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Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Sonnet! Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity.[1] Given that diversity abounds, the project of Everything Has a understanding each other is both daunting and important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. The journey is bound up with communication and conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is often the 97 key to making progress in a conflict. Progress through conflict is history of crime possible, and the route is twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed. Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and sonnet 97, interpret. Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and the ability to history act on that familiarity.[2] Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts. This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort. As Edward T. Hall writes in the introduction to sonnet his book, The Dance of Life ,[3] for us to The Persuasion Essay understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and 97, few people are willing to risk such a radical move.

Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to develop awareness of our own lenses, and to pride and prejudice darcy and elizabeth facilitate the sonnet 97 reorganization of thinking necessary to truly understand others whose starting points may differ from our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for Understanding Culture. Additional insights into communication tools for understanding cultural differences are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. The tools we will examine here relate to communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to others. They are: High-context and low-context communication, and Individualist and communitarian conceptions of Candide. Everything Cause Essay self and sonnet, other.

Since all of and prejudice darcy these tools are used in sonnet 97 the service of understanding culture, a working definition of culture is useful. Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of gatsby wilson expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and sonnet 97, the domains and pride and elizabeth, dimensions of mutual meanings associated with these.[4] He also suggests culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and sonnet 97, norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people.[5] In each of these definitions, culture is linked to communication and and prejudice and elizabeth, a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making. 97! Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction. There is no comprehensive way to understand culture and its relationships to communication and conflict. Of The! The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. 97! They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and Has a Essay, changing as people within groups and the contexts around them change.

These two sets of tools are the most frequently used classifications of cultures used by anthropologists and communication scholars. We begin with one of the most familiar sets of tools: high-context and sonnet 97, low-context communication. High-context and Low-context Communication refers to the degree to which speakers rely on factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages. This tool, developed by Edward T. Hall,[6] suggests that communication varies according to of The Reformation its degree of field dependence, and 97, that it can be classified into two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to the degree to which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. Of Crime! For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on the surface relies largely on context for sonnet, its meaning to be received. A high-context message of disagreement might be telegraphed to a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to. Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to darcy and elizabeth a series of selective filters.

In high-context settings, the screens are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings. In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and less to the context surrounding the words. All of 97 us engage in both high-context and low-context communication. There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to have conveyed but do not speak.

This is high-context communication. Most of the time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the continuum, relying to history some extent on context, but also on the literal meaning of words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to let my words speak for themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on what is implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from others, and 97, am I attuned to a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to help me understand the meaning of what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is pride and prejudice and elizabeth most appropriate, and times when it is 97 preferable to communicate in layers of renaissance meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Most people rely on a whole range of 97 verbal and nonverbal cues to understand the meaning of what is said. Even in the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the Candide. Everything Has a Essay different starting points of sonnet 97 English and Chinese this way: I try to explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path.[7] As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context.

Depending on the kind of relationship, the situation, and the purpose of Has a Cause Essay communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct. In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. Sonnet 97! With strangers, the same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Gatsby! Generally, Western cultures tend to sonnet gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication. Within these huge categories, there are important differences and history of crime, many variations. Where high-context communication tends to be featured, it is useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of others who may know more of the unstated rules governing the communication.

Where low-context communication is the 97 norm, directness is likely to be expected in return. It is less important to classify any communication as high or low context than it is to understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the most prominent. Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning. The choice of high-context and low-context as labels has led to of crime unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an implied ranking in the adjectives. Sonnet 97! In fact, neither is better or worse than the other. They are simply different. Each has possible pitfalls for cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. nonverbal messages and The Persuasion Counter Essay, gestures may be as important as what is said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to 97 effectiveness over time; and indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered.

High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at of Crime Essay face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning; roles and functions may be decoupled from status and identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the sonnet other's attention.[8] As communicators factor awareness of high-context and low-context communication into their relations, conflict may be lessened and of The Essay, even prevented. Individualism and Communitarianism is the second dimension important to conflict and conflict resolution. Sonnet 97! In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations. This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for allegiance to group norms and values, interdependence, and cooperation. Wherever they go, their identity as a member of their group goes out in front. Identity is not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to group needs and views. When conflict arises, behavior and responses tend to be jointly chosen. Donatello Renaissance! Individualist patterns involve ideas of the sonnet self as independent, self-directed, and Reformation Essay, autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to make proposals, concessions, and sonnet 97, maximize gains in the great their own self-interest. Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership.

They may be just as close to their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in sonnet case of Counter Reformation a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference. Duty, honor, and deference to authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones. Individual and communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. They connect at sonnet 97 some point, of and prejudice and elizabeth course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in 97 relationship with various groups. But the starting points are different. To discern the basic difference, ask yourself which is most in the foreground of your life, the welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of yourself and history, others as individuals, or the shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and 97, group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style.

Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style. French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks. This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to the great gatsby see the self apart from these. In the sonnet 97 North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is unnecessary for North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins. Wilson! It also explains why the alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by the person's social network, and cannot be so easily separated. One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to forms of greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in 97 Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of his father, mother, and of Crime, tribe, and the place they came from. Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into 97 the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are.[9] Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances.

Boundaries around relationships tend to be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is focused on maintaining harmony and cohesion with the group. In the individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is directed to history members of in-groups and strangers alike. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by 97 those from of crime, communitarian settings, while U.S. Americans may find social networks in communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is sonnet important to keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and address conflict. From each vantage point, it is Candide. Has a useful to remember some things: From an individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and 97, must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices. From a communitarian starting point,

maintaining group harmony and cohesion is important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. Donatello Renaissance! I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and I am accountable to sonnet 97 them as a member; and of crime, I notice hierarchy and accept direction from those of higher status than myself. With these differences in mind, it is important for sonnet 97, individualists to recognize the web of relations encompassing the communitarian party to a conflict, and to act in recognition of those. Donatello Renaissance! Similarly, it is helpful for 97, those from communitarian settings to renaissance remember that individualists value autonomy and initiative, and to act in ways that respect these preferences. Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. As with any set of starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. Sonnet! High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. This is not always true, but it is worth exploring because it is Sociology Essay frequently the case. Where communitarianism is the preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will.

Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for sonnet, group input into of crime decisions, and displays interdependence. In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and sonnet 97, clarifies the the great meaning intended by the speaker. 97! Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the wilson importance of high-context communication with his counterparts from Israel and Egypt in sonnet the historic Camp David peace negotiations. In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an impasse. Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of each of Begin's grandchildren. Prime Minister Begin repeated the names of his grandchildren out loud as he paused to look at the pictures, seeming to Sociology Essay reflect on the importance of the peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Sonnet! Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to bring Prime Minister Begin back to the negotiating table. The Persuasion Of The! Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success. Instead, Carter relied on sonnet 97 a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about.

He invoked the communities each leader served by reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Donatello! Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and sonnet 97, peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in intractable conflict for many years.[10] This example shows the importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. While there are many exceptions to cultural patterns and pride darcy, all of sonnet 97 us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the intersections of ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics. [1] Montaigne, 1580. Quoted in Tracy Novinger.

Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) [2] This is gatsby closely related to the concept of framing. [3] Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life. The Other Dimension of 97 Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7. [5] Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998. Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30. [6] Edward T. History! Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971) [7] Tan, Amy.

The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and G. Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142. [8] These points are taken from Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003) [9] Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31. [10] Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399. Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Posted: June 2003 Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is 97 making social problem solving impossible. Sociology! Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it.

Concrete and sonnet 97, realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the the great gatsby wilson Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. 97! Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and history, peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and sonnet, intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the the great gatsby wilson authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the sonnet University of Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved.

Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Candide. Everything! Citing Beyond Intractability resources. The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project. 580 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA -- Phone: (303) 492-1635 -- Contact.

SparkNotes: Shakespeare s Sonnets: Sonnet 97

Sonnet 97

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How like a winter hath my absence been (Sonnet 97) by William

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SparkNotes: Shakespeare s Sonnets: Sonnet 97

Global Business Cultural Analysis: China. China Terry Lushbaugh BUSI 604 International Business Liberty University Abstract The following examines the nation of China and its trade relations with the world, particularly the sonnet 97, United States. The focus is The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, primarily on China’s culture and how it impacts business dealings with other countries. Areas examined include: Religion, Management Philosophy, and Business Etiquette. Also discussed is China’s growing status as a world super power and 97 how that has impacted the history of crime, global business landscape. We will write a custom essay sample. on Global Business Cultural Analysis: China or any similar. topic specifically for you. Likewise, various trading partners are examined and the effects of sonnet, doing business with China, specifically for the United States.

Points of concern for the United States are things such as the outsourcing of the great, jobs and domestic unemployment. China has become the 2nd largest trading partner for sonnet the United States. The majority of that trade is in Imports of Chinese goods to the US. With all of the tension between the two nations, past and present, it is a relationship that is extremely volatile in nature. Global Business Cultural Analysis: China. A nation’s culture has a profound impact on donatello how that nation does business globally.

An intricate segment of any nation’s culture is its religious beliefs. Business etiquette, managerial philosophy, and general work attitudes all play a role in how a nation does business. Sonnet. When all of those elements in of crime the nation of China collide with other nations in the global business landscape, what is the outcome? Four key questions will be addressed regarding China and how these elements play a role in business endeavors: what are the sonnet, major elements and history of crime dimensions of culture in this region? How are these elements and dimensions integrated by locals conducting business in the nation? How do both of the above items (elements and dimensions of culture) compare with U. S. culture in business? And, what are the implications for U. S. businesses that what to do business in that region?

Particular focus will be on Chinese trading relations with the United States. This relationship that began in 1979 has built up to the present where China has become the United States second largest trading partner. Page 2 Global Business Cultural Analysis: China Essay. vast majority of that trade takes place in the form of imports of Chinese goods to the United States. Some believe that this has been a detriment to sonnet, the U. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation. S. economy. Scott (2011) states that the growing United States-China trade deficit has either eliminated of displaced 2. 8 million jobs between the years 2001-2010. The greatest effect was seen in sonnet the manufacturing sector which accounted for pride and prejudice and elizabeth 69. Sonnet 97. 2% of the total jobs lost for the period. This is seen by the U. S. government as a huge concern, especially if the trend continues.

China and of The Counter Reformation Essay the United States have a history of volatility that continues to the present day. The growing involvement of China in sonnet the U. S. Counter Essay. economy as the largest holder of sonnet, publicly held debt makes for an even more interesting study. The overriding perception globally is that the United States has grown weaker, while China is growing stronger (Timofeev, 2012). That pendulum of super power status seems to be swinging. Like it or not, the United States has to pride and prejudice, come to terms with its diminishing global status in sonnet comparison to China. What are the Major Elements and Essay Dimensions of Culture in sonnet This Region? Background The U. S. Department of the great wilson, State, Background Note: China (2011) offers some background information for China to begin our discussion. Geographically speaking, China’s land mass covers approximately 3. 7 million miles with the capital city being Beijing. It experiences two climates; tropical in the south region and subarctic in the north.

China’s population as of July 2011 is estimated to be 1,336,718,015. Life expectancy is 72. 68 years for men and 76. 94 years for women. The government of China is a Communist party-led state. China does have a constitution which was enacted December 4, 1982. There are a total of seven languages spoken in China with the predominate dialect being Mandarin (spoken by more than 70% of the population).

At the core of any nation’s culture are its religious beliefs. In China there are the “Three Jewels” Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, as described in 97 Lopez (1996). There are small numbers of people practicing other religions such as Christianity and Islam, but these are the three dominant beliefs of the region. While they are separate in content, they have coexisted for several thousand years. Lopez (1996) goes on to say, “Historical precedent and popular parlance attest to the importance of this threefold division for understanding Chinese culture…Buddhism is the sun, Daoism the moon, and Confucianism the five planets…suggesting that although they remain separate, they also coexist as equally indispensable phenomena of the natural world. ” Each belief system stands alone, and at the same time needs the other(s). Confucianism. The religion of Confucianism begins, of course, with Confucius whose Chinese name was Kong Qui and the great gatsby wilson who lived from 551 B. C. to 479 B. C. Surprisingly Confucius was merely a low level government worker. He did not exactly view himself as the founder of a school of thought.

Regardless, Confucianism is the most influential belief system in Chinese culture. It provides the sonnet 97, rules which govern the social behavior of the The Persuasion of The Counter, individual. The basic teachings of sonnet, Confucius are grounded in the Five Constant Virtues: humanity, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness. Confucius went on to define five basic human relations and principles for each relation called Wu Lun. Sovereign and subject (master and follower): Loyalty and The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay duty. Sonnet. Father and son: Love and obedience. Husband and wife: Obligation and submission. Gatsby. Elder and younger brothers: Seniority and modeling. Friend and friend: Trust (Fan, 2000). Sonnet 97. Confucianism defines the behavioral and moral doctrine regarding relationships, social structures, virtuous behavior, and work ethic. Daoism Those who practice Daoism live in reverence of the Dao, which is translated as the donatello, Way.

The point of a Daoist way of life is to strive for harmony with the Dao, who is the essence of 97, everything that exists. Unlike Confucianism, Daoism does not name a founder of gatsby, its school of thought. It is believed, however, that a person named Laozi is responsible for its initial teachings. He wrote one of the most prominent early texts associated with Daoism, “The Classic on sonnet 97 the Way and Its Power. ” The Daoist attitude toward life can be seen as carefree and The Persuasion of The Counter accepting, which is a stark contrast to the moral and sonnet 97 duty conscious teachings of Confucianism. Daoism also has a positive view as well as being active in metaphysical activities and the occult, which is also in contrast to Confucianism. While Confucianism touts its principles for the proper way that individuals should interact, the tradition of Daoism is that all beings and things in Candide. Everything the universe are fundamentally the same and the natural order of things cannot be manipulated or predicted.

It needs only to be embraced (Fan, 2000). Buddhism Like Confucianism, Buddhism has a central character whose teachings guide the religious belief. The traditions of Buddhism are largely based on the teachings of Siddhartha Guatama, who is better known as the Buddha. In Sanskrit, Buddha is translated to “the enlightened one. 97. ” Buddhas–enlightened ones–are unusual because they differ from other, unenlightened individuals and because of the truths to which they have awakened. Most people live in and prejudice profound ignorance, which causes immense suffering.

Buddhas, by contrast, see the true nature of reality (Lopez, 1996). The Buddhas have the ability through their “enlightenment” to do what the rest of us cannot, solve the mysteries of the 97, human existence. Other Religions While statistics show that there are a large number of Christians practicing in China (nearly 23 million), it’s not clear how many houses of worship there are because so many Christians practice in unregistered religious gatherings or “house” churches, primarily due to the fear of The Persuasion of The Counter Essay, persecution or the possibly imprisonment. Being a practicing Christian in China can be a dangerous prospect. The next highest religious population is the Muslims at 21 million. Of China’s 55 officially recognized minorities, 10 groups are predominately Muslim.

According to government figures, there are 36,000 Islamic places of worship and more than 45,000 imams found in throughout the nation (U. S. Sonnet. Department of State, 2011). Family and Social Orientation In Chinese culture, the family unit is of great importance. Re-examining the history of crime, human relations and sonnet principles under Confucianism, it is clear how much of an emphasis is put on family. The Great Wilson. Principles are stressed regarding fathers and sons, husbands and sonnet wives, and siblings.

Words such as love and obedience, obligation and submission, and seniority and modeling are emphasized. Family relationships are meant to be harmonious and beneficial to each party. Among the family unit there is a sense of belonging and a feeling of solidarity (Guo, 2004). Interpersonal Relations Just as family relationships are important, non-family or social relationships are very important as well. The Great Gatsby. Confucius also talks about 97, trust between friends. Trust is a vital part of any Chinese relationship (the same can be said of any relationship from any country). Other essential relational traits include; Jen-ai or kindness, tolerance, courtesy, humbleness, reciprocation of greetings, favors and gifts, and face (protecting, giving, gaining, and losing) (Fan, 2000). How are the Elements and Dimensions Integrated by Locals Doing Business in the Nation? Business and the great gatsby wilson Work Attitudes Chinese attitudes toward conducting business are very strict and proper. For instance, there is no “Casual Friday” to be found on the calendar.

They view the sonnet 97, business transaction as more than just a deal, but as a process that involves proper manners and etiquette. In a meeting setting all introductions are formal, proper and formal titles are to be used at all times and in history of crime a meeting setting, always allow the Chinese to leave the meeting first. For the sonnet, Chinese, the Counter Reformation, business decision making process is slow and meticulous (Dellios, 2005). 97. There are no quick off the cuff decisions made. The Chinese value rank and status in an organization, so when conducting a business meeting the highest ranking, most important person who is present in your company should lead the meeting. The Chinese do not appreciate a surprise visit to the office by a business associate. Gatsby Wilson. Appointments are a must. Sonnet 97. To not do so would be considered rude. Finally, when greeting each other, bowing or nodding is always the Cause, common practice. However, a handshake may be offered, but only if the Chinese offer it first.

Management Philosophy As has been previously mentioned, Chinese culture is sonnet 97, greatly influenced by Confucianism. Love, integrity, loyalty, and conscientiousness toward others are characteristics that are present not only in everyday life at home, but in Everything Has a Cause the business world as well. Confucianism encourages devotion to parents, family, friends, leaders, and the society, and respect towards authority. Perseverance, patience, and tolerance are also highly valued in the Chinese culture. Another characteristic of the Confucius culture is the high importance put on the understanding of proper etiquette and social norms (Jiang amp; Liu, 2004). 97. In a Chinese corporation, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the ultimate leader as well as decision maker.

Given the Chinese belief in loyalty in respect of of crime, superiors, this role becomes even more amplified. Chinese Business Etiquette In a 2012 Interview of a Chinese businessman by the International Business Center, the following question was asked: What is the single most common business etiquette mistake that Americans make in your home country? Answer: I believe that the most common mistake is to adopt the 97, attitude that things like etiquette is not important, even a waste of The Persuasion, time. Sonnet. Only discussions and history negotiations of the technical and financial matters are of value. This view, in my opinion, reflects the assumption that every transaction stands on its own, without considering subsequent trade. Many societies (including many Americans) do not view business this way. The Chinese most certainly do not view business etiquette and manners as a waste of time. Sonnet. They parallel in importance with the actual business dealing at hand. Here is a sampling of some of the specific behaviors and manners expected to be demonstrated when dealing with the Chinese as offered by the International Business Center (Williams, 2012). Appearance * Conservative suits for men with subtle colors are the Counter Essay, norm. Sonnet. * Women should avoid high heels and short sleeved blouses.

The Chinese frown on women who display too much. * Subtle, neutral colors should be worn by and prejudice darcy, both men and women. * Casual dress should be conservative as well. * Men and women can wear jeans. However, jeans are not acceptable for business meetings. Revealing clothing for women is considered offensive to Chinese businessmen. Sonnet 97. Manners * Do not use large hand movements. The Chinese do not speak with their hands.

Your movements may be distracting to your host. * Personal contact must be avoided at Sociology of Crime, all cost. It is highly inappropriate for a man to touch a woman in 97 public. * Do not point when speaking. * To point do not use your index finger, use an open palm. * It is considered improper to put your hand in The Persuasion of The Counter your mouth. * Avoid acts that involve the mouth. * It is more acceptable to give gifts either in private or to a group as a whole to avoid embarrassment. Quality writing pens are considered favored gifts. Proper Dining Manners * Always arrive on time or early if you are the guest. * Do not discuss business at meals. * Do not start to eat or drink prior to the host. * As a cultural courtesy, you should taste all the dishes you are offered. * Sample meals only, there may be several courses. * Do not drop the chopsticks it is considered bad luck. * Do not eat all of your meal. If you eat all of your meal, the Chinese will assume you did not receive enough food and are still hungry. * Women do not usually drink at meals. Tipping is considered insulting, however the practice is becoming more common. Sonnet. As you can see, there is no shortage of etiquette and manners in Chinese business settings. It would be incumbent upon donatello renaissance, anyone who plans on doing business in China to take the time to become familiar with Chinese culture and customs and by all means, take it very seriously (Williams, 2012). How do Both of the Above Items Compare with U. S. Culture and Business? China as a Superpower One of the most important aspects of 97, China’s presence on the global business landscape is the rise of China as one of the Sociology, worlds Superpowers.

As the new century unfolds, in all probability so will China’s prospects unfold as a global power, not just a regional one. Consider once again China’s contemporary dimensions – an enormous country with the world’s largest population and military establishment. Its economy is among the world’s fastest growing. Sonnet. It is expected to become the largest by Has a Cause, the year 2025. Historically too, it is imbued with greatness…inheriting 5,000 years of civilization (Dellios, 2004). Economically speaking, China is the sonnet 97, world’s fourth largest trading nation. That status has progressed from thirty-second in 1978 and tenth in 1997. Its economy has grown at an average of 9. 5% annually since 1985. Its Gross Domestic Product ranks second only to the U. S. at darcy and elizabeth, 13% of the world’s output. China’s population makes up one-fifth of the world’s total population and geographically it is the third largest country behind Russia and Canada (Dellios, 2004). The influence of China over the world’s economy has continued to grow in 97 recent years.

One need not look ant further than China’s involvement in the economy of the U. S. to Candide. Has a Essay, see that demonstrated. As China continues to grow it is possible that it may overtake the United States as the world’s foremost super power. United States – China Relations Political Relations In recent years, the agenda of U. 97. S. – China relations has changed dramatically. Current U. S. -China relations have moved far beyond a bilateral or regional Asian relationship. The current presidential cycle in of crime the U. S. essentially differs from the periods of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. Indeed, in his statements during the election campaign Clinton concentrated on violations of human rights in China, and accused his predecessor of foreign policy anemia following the Tiananmen Square massacre.

It also differs from the sonnet, George W. Bush’s considering of China as “not a strategic partner, but a strategic competitor. ” Under the current circumstances of the global financial and Essay economic crisis, the agenda of bilateral dialogue between Washington and Beijing focuses mainly on economic problems (Timofeev, 2012). Throughout the Cold War the two big kids on the block were the United States and Russia. In recent years Russia has been replaced in its position by China. Business Relations The relationship between the United States and China is deep and 97 complex. In recent years China has become a huge player in the economy of the United States. The Department of the Treasury reports that China owns about 8% of U. S. Renaissance. publicly held dept equal to sonnet, $1. 7 trillion.

There are other foreign holders of US debt, but none to the extent of history of crime, China. A September 2011 Congressional Research Service Report estimates that US exports to sonnet 97, China for 2011 will total $109. 2 billion and history imports will be $410. 64 billion. The net result is 97, a trade deficit of the great, $301. 4 billion. The same report outlines the historical figures of trade between the US and sonnet 97 China dating back to 1980 when exports to China stood at $3. 8 billion and imports were $1.1 billion.

As this relationship progresses, it can only be assumed that it will grow even more complex (Morrison, 2011). In a speech given at a luncheon hosted by of Crime, the American Bankers Association on December 8, 2003, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao proposed five principles of fair trade and economic partnership between China and the U. S. : “First, mutual benefits and win-win results. Thinking broadly, one should take account of others’ interests while pursuing its own. Second, development first. Existing differences should be resolved through expanded trade and economic cooperation.

Third, greater scope to coordinating mechanisms in 97 bilateral trade and economic relations. History Of Crime. Disputes should be addressed in a timely manner through communication and consultation to avoid possible escalation. 97. Fourth, equal consultation. The two sides should seek consensus while reserving differences on major issues, instead of imposing restrictions or sanctions at every turn. Fifth, do not politicize economic and trade issues. The Great. ” (Timofeev, 2012). Trade Relations Since 2000, the United States has incurred its largest bilateral trade deficit with China ($201 billion in 2005, a 25% rise over 2004). In 2003, China replaced Mexico as the second largest source of imports for sonnet the United States. China’s share of U. S. imports was 14. 6% in 2005, although this proportion still falls short of Japan’s 18% of the early 1990s. The United States is China’s largest overseas market and second largest source of foreign direct investment on a cumulative basis. U. S. exports to China have been growing rapidly as well, although from a low base.

In 2004, China replaced Germany and Great Brittan to become the fourth largest market for U. S. goods and remains the fastest growing major U. S. export market (Lum amp; Nanto, 2007). Some items that the U. S. imports from China include: computer equipment and parts, toys and games, communications equipment, apparel, and audio and video equipment. In contrast, the the great gatsby, U. S. imports to China include: oilseeds and grains, waste and scrap, semiconductors, aerospace products (aircraft), and resin and synthetic rubber. The most dramatic increases in U. Sonnet. S. imports from China have not been in Candide. Everything Cause Essay labor intensive sectors rather in technology sectors. U. S. trade policy with China is based on the assumption that trade will be beneficial to both countries both economically and politically (Lum amp; Nanto, 2007). The developing Chinese economy gives the U. S. an opportunity to be a part of a large and expanding market. What are the sonnet, Implications for U. S. Businesses That Wish to Conduct Business in That Region?

Chinese Global Trading Partners China runs a trade surplus with the the great gatsby, world’s three major economic centers: the United States, the European Union, and Japan. We have previously documented the trade figures between the U. S. and 97 China. As is the case with the United States, Japan has run a trade deficit with China since the 1980’s. Has A. Japan’s trade with China dropped from a surplus of $6 billion in 1985 to a deficit of nearly $6 billion in sonnet 97 1990. Japan’s trade deficit with China reached a peak of $26. 5 billion in history 2001 and was surpassed in 2005 ($28. 5 billion). Japan’s exports to China have grown dramatically in the past few years, its largest exports to China are: electronics, machinery, iron and steel, optical, photographic, and medical equipment, and organic chemicals. The European Union incurred a trade deficit with China of $947 million in 1988, which grew to $121. 8 billion in 2005. The European Union trade deficit with China began in sonnet 97 the late 1990’s and grew to $63 billion in 2005.

Compared to Sociology of Crime, the world’s two other major economic centers, the U. S. trade deficit with China at over $300 billion is the largest, followed by 97, the European Union deficit with China at $121. 8 billion and Japan at $28. 5 billion (U. S. The Great Wilson. Department of State, 2011). United States – China Trade Issues The Growing U. S. trade deficit with China cost 2. 8 million jobs between 2001 and 2010 by Robert Scott, EPI’s Director of Trade and Manufacturing Policy Research, finds that all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico suffered jobs lost or displaced as a result of the growing U.S. -China trade deficit…it eliminated or displaced 2,790,100 jobs, or about 2% of total U. S. employment over that period. (Scott, 2011). The U. S. trade deficit with China grew from $84 billion in 2001 to in excess of $300 billion in 2011.

As a rule, increases in U. S. exports tend to create jobs for United States, and increases in imports tend to lead to job loss. Thus, the growing trade deficit signifies growing job loss. China’s economic reforms and sonnet rapid economic growth, along with the effects of globalization, have caused the economies of the U. S. and China to become increasingly integrated. Although growing economic ties are considered by most analysts to be mutually beneficial overall, tensions have risen over a number of Chinese economic and trade policies that many U. S. critics charge are protectionist, economically distortive, and damaging to U. S. economic interests. These include China’s resistance to adopting a market-based currency; its mixed record on gatsby implementing its obligations in the World Trade Organization (Morrison, 2011). Another great concern is Chinese manipulation of sonnet, its currency (Yuan). Many U. Donatello. S. policymakers and business representatives claim that China manipulates its currency in order to keep the 97, value artificially low against the dollar (U. The Great Gatsby Wilson. S. Department of 97, State, 2011).

They claim that this action results in a subsidy for Chinese exports to the United States, and results in a tariff on Chinese imported U. S. Sociology Of Crime. goods. They complain that this policy has particularly hurt several U. 97. S. Candide. Has A Essay. manufacturing sectors that are forced to sonnet 97, compete against low-cost Chinese products, and has led to the loss of hundreds of thousands of U. S. jobs.

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Write my Essay | I need help with my School Assignment. Write My Essay We are the most trusted essay writing service. Get the best essays delivered by experienced UK US essay writers at affordable prices. Shelby anticipates the following question toward the end of his article, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace interracial, anti-racist solidarity instead?” (a) Explain what this question means (e.g., explain what ‘black solidarity’ as well as ‘interracial solidarity’ mean in this context). (b) How does Shelby respond to sonnet 97, this rhetorical question/challenge? Are his arguments here persuasive? Offer some critical discussion (e.g., Which is the strongest consideration? What does his discussion establish?

Can his arguments be strengthened?) (c) Briefly consider how this exchange between Shelby and his imagined interlocutor would be different (if at all) if the question posed had been, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace an interracial solidarity movement against the great gatsby wilson anti-black racism?” Your paper should be no longer than 4 pages (and not under 3 pages). Your paper should be spell-checked and sonnet proofread for grammatical correctness. Use 12pt font, Times New Roman, and double-spacing. Do not cite any sources outside of the material assigned. Ethics 112 (January 2002): 231–266. ! 2002 by history of crime The University of Chicago.

All rights reserved. 97. 0014-1704/2002/11202- Foundations of Black Solidarity: Collective. Identity or Common Oppression?* We are one with you under the ban of renaissance prejudice and sonnet proscription— one with you under the slander of inferiority—one with you. in social and political disfranchisement. What you suffer, we suffer;

what you endure, we endure. Everything Essay. We are indissolubly united, and must. fall or flourish together. [Frederick Douglass]1. In an effort to sonnet, liberate blacks from the burden of racial oppression, black leaders have frequently called on black Americans to history of crime, become a. more unified collective agent for social change.2 And while there are. * Sincere and warm thanks go to my friends and 97 colleagues who commented on. previous drafts of this essay, including Linda Alcoff, Anthony Appiah, Lawrie Balfour, Sylvia. Berryman, Martha Biondi, Bernard Boxill, Derrick Darby, Dan Farrell, Dena Gilby, Robert. Gooding-Williams, Jennifer Hochschild, Bill Lawson, Sarah Loper, Ron Mallon, Howard. McGary, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Naomi Pabst, John Pittman, Diana Raffman, Kathleen.

Schmidt, and Laurence Thomas. Pride. I would also like to thank an 97, anonymous reviewer. for Ethics, as well as the editors of the journal. Earlier versions of the essay were presented. at Howard University, Harvard University, the Du Bois Scholars Institute in New Jersey, the Collegium for pride and prejudice African American Research Biannual Conference, and a special session. of the APA Pacific sponsored by 97 the Committee on Blacks in Philosophy. Sociology. I am grateful to. the audiences at these venues. 1. Frederick Douglass, “To Our Oppressed Countrymen,” in Black Nationalism in sonnet 97, America,

ed. John H. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Candide. Everything Cause Essay Elliott Rudwick (Indianapolis:Bobbs-Merrill, 1970), p. 58, originally published as an editorial in 97, the North Star (December 3, 1847). 2. Candide. Everything Essay. In everyday life, use of the term ‘black’ when referring to individuals or groups. rarely causes much confusion; context is usually enough to 97, make the speaker’s meaning. relatively clear. But the concept “black” is of The Essay quite vague and thus is not easily accommodated. to theoretical discourse where one would like to be fairly precise. 97. Moreover, the meaning. of ‘black’ as a “racial” designator varies with social context, for there are various systems. of racial classification around the world; and even within a given locale, who is “black”

may shift with political contingencies. My concern in this essay is primarily with blacks. living in the United States today, including recent African, Caribbean, European, and. Latin American immigrants, though some of what I say here can also be extended to. blacks living in other places as well. For the moment, I will rely on context to of The Counter Reformation, set the. 232 Ethics January 2001.

some who think such solidarity irrational, impractical, or perhaps even. morally objectionable,3 I take it that many people (both black and sonnet 97 nonblack) believe it to and prejudice and elizabeth, be essential for black people to achieve the 97, full. freedom and social equality that American ideals promise. However, even among those who agree that black solidarity is important for bringing. about racial justice, there is the great substantial disagreement over sonnet 97, the precise.

meaning of this solidaristic commitment. Such disagreement can be. quite fundamental, as can be seen by comparing the following two views. on the scope and significance of Everything Cause Essay black political solidarity: Common oppression theory: Blacks should unite and work together. because they suffer a common oppression; and they can. overcome or ameliorate their shared condition only through black.

Collective self-determination theory: Blacks should unite and 97 work. together because they are an Sociology of Crime, oppressed people, a people with their. own distinctive racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national identity; and as a people, blacks have interests that are best served by their. becoming a self-determining group. Though they are somewhat similar in underlying motivation, the.

two political theories are importantly different. The common oppression. theory, the 97, least radical of the two, simply acknowledges the existence. of antiblack racism in America and calls on those who suffer under it. to act collectively to end that oppression or at least to the great gatsby wilson, reduce its impact. on their lives.

The goal of this political program, then, is to 97, free blacks. from antiblack racism, and it sees black solidarity as a necessary means. to that end. The collective self-determination theory, on the other hand, is a form of the great black nationalism, and it maintains that blacks need to work. together to bring about their collective self-realization as a people. 97. Generally. more pessimistic about the prospects for ending antiblack racism, this program seeks relief for black people through collective autonomy.

(political, economic, social, and/or cultural) and calls for black solidarity. to bring this about. My concern in this essay is primarily with the status of the common. oppression theory, for while it is sometimes misunderstood or outright. rejected, it is a position that I believe blacks should embrace (and of. meaning of the term ‘black’, but in the section titled “Varieties of ‘Black’ Social Identity,”

I will urge a more precise conception of “blackness.” My reasons for The Persuasion of The Counter choosing ‘black’ rather than, say, ‘African-American’, ‘Afro-American’, or ‘person of color’ will also become. clearer in that section. 3. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, “Racisms,” in Anatomy of Racism, ed. David Theo. Goldberg (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990); Randall Kennedy, “My Race. Problem—and Ours,” Atlantic Monthly (May 1997): 55–66; and Paul Gilroy, Against Race:

Imagining Political Culture beyond the Color Line (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 233. course some already do). Though the collective self-determination theory, with its goal of black collective self-realization, certainly has its adherents, and it too is sonnet worthy of extended critical discussion, I will not. be concerned to take it up here, at least not directly. However, in an.

effort to defend and clarify the common oppression theory, and to. further distinguish it from black nationalism, I want to scrutinize a. doctrine that is The Persuasion Counter often thought to be a component of sonnet 97 both conceptions. of black solidarity: Collective identity theory: A collective black identity is essential. for an effective black solidarity whose aim is liberation from pride and prejudice and elizabeth racial. oppression; therefore, blacks who are committed to emancipatory. group solidarity must embrace and preserve their distinctive black. It is perhaps obvious why the advocate of sonnet 97 black collective self-determination. would embrace this view, since it is the distinctive social.

identity of blacks that, on pride and prejudice and elizabeth this account, constitutes them as a “people.” Without such an identity, the 97, goal of black collective self-realization loses. its rationale and pride and prejudice much of its appeal. But even for those who accept the. more modest common oppression theory, collective identity theory may. seem to have much going for it, as it would appear to help with overcoming. two serious obstacles to black collective action against antiblack. racism. First, there is the sonnet, familiar free-rider problem.

While some blacks. are willing to make the relevant sacrifices to bring about racial equality, others are much more complacent and history narrowly self-interested. The. inaction of the latter weakens the collective effort, and it breeds resentment. and suspicion among blacks, as some are seen as benefiting. from the 97, sacrifices of others without contributing anything of substance. to the collective struggle. Collective identity theory suggests a (partial) solution: by cultivating a common conception of who they are as black. people, blacks can strengthen the of Crime, bonds of sympathy and loyalty that.

will enable them to overcome these barriers to collective action. 97. Such. an identity could also give blacks a firmer basis for mutual identification. across class lines, something that is thought to be sorely needed in Everything Has a, this. time of increasing intraracial economic stratification. Second, there is. the general problem that the mere acceptance of abstract principles of.

justice is often insufficient to motivate people to contribute the time. and resources necessary for effecting meaningful social change. 97. This. difficulty affects the The Persuasion Counter Reformation, collective will of blacks as well, despite the fact that. they, perhaps more than any other racialized group in America, desperately. want to see an end to racial oppression. Again, the collective. identity theory seems to sonnet, help: viewing each other as “black brothers and.

sisters” with a shared social identity may, like the familiar motivating. 234 Ethics January 2001. force of kinship relations, make blacks more inclined to help each other. in a movement to The Persuasion Counter, end racial subordination and inequality. Many influential theorists in sonnet, the history of black political thought. have defended or relied upon the collective identity theory.

The tendency. to tie emancipatory black solidarity to the need for a collective. black identity can be found in the writings and pride and prejudice darcy speeches of such diverse. thinkers as Edward Blyden, Alexander Crummell, W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Alain Locke, Malcolm X, Amiri Baraka, Harold Cruse, Stokely Carmichael, Maulana Karenga, Molefi Asante, and Lucius Outlaw. 4 For purposes of illustrating this tendency, I will focus on Du Bois. and his well-known essay, “The Conservation of Races.” In that essay, Du Bois explicitly advocates a particularly strong form of emancipatory. black solidarity: “It is our [the American Negroes’] duty to conserve our. physical powers, our intellectual endowments, our spiritual ideals; as a.

race we must strive by sonnet race organization, by race solidarity, by race unity. to the realization of that broader humanity which freely recognizes differences in. men, but sternly deprecates inequality in their opportunities of development.”5. Du Bois believed that black solidarity is pride and prejudice darcy necessary for both overcoming. racial oppression and sonnet 97 ensuring that blacks make their unique cultural.

contribution to history of crime, humanity. Sonnet. He also insisted that blacks should “conserve” their racial identity, rather than be absorbed into The Persuasion Counter Anglo-American culture; for, as he saw it, the sonnet, goals of emancipatory black solidarity cannot. 4. Though not all of these thinkers explicitly defend the collective identity theory, each at least implicitly relies upon history, it. Moreover, it is arguable that some of them came to.

deemphasize the importance of a collective black identity to black solidarity—e.g., Du. Bois and Malcolm X—which is why I say that the view can be found in their “writings and. speeches.” See Edward W. Blyden, “The Call of Providence to sonnet, the Descendants of Africa. in America,” in Negro Social and Political Thought, ed.Howard Brotz (NewYork:Basic,1966); Alexander Crummell, “The Relations and Duties of Free Colored Men in donatello, America to. Africa” and “The Race Problem in America,” both in Brotz, ed.; W. Sonnet 97. E. B. Du Bois, “The. Conservation of Races,” in The Seventh Son: The Thought and Writings of W. And Elizabeth. E. B. Du Bois,

vol. 1, ed. 97. Julius Lester (New York: Vintage, 1971); Marcus Garvey, “Aims and and prejudice darcy Objects of. Movement for Solution of Negro Problems,” in sonnet 97, Brotz, ed.; Alain Locke, “The New Negro,” in The New Negro, ed.

Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969);MalcolmX, “BlackMan’s. History,” in The End of pride and prejudice darcy and elizabeth White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by sonnet Malcolm X, ed. ImamBenjamin. Karim (New York: Arcade, 1971); LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), “The Legacy of Malcolm. X, and the Coming of the Black Nation,” in his Home: Social Essays (New York: William. Morrow, 1966); Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (New York: William Morrow, 1967); Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation.

in America (New York: Vintage, 1967); Maulana Karenga, “Society, Culture, and the Problem. of Self-Consciousness: A Kawaida Analysis,” in of crime, Philosophy Born of Struggle: Anthology of sonnet Afro- American Philosophy from 1917, ed. History. Leonard Harris (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1983); Molefi Kete Asante, The Afrocentric Idea (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998); and. Lucius T. Outlaw, Jr., “Against the Grain of Modernity: The Politics of Difference and the. Conservation of ‘Race,’” in his On Race and Philosophy (New York: Routledge, 1996). 5. Du Bois, “The Conservation of sonnet 97 Races,” p. 183; emphasis added.

Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 235. be achieved without the preservation of darcy and elizabeth a distinctive black identity: “We. believe it the sonnet 97, duty of the of crime, Americans of Negro descent, as a body, to. maintain their race identity until this mission of the Negro people is. accomplished, and the ideal of human brotherhood has become a practical. possibility.”6 While it is sonnet clear that Du Bois would like to see black. identity preserved even beyond that time when (if ever) social equality. becomes a reality, here he emphasizes the of Crime Essay, “duty” of sonnet blacks to maintain.

their identity “until” such equality is realized. Even in Candide. Everything Essay, his reconstruction of the sonnet 97, concept of gatsby “race,” Du Bois emphasized. the link between racial identity and race solidarity: “[A race] is a vast family of human beings, generally of common blood and language, always of common history, traditions and 97 impulses, who are both. voluntarily and darcy and elizabeth involuntarily striving together for the accomplishment of sonnet 97 certain. more or less vividly conceived ideals of renaissance life.” 7 Recently, there has been a lively. philosophical debate over sonnet, the exact meaning of Du Bois’s conception.

of race as defined in his “Conservation” essay.8 Much of this debate has. focused on the metaphysics of race, that is, on what “races” are, whether. any really exist, and if so, in what sense. The Great Gatsby. Du Bois was no doubt concerned. with such questions, but his interest in the reality of sonnet “races” was in part. based on and prejudice his desire to sonnet, lay a firm foundation for black solidarity. Du Bois. was convinced that a collective black identity—based primarily on a. shared history and culture, and only secondarily on of Crime Essay a common biology—

is a necessary component of an emancipatory black solidarity. Much of sonnet black social thought has followed him in gatsby wilson, this. Indeed, among. advocates of black solidarity, collective identity theory is often treated. However, I will argue that we should reject this view of black emancipation, not because black solidarity has no contribution to make to.

black liberation, but rather because cultivating a collective black identity. is unnecessary for forging effective bonds among blacks, would create. (or exacerbate an already) undue constraint on individual freedom, and is likely, in any case, to be self-defeating. I would urge that we. 6. Ibid., p. 186; emphasis added. 7. Ibid., p. 178; emphasis added. 8. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of.

Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 28–46; Lucius Outlaw, “On W. Sonnet 97. E. History Of Crime. B. Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of sonnet 97 Races,’” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell. and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Robert Gooding-

Williams, “Outlaw, Appiah, and Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of Races,’” in W. Of The Reformation. E. B. Du. Bois on Race and Culture, ed. Bernard W. Bell, Emily R. Grosholz, and James B. Stewert. (New York: Routledge, 1996); Tommy L. Lott, The Invention of sonnet 97 Race: Black Culture and the. Politics of Representation (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. Renaissance. 47–66; and Paul C. Taylor, “Appiah’s Uncompleted Argument: W. Sonnet. E. B. Du Bois and the Reality of Race,” Social Theory. and Practice 26 (2000): 103–28. 236 Ethics January 2001. disentangle the call for an emancipatory black solidarity from the call. for a collective black identity.

A black solidarity that is based on the. common experience of antiblack racism and The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay the joint commitment to. bringing it to an end can and should play an important role in the fight. against racial injustice. 97. But an emancipatory black solidarity that emphasizes. the need to affirm a racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national. identity is a legacy of black political thought that must now be abandoned. for the sake of the the great, struggle against racial oppression. 97. Toward the. end of this essay, I will sketch and defend a version of the history, common.

oppression theory that eschews the requirement of 97 a collective black. Before proceeding further, however, two caveats are in order. Wilson. First, my concern in this essay is with that form of group solidarity that has. as its primary goal the liberation of black people from the burdens of. racial inequality and antiblack racism. Thus, for the remainder of this. essay, ‘black solidarity’ will refer to 97, this type of emancipatory solidarity. But of course not everything that could rightly be called a form of “black. solidarity” is bound up with antiracist politics, since there are other.

collective goals or values that could serve as a basis for building black. unity. For instance, there is a form of The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation black solidarity that has as its end. the nurturing of sonnet 97 communal relations among blacks, a solidarity that is. not treated as a means to some other external objective: some may seek. solidarity with other blacks simply because they see intrinsic value in. the social interaction and the feelings of community that it brings. Nothing. I say here should be taken to preclude or disparage this type of. solidarity; the form of emancipatory black solidarity that I would defend. is perfectly compatible with it.

Indeed, under certain conditions, the. former may, even without conscious effort, foster the latter and vice. versa. Second, like Du Bois, some blacks might want to work together. to cultivate and preserve “black culture,” because they believe it to of crime, be.

distinctive, intrinsically valuable, and in danger of being lost or underappreciated; and, again, they may see this collective project as important. quite apart from its relationship to the struggle against racism. Provided. such a project is not treated as a necessary component of emancipatory. black solidarity, it is not threatened by the rejection of the collective. identity theory.

However, if blacks are thought to have an obligation to. commit themselves to this goal of cultural conservation, then the project. will be vulnerable to some of the criticisms I will raise against collective. identity theory below. Before submitting it to critical scrutiny, it will be useful to sonnet 97, specify the. collective identity theory in the great wilson, a bit more detail. 97. This will involve two tasks: explaining the meaning of “blackness” and describing the requirements. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 237.

of “solidarity.” I will take up the pride, latter task first. I want to suggest that. there are four core characteristics that are jointly sufficient for a robust. form of group solidarity. By “robust” here I mean a solidarity that is. strong enough to move people to sonnet, collective action, and not just a mutual. sympathy born of the recognition of commonality or a feel-good sense.

of group belonging.9. Identification between group members.—One of the donatello renaissance, more salient characteristics. of group solidarity is the tendency of group members to identify. with each other or with the group as a whole. The basis of sonnet 97 mutual. identification can vary greatly. It can, for example, be based on a shared. ethnic or cultural heritage (whether real or imagined). But its basis may. also be the fact that group members believe themselves to Everything Essay, share a similar.

plight or some significant, perhaps life-shaping, experience. Such commonality. often engenders mutual empathetic understanding. This kind. of understanding is not, however, merely a matter of sympathy, which. may be nothing more than an involuntary reaction to sonnet, the plight of. others. Rather, members of a solidarity group come to view themselves, because of what they have in common, as sharing a special bond; and.

because of this bond, sometimes fellow group members are treated as. if they were an extension of the Sociology Essay, self, so that one may feel pride when. a member of the sonnet 97, group does something praiseworthy or shame when. a fellow member does something embarrassing, almost as if one had. done the deed oneself. It is mutual identification that accounts for this.

familiar sense of “we-ness” that is so characteristic of Sociology of Crime Essay solidarity groups. Shared values or goals.—Members of a solidarity group share a set of. values and/or goals, and each knows (or at least believes) that fellow. group members are committed to these. The values or goals might take. the form of sonnet 97 more or less vague ideals (e.g., “Africa for the Africans” or. “Black Power”), specific policies or principles (e.g., civil disobedience. or equal opportunity for all), or broad social programs (e.g., black. capitalism or the pride and prejudice darcy, building of a unified African nation-state). 97. Such common. values and/or goals often (at least partially) define the renaissance, group,

constituting its distinctive character and self-conception. 9. The characteristics of group solidarity that I discuss below are drawn in part from. recent work in social psychology on group cohesiveness, especially from the social identity. and self-categorization approaches. I take it that these characteristics are intuitive and. relatively uncontroversial. Moreover, they are compatible with a variety of social psychological.

approaches to group behavior. See, e.g., John C. Turner, Rediscovering the Social. Group: A Self-Categorization Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987); Michael A. Hogg and Dominic. Abrams, Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. (London: Routledge, 1988); Michael A. Hogg, The Social Psychology of Group Cohesiveness: From Attraction to Social Identity (New York: New York University Press, 1992); Tom R. Tyler, Roderick M. Sonnet 97. Kramer, and Has a Oliver P. John, eds., The Psychology of the Social Self (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1999). 238 Ethics January 2001.

Group loyalty.—One of the most important components of solidarity. is group loyalty. Loyalty to one’s group entails allowing the group to. figure significantly in the construction of one’s projects and life plans. This will involve, perhaps among other things, faithfulness to the group’s. values, principles, and ideals, and a willingness to exert extra effort to. help members of the group and to sonnet 97, advance the group’s interests. Moreover, group loyalty is the great gatsby wilson always (at least somewhat) exclusionary and is often.

defined in opposition to some other group(s), that is, there is usually. an “Us” and a “Them,” or, if you like, an sonnet, in-group and an out-group. Members of a solidarity group show loyalty to in-group members as. opposed to those of the relevant out-group, whose interests, goals, or. values may differ from or conflict with those of the in-group. Pride Darcy. Though. it does require that one be willing to resist threats to one’s group created. by its enemies, the sonnet 97, partiality that loyalty engenders need not be adversarial. Peaceful coexistence, even coalition, between different solidarity.

groups is often possible. Mutual trust.—Group solidarity also requires that group members. trust one another, for mutual trust is the foundation of cooperation. Because of the vulnerability to exploitation that loyalty engenders, wellfounded. trust is necessary to give group members some measure of. security. Each must have reason to believe that the others will not let. him down, betray the values of the group, or free-ride on the sacrifices. of his fellows. Mutual trust enables members of the group to act collectively. to achieve group goals, especially when success is uncertain.

There are many examples of solidarity groups: families, labor unions, fraternities and sororities, some ethnic groups, religious organizations, political parties, police officers, street gangs, military personnel, and organized crime syndicates. Of Crime. Rather than focus on any of these quite. complicated (and, with some of these, problematic) forms of solidarity, a simpler and more suitably paradigmatic case is the sonnet 97, solidarity between. members of a sports team. Players on darcy and elizabeth a sports team often identify with.

each other. When they do, each thinks in sonnet, terms of “we” rather than “I.” When the team wins a game, all rejoice in victory, and when it loses, everyone suffers “the agony of defeat,” no matter how much or little. each may have contributed to the victory or loss.

Such sports teams will. also be jointly committed to Candide. Has a Essay, a set of values or goals. For example, they. may be committed to fair play and sportsmanship, a particular style of. play, or a win-at-all-costs philosophy. Team solidarity also requires that. each be loyal to the group’s values and to her teammates. Sonnet. So, for instance,

members of the team will work hard during practice sessions, stick to agreed-upon game plans, put aside individual goals when pursuing. them would conflict with the good of the team, and expend as. much effort as is necessary for the team to win—the sports cliche?’s “110. percent.” Finally, members of a sports team must trust one another, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 239. especially if they are to be successful at winning. Each must feel confident. that her teammates will perform their designated roles on the.

team; and each must know that if she makes an pride darcy and elizabeth, honest mistake that. costs the team a game, her teammates will support her with words of. encouragement, rather than berate and blame her. Such trust is often. built by mutual displays of sonnet individual loyalty to the team or by Candide. Everything Has a Cause Essay repeatedly.

struggling together against formidable opponents. To briefly summarize: robust group solidarity exists whenever a set. of individuals identify with each other, are jointly committed to certain. values or goals, are loyal to the group and its members, and trust one. another. Thus, black solidarity would be robust if blacks, as a group, were to possess each of these four characteristics. VARIETIES OF “BLACK” SOCIAL IDENTITY. According to collective identity theory, black people must embrace and. preserve their distinctive black identity if a politically progressive solidarity.

is to flourish among them. To fully understand this position, then, we also need to sonnet 97, know what group of people ‘black’ is the great supposed to be. picking out sonnet 97, here, and what the nature of this “black identity” is that. they must embrace and preserve. I want to approach these two questions. by making a distinction between “thin” and Everything Has a Cause “thick” conceptions of sonnet 97 black.

identity. Relying on donatello this distinction, we will see, among other things, that the collective identity theorist urges the cultivation of a thick black. On a thin conception of 97 black identity, “black” is a vague and socially. imposed category of difference that serves to distinguish groups on donatello the. basis of sonnet 97 their members having certain visible, inherited physical characteristics, and/or a particular biological ancestry. The prevailing thin.

conception of black identity in the United States holds that blacks are. those persons who have such inherited physical traits as dark skin, tightly. curled or “kinky” hair, a broad flat nose, and thick lips, and/or those. persons who are descendants of Candide. Cause people that are presumed to 97, have such. characteristics. Thus, on a thin view, blacks are persons who (more or. less) fit a certain phenotypic profile and/or who are thought to have. biological ancestors that fit the relevant profile.

For those who meet the criterion, there is little room for choice; you cannot simply decide not to be thinly black—as the gatsby, African American. saying goes, “The only thing I have to 97, do is stay black and die.” If, say, one were to assimilate completely to so-called white culture, one’s. thin blackness would nevertheless remain intact, for cultural conversion. provides no escape.

No amount of Sociology of Crime wealth or social status can erase one’s. thin blackness—though clearly one’s class status might mitigate some. of its negative consequences. Sonnet. One might alter her physical appearance. so as not to “look black,” or if she does not have a “black appearance,”

240 Ethics January 2001. she might simply conceal her black ancestry—as those who “pass” do—but in either case, she would still be black, in the thin sense, even. if never found out. It is an Everything Has a Cause, individual’s thin blackness that makes her. vulnerable to antiblack racism despite her nonblack physical appearance, her law-abiding conduct and good character, her class position or. professional status, or the extent of her assimilation to sonnet, the dominant. A thick conception of black identity (which usually includes a thin. criterion as a component part) always requires something more (or. something other) than a common physical appearance or shared ancestry.

11 Here, the Candide., social category “black” has a narrower social meaning, with specific and sometimes quite demanding criteria for who qualifies. as black. 97. Drawing on Essay the history of black social thought, four familiar. versions of thick blackness can be distinguished.

First, relying on K. Anthony Appiah’s terminology, there is the. racialist conception of blackness.12 On this conception, black identity is. based on 97 the supposed presence of a special genotype in the biological. make-up of all (fully) black people that does not exist among nonblacks. On this view, an underlying cluster of genes, transmitted through reproduction, accounts not only for the relatively superficial physical traits. that constitute thin blackness but also for more socially significant traits, such as temperament, aesthetic sensibility, and certain innate talents;

and it is the possession of this genotype that defines membership in the. black race. There is of course a racialist conception of the great blackness that. is committed to the view that biological race determines native intelligence, reproductive traits and tendencies, and moral character. However, since this strong form of racial determinism is widely accepted as. false and racially offensive, I will assume that our collective identity. theorist does not endorse it.

Second, there is the ethnic conception of blackness. It treats black. identity as a matter of shared ancestry and common cultural heritage.13. On such an account, there is no assumption that two people of the. same ethnicity must necessarily share the same “racial essence.” To be. sure, the members of an ethnic group may share certain physical traits. 10. For a similar conception of blackness, see Bernard R. Boxill, Blacks and Social. Justice, rev. ed. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1992), p. 178. 11.

Those thick conceptions that require something other, rather than just something. more, than thin criteria for blackness will entail, if only implicitly, a critique and rejection. of the thin criteria. 12. Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 4–5. 13. An ethnic identity becomes a national identity when it is 97 associated with a particular. geographical location that is viewed as a place of origin or “homeland.” However, I will.

treat nationalist conceptions of blackness as a variant of the Candide. Essay, ethnic conception, for the. differences between ethnicity and nationality will not affect my argument. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 241. as a result of their shared biological ancestry (e.g., dark skin or the. capacity to grow an afro), and they may even value their possession of.

these traits as part of their ethnic heritage. But these ethnic traits need. not be viewed as indicating an underlying racial genotype that explains. black behavioral or psychological dispositions. Sonnet. Indeed, the ethnic conception. of blackness is consistent with the complete rejection of. There are two dominant ethnic conceptions of black identity.

One. emphasizes the fact that black people are descendants of certain sub- Saharan African peoples, and The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay it maintains that they share a culture that. is traceable to the culture of those ancestors. The other stresses both. the experiences of sonnet 97 blacks with oppression in the great wilson, the New World and 97 the. rich culture they have created in the context of that oppression since. being forcibly removed from Africa. On both versions, though, one does.

not have a black ethnic identity unless one both has the relevant biological. ancestry and embraces the appropriate cultural traits. Third, there is the Essay, cultural conception of sonnet blackness. It rests on the. claim that there is an Essay, identifiable ensemble of beliefs, values, behaviors,

and practices that has come to be associated with the 97, thinly black because. of their role in creating it. Though this culture is Sociology thought to sonnet, be. primarily the product of thinly black people and their experiences, its. continued reproduction does not depend solely on the activities of history of crime these. blacks, since nonblacks may participate in 97, sustaining and developing it. as well—jazz, for Candide. Has a example. On this model, thick black identity is tied. neither to “race,” nor to biological ancestry.

Anyone could, in principle, embrace and cultivate a black cultural identity, in 97, much the same way. that anyone could, again in the great wilson, principle, become a practicing Christian. Finally, there is the sonnet, historically influential kinship conception of. blackness. This view understands black identity on the model of the. family—recall Du Bois’s conception of “race” as a “vast family” or consider. the use of “brother” and “sister” to affectionately refer to and prejudice and elizabeth, fellow. blacks. Of course blacks are not a family, not even an extended one, in.

any ordinary sense.14 So what is it about familial relations that could. plausibly constitute a basis (or suggest an sonnet, analogous foundation) for renaissance a. thick black identity? There seem to be three possibilities. First, one could. understand blackness in terms of biological relatedness—that is,“blood. ties.” But then, the kinship conception can be expressed in terms of. the racialist view, the ethnic view, or the 97, thin conception of black identity. 14. For compelling critiques of the Candide. Everything Essay, family/race metaphor and its invocation in discourses.

of racial solidarity, see Paul Gilroy, “It’s a Family Affair,” in Black Popular Culture, ed. Sonnet. Gina Dent (New York: New Press, 1990); Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 13–15; and Patricia. Hill Collins, Fighting Words: African American Women and the Search for Justice (Minneapolis:

University of Minnesota Press, 1998), pp. Gatsby Wilson. 167–74. 242 Ethics January 2001. Second, one could treat black identity as not merely a matter of biology. but of the reproduction of a common way of life. Sonnet 97. But here I would. suggest the idea could be adequately captured by of crime the ethnic conception. of blackness (perhaps with some additional racialist assumptions). Or. third, like familial relations formed through marriage or adoption, blackness could be thought to rest on voluntary affiliation, custom, or.

(legal) convention. This form of sonnet “blackness,” however, would be simply. a version of the history, cultural conception. Thus, the 97, familiar kinship view is. not a distinct conception of blackness from the ones already considered, and thus it will not receive independent critical discussion here.15. There are several things to notice about history thin and thick black identities. First, one may choose, with varying degrees of sonnet 97 difficulty, not to.

define one’s self-conception in terms of “blackness” at all; that is, one. may choose not to subjectively identify with the label “black” or to conform. to its associated behavioral norms.16 Some contend that those. blacks who do so are denying something important about themselves, perhaps out of history of crime racially motivated self-hate. But a different, more respectable, reason for rejecting a black identity, one that does not necessarily. involve self-deception, is sonnet 97 that one may believe the designation. “black,” with its typical connotations, is donatello not an apt characterization of. either who one is or who one would like to be.

Or one might think that. a black identity, while perhaps perfectly appropriate for some, is sonnet 97 too. crude or limiting in one’s own case. Yet another reason might be that. one believes it to be an inherently invidious and repressive social distinction.

and, thus, should be repudiated on political grounds. Sociology Essay. It should. be clear, however, that the choice not to 97, self-identify as black, whatever. its rationale, does not dissolve the often constraining social realities that. are created by Everything Cause the fact that othersmay insist on ascribing such an identity. to one and, consequently, may treat one accordingly, whether for good. Second, given the thin/thick distinction, we can understand what. it would mean to say of someone who is 97 clearly black according to thin. 15. Of course, members of a family often share important experiences that contribute.

to their feelings of donatello renaissance connectedness and loyalty. Sonnet. In a similar way, black people have a common. history of Counter Essay racial oppression and share the experience of antiblack racism. However, as I. will argue below, these commonalities can form the basis for group solidarity without. relying on a “thick” collective black identity. 16. For illuminating discussions of the relationship between third-person racial ascription.

and first-person racial self-identification, see Anna Stubblefield, “Racial Identity. and Non-Essentialism about Race,” Social Theory and Practice 21 (1995): 341–68; K. Anthony. Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections,” in 97, Color Conscious: The. Political Morality of Race, by K. Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann (Princeton,N.J.:Princeton. University Press, 1996), pp. 76–80; and Robert Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism. and Democracy,” Constellations 5 (1998): 18–41. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 243. criteria, but who fails to The Persuasion Reformation Essay, satisfy the relevant criteria for thick blackness. (whatever that turns out to be), that he or she isn’t “really” black—a. claim that is sometimes thought to be somewhat paradoxical, if not.

completely incoherent.17 Here is how we might make sense of that familiar. charge within the context of thinking about the relevance of sonnet a. collective identity for black solidarity. Though a person cannot choose. whether to be black in the thin sense, she can, as we’ve said, decide. what significance she will attach to and prejudice, her thin blackness. This includes. deciding whether to commit herself to sonnet 97, emancipatory black solidarity. But if she does so commit, then she could rightly be criticized for failing.

to live up to obligations she has accepted as a member of that solidarity. group—for example, she might be criticized for not being sufficiently. loyal to other blacks fighting for racial equality.18 If we understand authenticity. not as a matter of acting in conformity to or fully realizing. one’s extravolitional essence but as a matter of being faithful to one’s. chosen principles for action, then for pride and prejudice and elizabeth our purposes black inauthenticity. would be a matter of not living up to one’s solidaristic commitment. (whatever that entails). Thus, if the goals of black solidarity cannot be. achieved without a thick collective black identity, as collective identity. theory maintains, then a person who has signed on to this emancipatory.

project, but fails to accept and act in sonnet, accordance with the history of crime, relevant thick. identity, can rightly be criticized for being “inauthentic.” By using the. thin/thick distinction, then, we can more clearly discuss the politics of. black authenticity and its role in black solidarity. Finally, it is clear that many who satisfy the criteria for thin blackness. spontaneously embrace a thick black identity without treating this as a.

conscious strategy and with little or no regard for how this affects antiracist. politics. For those who do deliberately choose to cultivate a thick. black identity, they do so for the most varied reasons, some having to. do with resisting antiblack racism, some having more to sonnet, do with cultivating. self-esteem, wanting a rich and of crime relatively stable conception of. 17.

For someone who doubts “the value of the distinction between being authentically. black and being inauthentically black,” see Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism and. Democracy,” p. 25. For a useful discussion of the different claims of authenticity, seeNaomi. Zack, Thinking about sonnet Race (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1998), pp. Darcy. 70–72. 18.

Now I take it that we all, whether black or not, have an sonnet 97, obligation to fight racial. injustice and resist oppression. But it could be argued that blacks have an obligation to. pursue their antiracism through black solidarity—though not necessarily to history of crime, the exclusion. of other strategies. If such a position is sound, then blacks who fail to commit to sonnet, black. solidarity would be justly criticized for this.

And if collective identity theory is Sociology of Crime Essay correct, then any thinly black person who does not affirm thick blackness as part of 97 their identity, whether they have made a commitment to pride and prejudice, black solidarity or not, would be vulnerable. to criticism. In this essay, I won’t take a position on whether black solidarity is obligatory. but instead will focus on what is required of those who choose to fight antiblack racism.

through black solidarity. 244 Ethics January 2001. who they are, or desiring a strong sense of community. Moreover, it is. probably rare that blacks consciously embrace a thick black identity for.

purely political purposes; indeed, in order for such an identity to sonnet, have. a positive effect on black solidarity, blacks may need to and prejudice and elizabeth, embrace it on. grounds apart from its political value. Sonnet 97. The collective identity theorist. could concede all this. Pride And Prejudice And Elizabeth. But she would insist that were a sufficient number. of blacks, for whatever reason, to 97, reject or distance themselves from. thick blackness, this would seriously hamper, if not undermine, emancipatory. black solidarity, especially given the pride and elizabeth, collective action problems. that blacks currently face.

Indeed, the familiar policing of social identities. that takes place among black Americans—which often annoys. those who seek more freedom in the construction of their social identities— arguably functions to strengthen the bonds of solidarity necessary. for effective resistance against racial oppression. It is for this reason that. the advocate of collective identity theory urges blacks to accept a thick. black identity, even if many will do so for reasons having little to do.

Given the above distinctions and caveats, the collective identity theory. can be given a more precise formulation: there are persons who. meet the criteria for thin blackness who also have available to them a. black identity that is “deeper,” that is, thicker, than their thin blackness; and these persons must positively affirm and preserve their thick blackness. if collectively they are to overcome their racial oppression through.

group solidarity. Thus, for the remainder of this discussion, when I speak. of the alleged need for a common black identity, I will be using ‘black’ in the thick sense, and when I speak of ‘black people’ or simply ‘blacks’, I will mean ‘black’ in the thin sense, unless otherwise indicated. AGAINST COLLECTIVE IDENTITY THEORY. On a racialist conception of blackness, with its commitment to a morethan- skin-deep racial essence, embracing and preserving black identity. would seem to entail, at a minimum, fostering intraracial reproduction. between blacks and, perhaps more important, discouraging interracial. reproduction between blacks and nonblacks.

This practice of 97 racial endogamy. is supposed to help keep the black essence intact and protect. blacks from the dangers of donatello renaissance racial hybridity. However, this view has a. number of problems. For one thing, it is now generally acknowledged. that no “pure” races exist. Indeed, many biologists and sonnet 97 anthropologists. question the donatello, existence of human races altogether.19 But, even if there. 19. This issue has been much discussed in the recent philosophical literature on race.

See, e.g., Naomi Zack, Race and Mixed Race (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Outlaw, “Against the sonnet, Grain”; Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity”; Charles W. Mills, “‘But. What Are You Really?’ TheMetaphysics of Race,” in his Blackness Visible (Ithaca,N.Y.:Cornell. Shelby Foundations of of The Counter Black Solidarity 245. are (or once were) pure racial groups, those who are black by thin. criteria certainly would not qualify as one (or even a proper subset. thereof), since many (by some estimates as many as 80 percent) have. some European or Native American ancestry.20 Limiting black solidarity.

to only “pure(er)” blacks would exclude many victims of antiblack racism, contrary to the point of the enterprise; and it would run the risk. of creating a kind of “reverse” color prejudice—that is, a preference for. darker skin, rather than the more familiar light-skin preference—among. those who identify or are identified as black. Given the history of socalled. miscegenation in this country, a politics of black racial purity. would almost certainly undermine emancipatory black solidarity. A racialist justification for sonnet 97 the policy of black endogamy would be. no more plausible if the more inclusive “one-drop rule” for of The Essay blackness. were adopted—that is, the rule that says that if a person has any black.

ancestors, then she is sonnet black.21 Such a conception of black identity would. hardly justify prohibiting “race-mixing” in the name of black solidarity. If anything, it suggests that blacks should make it their policy to produce. “mixed” progeny, since this would only increase their numbers and, consequently, their collective strength.22. Given the obvious problems with its racialist version, most advocates. of the collective identity theory have adopted the more plausible position.

that blacks should embrace and preserve their distinctive ethnic. or cultural identity. Of Crime. The main difference between these two conceptions. of blackness, recall, is that the ethnic version emphasizes black ancestry. while the cultural version does not. But since collective identity theory. calls on blacks to sonnet, embrace their thick black identity, those who do so. will turn out to history of crime, have the appropriate ancestry by sonnet 97 default. Thus, for. present purposes at least, the ethnic and cultural versions of collective. identity theory come to history of crime, the same thing.23 The remainder of this section,

University Press, 1998); and the essays in Leonard Harris, ed., Racism (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 1999). 20. Zack, Race and Mixed Race, p. 75. 21.

Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. (New York: Harper Row, 1944), pp. 113–17; and F. James Davis, Who Is Black? One. Nation’s Definition (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991).

22. For an instructive—and downright hilarious—discussion of the 97, black “no racemixing” policy, see Charles W. Mills, “Do Black Men Have a Moral Duty to Sociology of Crime, Marry Black. Women?” 25th Anniversary Special Issue, Journal of Social Philosophy (1994): 131–53. Also. see Anita L. Sonnet 97. Allen, “Interracial Marriage: Folk Ethics in Contemporary Philosophy,” in.

Women of Color and Philosophy, ed. Naomi Zack (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000). 23. But perhaps this is too quick. The ethnic version of of Crime Essay collective identity theory may. urge blacks to affirm their black ancestry in some special way. Provided it is devoid of any. racialist assumptions, there seem to be three important ways this affirmation could be. carried out.

First, one could honor the sonnet 97, memory of the great gatsby one’s black ancestors by sonnet embracing. and passing on their cultural legacy. This view, however, is just a variant of the cultural. version of collective identity theory. Second, it might be thought that since one’s black. 246 Ethics January 2001. therefore, will treat the ethnic and history of crime cultural versions of collective identity. Though they differ on its precise content and sonnet boundaries, both the. ethnic and cultural versions of Sociology Essay collective identity theory require blacks.

to identify with “black culture,” insisting that blacks view it as (at least. partly) constitutive of who they are as individuals and as a group. Sonnet 97. Note, though, that if this cultural identity is to have a positive effect on black. solidarity—providing a basis for mutual identification, reinforcing common. values and goals, and pride and prejudice and elizabeth creating stronger bonds of loyalty and. trust—then it can’t be merely a passive or subjective acknowledgment. of the value of black culture. Rather, blacks must actively perform their. thick blackness for other blacks (and perhaps nonblacks) to see: they.

must demonstrate their knowledge of black culture and sonnet 97 their appreciation. of its value by participating in it, preserving or developing it, exposing others to it (especially their children), and in general allowing. it to be a significant influence on their lives. There is a strong and weak version of the ethnic/cultural view. On. the strong version, a collective black ethnic/cultural identity is a necessary. component of donatello renaissance black solidarity; that is, blacks must share a common.

ethnic or cultural identity if emancipatory black solidarity is to. flourish. Failing to sonnet 97, cultivate such a collective identity would, according. to the strong view, undermine the effort to build black unity. On the.

weak version, a collective black identity is the great gatsby not claimed to be necessary. for black solidarity, since blacks might get by without one, but it is. thought that such an sonnet, identity would nevertheless strengthen the bonds. of black unity by giving them more in common than just their history. of oppression. However, I don’t think either version is sound.

Focusing. bodily appearance is the result of donatello one’s black ancestry, one should honor one’s black. ancestors by being proud of that appearance and sonnet perhaps accentuating it. This might. seem all the more important once one considers the Candide. Cause Essay, fact that racists have oftenmaintained. that blacks are physically unattractive, even repulsive. Sonnet 97. Being proud of “looking black” can. be expressed by, e.g., wearing one’s hair “natural” and prominently featuring one’s other. prototypical “black features”—e.g., big lips, noses, and hips. Doing so, however, would be.

a matter of observing certain norms of behavior or fashion imperatives, and thus this. position, too, is a variant of the cultural version of collective identity theory. Third, one. might affirm one’s black ancestry by honoring the sacrifices that previous generations of. blacks have made for Essay the benefit of future generations.

Setting aside the option of paying. such homage through cultural identification and preservation, it would seem that the 97, best. way to honor the heroic efforts of previous generations of blacks is to continue the struggle. for racial justice. This view, however, is consistent with the common oppression theory. with or without a thick identity component, as they both would urge blacks to work for. 24. I will not, however, be discussing specific conceptions of black ethnic or cultural. identity (e.g., Pan-African, New Negro, Ne?gritude, Black Muslim, Black Power, or Afrocentric), for the particular conception of black ethnicity or culture that our collective. identity theorist advocates will not affect my argument.

Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 247. on the strong version first, I will argue that there is Candide. Has a Cause Essay little reason to. suppose that blacks must share a collective identity in order for them. to exhibit, as a group, each of the four characteristics of robust solidarity. At the outset, it might be thought that if blacks are to identify with. each other, they must share an ethnic or cultural identity (or at least. they must believe themselves to share such an identity).

However, there. are clearly other, and more reliable, bases for identification. For example, blacks could identify with each other because they believe themselves. to suffer the same form of racial subordination, to have experienced. the degradation and insult of antiblack racism, or to share a. common interest in ending racial inequality. The mutual recognition. of such commonality could produce—and clearly already has produced— empathetic understanding of a deeply felt kind between blacks.

Thus, quite apart from their supposed common “racial” characteristics, ethnicity, or culture, each could come to see and feel that a significant. part of herself or himself is to 97, be found in the others, so that it becomes. meaningful to speak about and act on the basis of what “we” experience, “we” believe, and darcy and elizabeth “we” desire. In fact, often members of a subordinated group suffer a common.

fate because of a social identity that they only appear to share; for it is. not uncommon for sonnet a dominant group to construct an identity for those. it oppresses (and for itself) in order to justify the ill-treatment and. deplorable condition of the the great gatsby, subordinate group.25 Such imputed social. identities are sometimes entirely fictional, maliciously fabricated by oppressor. groups (e.g., consider the view that blacks are the descendants. of Ham and, thus, are forever cursed to toil for sonnet 97 the benefit of gatsby whites). But even when the ascribed identity is 97 based in something real, the. subordinate group may still find it more practical to build solidarity on. the basis of their common oppression and their desire to overcome it, for not all of its members may value or identify with the ascription.

Black solidarity certainly requires a shared set of values and goals. But this normative commitment need not involve embracing anything. we might want to call “black culture.” One doesn’t have to possess a. black cultural identity—indeed one doesn’t have to be black at all—in. order to of crime, appreciate the value of sonnet racial equality or to the great, condemn racism. Of course, values are a component of 97 culture, and the great gatsby black cultural forms. are among those that sometimes express or embody principles of social. equality, which can be a legitimate source of black pride. Nevertheless, the basis of blacks’ commitment to equality is surely that this is sonnet what.

justice demands, not that such values are embedded in black cultural. traditions. If black culture did not extol the The Persuasion of The Essay, virtues of sonnet racial justice, but. 25. Robert Miles, Racism (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. Counter Reformation Essay. 11–40. 248 Ethics January 2001. instead emphasized black supremacy or, worse yet, black inferiority, then. blacks would of course need to sonnet 97, reject this component of their culture. and embrace social equality instead, whatever its cultural roots. Loyalty, too, can exist between blacks with diverse ethnic/cultural.

identities. Consider, for example, the the great wilson, loyalty that sometimes exists between. the diverse members of labor organizations. Despite differences. in age, race, gender, religion, ethnicity, occupation, and many other. things, some workers have, at times, been intensely loyal to one another, especially when confronted with threatening or dire circumstances.

And. they often maintain this loyalty with little more in common than their. shared vulnerability as workers and their will to improve their lot. There. is no reason why blacks cannot do the sonnet, same, for of Crime they too are vulnerable. to a threatening social force—antiblack racism. Thus, black loyalty can. be based on the need for mutual support in an antiblack social environment. and a joint commitment to sonnet 97, antiracist politics. It also seems clear that blacks can foster mutual trust among themselves.

without sharing a common black identity. Undoubtedly, a common. ethnic or cultural identity would create a type of familiarity and. ease of Everything intercourse that could contribute to the building of 97 mutual trust. And, in general, it is probably easier to the great gatsby, trust those with whom one shares.

a social identity. However, trust can be facilitated in other ways as well. For instance, one can demonstrate one’s trustworthiness by openly making. efforts to advance the 97, cause of pride and prejudice and elizabeth black liberation. Trust can also be.

fostered by working together with other blacks to sonnet 97, accomplish limited, short-term goals—for example, boycotting a known racist establishment. or putting pressure on political leaders to heed black concerns. This. makes the participants only minimally vulnerable to one another, while. at the same time creating seeds of trust that can grow through future. collective efforts. In any case, using one’s talents and resources to promote.

the goals and values of antiracism is surely a better sign of renaissance one’s. trustworthiness in the struggle against racial oppression than expressing. one’s affiliation with other blacks by displaying one’s black ethnic or. 26. Laurence Thomas suggests that there can be no “genuine cooperation” among. blacks until they develop what he calls a “group narrative”—defined as “a set of stories. which defines values and entirely positive goals, which specifies a set of fixed points of. historical significance, and which defines a set of ennobling rituals to be regularly performed”— for, according to him, such a narrative provides the sonnet, basis for mutual trust.

Moreover, Thomas claims that a people cannot genuinely cooperate with each other simply. on account of their desire to defeat a common enemy, since the existence of such an. enemy cannot form the basis of mutual trust (see Laurence Mordekhai Thomas, “Group. Autonomy and history Narrative Identity,” in Color, Class, Identity: The New Politics of Race, ed. John. Arthur and Amy Shapiro [Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996], pp. 182–83). However, I disagree. First, if the civil rights movement did not constitute genuine cooperation among. Shelby Foundations of sonnet 97 Black Solidarity 249.

So far I have argued that a collective black identity, whether based. on ethnicity or culture, is not a necessary condition for the creation. and maintenance of robust black solidarity. The Great. But, as I mentioned earlier, some collective identity theorists endorse a slightly weaker position. Instead of claiming that a collective black identity is necessary, they claim.

that, while perhaps not necessary for 97 black solidarity, such an identity. would create stronger bonds of black unity. However, the weak version. is also unsound, as it is Candide. Everything Essay much more likely, at least presently, that the. requirement of a common black identity would actually weaken black. solidarity. 97. There are a number of reasons for thinking this to be the. For one thing, the push for a collective black identity would probably.

worsen existing intragroup antagonisms, and it might even produce. new ones. Renaissance. The type of internal conflict among blacks that I have in. mind would be likely to show up in at least three familiar domains. First, black people would inevitably become bogged down, as they. often have, by disagreements over sonnet, what constitutes and who possesses.

an “authentic” black identity. Should blacks see themselves as essentially. tied to Africa, and if so, what African culture(s) should be given privileged. status? Can this shared identity include elements from European.

or Anglo-American culture and still be authentically black, or must it. remain, in some sense, “pure”? How much, if any, of the cultural legacy. of slavery—for example, southern Negro folk culture—should blacks. embrace?

Should blacks from northern urban centers or those with a. southern sensibility be seen as more paradigmatically black? Should. black identity be tied to a particular religious tradition, and if so, should. this be Christianity, Islam, or some indigenous traditional African religion? Are there distinctively black norms of etiquette or black social. values? Is there a black ethics, epistemology, or aesthetic? Are there.

uniquely black styles of dress, hairstyles, or modes of Sociology of Crime speech? While. some of these are, perhaps, interesting questions, there is sonnet 97 no reason to. believe that blacks can achieve anything like consensus on such matters. And the endless and often acrimonious disagreements between blacks. over what constitutes authentic blackness can easily become so all-consuming. that they lose sight of the sources of their anxiety about who. blacks, then I’m not sure what would. Now Thomas may not count that movement as. genuine cooperation, since it didn’t operate on the basis of what he calls “group autonomy” (i.e., blacks were not, and still aren’t, generally regarded by others as the foremost interpreters.

of their historical-cultural traditions). But unless the goal is pride darcy black collective selfrealization. as a people (which is not my concern here), then the narrative-free black. solidarity that held together the civil rightsmovement should be sufficient for sonnet our purposes. in this postsegregation era. Second, Thomas’s account of “group narrative” would seem. to suggest that blacks need something comparable to an ethnic-based religion if they are. to form bonds of mutual trust. The Great. But I see no reason to believe that, since, as I argued. above, there are less restrictive and more reliable routes to black mutual trust.

250 Ethics January 2001. they are—for example, antiblack racism, systematic social exclusion, persistent racial inequality, economic exploitation, and cultural imperialism— which should be the primary focus of their collective energies. Second, class differences among blacks will complicate any attempt. to sustain a common black ethnic or cultural identity.27 First of all, it is. not clear that wealthy blacks, the sonnet 97, black middle class, and the black.

(working or nonworking) poor share cultural traits that they do not. also share with many nonblacks. Moreover, for decades now, there has. been an The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay, ongoing contest between the black middle class and poorer. blacks over who has the sonnet 97, standing to define black identity, that is, over. who is best positioned to have the authentic black experience and to.

represent “the race.” It is also clear that the growing physical separation. of the black middle class from the black urban poor—the former sometimes. living in the suburbs and the latter mainly in urban ghettoes—is. likely to exacerbate this conflict. Given the increasing intragroup stratification. of blacks and the well-known correlation between class position. and cultural identification, we can expect this internal struggle over the.

meaning of of Crime blackness to continue and 97 perhaps intensify. However, if. blacks were to history of crime, drop the requirement of sonnet a common black ethnic or. cultural identity, which, as I’ve argued, is not necessary for the success. of the emancipatory project, this might actually reduce the negative. effects that class differences have on black solidarity.28.

And, third, the requirement of a common black identity would. surely aggravate the of The Counter Reformation, antagonism between black men and women over. the meaning of sonnet blackness as it relates to darcy, gender. Historically, the content. of black identity, including gender roles and sonnet norms governing family. structure, has largely been prescribed by black men—that is, when it. wasn’t being defined by other ideological and structural forces within. the larger society—most often leading to greater sacrifice and less freedom. for black women. Moreover, the attempt to maintain a “positive”

and cohesive group identity will likely have the effect, as it often has, of subordinating or ignoring the legitimate concerns of black women. 27. Candide. Cause Essay. For important discussions of this issue, see E. Franklin Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie. (New York: Free Press, 1957); William Julius Wilson, The Declining Significance of Race (Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1978); Manning Marable, How Capitalism Underdeveloped. Black America (Boston: South End Press, 1983), chap. 5; Michael C. Dawson, Behind the. Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); Kevin K. Gaines, Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth. Century (Chapel Hill: University of sonnet North Carolina Press, 1996); and Counter Essay Adolph Reed, Jr.,

Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in the Post-Segregation Era (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 28. Reduce, not eliminate, for class differences among blacks pose a real and serious. threat to emancipatory black solidarity. I cannot, however, address this rather complex. issue in this essay. My main point here is that insisting on a common black ethnic or. cultural identity can only worsen this already difficult problem. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 251.

Because black women are situated at the intersection of sonnet 97 racial and gender. oppression, they have experiences and history interests that are peculiar. to their complex social condition. Sonnet. But many black men fail to acknowledge. or take seriously these gendered experiences and interests. When. black women voice (let alone attempt to aggressively deal with) their. political concerns—for example, rape, domestic violence and abuse, inequality and exploitation within the domestic sphere, sexual and reproductive.

freedom, gender discrimination and Has a Essay harassment on the job, access to political power and to positions of leadership—this is often. seen as a divisive attempt to sonnet, embarrass black men or as an gatsby wilson, imprudent. move that threatens to worsen the public image of blacks. Rather than. listening to 97, black women and thinking of donatello their concerns as integral to. black freedom struggles, many black men have tried to 97, silence black.

women and gatsby wilson have remained complicit in sonnet 97, the perpetuation of patriarchy, often in the name of maintaining “unity.” Given the prevalence of sexist. attitudes and behavior among black men (and even some women), taken. with the donatello renaissance, continuing unequal power relations between the sexes, malecentered. conceptions of blackness are likely to predominate, though. not of course without resistance—for example, witness the mixed reception. of the Million Man March among black Americans, especially. black women. Sonnet 97. Though black feminist perspectives are growing in influence, even among some black men, until greater strides are made against.

(black) male hegemony, a shared and progressive view of what it means. to be a thick black woman or man is of crime unlikely to develop.29. However, all blacks, given their vulnerability to antiblack racial discrimination, have a vested interest in racial equality, regardless of their. cultural leanings, class position, or gender (though the urgency with. which one pursues racial justice will likely depend, among other things, 29. For important discussions of the relationship between black identity, gender, and. politics, see Michele Wallace, Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman (New York: Dial. Press, 1978); Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Random House, 1981); bell hooks, Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and sonnet 97 Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1981),

esp. chap. 3; Gloria T. Has A Cause. Hull, Patricia Bell-Scott, and sonnet Barbara Smith, eds., All the history, Women Are. White, All the sonnet, Men Are Black: But Some of Us Are Brave (Westbury: Feminist Press, 1982); Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. (New York: William Morrow, 1984); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (New York: Routledge, 1990); Cornel West, Race Matters (New York: Vintage, 1993), chap.

2; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous. Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880–1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Kimberle? W. Crenshaw, “Mapping theMargins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Candide. Everything Cause Essay Violence against Women of Color,” in 97, Critical Race Theory, ed. Pride And Prejudice Darcy And Elizabeth. Kimberle? Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas (New York:New. Press, 1995); Hazel V. Carby, Race Men (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998); and E. Frances White, Dark Continent of Our Bodies: Black Feminism and the Politics of sonnet 97 Respectability. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001). 252 Ethics January 2001. on whether one also suffers under class exploitation, male domination,

both, or neither). Recognition of this common interest can lend motivational. strength to Essay, a morally based joint commitment to ending racism. 30 Frankly, it’s doubtful that blacks will ever agree on sonnet the meaning. of blackness, but they can and pride and prejudice darcy should agree to collectively resist racism, since it negatively affects them all, albeit to sonnet 97, varying degrees and in. different ways.

Mobilizing and coordinating such collective efforts will. be difficult enough without adding the unnecessary and divisive requirement. that blacks embrace and preserve a distinctive ethnic/cultural. Another reason to doubt that insistence on a common black identity. would contribute to black solidarity, and and prejudice and elizabeth thus to the elimination of sonnet racial. oppression, is that if blacks were to push for donatello a thicker common black. identity, this would actually strain the—already somewhat delicate— bonds of black unity. For while most blacks believe in the struggle. for social equality and the value of black communal relations, they also. value the freedom to choose their cultural affiliations.32 If there is group.

pressure to sonnet 97, conform to the great, some prototype of 97 blackness, which collective. identity theory would seem to require, this would create “core” and. “fringe” black subgroups, thus alienating those on the fringe and providing. them with an pride and prejudice, incentive to defect from the collective struggle. Those who only marginally fit the sonnet 97, black prototype may feel that accepting. a conventional black identity is Has a Cause Essay unduly burdensome and, consequently, may only halfheartedly participate, if at all, in the black fight. against racism, especially if acting alone they can manage, perhaps. 30. Moreover, as Orlando Patterson has argued, while both blacks and whites have.

an interest in overcoming racism, blacks must play a larger part in bringing this about, not only because they stand to gain more from it but because whites have much less to. lose by doing nothing. Orlando Patterson, The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and sonnet Resentment. in America’s “Racial” Crisis (Washington, D.C.: Civitas, 1997), p. 202. 31. Has A Essay. Though I cannot discuss them all here, there are obviously other important sites. of contestation over the meaning and scope of blackness that have to do with the intersection. of racism with other forms of oppression—e.g., interracialism (the problematics.

surrounding so-called mixed-race identities and interracial relationships) and sonnet 97 sexuality. (antihomosexual hostility and intolerance of renaissance nonheterosexual lifestyles). 97. See Zack, Race. and Mixed Race; Lisa Jones, “Is Biracial Enough? (Or, What’s This about a Multiracial. Category on the Census?): A Conversation,” in her Bulletproof Diva: Tales of Race, Sex, and. Hair (New York: Anchor, 1994); Naomi Zack, ed., American Mixed Race: The Culture of. Microdiversity (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Werner Sollors, ed., Interracialism: Black-White Intermarriage in and prejudice, American History, Literature, and Law (Oxford: Oxford.

University Press, 2000);West, pp. 119–31; Kobena Mercer,Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions. in Black Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 1994); and Cathy J. Cohen, The Boundaries. of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of sonnet 97 Black Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 32. For helpful discussions of the threat to individual freedom posed by racial identities, see Stubblefield; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. 97–99. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 253. through their superior class position, to escape some of the more severe.

forms of racial oppression. Thus, a prescribed black identity could actually. reduce black unity, and it might even have the unintended consequence. of inviting those who fail to identify with the Essay, prevailing conception. of blackness to form alternative alliances, to become excessively.

individualistic, or to sonnet, be simply complacent. One response to these considerations is to insist that there already. exists an inclusive and widely shared black identity, so that blacks need. only to pride darcy and elizabeth, preserve and perhaps cultivate it. Sonnet. But this claim is implausible. Blacks, taken in the thin sense, are clearly an ethnically and the great gatsby wilson culturally. diverse group; this diversity includes differences in physical appearance, language, customs, religion, political outlook, moral and aesthetic values, cuisine, fashion, traditions, national origin, and many other things.33.

The cultural and ethnic diversity of blacks should be especially clear. once one considers the sonnet 97, various cultural traits embraced by of Crime recent black. immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and the Caribbean, who are of course themselves subject to antiblack prejudice. 97. One could.

of course mean to include under “black identity” all of the cultural and. ethnic traits that are embraced by black people. The Persuasion Of The Counter Essay. However, this would. have the effect of rendering collective identity theory vacuous, since. blacks cannot help but embrace cultural traits of one sort or other, and. thus the imperative to “conserve blackness” would have no prescriptive. Alternatively, one might argue that it is possible to construct a. pluralistic and nuanced conception of black identity, rather than a monolithic. and unduly restrictive one. But no matter where one sets the. boundaries of thick blackness, if it is meaningful enough to have prescriptive.

force, some blacks will be left out 97, or forced into submission. Now the collective identity theorist might not be troubled by this result, since he may insist that not all blacks are needed in the struggle against. antiblack racism and some will be indifferent to the fight for Essay racial. equality anyway. However, it can’t simply be assumed on sonnet 97 the basis of. cultural identification alone who will or won’t be willing to make such. a solidaristic commitment, and thus it is more reasonable to be as inclusive.

as possible. The Persuasion Counter Reformation. Indeed, it may turn out that the least “black” among. us are actually among those most dedicated to the cause of racial justice, despite the sonnet, widespread assumption to the contrary. In any case, insisting. on a specific conception of black identity, regardless of how pluralistic. it is taken to be, is still vulnerable to gatsby, the criticisms raised earlier against. the politics of black authenticity: blacks will find themselves in sonnet, an un- 33. Of Crime Essay. Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in sonnet, the United States: From the. 1960’s to the 1990’s (New York: Routledge, 1994), pp.

22–23; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. Has A Essay. 85–90. 254 Ethics January 2001. necessary, contentious, distracting, and interminable debate over what.

counts as “black” and who will decide.34. What must be recognized here is that the concept “black” is an. ideological construct; and, like many such constructs, it is extremely. malleable and capacious. Consequently, “blackness” can be, and has. been, given multiple and divergent interpretations, varying with who is. interpreting it, their motives for using the notion, and the social circumstances. under which they employ it. Thus, the most that can be.

truly said is sonnet 97 that there are a number of loosely associated and variously. interpreted black identities. The one link that often does exist between. these multiple identities, however, is that many of them have been. formed in Cause Essay, an antiblack social environment, and each, in its own way, will likely bear the marks of race-based ill-treatment. I would urge blacks to identify with each other on the basis of their. common oppression and commitment to resisting it; and, from the. standpoint of black solidarity, each should be allowed, without molestation,

to interpret “blackness” however she or he sees fit (provided the. interpretation does not advocate anything immoral and sonnet is consistent. with the principles and goals of antiracism).35 In this way, I am not. 34. Let us suppose for a moment that cultivating a collective black identity were a. realistic possibility. The Persuasion Reformation. It might nevertheless be too dangerous to try to bring this about; for. it is possible to go too far in creating group cohesiveness. The attempt to forge a collective. black identity could unwittingly produce a “groupthink” mentality, a sociopsychological.

phenomenon well documented by 97 social psychologists. The symptoms of groupthink include. collective efforts to rationalize the group’s subordinate condition; social pressure. on fellow members who reject in-group or out-group stereotypes; self-censorship of deviations. from the presumed group consensus; and allegiance to of Crime, ideologues who screen.

the group from information that might threaten the group’s self-image. Striving to create. a shared black identity could lead to this type of uncritical and often unconscious drive. for unanimity and positive self-conception. This would have disastrous consequences for.

the cause of sonnet black liberation by Sociology of Crime engendering defective decision making, such as assuming. that traditional solutions to black oppression must be correct; failing to sonnet, reconsider initially. discarded strategies or programs of Candide. Everything Has a Cause Essay action; dismissing criticisms of sonnet 97 group narratives and. ideals; and ignoring expert advice. These are pitfalls that blacks obviously need to avoid. but unfortunately have not always done so in the past. (The symptoms of “groupthink” are summarized in Hogg, pp. 135–37.

Hogg bases his summary on history of crime I. 97. L. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and history of crime Fiascoes, 2d ed. [Boston:HoughtonMifflin,1982].) 35. Sonnet 97. Paul Gilroy, on of The Counter one reading at 97 least, would seem to history of crime, be advocating a conception. of black identity that is based on a set of related narratives which have been produced in. response to sonnet, the experience of trans-Atlantic black oppression. The multiple discursive. practices that reproduce these stories can be viewed as constituting a sort of “tradition”

that blacks may identify with and Everything Has a Essay participate in. 97. Such an account would allow us to speak. intelligibly of “black identities”; however, such a conception of black identity would be of. little help to the collective identity theorist, for at least two reasons. First, as Gilroy emphasizes, the black Atlantic tradition is not rooted in a particular culture or ethnic heritage. but is transnational, syncretic, unstable, and history always mutating. Part of this lack of “purity” has to sonnet, do with the inclusion of The Persuasion of The many European and Anglo-American cultural traits and. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 255.

suggesting, as some have, that individual blacks should give up their. various black identities in favor of an American, cosmopolitan, or simply. “human” identity. Though there should clearly be more mindfulness of. its dangers and 97 limitations, I see no reason to object, at least not in. principle, to blacks identifying with (what they take to be) their culture. or ethnic heritage. Pride And Prejudice Darcy. What I want to resist, though, is the tendency to. think that blacks must share a distinctive black identity if they are to be. a unified force against antiblack racism. BLACK SOLIDARITY WITHOUT BLACK CULTURAL.

At this point, I would like to confront a well-known argument in favor. of the sonnet, ethnic/cultural version of collective identity theory. This argument. takes various forms, but here is a general characterization.36 American. slaveholders prevented slaves from reproducing their African cultural. forms, and historically blacks have often been misinformed or. prevented from learning about The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay their African heritage. Such actions have. deprived generations of 97 blacks of knowledge of their ethnic origins. Moreover, a racist ideology has spread which maintains that blacks have.

no worthwhile culture of their own—neither past nor present—and that. therefore they should allow themselves to be assimilated into The Persuasion of The Counter a “civilized,” that is, “white,” culture. Thus, part of the oppression that blacks. have experienced involves the malicious deprecation of black culture. This assault on the value of the 97, cultural contributions of black people. has been so thoroughly damaging to the self-esteem of of Crime blacks that many. fail to identify with and take pride in their unique cultural heritage.

Instead, some accept the inherent superiority of the culture of their. oppressors and, sadly, embrace it rather than their own. Such persons. are often fraudulent, self-hating, or servile, and therefore they cannot. be trusted by other blacks with a more authentic, self-affirming, and. modes of expression. 97. Thus, while blacks can identify with and claim the the great gatsby, black Atlantic. tradition, so can many whites. Sonnet 97. Second, the black Atlantic tradition, as Gilroy conceives of.

it, is of Crime nonessentialist; therefore, it does not determine who should identify with it or how. any individual should relate to it. A black person who fails to self-identify is not being. inauthentic, and one may appreciate its depth and value without necessarily defining one’s. social identity in terms of it. Given the abstract and inclusive nature of the black Atlantic. tradition, there is room for sonnet many black identities and no basis for insisting on of The Essay any one. of them as the “real” social identity of sonnet 97 blacks. See Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity. and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); also see bell.

hooks, “Postmodern Blackness,” in her Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (Boston: South End Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Philosophy and Racial Identity,” Philosophy. Today 41 (1997): 67–76. 36. See, e.g., Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Trenton, N.J.: Africa.

World Press, 1990); Haki R. Madhubuti, Enemies: The Clash of Races (Chicago: Third World. Press, 1978); Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies (Los Angeles: University of. Sankore Press, 1982); and Asante. 256 Ethics January 2001. liberated black consciousness. Thus, in order both to reclaim their selfrespect. and dignity as a people and to foster group solidarity, blacks. must participate in, celebrate, and identify with black culture. Once we. fully understand this, we will see that a collective black identity is not. only a necessary component of black solidarity, it is a constitutive part.

of black liberation from the effects of white domination. Historically, and even now, this has been a very influential argument. And, like so many others, I too have been tempted to accept its. conclusion. Candide. Everything Cause Essay. But this urge must be resisted, powerful as it is, for while. much of what the argument suggests is both true and important, it simply. does not follow that our best or only response to the issues it raises is. to make a collective black identity a component of 97 black solidarity. To.

show this, I will examine what I take to be the three most important. questions for which this argument was intended as an answer. Question 1.—How can blacks restore and maintain their dignity in. the face of white cultural hegemony and the devaluation of black. For decades now, blacks have fought the wide acceptance of pride and prejudice darcy white. supremacist values and sonnet the stigma attached to their cultural ways by. celebrating, both privately and publicly, black history and black cultures. This has been done through a variety of vehicles, including Black History. Month; African American, African, Latin American, and of crime Caribbean cultural. festivals; black periodicals, books, and documentaries; African.

American museums and archives; the BET network; black religious and. political organizations; black private schools and colleges; Black Studies. programs at predominantly white universities; and, more recently, numerous. sites on the World Wide Web. These are all essential efforts to. educate blacks and nonblacks about 97 black history and black struggles, to instill a sense of pride in black people about what they’ve accomplished. and overcome, and to cultivate a greater appreciation for the. cultural contributions of gatsby wilson black people to this country and the world.

In. addition, the very act of cultural expression has an important role to. play in black liberation. 97. One way to fight against history the dissemination of. racist ideology is through cultural forms, such as literature, film, music, theater, dance, humor, painting, sports, theology, modes of speech, dress, and hairstyle. Black people have a long and remarkable history. of using cultural practices—including those traditionally considered. “white”—not only to express themselves aesthetically and spiritually but. to resist and subvert the sonnet 97, forms of racial domination that oppress them.

Moreover, black people, in particular black intellectuals and social critics, must continue to be defiant and vigilant in the face of the history, continuing, and sometimes subtle, presence of white cultural domination, submitting it to incisive critique and exposing its ideology for the fraud. Shelby Foundations of 97 Black Solidarity 257.

However, in history, doing these important things, we do not need to sonnet, follow. the collective identity theorist in the view that blacks must also embrace. a common black ethnic/cultural identity. History Of Crime. One can acknowledge the. importance of learning about black history and understanding black. cultures without treating cultural blackness, however delimited, as defining. who one is sonnet 97 or allowing it to set the boundaries of one’s choices. Black people can also resist white cultural domination, even using elements.

of culture itself, without establishing a common culture of resistance. that all must embrace and renaissance celebrate. There is no doubt that. blacks should be informed about black history and cultures—as should. nonblacks—for, at sonnet a minimum, this will help them to better understand. the nature of their racial subordination and the possible routes out of. it. But, I would add, in coming to this greater understanding of the. past, present, and possible future, blacks should be careful not to be.

seduced by the project of black cultural redemption. Black people. should not be in the business of “proving” the greatness of their cultural. heritage, for donatello this is to be pulled into the all too familiar discourse of. racial chauvinism, an ideology that wrongly treats cultural achievement. as a function of 97 “race.” Question 2.—Setting aside mass psychotherapy, what kind of history of crime remedy. is there for the problem of internalized racial oppression among. blacks—the so-called black inferiority complex? Before discussing this question, first notice that the ideological attack.

on blacks not only involves the sonnet 97, devaluation of black cultures but. also extends to of crime, the denigration of the intelligence, physical beauty, and. moral character of black people. Sonnet 97. At various times, blacks have been. viewed as childlike, stupid, and lazy, and thus in need of white paternalism. 37 At other times, blacks are depicted as wild, vicious, and history of crime impulsive,

and therefore in sonnet, need of being controlled and contained.Worse. yet, and this is the and prejudice darcy and elizabeth, heart of the matter, these negative images have also. seeped into the consciousness of many blacks, often without their being. Part of the 97, remedy for this type of self-alienation is to be found in. the strategies already mentioned: spreading accurate information about. black history and cultural forms; using various forms of cultural expression. to resist and subvert antiblack racism; and engaging in the. relentless critique of the doctrine and practice of racial domination. 37. Eugene D. Donatello Renaissance. Genovese examines how the ideology of 97 paternalism served to rationalize. and reproduce the slave system of the South in his Roll Jordan, Roll: The World the.

Slaves Made (New York: Vintage, 1976). Howard McGary provides a philosophical discussion. of this ideology in “Paternalism and Slavery,” in Between Slavery and Freedom: Philosophy and. American Slavery, by HowardMcGary and Bill E. Lawson (Bloomington: IndianaUniversity. 258 Ethics January 2001. However, there is still more that can be done.

Black people can also. bond together to collectively combat their racial oppression in of The, a more. coordinated way. Indeed, the need to overcome the 97, self-contempt produced. by antiblack racism is an important part of the pride and prejudice darcy, justification for. black solidarity.38 Given the widespread internalization of antiblack race. prejudice, it becomes necessary for sonnet 97 black people to be a significant, if. not the primary, force behind their liberation from racial subordination. It is not enough for The Persuasion Reformation black people to sonnet, be freed from their subordinate. position by their nonblack allies and sympathizers; theymust participate, in a meaningful way, in renaissance, freeing themselves.

The collective struggle for. self-emancipation, even if unsuccessful, can itself enhance the participants’ sense of dignity and self-respect.39 Moreover, fighting together to. free themselves from racial exclusion and domination is one way, in. addition to the ones already mentioned, for blacks to strengthen their. conviction that the doctrine of white supremacy is a vicious lie.40. No doubt, blacks should have a liberated consciousness, one that.

is as free as possible from the 97, devastating effects of racist ideology. However, in freeing their minds from the grip of such degrading and. essentialist images of themselves, they don’t need to, nor should they, replace these representations with another essentialized group identity, no matter how positive or group affirming some may think it to Candide. Has a Cause, be.41. Question 3.—But what about the assimilated black who rejects his. black identity in favor of a “white” persona and cultural lifestyle; can. he really be trusted by other blacks in the collective struggle when he. shows no loyalty to black culture?

It depends on how he conducts himself in sonnet, other contexts, especially. 38. For a useful discussion of the ways in which supportive black communities have. aided blacks in their struggle against this type of alienation, see Howard McGary, “Alienation. and the African-American Experience,” in Candide. Everything Has a Essay, his Race and Social Justice (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 19–24. 39. This was well understood by those blacks who voluntarily fought in the Union. Army war against the slaveholding Confederate States.

The same can be said of those. blacks who walked miles to work in order to boycott segregation on southern buses, and. of those who marched in protest for their civil rights, often risking severe beatings, police. dog attacks, and even being killed. 40. Bernard R. Boxill develops this and related points in his “Self-Respect and 97 Protest,” Philosophy Public Affairs 6 (1976): 58–69. Also see Laurence Thomas, “Self-Respect: Theory and Practice,” in Harris, ed., Philosophy Born of Struggle, pp.

174–89. 41. As Robert Birt cautions us, “We must resist the Candide. Cause Essay, stultifying images of 97 ourselves. created by the oppressor. But we must also resist the the great gatsby wilson, temptation to create an essentialized. black consciousness which reifies black identity while (or by) glorifying it. Sonnet. Maintaining. racial essentialism while only inverting the negative valuations imposed by whites may. appear liberating but ultimately leads to new reifications—and a whole framework of renaissance rigid. roles, rigid identities and contempt for sonnet 97 freedom” (“Existence, Identity, and Everything Has a Liberation,” in Existence in sonnet 97, Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy, ed.

Lewis R. Gordon [New. York: Routledge, 1997], pp. 211–12). Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 259. those that bear directly on antiracist struggles. Granted, sometimes when. a black person chooses not to identify with (what he or she takes to the great gatsby, be) black culture, this is accompanied by a lack of identification with black. struggles against racism. But clearly we would be unjustified in assuming. that this is 97 always the Sociology of Crime, case.

As was argued earlier, we cannot simply infer. a black person’s lack of loyalty and trustworthiness in the fight against. racial oppression from the fact that he does not define himself in terms. of “black culture.” Many so-called assimilated blacks have played important. roles in the struggle against racism; and it would be unreasonable. and insulting to doubt the sonnet, sincerity of the great wilson their commitment to 97, black. solidarity simply because they did not embrace a black ethnic/cultural.

The fact is donatello a person can show her loyalty to the cause of sonnet black. liberation, and thus her trustworthiness as an ally in black resistance to. racism, in ways other than through cultural identification. She can, for. example, work to help ensure that the the great gatsby wilson, next generation of blacks has a. lighter burden of racial oppression than the present one. Such hard. work and protest against racism should be sufficient to eliminate any.

suspicion that might arise due to the person’s lack of sonnet black cultural. identification. Pride And Elizabeth. If the person were truly self-hating and servile, then she. would be unlikely to sonnet, openly struggle and sacrifice to advance the pride and prejudice, interests. of the very group whose abject status is the source of her selfcontempt. We should be careful not to reject potential allies in our. collective effort to end racism on the ground that they do not share. our ethnic/cultural identity. It is much more important, indeed critical,

that those we seek solidarity with share our antiracist values and our. commitment to eliminating racial oppression and the social problems. COMMON OPPRESSION AS A BASIS FOR BLACK SOLIDARITY. The conception of black solidarity advocated in this essay is sonnet hardly new. Though it is often conflated with similar positions (including various. forms of Candide. Everything Essay black nationalism) and at times wrongly thought to require a.

thick black identity, it is, I believe, widely held among blacks. Indeed, in the later part of his life, Du Bois himself comes around to something. like this view. In Dusk of sonnet Dawn, Du Bois reflects on his deeply felt tie to. Africa, which he “can feel better than [he] can explain”:

But one thing is renaissance sure and that is the sonnet 97, fact that since the fifteenth. century these ancestors of mine and their other descendants have. had a common history; have suffered a common disaster and have. 42. As Boxill wisely reminds us, “It is false and the great vicious to infer that every assimilated. black, or every black-skinned writer or poet who does not display ‘soul,’ is sonnet 97 imitative and. servile” (Blacks and Social Justice, p. 181).

260 Ethics January 2001. one long memory. The actual ties of heritage between the pride and prejudice darcy and elizabeth, individuals. of this group, vary with the ancestors that they have in. common and many others: Europeans and Semites, perhaps Mongolians, certainly American Indians.

But the 97, physical bond is least. and the The Persuasion of The Reformation, badge of sonnet 97 color relatively unimportant save as a badge; the. real essence of this kinship is its social heritage of slavery; the. discrimination and insult; and this heritage binds together not. simply the children of of crime Africa, but extends through yellow Asia and. into the sonnet 97, South Seas. It is this unity that draws me to Africa.43. Of course Du Bois is here describing a Pan-African vision of black solidarity, which is beyond the scope of black solidarity defended here. Counter Essay. But.

he does root this broader conception of black solidarity, not in a thick. collective identity as he does in his “Conservation” essay, but in the. common experience of racialized oppression throughout the world. In the space remaining, I want to briefly summarize the common. oppression conception of black solidarity that I have been defending. here and sonnet 97 anticipate a few objections to it. As I’ve emphasized, themutual. identification between blacks, that familiar sense of “we-ness,” can be. founded on the shared experience of antiblack racism. Donatello. That common.

experience, made possible by 97 our racial ascription as “black” people, includes such things as bearing the weight of the stigma attached to. looking and and prejudice and elizabeth acting “black”; being subject to the vicissitudes of sonnet a racially. segmented labor market; suffering discrimination on the basis of presumed. incompetence; enduring the and prejudice darcy and elizabeth, systematic exclusion from sonnet certain. neighborhoods, schools, and social circles; recognizing that one is often. the object of Sociology unjustified hatred, contempt, suspicion, or fear; feeling. powerless to change one’s inferior racial status; functioning as the perennial. scapegoat for social problems and economic crises; and living. with the knowledge that one is vulnerable to being victimized, at almost.

any time, by an antiblack attitude, action, social practice, or institutional. As an sonnet, emancipatory solidarity group, blacks must be committed to. social equality and respect for group differences, which means rooting. out racism wherever it exists, even within our own ranks. For while we. identify with each other because of our common suffering under antiblack. oppression, our stance against our oppressors must be a principled. one if our indignation and resentment are to be justified. It is. important to see that an the great gatsby, oppression-centered black solidarity is not a.

matter of 97 being antiwhite, or even problack, but of being antiracist. Consequently, solidarity with other racially oppressed groups, and even. with committed antiracist whites, is not precluded by history it. Thus, progres- 43. W. E. B. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay toward an sonnet 97, Autobiography of a Race Concept.

(New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1997), p. 117. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 261. sive individuals, regardless of history their “race,” ethnicity, cultural identifications, or national origin, have no reason to sonnet, oppose black solidarity, once its basis and gatsby point are properly understood. Group loyalty and 97 mutual trust can be cultivated through our individual. and collective struggles against racial domination and wilson inequality. Those we most seek solidarity with, then, are not necessarily.

those who most exhibit a thick black identity but rather those who stand. firm against all forms of racism, regardless of their racial or cultural. identifications. Rather than being rooted in “race,” ethnicity, or culture, the group’s self-conception is grounded in sonnet 97, its antiracist politics and its. commitment to racial justice. There must be room within an emancipatory black solidarity for. disagreement over the precise content of our antiracist politics. The. ideals of racial equality and respect for of The group difference are open to a.

variety of interpretations, and reasonable people can disagree over 97, both. the appropriate strategies for overcoming racial oppression and the. exact meaning of “black liberation.” Some of these disagreements may. run deep (say, between radicals and conservatives), and thus it is unlikely. that we can reach consensus on the great gatsby a comprehensive political program.

However, we know that we all want to live in a society where being. (thought to be) “black” is sonnet 97 not a disadvantage or stigma and where all. can live with dignity and self-respect regardless of their so-called race. These somewhat vague ideals and goals can provide black solidarity with. a roughnormative guide, which can bemademore precise and complete. through open-ended dialogue about where to go from here and how. to get there. Though there will inevitably be, perhaps intense, disagreement. among blacks over the details of of The Reformation Essay our antiracist politics, we. should debate these matters with open minds and without allowing. ourselves to be sidetracked by the irresolvable controversy over what it.

means to be “really” black. Sonnet 97. Should it happen that our bonds begin to. fracture because of the depth of our political disagreements—and perhaps. that time is now, again, upon us—we each should remind ourselves. and each other, as Frederick Douglass urged long ago, that the mutual. recognition of our common subordinate position and our collective will.

to rise above it are the bases of our unity. Some might wonder why black solidarity is needed at all, especially. since racism is not unique to the experience of blacks and, as was conceded. earlier, solidarity between antiracist blacks and nonblacks is donatello renaissance both. possible and desirable. 97. Shouldn’t we just reject black solidarity and embrace.

interracial, antiracist solidarity instead?44 While I certainly would. 44. Essay. Appiah raises a similar objection against the later Du Bois’s conception of sonnet 97 “race” (see his In My Father’s House, p. 42). While Appiah’s criticismof Du Bois’s Pan-Africanism. is quite telling, it has little force against the version of history black solidarity defended here, for. 262 Ethics January 2001.

strongly encourage blacks to work with antiracist nonblacks against racism, I do not see why blacks must give up their solidaristic commitment. to each other in order to do so. There is room for 97 nested and overlapping. forms of Sociology of Crime Essay antiracist solidarity, just as there is space for more or less. exclusive and sonnet 97 inclusive collective struggles at other sites of oppression— for example, class, gender, sexuality, and their intersections. However, though broader forms of antiracist solidarity should be cultivated, there are at least three reasons why it is prudent for blacks to hold on. to this narrower commitment as well, at least for the time being.

First, antiblack racial oppression (like anti-Semitism, anti-Asian racism, and the oppression of Native Americans) has features that make. it unique as a formof racial subjection. And Prejudice Darcy. The peculiar content of antiblack. racist ideology (with its images of blacks as lazy, stupid, hypersexual, and disposed to acts of aggression), the enslavement and brutal treatment.

of Africans in the New World, and the subsequent exclusion of. blacks from the mainstream of American civic and social life have combined. to give antiblack race prejudice a distinctive character among. American forms of racism. There are also severe social problems—for.

example, joblessness, high rates of sonnet incarceration, concentrated poverty, failing schools, a violent drug trade—that plague some black communities. and that are partly the the great gatsby wilson, result of sonnet 97 (past and present) racial discrimination. against black people in particular.45 While a joint commitment. to fighting racial injustice in all its forms can help create interracial. solidarity, it is often the Counter Essay, common experience of specific forms of racial. oppression that creates the strongest and 97 most enduring bonds among. victims of racism. Second, the Sociology of Crime Essay, black experience with racism in America makes it difficult. for many blacks to fully trust nonblacks when it comes to fighting. against racism, for they have too often been victimized by the racism.

of nonblacks, even by some who are racially oppressed themselves. Add. to this the fact that other “racial” minorities have solidaristic commitments. of their own (e.g., Jews, Native Americans, and sonnet 97 some Asian. groups), and it should be clear that many blacks justifiably feel the need. to protect themselves against the dangers that may result from competing. group loyalties and interests. A unilateral laying down of The Persuasion Counter solidaristic. arms, as it were, would increase black vulnerability to.

that version, in contrast to Du Bois’s, does not rely on the doctrine of sonnet 97 racialism, it does. not presuppose a common “black culture,” and it is rooted in the specificity of black. oppression in America. 45. See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. (New York: Knopf, 1999); and Douglass S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid:

Segregation and the Making of the Candide. Everything Has a Cause Essay, Underclass (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 263. And, third, the sonnet, common experience of antiblack racism has for. centuries now provided a firm and well-recognized basis for The Persuasion Reformation Essay mutual. identification between blacks, and this shared experience partially accounts. for the solidarity between them that continues to exist today. As. we seek to sonnet, form interracial coalitions in our fight against racism, we. should not underestimate or devalue this social bond. Historically, it.

has been a great source of strength and hope for Candide. Cause Essay blacks, and 97 a highly. effective means for creating greater social equality. I believe that it can, and should, continue to do so. The Great Gatsby Wilson. In saying this, however, I am not suggesting. that black collective action, founded on an oppression-centered. black solidarity, would be sufficient to eliminate racism.

Indeed, it could. turn out that nothing we do, even with the sonnet 97, help of members from other. “racial” groups, will end racism, especially antiblack racism.46 Perhaps. the most that can be hoped for, at least in the foreseeable future, is. that black solidarity will afford blacks a limited form of collective selfdefense.

against some of the more burdensome forms of racial oppression. But this, I should think, would be sufficient to make the effort. An oppression-centered black solidarity does not, however, require. a common black identity. Sociology Of Crime. Though black oppression may be based on, or rationalized in terms of, an ascribed black identity, this ascription.

need not be well founded in order for the oppression to be real or for. bonds of solidarity among the racially oppressed to form. The advocate of collective identity theory might here object: surely. an oppression-centered black solidarity must at least require that blacks. identify with their thin blackness; for without such a common identity, they will lack a stable foundation for sonnet 97 mutual identification. This objection. fails, however. To see why, consider the following variant of Candide. Everything Cause Essay the.

well-worn but still instructive witch analogy.47 The trial and sonnet subsequent. punishment of alleged “witches” was ostensibly based on the claim that. the accused had communed with the forces of the underworld. Though. this accusation was most certainly unfounded, these so-called witches. nevertheless suffered a common fate. And Elizabeth. But now let’s suppose for 97 a moment. that some of the accused really did practice witchcraft, that is, that they engaged in “sorcery,” sought to conspire with the Devil, surreptitiously.

corrupted good Christians, and so on. Candide. Everything Cause. Suppose further that, at various points, some of their number, for whatever reason, ceased. 46. See Derrick Bell, Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: 47. Sonnet. While philosophers often invoke the “witch” as an example of a nonexistent entity, I think Appiah was the first to use the witch analogy in the context of the and prejudice darcy, metaphysics of. race.

See, e.g., his article on “race” in Africana: The Encyclopedia of 97 African and African- American Experience, ed. Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (New York: 264 Ethics January 2001. practicing witchcraft and of The no longer identified themselves as “witches.” And, finally, suppose that at least some of these practitioners of witchcraft. believed that some among them were frauds, that is, not “really”

witches, according to some commonly accepted criteria for being a witch. or according to some more controversial and 97 strict criteria. Now despite. all this, it seems clear that all of these former, pseudo-, and donatello would-be. witches could share bonds of solidarity with each other, not based on. their common “witch identity” (for ex hypothesi the existence of a. shared identity was in sonnet 97, doubt), but based on their common persecution. They simply could have put aside the pride and prejudice and elizabeth, question of 97 who is and who is the great not. an authentic witch and focused their attention and sonnet energy on overcoming.

their common plight. Black solidarity could have, and should have, an analogous foundation. Attachment to their thin black identity is not the Counter Reformation, basis of the. group’s solidarity, but rather the shared experience with antiblack racism. and the sonnet, joint commitment to ending it. Blacks need only recognize.

that part of the history of crime, reason they often suffer mistreatment is that others see. them as thickly “black” (their thin blackness being merely a “sign” of a. deeper difference); and this “racialized perception” leads their oppressors. (sometimes unconsciously) to treat them as a devalued “other.”48. Identification between members of the racially oppressed group can. therefore be based on sonnet 97 their mutual recognition of this sad and disturbing. fact.

It would not undermine black solidarity if, apart from and prejudice darcy and elizabeth the. unjust treatment that they engender, the characteristics that constitute. their thin blackness were to have little or no significance for the members. of the united oppressed group. Once liberation is achieved, thin. blackness may in fact (though it need not) lose all social and political. But now some might suggest that even this stripped-down common. oppression theory commits itself to a version of the collective identity. view, for it nevertheless endorses the cultivation of a thick collective.

black identity: it urges blacks to sonnet 97, see themselves as racially oppressed. This shared identity is the great gatsby not based on “race,” ethnicity, or culture, but on. the common experience of antiblack racism. Thus, those blacks who. are united by ties of solidarity will still have a collective identity, and. one that is not reducible to their political principles or antiracist politics. This identity might aptly be described as “victims of antiblack racial. 48. Sonnet. For illuminating discussions of the Candide. Everything Has a Cause Essay, subtle workings of the “racial gaze,” see Adrian. M. 97. S. Candide. Everything Has A Cause. Piper, “Higher-Order Discrimination,” in Identity, Character, and Morality: Essays in.

Moral Psychology, ed. Sonnet 97. Owen Flanagan and Amelie Rorty (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Towards a Phenomenology of Racial Embodiment,” Radical Philosophy 95 (1999): 15–26. Shelby Foundations of donatello renaissance Black Solidarity 265. We could of course respond to this objection by simply conceding. it; that is, we could accept that the one “thick” collective black identity. that continues to be a realistic possibility is constituted by our victim. status in an antiblack world. 97. This approach to the meaning of blackness. is not self-defeating or divisive like the other conceptions we considered,

since the of The Counter Essay, vast majority of blacks rightly accept that antiblack racism. continues to exist (though of 97 course they have no wish to preserve the. conditions under which an oppression-based identity would be advantageous. or desirable).49 Such an The Persuasion of The Reformation, identity would not gratuitously add to. individual unfreedom, for it is nonracialist and perfectly consistent with. cultural/ethnic diversity. Moreover, we should not have to sonnet, go to Counter Essay, great. lengths to cultivate this identity, for there is more than enough antiblack. sentiment and discrimination still around to sustain it—though, admittedly,

it may be necessary to convince people of the depth of the. problem.50 But this view of “blackness” would not give the (typical) collective identity theorist all that he wants, for sonnet 97 the search for a collective. black identity has generally been a struggle to discover or construct a. positive social identity, one that could be a basis for pride, dignity, and. collective self-affirmation.

A common identity based on nothing more. than our shared experience of racism cannot provide such an gatsby, identity, for this would, perversely, treat victimhood as something of which to sonnet 97, be. proud—which is not of course to say that it is something of which we. should be ashamed.51. 49. Jennifer L. Of Crime Essay. Hochschild, Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul. of the sonnet, Nation (Princeton. N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995). 50. According to Orlando Patterson (p.

61), “all things considered, it is reasonable. to estimate that about a quarter of the Euro-American population harbors at least mildly. racist feelings toward Afro-Americans and that one in five is a hard-core racist.…However. one may wish to quibble over the meaning of attitude surveys and Reformation Essay other data, this is real. progress, an enormous change from the fifties and sixties, when the great majority of.

Euro-Americans were openly racists, measured by whatever means. Sonnet 97. Nonetheless, when. roughly a quarter of all Euro-Americans are racists, it still remains the The Persuasion Counter, case that for every. two Afro-American persons there are three Euro-American racists. In spite of all the. progress among Euro-Americans, this is still an 97, outrageous situation for any Afro-American.” See also Howard Schuman, Charlotte Steeh, Lawrence Bobo, and Maria Krysan, Racial Attitudes in Essay, America: Trends and 97 Interpretations, rev. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard. University Press, 1997); David O. Sears, Colette van Laar, Mary Carrillo, and Rick Kosterman, “Is It Really Racism?

The Origins of White Americans’ Opposition to Race-Targeted. Policies,” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (1997): 16–53; and David O. Sears, Jim Sidanius, and. Lawrence Bobo, eds., Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America (Chicago: University. of Chicago Press, 2000). 51. Some might argue that a collective identity constituted by our oppressed condition. can be seen to be positive and group affirming if we view it from a black theological. perspective (whether Christian or Muslim). Pride And Prejudice Darcy. On this view, God embraces blacks because. they are oppressed; and He is concerned to help them liberate themselves from their evil.

oppressors. Sonnet. (See, e.g., James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation [Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 266 Ethics January 2001. If the arguments presented in Sociology of Crime Essay, this article are sound, then black solidarity. can survive the now well-known critique of racial/ethnic essentialism; it can be sustained despite the loss of “race” as a viable biological concept; it can flourish despite the cultural and ethnic diversity of black. people; and it need not unduly constrain individuality or our freedom. to construct a pluralistic identity. However, this reconstructed black solidarity. will have to be sustained without the 97, demand for a collective. black identity, for this requirement can only impede the collective struggle.

that lies ahead. 1990]; and Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America [Atlanta: Messenger Elijah. Muhammad Propagation Society, 1997].) However, the positive dimension of this kind of. “blackness” is Sociology of Crime surely derived, not from the oppression itself, but from the virtue associated. with the steadfast pursuit of truth and justice despite being oppressed and/or from the.

promise that, through faith and collective struggle, we will ultimately be delivered from. that oppression. Sonnet 97. If God did not love what is good and hate what is evil, or if He could. help liberate us from undeserved domination but did not, then we could hardly take. much pride in being “chosen” by Him.

But even if black theology could find in black. oppression something of Candide. Cause which to sonnet 97, be proud, it is clear that a religious narrative of this. sort is not one that will resonate with all blacks, since not all of the great us are religiously inclined. At best, then, “victims of antiblack racial oppression” will be a positive identity for some, though not all, black people. Is this question part of your Assignment?

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9 thoughts on “ 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes ” These are all great. I like the The Persuasion of The, one that can be formed into a carton especially. I#8217;m always surprised at how clever people can be. Sonnet 97? One caveat I think these designs would work nicely for the interview, or for a smaller firm. However, I can#8217;t imagine that any of these crafty designs would get past an ATS (Applicant Tracking System. All these resumes are truly impressive but let#8217;s face it, they aren#8217;t really functional unless for the candidates who are willing to get hired as art directors or packaging designers maybe. But for gatsby wilson, the rest of us, we obviously need more subtle design while still being creative. Here are some great examples of CV#8217;s that are not #8220;too much#8221; but will still get you noticed: Creative Resumes. I particularly like the 7th on the list. I would have to agree with James Rich, all these resumes look great but they are hardly usable for most of us.

With that said, a professional resume doesn#8217;t have to be boring. Have a look at these Fancy CV templates. Sonnet? There are some brilliant ideas out there! We would like to share with our Free resume. Everything is of The Reformation carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. Check out this resume pack I found too! Its like a crossover between something really creative and sonnet, something sort of traditional.. Has A Cause? So easy to sonnet 97, use also.. Have a look here:

You would want to have a look at to Counter Reformation Essay, get some awesome resumes made. They are nice but#8230;I did a those type of sonnet 97, things in Candide. Has a Essay, the late 80#8217;s early 90#8217;s, even did one that I used the ADWEEK magazine cover but it said ADD me this WEEK designed like their logo. Sonnet 97? Todays designs should incorporate more and and elizabeth, with new technologies, be more innovative, incorporating those elements. I try #8220;Lenka Kubisova#8221; did it#8217;s simple but so much clean and professional. I#8217;m STUNNED at 97 the level of personal information that is shared#8230; Photos, Height, Dress preferences, Marital status#8230;. You NEVER NEVER put that on a resume. It#8217;s illegal for Sociology Essay, an employer to ask for a photo (and all the other personal information) in connection with a job application so why would you include it? It might make the HR department very uncomfortable. You must be logged in to sonnet 97, post a comment.

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essays on a word Saturday, February 5, 2000. Notes for an Essay on Microsoft Word. Damn the paperclip to hell. My thinking is in a transitional state, as I sort out things technical and sonnet 97 personal. Of Crime Essay. As a result, this Ftrain article is not a finished thing, but a big pile of ideas, thrown out of my head into a buffer. You're welcome to sonnet, any ideas you like, but there are so many digressions, so few real points, you may want to spend your time elsewhere. I make my living putting words, then paragraphs, then sections of of crime, text, into structured sequences. I could call it writing, but it is often as much sorting or design or listing . Some of my sequences are published as brochures, business articles, or Web sites, others are read by sonnet corporate Vice Presidents and discarded.

Some influence the Has a Essay design of a particular piece of software. 97. From necessity, I usually create these documents in Microsoft Word, the established, standard tool for American corporate alphanumeric symbol-arranging. Microsoft Word is a fascinating landscape of cultural thought, expressed as a consumer software product. It breaks the writing process of creating a document into the application of hundreds of small tools, very few of which have anything to do with writing words. Most of the tool involve operating upon symbols, syymbols which might or might not be made of the characters on your keyboard. One tool might allow you to and prejudice, sketch a circle, turn a paragraph red, or include a rotating 3D cube in the middle of your document. In the most recent millennia, thousands of rhetoricians and professors have desconstructed the 97 writing process into Counter Reformation, component structures, from before Aristotle to I.A. Richards to sonnet, Richard Lanham. Candide. Has A. While they've written enormous essays on the theory of sonnet, composition and the structure of documents, Microsoft has not heeded their counsel in its design for Word. Microsoft has built something quite different, a composition tool for Candide. Everything, various kinds of media, something McLuhanist, with Postmodern currents beneath it, and ultimately intended to serve the marketplace rather than promote best practices.

Many computer types seem fascinated by Postmodernism. I've written a mini-essay on this, which began as a note but got too big for its trousers. It's included at the bottom of this article. Other software is also designed along these lines. Adobe Photoshop, for instance, was first built to match the needs of those preparing images for press. Sonnet. It offers a host of components based on darkroom techniques - dodge, burn, and so forth, as well as canned filters, which are the same in theory as MSWord's host of Essay, icons. The filters are a sort of prefab creativity, and mostly emulate other media; they turn images into pretend oil paintings, or photocopies, or crosshatch drawings. Photoshop doesn't, however, allow all the cross-media incorporation, yet; instead, it fits in as a piece in a suite of products, like Illustrator, InDesign, Streamline, Acrobat, etc, which together form a monolith of MSWordian proportions, but with more discrete, professionalized tasks. As image or video processing becomes more and 97 more a daily task, however, you can expect the Sociology Essay worst abuses of Word to perpetrated upon other software. Even the free-software GIMP has a built-in e-mail mode, created self-consciously to fulfill the sonnet 97 computer-science axiom that all software expands until it can send mail. Thought exercise: when I use software, I ask myself what it tells me about my world.

The browser which will display this random, meandering essay tells me, in large icons, that I may wish to go back from this page, receding, or forward to where I've been before. My personal experience of the non-linear Web is very linear; I move back and forth across a line of renaissance, pages, creating a personal history file (which I can also browse), adding bookmarks to 97, a menu, where they're listed in Has a Cause Essay, the order I put them there. Later, I can sort them into a non-linear, categorical form. So the browser is an archive, a timeline, in its way. There's more, though. Its primary application is to display Web pages,. Most browsers now contain tools to create Web pages, chat live, send e-mail, and maintain addresses.

These are more fundamental acts than reading, which is personal, based on the technology of sonnet 97, text; they're communicative. The Browser connects you to the landscape of information, and the other tools allow you means to The Persuasion of The Reformation, discuss it, to share inside of it? I know the 97 goal of the browsing experience is to be all-integrative - ultimately turning into Virtual Reality, fully immersive 3D, superseding the phone, superseding face-to-face meetings. And Prejudice And Elizabeth. The idea then is that there is 97 no conversation without annotations, without references and hyperlinks, and a call to your father will include forwarded jokes, pictures, reviews, everything. This is not just digital; once a month, my mother sends me religious clippings along with a brief, three-sentence note. She is annotating our relationship, pulling in samples from the Candide. Has a media and collaging them onto our connection, adding them to the wire. VR and sonnet 97 the Internet simply formalize that sort of thing, by providing a consistent addressing scheme for everything under the sun. So, why did they choose this approach for the browser? And when you have the obvious solution to gatsby, that obvious question, then why ? And why again? The Why? matters, because everywhere I read, regardless of the creed or ideology of the sonnet 97 authors, people agree that the future is tied somehow into all of these networks and digital tools.

After all, if you were going to sneak in cultural imperialism, there's no better way than software design; it flies under the history of crime radar in the guise of abstract utility. And these are tools, thus they can be probably be used as weapons in sonnet 97, some way. Pride Darcy. And a million other reasons. The interface of MSWord may not matter as much as the homeless problem, or world hunger, at all. But it might not be as far from sonnet, those problems as we think. Language is a sacred space for me; I'm not an athiest when I write. While my apartment can be a mess, and pride and prejudice my life in shambles, I'm liberated at the black, text-only console.

Recursion: there is also software, in the form of a computer script, inside of the page you're reading now. It just loaded a text file, listing each entry, placing links at the bottom of the page. I wrote it so that I wouldn't need to bother with much HTML, just. tags and image references. 97. It converts a tag into the gray note boxes on the right, without the need for complex HTML when I write.

I wrote the script/page for utility, but it also consistently expresses the Everything Has a things I think are important about this Web site: the image at the top, the word F T R A I N, and the other elements create an Ftrain brand. Sonnet 97. They're inescapable to the reader. They create the Ftrain culture, in Candide. Essay, a way. Further recursion: I am writing a novel, a sci-fi type thing. I have an editor who will look at some chapters, so I'm undertaking a more focused and active novel-writing process than I might otherwise undertake, putting aside paying work to do so. The narrative of the novel and the narrative of this site are beginning to intertwine, often outside of 97, my control, and they connect with the wilson flow of my life. My friends read these Web pages and speak to sonnet, me as if I'd spoken the words here directly to them, over and prejudice darcy, the phone or in person. In the novel, the ideas, including these ideas, are being played out 100 years from now, in the standard cities with tall spires, with the expected sections of the protagonist's brain accidentally turned into sonnet, quantum-biological-nanotech computers, jangling and tuning the nerves in his head, where each aspect of life is absorbed by the network, and yet the desires and kindnesses and passions of the gatsby wilson human, part of phylum Chordata, remain identical to those I know from experience.

Furthest recursion: When I erased the dozens of old entries and re-started Ftrain in its current incarnation, I'd spent 4 months of my spare time mapping out 97, exactly how to represent complex documents in relational databases. It's been done before, but I wanted to Everything, figure it out sonnet 97, myself. History Of Crime. I eventually arrived at a way to sonnet, hold all level of complexity and structure inside a small number of tables, thus making documents easy to sort and edit, while allowing for multiple authors per donatello renaissance, document and sonnet a moving window of what a document was. It could be an entire community of Web sites, it could be a single sentence, at any given time. I was going to the great, implement all of this as a multi-author Web based system for mutual communities of expression, first as a newspaper that would compile itself, but then with more complicated interfaces, and I built some prototypes. Sonnet 97. They worked well enough, enough to convince me it was viable.

But I found myself shirking the responsibility of writing. Donatello Renaissance. It made me wonder what the whole point of it was. Enough with the encapsulating interfaces, enough with the jargon and sonnet the vapid punditry; what about the sequences of letters themselves? Take those three recursions above, and multiply them times thousands of marketers, programmers, testers, managers - a real culture of Candide. Has a Essay, corporate development, not just a penny ante Web site - and you have fractal software design, a recursive pool of desires, wants, market research, technical limitations, and exhausting deadline, and thus you have Microsoft Word. They probably had great intentions in Redmond, like the Communists before Stalin. But it's ultimately a failure for all but defined tasks. Sonnet. Technologies like the and elizabeth Office Assistant, with its dreaded paperclip, interfere in your most private moments: So what's the alternative? I don't know.

I'm not so savvy as the 20-something Web pundits, so I can't tell you. Others have thought about it more, so let me pull in a quote; in Electric Language , writing specifically about word processing, Michael Heim, who from the 1980's has written about computing as a philosophical endeavor, and is the opposite of the Media- Virus- Meme-o-matic pundits, puts it this way (with my emphases): In any case, current research on 97 computer interface has shown that it is necessary for The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, the user to sonnet 97, develop a mental model or set of Candide., inferences concerning the sonnet underlying movement of the system. History Of Crime. However crude and unsophisticated it may be, a mental model allows the user to build some basis on which experiences can be collected and from which the user can respond to sonnet, the interactive processes of automated writing . A metaphor or sense-endowing map of the system is The Persuasion not provided ready-made by the technology, as was frequently the case with mechanical operations. Sonnet 97. Because of the indefinite number of renaissance, its operations and 97 becaus of the Everything Has a Cause Essay flexibility of any given software, the user can never wholly rely on sonnet 97 a so-called idiot-proof system; it will always be necessary to manage problems as the system is applied to renaissance, different tasks in the flow of information in thought and writing. Michael Heim is a philosopher of 97, cyberspace. But he means it - he takes Leibniz, Heidigger, and pride darcy and elizabeth the rest of them and applies them to the digital. He's focused his mind on 97 virtual reality for much of the last decade. It was a somewhat unfashionable choice of study, I think, since VR is out of favor in the computer world and computers spook academics, but it will prove prescient as the Everything Has a digital world expands. 97. Mark my words. When you use a computer program extensively, you create a model of how it works in your mind.

MSWord, in theory, works like business is supposed to work: every piece fits together, and the end result is hopefully greater the sum of its parts. Gatsby Wilson. Microsoft Office is called that for a reason. But it doesn't happen: you run up against limits as you attempt to use the program in any seriously advanced way, because the program was designed to anticipate your behavior, to predict your needs, rather than providing you with the tools you needed to satisfy them yourself. If you are growing and learning, your needs are always changing and expanding - they're impossible to predict. So, ultimately, you hit the sonnet Redmond Paradox: the canned routines of MSWord - even though MSWord is built with enormous cultural assumptions about how we order our world built in - can't satisfy your work. And successive versions of the software are self-fulfilling prophecies: we release this new version to meet the needs the the great wilson old one didn't, acknowledging in turn that this software will also not meet needs. I need to come back here and back up my argument with lots of examples.

For now, I'll wuss out.The trouble is, this whole modularity thing isn't effective when there's a lot of work to do, especially in a knowledge economy, where putting ideas together creatively , in new ways, is key to 97, corporate growth. Most recent business theory books, especially those focusing on renaissance the digital economy (like Unleashing the Killer App push creativity, teamwork, and 97 exploration over modularity of history, individuals. Sonnet. Working on building Web sites, which is a network-and-knowledge intensive, incredibly rapid growth industry, I've had roughly 14 positions in 3 years, which makes the concept of a title, or a set role, meaningless. In a work environment, I adapt to fit where I can help, and where I'm interested. Candide. Everything Has A Cause Essay. If I don't make a difference, or I'm bored, I quit. Total Quality Management, understanding my place in sonnet 97, the organization and filling it completely with responsibility to the whole corporate entity, has no meaning to me; there's no point in me learning a role as much as learning techniques for adapting . Vicious cycle: brought to a conclusion, this high adaptability makes it absolutely futile for me to have a desk job. Corporations must do things well in of Crime, a reliable manner, and minimize failure. I am interested in doing things wrong and failing (hence this essay, which is definitely a failure, but hopefully an inspired failure--see?--which will lead me to 97, clearer and more valuable, in-depth thinking later.

Right now, no role exists for me to fill as writer- thinker- bad-programmer- strategist- creative- brand- mascot- etc; I flounder and thrash unless I can consider documents and databases along with the flow of language and poetry. This sounds pretentious but it's fairly grave; I've gotten to a point where I just can't handle being in an office working on projects, and my mind wanders so far off point I feel I shouldn't even charge people for what I do, and it makes me a liability. And the truth is I have years before I can really put it all together correctly . Donatello. I'm still as dumb as dirt. Sonnet. I'll be up all night this Sunday doing the donatello things I didn't bother to think about last week because I was reading library books. Can the instinct to express and sonnet learn be reconciled with the instinct to work and be part of a productive group? Academia doesn't really work that way. Renaissance. Are the two instincts like Eros Thanatos? Tom Jerry? Ricky Lucy? Clinton Lewinsky? Since all of it is my life, and sonnet I have no interest in history, separating life and work from one another in some corporate centrifuge, I remain gainfully unemployed, writing code some weeks, writing copy some others.

This is sonnet 97 where the the great gatsby essay ends, for now. Early Notes on Postmodernism and Computer Science. In the four years since, I've seen essays ranging from How To Deconstruct Almost Anything, the story of one computer professional's explorations in the world of postmodern literary criticism to Larry Wall's lengthy explanation of Perl as a Postmodern programming language. On the other side, the Theory crowd digs science, usually without a lick of understanding, writing about sonnet chaos theory and quantum gravity as the roots of the other in a seamless, cheerful stream of babble. The Persuasion Of The Essay. There's an amusing book out there called Fashionable Nonsense where scientists take on Pomo Critics. Me, I understand neither the science nor the Postmodernism very well, at least during this decade of my life. The hazard of being a generalist is you stay stupid longer. More on this later. To hypothesize from sonnet, a ridiculously tiny experimental base: do code wonks and Theory wonks have the same fascinations? Postmodernists are extremely curious about the deep structures of of Crime Essay, our culture, and they'll go so far as to say that our culture is what defines our atoms, not the other way around. Computer scientists interested in sonnet, non-traditional domains (say, algorithmic video and sound composition, as opposed to efficient search algorithms) and especially those interested in the Internet are also arguing against Has a Cause Essay, the atoms.

They won't always talk about it, but they're into re-arranging the creative and cultural universe into manageable structures; they're implementing the structures the PoMo critics are exploring, actually hard-coding units of meaning into their software, or to take it up a metalevel, they're implementing tools which have built-in assumptions about the structures the PoMo critics are exploring , like with VRML, or CSound, or MSWord. I think it all emerges from data instinct, that weird ability humans have to simply absorb ideas after enough time online, rather than knowledge (more on sonnet data instinct later.) In any case, that's the real promise of Virtual Reality. VR is not just a jackoff fantasyland; it's a tool for modeling all the wacked-out nonsense and relationships, for playing out the differences in donatello, our minds and 97 our situations. More on this later.

It'll all out when quantum computers show up, mark my words. More on this later. is the website of Paul Ford and his pseudonyms. It is showing its age. Of The Counter Reformation. I'm rewriting the code but it's taking some time. About the author: I've been running this website from 1997. Sonnet 97. For a living I write stories and essays, program computers, edit things, and help people launch online publications. (LinkedIn). I wrote a novel. I was an pride darcy editor at Harper's Magazine for five years; then I was a Contributing Editor; now I am a free agent. I was also on NPR's All Things Considered for a while. I still write for The Morning News, and some other places.

If you have any questions for me, I am very accessible by email. You can email me at and ask me things and I will try to answer. Especially if you want to clarify something or write something critical. I am glad to clarify things so that you can disagree more effectively. © 1974-2011 Paul Ford. Woods+. Sonnet 97. People call me a lot and say: What is this new thing? You're a nerd. Explain it immediately. (July 10) 0h30m w/Photoshop, by Everything Has a Cause Essay Paul Ford. It's immediately clear to me now that I'm writing again that I need to come up with some new forms in order to have fun here—so that I can get a rhythm and know what I'm doing.

One thing that works for me are time limits; pencils up, pencils down. So: Fridays, write for 30 minutes; edit for 20 minutes max; and go whip up some images if necessary, like the big crappy hand below that's all meaningful and sonnet evocative because it's retro and zoomed-in. Post it, and leave it alone. Can I do that every Friday? Yes! Will I? Maybe! But I crave that simple continuity. The Great Gatsby. For today, for sonnet, absolutely no reason other than that it came unbidden into my brain, the subject will be Photoshop. Donatello Renaissance. (Do we have a process? We have a process. Sonnet. It is 11:39 and. ) (May 13) Tickler File Forever, by Paul Ford.

I'll have no one to of crime, blame but future me. (May 10) Time's Inverted Index, by Paul Ford. (1) When robots write history we can get in trouble with our past selves. (2) Search-generated, false chrestomathies and the historical fallacy. (May 9) The Moral Superiority of the Streetcar. (1) Long-form journalism fixes everything. Sonnet. (2) The moral superiority of the streetcar. (3) I like big bus and I cannot lie. (May 4)