise in 1983 and The Black Impact, the appearance of the paperback edition of Recovering From Essay, Volume 12, The Peoples of Middle-earth , in Panther Essay, 1997.) After his retirement in 1959 Edith and Ronald moved to A Comparison and "Street Fight" example Bournemouth. On 29 November 1971 Edith died, and Ronald soon returned to Oxford, to rooms provided by Merton College. Ronald died on 2 September 1973.
He and Edith are buried together in a single grave in the Catholic section of The Black Panther Impact Essay, Wolvercote cemetery in the northern suburbs of Oxford. (The grave is well signposted from the growth comic free, entrance.) The legend on the headstone reads: Edith Mary Tolkien, Luthien, 1889-1971. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892-1973. Tolkien: A Biography . Humphrey Carpenter. Allen and Unwin, London, 1977. Letters of J.R.R. Essay? Tolkien . Ed.
Humphrey Carpenter with Christopher Tolkien. George Allen and Unwin, London, 1981. The Tolkien Family Album . John Tolkien and Priscilla Tolkien. In The Voting United States Have? HarperCollins, London, 1992. “ Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892-1973). ” T. A. Shippey. Oxford Dictionary of Panther Impact, National Biography , Oxford University Press. Print 2004. Online 2006. (Also available as a podcast.)
The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide . Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull. HarperCollins, London, 2006. 2 vols. President in perpetuo : Prof. J.R.R. In The In The States Have? Tolkien CBE.
Vice President: Priscilla Tolkien. The Tolkien Society is a registered charity (registration no 273809) in England and Wales.