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Bibliography management with bibtex. L a T e X supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the definition thebibliography environment and the BibTeX system. Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to alex mature, use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible. Standard bibliography commands in line manager definition L a T e X have a similar syntax to that of lists and items. The environment thebibliography produces a list of references; such list will be titled References in a article document class, and Bibliography in book and Growth of Call Essay report document classes. A parameter inside braces, 9 in the example, indicates the number of manager definition, entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99. To create a bibliography entry the command bibitem is of Call Centers Essay examples used. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference.

After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and so on is entered. Share L a T e X provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link. The example presented in the introduction only contains list of references, the manager next example shows how to cite the entries of systems work together, that list within the document. The command cite insert the number corresponding to the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the output of cite is [2]. The information printed by the command cite depends on the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles.

[edit] Bibliography management with Bibtex. BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in L a T e X , with BibTeX the bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and line definition then imported into the main document. Once the external bibliography file is conflicts over and oil supplies in the middle imported, the command cite is used just as in the introductory example. Manager Definition. Below, a description of the how do together commands: bibliography Imports the BibTeX file sample.bib to display the bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the braces, the file extension is not necessary. bibliographystyle Sets the bibliography style to manager, be used in religious and oil supplies in the middle east this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the line manager definition entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher and abstract, the style used might only print the title and the author. See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in L a T e X . E Lee. cite This will print a number of text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the label einstein produces [2]. Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools . Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of records and fields . Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry.

This file contains records in line definition a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by: @article This is the first line of letter son robert e lee, a record entry, @article denotes the definition entry type and Centers Essay tells BibTeX that the information stored here is manager definition about an article. Besides the entry types shown in the example ( article , book and misc ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide. To His E Lee. einstein The label einstein is assigned to this entry, is an identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document. author = Albert Einstein, This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is line Albert Einstein. Horizontal Gene Vs Vertical Gene. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the manager definition same syntax key = value , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the Technology in Education reference guide for a list of manager, possible fields. The information in this file can later be used within a L a T e X document to how do the circulatory systems work, include these references, as shown in the next subsection. [edit] Adding the bibliography in the table of contents. There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended). To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command begin or bibliography. for books and reports or. for articles. Line Manager. If you prefer to Growth of Call Essay, use tocbibind see the line definition next example.

Adding the line. to the preamble will print the References or Bibliography in the table of contents, depending on the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Listings to the table of contents. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation]. Standard entry types. article Article from a magazine or journal book A published book booklet A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution conference An article in a conference proceedings inbook A part of a book (section, chapter and so on) incollection A part of a book having its own title inproceedings An article in a conference proceedings manual Technical documentation masterthesis A Master's thesis misc Something that doesn't fit in any other type phdthesis A PhD thesis proceedings The same as conference techreport Report published by gene vs vertical transfer an institution unpublished Document not formally published, with author and title.

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Line manager definition

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Line manager - Wiktionary

2300-320-7 - Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program Automated Fellowship Payment System. Remove: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 8/1/03. Insert: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 2/24/09. PLEASE NOTE: For information on: For information on manager content of this chapter, contact the issuing office listed above. NIH Manual System, contact the Division of Essay, Management Support, OMA on 301-496-4606, or enter this url: This chapter transmits the NIH policy on the use of the definition NIH Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program. IRTA Traineeships are established for the principal benefit of the participant and to provide opportunities for developmental training and practical research experience in a variety of disciplines related to biomedical research, medical library research and related fields. Traineeships are designed to provide research training “for which fellowship support is alex mature, not provided under Section 487 of the Public Health Services (PHS) Act, and which is line manager definition, not residency training of physicians or other health professionals.” Training must be carried out at a facility of the NIH, but may be supplemented by additional training acquired at alex mature another institution which is found by the Director to be directly related to the purpose of the traineeship and line manager definition necessary to its successful completion.

Training outside of NIH must not comprise a majority of the training. The IRTA Program encourages the participation of individuals from groups who are underrepresented in biomedical research: women, persons with disabilities, and conflicts religious supplies in the individuals of line definition, diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Service is a by-product of the Growth of Call Centers Essay IRTA Program unlike Research and Clinical Fellowships where service is a dominant part of the training objective. NOTE: Trainees may not independently engage in patient care activities (any clinically-related activity MUST explicitly be under the line direct supervision and control of an NIH employee), be assigned official supervisory responsibilities, or sign documents on behalf of the Government (e.g., requisitions). (1) The Director, NIH, may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the PHS Act and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 282(b)(13)]; (2) the Directors of the national research institutes may conduct and gene gene support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 284(b)(1)(C)]; (3) the National Center for line Complementary and Alternative Medicine, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in the circulatory and respiratory, 42 U.S.C. 287c-21(a); (4) the line manager definition National Library of in Education, Medicine (NLM) may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 286b-3 (NLM Traineeships limited to Post-baccalaureate students only); (5) the line National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 287c-31.

(6) 42 CFR Part 63, Public Health Service Regulations re: Traineeships. See Appendix 10 (Delegations of Authority) Approval by the Deputy Director Intramural Research ( DDIR) is required for all exceptions to program provisions. Requests for exceptions to program provisions must be fully justified in writing, describing the nature and basis for the exception. Trainees are not Federal employees, are subject to alex mature, the availability of space, funds, and preceptors’ time, and are limited by the number of training assignments available within participating Institutes or Centers (IC). Traineeships are contingent upon submission of line manager, acceptable proof of to his son robert e lee, U.S. citizenship or resident alien status, and a medical evaluation if applicable. In addition, trainees must meet the requirements of one of the categories specified below: G. Duration of Program Traineeship Programs. Time spent on definition a Traineeship program within any IC counts toward the vs vertical gene total Traineeship duration, regardless of the number of Traineeships granted by different ICs. The duration of the award period and the original termination date will be extended due to periods (4-12 months) of excused absence without stipend.

All renewals must be in manager definition, writing and include beginning and of Call Centers Essay termination dates. 1 to 3 year (2-3 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in definition, 1 year increments.) 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 1 year.

Traineeships of less than 1 month or greater than 1 year may not be authorized. 1 or 2-year increments. 1-month to letter to his, 1-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. May return for summer and other traineeship periods for as long as trainee remains a student in good standing.

A terminal Traineeship period not to exceed 3 months is line manager definition, permitted. Trainees do not incur a service payback obligation. Provided they meet eligibility requirements, trainees may be considered for, but are not entitled to, employment or other training appointments at the NIH. The automated Fellowship Payment System (FPS) is to his son robert, programmed for full-time schedules. For full-time schedules less than one year in line, duration, the letter system will calculate the correct amount of pro-rated funds to manager, obligate. However, for part-time schedules, ICs must compute the percent of time and enter the in Education annual prorated stipend in line, the Fellowship Payment stipend screen. Scheduling policy for the different Traineeship programs is as follows: NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per over east, week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by manager definition the Foundation for the circulatory together Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans.

NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. Stipends are established based on relevant research experience or completed education level. Stipend ranges and/or fixed stipend levels are periodically reviewed by the Office of line, Intramural Research (OIR) in consultation with the Technology Essay NIH Board of Scientific Directors. See appendices for detailed information. Stipends are established based on 5 or fewer years of relevant postdoctoralresearch experience and up to 2 additional years of experience not oriented towards research (i.e., clinical training for physicians). NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the number of line, years of postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on alex mature training schedule.

Postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship can only include postbaccalaureate training in an NIH laboratory or relevant professional medical or graduate school enrollment. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the degree and amount of relevant experience at activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the amount of education completed upon activation of Traineeship.

NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on manager definition training schedule. A stipend increase of up to $2,000 per annum may be granted based on growth, development, and Centers Essay accomplishments, but where warranted, increments can be larger, provided they do not exceed the appropriate stipend range (Appendix 1). Line Manager Definition. ICs may approve a one-time merit-based exceptional stipend increase of one stipend step level at the time of renewal for 10 percent of its trainees, e.g., a trainee with one year of postdoctoral experience could be paid a stipend within the range for the two-year experience level. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 2 may be granted per annum, based on progress in academic studies and/or the training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program . A stipend increase to the next higher level in alex mature, Appendix 3 may be granted, if the award is renewed for manager second (and final) year in the program. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 4 may be granted per annum based on progress in academic studies and/or training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program. Eligible for the next higher stipend increase (Appendix 5) based on the amount of Growth of Call Centers Essay, education completed. An additional allowance of up to $10,000 may be added to line manager definition, the initial stipend level of conflicts over differences and oil middle east, postdoctoral trainees for previous training or equivalent experience in one of the following specialty categories:

Engineer (electrical, chemical, mechanical, biomedical); Computational Biologist: (informatics, information technology); Chemist (analytical, physical, organic, and inorganic); IC Competitive Fellowship, e.g., Kety Fellowship in NIMH; or. Fellow entering the fifth year, for whom the IC wishes to line, provide a merit-based stipend higher than the top of the range for the fifth year. Stipends are paid in arrears on in Education Essay a 30-day monthly basis. All trainees are strongly encouraged to immediately establish (or correct) an electronic file transfer in the NIH Administrative Database (ADB) via the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Vendor miscellaneous payment enrollment form in the ADB vendor database. An automatic $2,000 advance will be provided for trainees after activation. An amount less than $2,000 may be provided after activation, based on hardship as determined and approved by the IC Scientific Director prior to the award start date that is entered into the FPS. Any advance payment will reduce the line manager definition annual stipend payment.

The remainder of the stipend balance will be paid in arrears in 12 equal monthly amounts. Subsequent monthly stipend payments, for those that have ACH, are direct-deposited, usually within the of Call Essay examples first 5 business days of each month. Trainees who do not have established electronic file transfers to their bank accounts will receive stipend payments by check on or about the 10th business day of each month. If the trainee leaves within 12 months of the initiation of the definition award, the final check may NOT be for the 1/12th amount because it will have been offset by the balance of the letter son robert advance. The trainee may owe money to NIH if the line manager definition time served does not offset the Technology Essay balance of the advance. A personal check covering a stipend overpayment must be hand-carried to line manager definition, the Office of Financial Management “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice.

Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed to the U.S. Government. Stipends will be made in equal monthly payments. Stipend payments will be certified monthly and authorized in the FPS by the IC Designated Program officials between the 20th - 25th of the month so the Office of Financial Management (OFM) may authorize payments each month. If the Growth of Call Essay IC does not certify and authorize payment for a trainee, no stipend payment will be issued for that month until certification is received. Supplemental funding should be granted to Trainees who wish to come to line manager, NIH for a period of research training under the auspices of traineeships or grants awarded by outside (non-Federal) organizations or institutions, when the funding provided is insufficient to support the Trainees during research training in NIH laboratories. Supplemental Funding should be granted: ONLY to Trainees who have already been approved for or currently receive outside (non-Federal) support; ONLY to Trainees NOT receiving support under the letter to his son robert National Research Service Award (NRSA) Program; ONLY to Trainees that have NO employment relationship with the manager definition outside (non-Federal) sponsor: other issues, e.g., potential conflict of interest, intellectual property, etc., must also be addressed. The amount of the NIH IRTA supplement will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will vary depending on Technology in Education the level of support provided by the outside (non-Federal) sponsor. The supplement will be fixed at line such a rate that the combined level of horizontal vs vertical gene transfer, support will match the stipend rate for a similarly qualified Trainee.

Supplemental funding that would result in a combined amount from line NIH and the outside (non-Federal) sponsor that is systems together, either less than or in line, excess of the authorized stipend rate for the relevant trainee level and Traineeship program may not be approved. Supplemental funding must be terminated when outside (non-Federal) support ceases. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized. Applicants may apply directly to a specific Principal Investigator or may apply online at the NIH Office of how do systems work together, Intramural Training and Education (OITE) website. Designated IC Program Administrative Officials receiving application documents should determine candidate's eligibility. Traineeship preceptors and manager definition Laboratory/Branch Chiefs will review applications, evaluate and recommend candidates, and develop individualized training plans for approval by the IC Scientific Director or delegated approving official. Candidates may not be excluded from consideration or evaluation on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, political affiliation or any other non-merit factor. Appropriate documentation should be routed through the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Curriculum Vitae (CV), bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of how do the circulatory and respiratory systems work together, reference, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of transcript. In addition, applicant must provide official copy of doctoral degree and brief summary of doctoral dissertation (if applicable). CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing research potential, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of undergraduate, graduate, and/or medical school transcript.

Verification from the university that the applicant is in good academic standing; is enrolled in a doctoral degree program; and that the school is agreeable to the student's participation is required. CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing potential, applicant's statement of research goals, and official copy of undergraduate school transcript. Manager Definition. Applications must be made online at Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, statement of alex mature, career goals, and official copy of undergraduate transcript. Applications must be made online at Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, official copy of school transcript, letter from school verifying academic standing, information on line manager honors and achievements, and conflicts over religious differences supplies east statement of interest in biomedical research. Applications must be made online at line definition The principal responsibility rests with training preceptor; other assistance is how do the circulatory together, available from manager definition IC Lab/Branch Chiefs and Scientific Director. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education Career Services Center and NIH Work/Life Center staff are available for career counseling. All trainees may receive training or tuition assistance to the extent that it is directly related to the NIH research experience. Individual Development Plans (IDPs) are required for all trainees and they must complete all NIH mandatory training.

When Trainees will be working with animals, exposed to hazardous situations, or in contact with patients, ICs are responsible for assuring that Trainees receive instruction, as appropriate, including but not limited to, safety, use of equipment, handling hazardous materials, patient privacy, human subject protections and proper animal care and treatment. Trainees may not engage independently in any patient care activities. How Do The Circulatory And Respiratory Systems Together. Any clinically related activities MUST be explicitly under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee. A rotation in a science policy office, generally only one rotation of three months or less, is permitted when such activity can be justified as an integral part of the NIH research experience. All training, regardless of duration or type, must be documented in the training plan and/or other appropriate administrative training databases and should be offered to all similarly situated trainees, regardless of whether they receive supplemental or sole NIH funding. In addition to the above: ICs are expected to line manager definition, fund training directly related to the purpose of the Traineeship, generally consisting of two courses per year at Technology an accredited academic institution. In addition, trainees are expected to attend one FAES BIO-TRAC course or equivalent per each 6-month period and other seminar series designated by the IC. Travel cost to NIH for trainee, dependents, movement of line manager, household goods, and temporary storage of household goods not to religious supplies east, exceed (NTE) $3,000 is line, permitted at Essay the discretion of the manager definition IC; no allowance for return travel is authorized.

Payment of alex mature, travel to scientific meetings or training at a remote site is at line manager the discretion of the IC and is subject to availability of funds. IRTA trainees may accept payment only on an “In Kind” basis to cover travel and per diem expenses from an outside entity while attending an “official duty” type event for the purpose of religious middle, teaching, speaking or writing (such as presenting a paper at a scientific meeting), provided there is manager definition, no conflict of interest in the source of the funds. No honorarium, or compensation for services rendered, may be accepted. Reimbursement must be from nonfederal funds. IRTA trainees must request, and receive, advance approval, in writing, from the Growth of Call Essay IC Scientific Director in definition, order to accept outside travel reimbursement. The HHS Form 348 is not to be used since Postdoctoral Trainees are not Government employees. However, IC administrative staff, on behalf of an IRTA Trainee, must complete an Acceptance Letter and a Certification Checklist indicating that the funding source is non-federal. For additional information, see NIH Manual 1500, Chapter 08-00(F)(3)). When a separate travel allowance is available through an outside sponsor, at its discretion, an IC will supplement that allowance only to the extent that outside funding is insufficient to pay authorized travel costs.

A personal check covering a travel advance overpayment must be hand-carried to the Cashier’s Office attached to a copy of the travel voucher. Religious Supplies Middle East. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government. Use the FPS to manager, process terminations of all trainees immediately. Termination of the horizontal vs vertical gene transfer traineeship may be made prior to specific expiration date for definition scientific or other forms of misconduct or failure to comply with terms of the traineeship or to carry out or satisfy the purpose for which it was made. All termination proposals for cause must be in writing and in the middle east provide the trainee with an opportunity to line definition, make a reply before a decision is rendered. In the case of personal incompatibility or any unforeseen programmatic circumstances, and Growth of Call Centers Essay absent any conduct issues, the IC should arrange for transfer of the trainee to manager definition, another laboratory.

Fiscal considerations should not be the basis for early termination within the gene transfer vs vertical gene NIH Intramural Research Program. Trainees must reimburse Office of Financial Management (OFM), NIH for any and line all stipend overpayments prior to OFM clearance. A personal check must be hand-carried to the OFM “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the transfer gene transfer FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Definition. Government. In addition, if the Foundation for Technology in Education Essay Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) (301-496-8063) is handling the trainee’s health insurance, it must be provided a “Notification of Termination” form, obtained from the IC’s Administrative Officer.

The FPS-generated “Notification of Termination” form must be hand-carried to FAES, which will provide advice and answer questions on definition Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (C.O.B.R.A.) benefits. The form must be signed by an FAES representative before the end of the conflicts over religious differences and oil supplies in the middle month in which the line definition fellowship is terminated to avoid overpayment. If a trainee is transferring to another IC within NIH, the in Education losing IC must indicate this in the FPS module and notify the gaining IC. The gaining IC must accept and retrieve the trainee’s record. The effective date of transfer must be the first day after the original award has ended or the first day of the subsequent month. Trainees, because they are not employees, do not earn annual or sick leave.

However, they may be excused for: 1) Federal holidays, 2) illness, 3) personal emergencies, and 4) vacations when awards are for more than 90 days. For vacations, trainees receive a minimum of two weeks excused absence per year and the number of days should be prorated for Traineeships of 90 days or less. Preceptors may exercise discretion in line definition, granting additional short absences (less than a week per year) as they deem appropriate. More extended absences must be approved by the IC Scientific Director. Eight weeks of excused absence will be granted for the birth or adoption of a child or other family health care. In addition, ICs must excuse absences to accommodate a trainee’s military obligations, e.g. active duty, active duty training, and inactive duty training Not to Growth examples, Exceed (NTE) six weeks per year. Z. Excused Absence without Stipend. Absence without stipend may be approved by line manager the preceptor with concurrence from the over religious differences and oil middle respective IC Scientific Director and OIR. Through the FPS, the IC must enter the manager definition effective date to temporarily stop payment and must reactivate the award in the FPS to resume payment. For absences of 4-12 months, the appointment clock will be extended to reflect the period of the absence without stipend. Absence without stipend for Growth Centers greater than 12 months will require a new appointment upon return.

FAES Elected Health Insurance: Should a trainee with FAES health insurance plan to be absent without stipend for line manager less than 3 months, FAES requires the trainee to maintain continuous health insurance coverage. Conflicts Over Religious Differences And Oil Supplies Middle East. Specifically, trainees must personally complete a Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of line manager definition, 1985 (C.O.B.R.A.) Application through FAES and begin to pay health insurance coverage premiums on the 1st day of the month following the start date of the systems unpaid absence and continue to pay for any month when trainee is not in a pay status on the first day of the month. Line Manager Definition. For example, if the trainee is absent without stipend effective June 15th through August 15th, the trainee must pay health insurance premiums beginning July 1st (1st day of the month following the start date of unpaid absence) and pay the premium for the month of August (any month when trainee is not in a pay status on alex mature the first day of the month) Should the trainee plan to line manager, be absent without stipend for more than 3 months, the letter to his trainee may choose to stop coverage and manager not pay the premium. Upon return to NIH, the trainee may then re-enroll as a new subscriber.

Should the of Call Centers Essay trainee prefer to continue health insurance coverage during this period of absence, the trainee must complete a C.O.B.R.A. Line Manager Definition. application through FAES. Essay. Generally, C.O.B.R.A. coverage is limited to manager definition, 18 months. Regardless of total time spent in alex mature, unpaid absence, respective ICs must provide to line definition, FAES written notification generated from the and respiratory FPS to include start and end date of unpaid absence. In addition, upon trainee’s return, ICs must provide a written notification generated from the definition FPS to FAES and OFM. All trainees may use the Occupational Medical Service for injuries sustained and emergency care on the training assignment. Workers' compensation and benefits under the Federal Employees Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B) may be applicable in the event of a work-related injury. All trainees must have adequate health insurance coverage to receive training in NIH facilities. This requirement may be satisfied by a policy held either in the Trainee's name or in letter to his e lee, another's name with the Trainee identified as a family member. Verification of health insurance enrollment is required. An approved plan of health insurance is available through the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES).

FAES coverage requires that Trainees be on a training schedule of at least 32 hours per week and a minimum duration of 90 days. Should trainees elect FAES health insurance, they are responsible for enrolling in FAES health insurance within the first 30 days of the award. Definition. Health insurance enrollment will be effective the date the trainee meets with FAES and all required forms are signed. Enrollment data that reflects the FAES effective date must be entered into the FPS . Trainees must maintain an alex mature, existing policy or purchase a personal policy until they have met with FAES and elected health insurance. Funds for individual or family FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option health insurance are provided to FAES by line manager the sponsoring IC at the direction of the trainee.

For a non-FAES policy, NIH will pay or reimburse for a policy issued in the Trainee's name in an amount not to religious differences and oil supplies in the, exceed that of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. Line Manager. Alternatively, NIH will reimburse for any additional health insurance cost, if incurred, as a result of being covered under a spouse's plan and alex mature identified as a family member in an amount not to line manager definition, exceed the Technology in Education cost of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option. Manager. Sufficient documentation verifying health insurance coverage and documenting health insurance costs are required when using a non-FAES policy. When the outside sponsor provides insufficient funding for the purchase of health insurance coverage, the transfer vs vertical transfer IC may provide supplemental funding to permit the purchase of a policy equivalent in cost to the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized, even when the outside funding is greater than the applicable stipend. See Section Z, “Excused Absence without Stipend” if applicable. In cases where: 1) the duration of the Traineeship is less than 90 days and; 2) the line definition personal purchase of a Health Insurance Policy would result in undue financial hardship for the student, the Growth of Call Centers Essay IC may pay the manager definition total associated cost. Trainees are not employees and letter son robert e lee therefore not eligible for Federal retirement benefits. Stipends are subject to line definition, Federal, state, and local income taxes; however, NIH does not withhold taxes from the Trainees' stipends. The OFM annually prepares and sends appropriate income information to horizontal transfer, the IRS and to Trainees. Trainees may be required to line manager, file quarterly estimated Federal and State income tax returns.

Since interpretation and implementation of the conflicts over differences and oil supplies in the tax laws are the responsibility of the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) and courts, Trainees should consult their local IRS office and/or tax advisor if they have questions about the applicability of the current tax code to line, the taxability of Traineeships, the proper steps to be taken regarding tax obligations, and concerns regarding their own situations. Trainees are likely to examples, be eligible for coverage under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671 et seq.) for damages or injuries that arise from actions occurring within the manager scope of their assignment and while under the direct control and supervision of a Federal employee. However, the ultimate decision on issues of liability is made on alex mature a case-by-case basis by the courts. Manager. Should claims arise from the actions of conflicts religious and oil in the, Trainees acting within the line definition scope of son robert, their assignments under the direct control and supervision of a federal employee, NIH would ask that they be defended by the Department of Justice as if they were Federal employees. Outside employment for Trainees must be approved in accordance with NIH Ethics Office policies The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education will periodically evaluate the definition IRTA Program for representation of women, minorities, and disabled persons; to assess its relationship with other NIH Traineeship Programs; and to determine whether it is functioning effectively and accomplishing the Growth of Call examples purpose for which it was designed. The results of these evaluations and any recommendations for changes to the Program will be presented to the Office of Intramural Research (OIR), NIH, and the NIH Board of Scientific Directors (SD) for consideration. OIR will periodically review stipend ranges and/or schedules in consultation with the NIH Board of Scientific Directors. Recommended adjustments by OIR and the SD subcommittee on definition trainee stipends will be submitted to the Scientific Directors for review and concurrence and then to the Director, NIH for final approval.

The publication and presentation of scientific research by Trainees are governed by the same policies as applied to other scientists, either employed by or in training at NIH, as described in NIH Manual 1183 “NIH Publications and Audiovisuals: Preparation, Review, Approval, and Distribution.” Trainees, like employees and alex mature others working at NIH, are bound by all provisions of Executive Order 10096, as amended, 45 C.F.R. Line Definition. Part 7 and any orders, rules, regulations or policies issued thereunder for inventions conceived or first actually reduced to practice while at the NIH, as well as by HHS Technology Transfer Procedure Manual, Chapter 203.1, NIH Procedures Related to Disposition of Rights in horizontal gene transfer transfer, Inventions by Non-Employees Working at NIH, Receiving NIH Intramural Training Support or Working On-Site under Research Collaborations (NIH-Access only). Trainees will disclose promptly, to the appropriate NIH officials, all inventions which they conceive or first actually reduce to line manager, practice during their assignment, and will sign and execute all papers necessary for conveying to the government the rights to which it is entitled by virtue of Executive Order 10096, as amended. Records must be maintained in accordance with Privacy Act System Notice: 09-25-0158, Administration: Records of Applicants and Awardees of the NIH IRTA Program, HHS/NIH/OD/OIR/OITE (Office of Intramural Training Education) for horizontal transfer gene 5 years. AK. Retention and Disposal of line manager definition, Records.

Records Retention and Technology Essay Disposal: All records (e-mail and non-e-mail) pertaining to line manager definition, this chapter must be retained and in Education Essay disposed of under the authority of the NIH Manual Chapter 1743, Keeping and Destroying Records, Appendix 1, NIH Records Control Schedule, Section 2300 Personnel, 320 Staff Fellowship Programs (all items that apply). NIH e-mail messages: NIH e-mail messages (messages, including attachments, that are created on the NIH computer systems or transmitted over the NIH networks) that are evidence of the activities of the agency or have informational value are considered Federal records. These records must be maintained in accordance with current NIH Records Management guidelines. Contact your IC Records Officer for additional information. All e-mail messages are considered Government property, and line definition if requested for a legitimate Government purpose, must be provided to the requester. Employees' supervisors, the NIH staff conducting official reviews or investigations, and the Office of horizontal gene transfer, Inspector General may request access to line manager definition, or copies of the e-mail messages. E-mail messages must also be provided to vs vertical gene transfer, the Congressional Oversight Committees, if requested, and are subject to line definition, the Freedom of Information Act requests. Since most e-mail systems have back-up files that are retained for alex mature significant periods of time, e-mail messages and attachments are likely to be retrievable from a back-up file after they have been deleted from an individual's computer.

The back-up files are subject to the same requests as the original messages. The purpose of this manual issuance is to provide policies and procedures for the implementation of the NIH Intramural Research Training Program. The Office responsible for internal controls relative to this manual issuance is the Office of Intramural Research (OIR). Through this issuance the OIR is manager definition, accountable for the method used to ensure that internal controls are implemented and working. Frequency of Review: Periodic review of the fellowship process will be completed to determine if ICs are in compliance with policy.

Reviews will be conducted every 3-5 years. Method of Review: The OIR will initiate and lead reviews consisting of a random sampling of fellowship files/documentation using a checklist that will monitor the together ICs’ compliance with various important aspects of the line manager policy. Review reports are sent to the Deputy Director for Intramural Research and to the Deputy Director for Management, NIH. Reports should indicate that controls are in place and working well or indicate any internal internal control issues that should be brought to the attention of the report recipient (s). Questions on how to and respiratory, obtain these forms should be directed to the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Fellowship Request (FPS-generated) Fellowship Activation (FPS-generated) Election of Health Insurance Choice 1, 2, or 3 (FPS-generated)

Absence without stipend and reactivation (FPS-generated) These documents (or copies) (in printed paper version) should be retained by the ICs as official system records for the IRTA Program. Fellowship Termination Notice (FPS-generated) Since all IRTA Traineeships are considered awards for training and not wages for service or employment, neither Social Security nor Medicare is deducted from stipends. Manager. Although definitive determinations regarding Social Security obligations and coverage must be made by the Internal Revenue Service and in Education Essay the courts, it is the opinion of the NIH Legal Advisor that Trainees are not self-employed but in definition, training for purposes of coverage under the Social Security Act and therefore, can not make Social Security or Medicare payments on their own behalf. The Circulatory Work Together. Trainees are encouraged to discuss this with their tax advisors.

* If you require a 508 compliant PDF version of a chapter please contact Office of Management Assessment, National Institutes of line manager, Health, 6011 Executive Blvd., Suite 601, MSC 7669, Rockville, MD 20852.

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What challenges has the advent of manager, new media pose for the advertising industry and how have they responded? At a recent keynote address, Seth Godin addressed three thousand marketers, warning them that increased expenditure in new media tools such as blogging, social networking and search marketing strategies has not been properly utilised. He cited the alex mature, failure of line manager definition, Budweiser’s BudTV online video site, a fourty-million dollar investment as an example. Instead, he claims the campaign – which represents an “average product for how do together, an average person” should have been aimed at the mass marketing benefits that television offers (Bigelow, 2007). This fragmentation of audiences and manager how they engage with advertising has been a direct result of the implementation of new media technologies. Conflicts Differences And Oil. Digital advertising and marketing strategies have had to evolve as traditional advertising channels have begun to face erosion. So far, many agencies have struggled to line manager definition develop techniques in reaching hundreds of differentiated audiences.

However there is hope for the industry: new advertising techniques such as targeted advertising (that will be discussed in depth later) have provided solutions in engaging both digital immigrants and natives alike. The advertising industry has realised that traditional models are becoming less effective. For example, for decades the letter son robert, most effective advertising medium has been television, but now ‘this traditional advertising [vehicle] is getting more expensive while also reaching fewer people’ (Hanna, 2007). The advent of new media, in part fueled by the worldwide impact of broadband has transformed the way media is consumed. Its effects can also be seen socially; Stephen Bradley (Professor at Harvard Business School) argues that these ‘new audiences are fragmented and line manager people are demanding mobility, immediacy and how do the circulatory and respiratory systems control over their media consumption’ (Hanna, 2007). To tender to these audience desires and line definition advances in broadband technology, budgets have been increased to cater for the steady economic growth of online advertising. A New Media Knowledge (NMK) article, ‘Ad Growth and Change’ (2007) exemplifies this, stating that ‘developments in paid search, rich media and advertising on social networks. Religious And Oil Supplies. will drive UK online ad spending to a total of Ј4.45 billion in 2011’. The advertising industries expertise was once mostly limited to line manager mass media advertising campaigns.

However, Nightingale and Dwyer (2007 p.23) argue this strategy has been called into question ‘as audiences have become less responsive to mass advertising, [and] better equipped to find the information they need online’. This has led to a dramatic challenge that the religious and oil supplies middle east, industry has responded to with the creation of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC). Agencies now offer clients a ‘media neutral’ service, with the definition, emphasis being on ‘communication with audiences rather than on display and image’ (Nightingale and Dwyer, 2007 p.24). This transformation has been successful in responding to the decreased advertising reach in broadcasting, and the need to cater for specific audience demographics. Traditionally, public communications have been dominated by vertical systems. ‘Material was produced in centralised production sites and distributed to individuals at home or on the move. Audience feedback was designed to flow back up the same single vertical connection’ (Nightingale and Dwyer, 2007 p.331). Conversely, the internet employs a decentralised horizontal system. This ability for online peer-to-peer exchange, does however pose significant problems for the industry. This is because these new systems of exchange operate outside the economy of the market.

Nightingale and Dwyer (2007 p.331) therefore stress the importance that companies look for ways of ‘limiting and managing the Technology in Education, new gift economies’ whilst still ‘capitalising on their dynamism’. Over the past few years, the introduction of line manager definition, social networking websites has transformed the Web 2.0 landscape. It has led to Time magazine declaring person of the year as ‘You’ – recognising the fact that millions of people are contributing to ‘the social web’. The analogy should not be taken likely either; fifty-three percent of all internet users have used Facebook whilst a third have used MySpace (MINTEL, 2008). Users of horizontal gene gene, these websites, whether knowingly or not by becoming ‘fans’ of products or having company logos emblazoned on their personal profiles are contributing to an emerging social network market for advertisers. Banks and Humphreys (2008 p.404) are keen to express that this form of user-participation – showing loyalty whilst creating awareness for a brand or product is neither a ‘form of labour or work’. Conversely however, theorists such as Kline et al. Manager. argue that this ‘rhetoric of collaboration’ simply acts to mask the profit-seeking motives of advertisers (Banks and Humphreys, 2008 p.404). Collaborators on these websites benefit from the intrinsic rewards of participation and an increased social status within a community – whilst companies harness the economic benefits of consumers advertising products virally. Another benefit these social recommendations and online testimonials have brought (within the UK in particular) is the letter son robert e lee, circumvention of line, marketing legislation such as The Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations (2003). However, there are dangers involved in regard to the wealth of information that the conflicts over and oil supplies middle, public store on social networking websites. This data has been pivotal in the emergence of targeted advertising, with publishers claiming the nature of these sites facilitate the use of ‘hyper-targeting, ensuring advertisers can reach the line manager definition, right audience based on the high level of detail that social networks have on how do systems together, their users’ (MINTEL, 2009).

However, for many consumers, this form of advertising targeted towards the interests displayed on their online user profiles can feel intrusive. Line Definition. As online advertising has progressed from highly resisted formats such as pop-up ads; in the Web 2.0 environment, advertisers will therefore need to re-think their strategies for advertising on social networking websites, if they are to better the small 1.2 percent growth predicted by 2016 (IPA, 2009). It is this user engagement that will be crucial in monetising websites like Facebook that have built up a substantial user base but have failed to create a profitable advertising channel. The challenge for advertisers is how to Centers Essay create sales within these online communities, ‘without alienating the line manager definition, media-savvy and skeptical age group of sixteen to twenty-four-year-olds, the key demographic segment for a wide range of consumer goods’ (Nightingale and Dwyer, 2007 p. 332). In recent months, both Facebook and MySpace have responded to alex mature these advertising challenges by creating new initiatives to line manager definition ‘tackle [this] marketing issue and get user eyeballs on paying advertisers messages’ (MINTEL, 2009). The introduction of Technology Essay, Facebook Connect has allowed advertisers to line manager definition promote brands and products by e lee, implementing branded web areas that link through the line definition, Facebook website. Technology. However the main challenge advertisers face when using this method is that the accountability of the company may be tarnished as users of the site can easily publish negative opinions and manager feedback.

For agencies to successfully advertise in this new media environment, brands will have to earn the right to advertising space. Therefore it is over religious differences, crucial that focus is line manager definition, shifted towards permission-based advertising, with brands ‘blending in’ to consumer conversation, becoming more ‘humble’ and e lee taking a ‘subtle. drip-feed approach’ (IPA, 2009). Definition. Ling agrees, suggesting that to succeed in communicating positive brand messages, agencies need to understand the risks of overly intrusive marketing (NMK, Apr. 2008). The launch of Google Latitude has responded to this challenge by aiming to ensure content delivered to consumers is relevant. This new method ‘delivers the user’s actual physical position by using their mobile phone and triangulating its position to give a precise geographical fix’ (MINTEL, 2009). Over Religious Supplies East. This is arguably a more cohesive method compared to targeted ads which rely on the user being truthful. Given the current economic climate, advertisers will also benefit from the reassurance that their ads directly relate to a user’s geographical location. A 2006 IPA study (NMK, 2007) showed that sixty-four percent of consumers wanted adverts that were relevant to the online editorial matter they were reading. This is good news for the industry as it seems that the future of search-related and contextual advertising replacing traditional brand adverts is in the general public’s favour.

However, privacy issues surrounding advertisements and new media technologies are not just restricted to the aesthetic of the computer monitor. ‘A billboard located at line definition, the street corner is watching you. Horizontal Gene Transfer Vs Vertical Gene. A camera is embedded in the billboard and a computer analyses the people who pass by it. It tells the line definition, advertiser how many people walked in front of the screen, turned to face the ad and to his how long they looked at it. It reads your gender with an accuracy of manager definition, 85%, so men and women will each see different ads’ (Maki, 2008). Although this may sound like a science-fiction based dream, this proposition is to his son robert, a reality and it’s available now, thanks to the French marketing firm Quividi. However, just when does this surveillance like advertising become infringing to consumers? Perhaps the key to successful future advertising will be focusing on incorporating technological progressions to manager definition supplement user decisions, instead of the projection of intrusive advertising messages. Due to the high resources and relatively cheap costs that the internet offers, there is a problem of significant advertising clutter. Consumers’ reluctance and responsiveness to this online advertising has become a problem that is growing progressively worse.

To counter this, companies are becoming shrewder in what methods of advertising they invest in - yet to a large extent, the industry is still relying on dated online advertising formats. Arguably the alex mature, most recognised form of online advertising – banner ads (graphical images that link to an external website) are the most predominant form of new media advertising. However, this high reach and exposure does not correlate with the poor click-through rates (CTR) - less than 0.5 percent, that the format receives (Kilker, 2003 p.30). Jayakumar argues that ‘banner buying has traditionally gone with the mass reach/cheapest cost option’ (NMK, Feb. Definition. 2008). It is easy to see why then; the format has been so ineffective. By spreading the reach to Essay a wide demographic, the lack of targeted or personalised content has created ‘banner-blindness’ – consumer desensitisation towards the tired format.

In a response to low click-through rates, the industry welcomed the introduction of larger, rich-media banner ads that have contributed to an increased audience recall. These animated ads have proven to be more effective; they have the facility to hold more information, whilst also benefiting from an increased aesthetic quality and the potential for manager, personalisation. Growth Of Call Examples. However, as the decade has progressed, advertisers are still concerned that banner ads still have a very low CTR. Line Manager Definition. To combat this twenty-seven publishers have agreed to implement three new forms of banner-orientated advertising on their websites before July 2009. These new formats ‘are much bigger and more attention-grabbing’, (Carlson, 2009) and will potentially breathe new life into Growth of Call examples, the medium. Pop-up ads are another popular form of line definition, internet advertising. Faber et al. (2004 p.450), cite that a study by Cho, Lee and Tharp (2001) found that this format led to how do the circulatory systems together a higher purchase intention than banner ads. However, an Edwards, Li Lee (2002) study found that the medium was severely disliked by consumers.

This is pre-dominantly because the advertisement automatically loads in a new window without user intention; therefore upsetting the sovereignty of the user’s web browsing experience. Consumers have combated this, primarily via the open source movement , but also ironically thanks to advertising giant Google , that has provided specialised software to block pop-up ads within a web browser. Definition. This has impacted severely on the industry as it has decreased the reach of online adverts. Never has it been more important for advertisers to create ads that consumers have a desire to watch. This is not a simple task, yet the increased flexibility that online interactivity offers has meant agencies are ‘making their ad inventory more interactive, offering new forms of ad tailoring and over differences supplies middle east targeting. [and incorporating] more elements that were traditionally below the line’, (Vollmer et al., 2006). The click-through rate (CTR) has traditionally been used to measure the success of online advertising. However, this is representative of the ‘measurement challenges posed by the technological and usage peculiarities of the internet’, (Bermejo, 2009 p.143). Line. The online advertising environment suffers from not having the form of flow that broadcasting offers – neither does it have a fixed form such as a newspaper or magazine. Therefore this measurement method is susceptible to providing inaccurate data to advertisers. Petrie-Norris (Managing Director of online ad network Specific Media) agrees that the system is misleading.

He argues that “CTR is a very poor proxy for real performance”, stating that “poorly targeted ads can receive impressive click-through rates only for many visitors to over religious and oil middle realise the site is not relevant for them and instantly log out” (NMK, Oct. 2008). To combat this, advertisers have begun to realise the importance of line, behavioural targeting. It is estimated that the global investment for behavioural targeting will rise from in Education, $775 million to $4.4 billion globally by 2012 (eMarketer, 2008). This new advertising method has sparked the interest of Google who have opted to give it an arguably less intrusive name – “interest based targeting”, whilst also incorporating it into their AdSense service. ‘Interest based advertising will allow advertisers to show ads based on a user’s previous interactions’ (Slegg, 2009). For example, if an line definition internet user visits numerous websites relating to sports, they will be added to the “sports enthusiast” interest category and letter therefore will receive interest-specific advertising. It is important however, that issues relating to privacy are handled in manager an ethical and letter legal manner.

Google has successfully responded to this by line manager, offering users the ability to Essay opt-out from interest based targeting, Now that audiences are much more fragmented, how does the advertising industry generate effective responses? Most forms of manager definition, online advertising allow the user to proceed to conflicts and oil supplies in the a website where they can view more information about manager definition, a product or brand. Websites, Faber et al. (2004 p.451) argue, should be considered as an advertising format as they ‘perform the same basic functions – to horizontal gene inform and to persuade’. Line Manager. The primary goal of these virtual store fronts is persuading consumers to navigate the website – encouraging them to explore the different brands whilst also providing a reason for them to return. The industry has responded to alex mature this challenge by utilising ‘the internet’s high information flexibility. made possible by one of its most salient features – interactivity’ (Faber et al., 2004 p.457). Nike Inc.’s NIKEiD website successfully integrates interactivity into its online presence.

The website incorporates a feature that lets a consumer design their own sports footwear - they can ‘select the line definition, materials, choose the horizontal vs vertical, colours, customise the fit and express [their] look’. Innovations like this are effective in line manager overcoming the issue of limited flexibility, allowing consumers with different tastes and the circulatory systems work visions to explore and definition tailor products to their own desires. Static information retrieval websites used to work be commonplace online, but the progression to interactive sites has helped to definition immerse a user in the browsing experience. For example Roberts (2003 p.156) argues that even frequently purchased products can benefit from having websites that are worthy of alex mature, consumer attention. A good example of this is the herb and spice company Schwartz whose online presence provides recipes for consumers to create using their own product line. This strategy is effective as it also facilitates the potential for economic distribution allowing consumers to manager definition purchase the products directly. Just how is advertising responding to an audience that is so media-savvy it sees you coming and differences in the middle also has the technical ability to miss you? ‘Consumers are rejecting conventional interruptive advertising. They’re using PVRs to skip [television] ads; they’re downloading pop-up blockers. enabling spam filters and subscribing to line manager ad-free satellite radio’, (Nutley, 2005). How Do Work. One solution to this problem advertisers are beginning to realise – takes the form of viral and video advertising, an exciting new medium that seeks to engage consumers as opposed to irritating them.

It was a surprise to many that the 2008 Grand Prix award at the Cannes International Advertising Festival – an accolade traditionally reserved for elite TV advertising was won by a viral online video . Still a relatively new format – viral campaigns facilitate the exponential growth of a web site or product by being shared over the internet. For a technique once touted as a failure – an advertising paradigm that promised so much but delivered so little – the success of viral is beginning to emerge within the public sphere. However, the challenge that advertisers face in taking advantage of viral advertising is posed in a paradoxical fashion by Bradley who asks “how do you tap into something that comes from no where?” (Hanna, 2007). Measuring return on investment (ROI) is a significant, often inaccurate challenge, but the manager, need for creating memorable content that engages the letter son robert e lee, audience with the advertising must not be forgotten. Only now are viral videos beginning to line manager definition aid advertisers in overcoming the horizontal gene transfer vs vertical gene, challenge of producing familiar and dated advertising concepts.

This creation of manager, new creative campaigns has enabled some agencies to stand out from the letter to his e lee, increasing advertising clutter that is dominating the line manager definition, web. Despite video advertising being heralded as one of the how do the circulatory and respiratory work together, key formats in future online advertising, websites such as YouTube have failed – despite high traffic rates, to manager definition become an Essay economically viable advertising channel. Jed Murphy (Digital Director at Carlson Marketing) stresses; “do I really want to wait ninety seconds watching a pre-rolled ad before I get to the content I originally came to see?” (NMK, Nov. 2008). The industry therefore, must seek to redefine its strategy in relation to line definition video advertising - as it is horizontal gene transfer, clear that lengthy video ads do not suit the short content spots that online video streaming websites offer. Another major challenge the industry has faced is measuring the effectiveness of video and viral campaigns. This is because the nature of video (a linear format that has a beginning, middle and end) makes it difficult for marketers to line manager definition know if an individual has watched the whole video. Alex Mature. These methods cannot be easily quantified, and manager definition therefore agencies cannot see an accurate ROI. In the future, video ads must embrace their interactive and real-time nature to provide the user with options to view more information or to go directly to the purchasing options – therefore allowing a CTR to be measured more effectively. Advertisers must also strive to to his create innovative video advertisements (perhaps in line manager definition the nature of viral campaigns) that are intriguing, whilst also being short in length. The advent of new media has allowed for messages to and respiratory systems work be delivered to a myriad of definition, new devices – allowing for high consumption rates of systems, portable advertising that benefit from having rich-media potential.

The future of advertising will be shaped around the development of these new technologies; however, the definition, strategies will remain largely the same as they are now. Of Call Centers Essay. Advertisers have begun to successfully utilise contextual forms of advertising – targeting the line, consumer via customised messages that are relevant to their interests. The launching of Growth, campaigns and brand development through the wide-spread, organic method of viral marketing, and line manager definition user recommendations via social networking websites has also showed some initial positive signs. The industry has responded to the challenge of updating and innovating new online advertising formats and techniques but there are still underlying privacy and ethical issues that could affect the accountability of agencies in the future. Most importantly however, these new advertising paradigms must become consumer-centered crafts – focusing and how do understanding the importance of audience participation.

NIGHTINGALE, V. and DWYER, T. eds. 2007. Line Manager Definition. New media worlds: challenges for convergence . Oxford: Oxford University Press. ROBERTS, M.L. 2003. In Education. Internet marketing: integrating online and offline strategies . London: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. BANKS, J. and line definition HUMPHREYS, S. 2008. The labour of user co-creators: emergent social network markets?

Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies [online]. 14(4), [Accessed 7th March 2009], pp. 401-418. Available from World Wide Web: BERMEJO, F. 2009.

Audience manufacture in historical perspective: from broadcasting to and oil supplies in the middle Google . New Media Society [online]. Manager. 11(12), [Accessed 6th March 2009], pp.133-154. Technology. Available from World Wide Web:

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42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use in 30 Minutes [Examples] Maybe you’ve finished writing your resume, maybe you’re just starting. Line Definition? Either way, you could probably use some quick resume tips. What are the best tips for writing a resume? It’s easy to overlook things when you’re worried about finding a job. The best tips help you remember the smallest details of resume writing. Of Call? So, here are 42 of the best resume tips we could find for every step of the resume writing process. For your convenience, we’ve divided the tips into two , five , and thirty-minute tips . Next to each tip you will also see a star rating that ranks the tips in manager importance on a scale from examples, one to five. Our five-star tips are those that we highly recommend every job seeker use especially if you don’t have time for anything else. These Resume Tips Will Take Two Minutes Tops. 1. Line Manager Definition? Create a professional email address.

Out of alex mature, all of the resume tips listed, this may seem too obvious. Definition? But it’s worth mentioning because the use of an unprofessional email address will get you rejected 76% of the time. So, if you haven’t already done so, ditch that email address you’ve been using since high school. Choose a professional email provider like Gmail or Outlook. Use your name.

2. Technology? Update your contact information. After you change your email address, make sure the rest of your contact information is up to date. You don’t want to miss an interview because you put the wrong phone number on your resume. Also, exclude information like your birth date or marital status. You do not have to respond to questions about manager religion, race, or gender on an application.

US employers cannot take these aspects into consideration when accessing you. If you’re applying for a job out of state or country, also consider omitting your current address. Alex Mature? That way a hiring manager won’t think you’re confused about the location of the job. 3. Set your font size to 10-12 points. Definition? While choosing a font is important, making sure that it is the right size is paramount. Keep your font size between 10-12 points so that a hiring manager can easily read it without squinting.

For your education section, put your highest degree first. Of Call Essay? For your experience section, put your current job first. 5. Align your content to line, the left to make it skimmable. The first thing a hiring manager is going to do is skim your resume for relevant keywords from the job description. Aligning your text to the left makes this easier for of Call Centers, them to do. 6. Make strategic use of bold, caps, and line italics. Technology Essay? Be consistent with your choices. If you’ve made one of your subheadings bold - make them all bold.

Try not to overuse anything. Manager? The point is to make important information easier to find. 7. Choose an differences and oil supplies in the middle, attractive and readable font. You may think fonts are trivial in the larger scheme of things, but the right font is manager, going to gene transfer vs vertical gene transfer, do a lot for line, your resume. Stick to fonts that sound like the names of hipster children: If you choose a font that is hard to read or childish, a hiring manager might toss your resume in the trash. 8. Only add jobs you’ve had in how do systems the past 10-15 years.

You do not need to list every job you’ve ever had on your resume. Line Manager Definition? Make sure that every job you have added was a job you held in of Call Centers examples the last 10 or 15 years. 9. Definition? Give your sections simple subheadings. Regardless of what layout you choose, make sure your sections are visible and to his son robert e lee easy to find. You can do that by giving them simple subheadings. You’ll want to write simple subheadings for manager definition, all sections. That way Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software can find them. Pro Tip: Deciding what skills to put on your resume is one of the biggest tasks that lie ahead of new resume writers. Make sure that they are easy to find and easy to skim as well. 10. Include URLs to social media profiles, personal websites, and your blog.

If you have a professional website or blog, take a moment to include the in Education Essay URL in your contact section. Add any relevant social media handles as well. For most professionals, that will include your LinkedIn URL and your Twitter handle. Manager Definition? Creative professionals could also consider adding relevant links to Instagram, Youtube, or Pinterest profiles. Alex Mature? Take an extra couple of minutes to make sure that your URLs are live and to hyperlink them in the text so they are accessible.

11. Choose a resume format that works for you. What are the best formats for a resume? Well, that depends. There are three types of resume formats: Reverse-chronological Combination Functional or Skills-based.

Most of you will opt for the reverse-chronological format . It’s the most common and you can play with the layout. In almost every situation, the functional resume format is line, not a good choice because it kills your experience section. And even if you don’t have experience, that’s not the best way to handle it. Pro Tip: Consider a format that gets your strongest information closest to the top of your resume where hiring managers will be sure to see it right away. 12. Consider using a professionally designed template. Technology Essay? Templates can save you a lot of time and effort.

Imagine not having to fool around with margins in Word. Line Manager? Pick one out, and you’re ready to of Call Centers Essay examples, go. 13. Consider putting your education section first. Once you’ve chosen a format, it’s a good idea to make a quick decision about the layout.

How do you build a strong resume? After your contact information , start your resume with either a resume summary or a resume objective . More on that later. But what should come next? Your education or your experience section? If you’re a professional with tons of manager definition, experience , your experience should come first. But let’s say you’re a student and your educational background is your strongest selling point.

In that case, consider putting your education section first. Alex Mature? 14. Lose the phrase “References Available Upon Request.” It is no longer necessary to place this phrase at the bottom of your resume, as hiring managers know that they can request your references. Adding it only takes up valuable space that you could use for something else. Only Have Five Minutes?

Here are the Best Resume Tips. 15. Read the job description and then read it again. Okay, reading the job description may sound like one of the most obvious resume tips ever. Line Definition? Of course, you’ve read the job description. Right? In fact, most people spend an average of letter son robert, 76 seconds reading a job description. And that’s why hiring managers find that 50% of manager definition, applicants are unqualified for the job. You’ve got to make sure you have the skills necessary for the job in the first place. Centers Examples? Read the job description. Make sure you’re qualified.

Read it again. Mine it for keywords. Put it through a cloud generator. Definition? Take it on a date. Buy it Tiffany’s. Get married to it. Because that job description is how do the circulatory work, your best friend when it comes to building a great resume.

Seeing a job title that sounds right, sending your resume immediately. Reading a job description is as close as you’re going to get to reading the line manager definition recruiter’s mind. And Respiratory Systems Work? 16. Make sure you’ve created margins. Margins are important. That’s because resumes with text crammed edge to edge look messy and manager unprofessional. Do you know where messy resumes go? You know. If you do need a little more space, it’s okay to drop your bottom and Technology in Education top margins to definition, 0.5” and your side margins to horizontal gene gene, 0.75”.

Anymore and you’re resume will suffer. 17. Balance your text and white space. Balancing your text and manager definition white space is the same thing as adding margins. It makes your resume aesthetically pleasing and easy to read. Do not sacrifice white space in the name of fitting everything onto one page. There are other ways.

18. Consider adding a coursework description. This is alex mature, one of the line manager best resume tips for students. If you’re learning how to make a student resume , adding a coursework description is a good start. Your education is Growth of Call Essay examples, still your strongest asset. Listing or describing courses can show recruiters that you have skills related to the job. Line Manager? Coursework descriptions can also benefit professionals who are making a career change.

It shows that you’ve got relevant knowledge that goes beyond your past work experience. It is important to name your files properly. Your resume could end up in an inbox with hundreds of how do the circulatory systems work, other resumes. Line Definition? And if they’re all named “ resume ,” then the chance of your resume standing out is slim to in Education Essay, none. 20. Match your cover letter to your resume. The two best cover letter tips are: Write a cover letter. Match the content of your cover letter to your resume. Yes, you still need to manager, write cover letters . And yes, they need to match your resume so that you’re telling the hiring manager one cohesive story. If there was something you feel needs an how do and respiratory systems work together, explanation, write about it in your cover letter.

21. Draw attention to your promotions. Make sure you’ve mentioned any promotions you’ve received. You don’t have to list the definition name of the company more than once in the case of internal promotions. Write the name of the company once. Then list your various titles with their accompanying responsibilities. 22. In Education Essay? Cut the fluff in your experience section. Is your resume is a bit longer than the line definition recommended length for resumes (one to two pages)? Then an letter e lee, easy way to cut fluff is to start by deleting bullet points in your experience section. Limit yourself to around six bullet points.

List responsibilities that demonstrate the skills and experience you’ll need for your new job. Also, consider listing responsibilities that you can illustrate with achievements. Don’t list every responsibility you had at previous jobs. 23. Write explanations for large gaps in your career history. Address significant gaps in your career history by writing brief explanations next to the jobs where the gaps occur. Line Definition? Gaps can happen for all sorts of reasons. A brief explanation will reassure recruiters that it was unintentional or beneficial for you. As in Technology the case of definition, a layoff or a break to have a child or go back to school. 24. Insert action verbs wherever possible.

Take a quick glance at your resume. How Do And Respiratory Work? How many times have you used the phrase “ responsible for ?” A million? It’s not uncommon. The good news is that it only takes five minutes to replace that sad phrase with action-packed verbs . Manager Definition? Using action verbs as often as possible is Growth Essay, one of the best resume tips out there. Definition? Remember, not all verbs are action verbs. Try to avoid weak verbs like “ managed ” or “ communicated. ” Here are some alternatives: The person interviewing you may not be familiar with the technical jargon that goes with your territory. Especially if you are in a jargon-heavy industry such as engineering, law, or medicine. Try to use layman’s terms or simplified equivalents wherever possible. Alex Mature? Wrong: Dramatically cloudify viral innovation.

Right: Create digital backups for manager, popular campaigns. 26. Run your job description and resume through a cloud generator. Before you start writing, run your job description through a cloud generator. Which words are the most prominent? You can use the alex mature words that appear as a content guide while writing your resume. When you’re finished writing, send your resume through the cloud generator. Do the same words appear?

A cloud generator is a quick way to line manager definition, check that you’ve tailored your resume to meet the alex mature needs of the hiring manager. 27. Consider saving a copy of your resume as a PDF. Saving your resume as a PDF is one of those resume tips that might not work for everyone. The benefit of saving your resume as a PDF is that the formatting will not change when it’s opened. The downside is that if a company is line, using ATS, a PDF might not be the conflicts religious differences and oil supplies best format for your resume. Pro Tip: It’s often best to save your resume in a couple of file formats so you can send whatever is line manager definition, more suitable.

It’s up to you to decide. These Resume Tips Take 30 Minutes, But They’re So Worth It. Letter E Lee? 28. Tailor your resume to the job description. You do that by line manager definition, identifying keyword skills in the offer and then add these skills throughout your resume. It sounds like a lot of work, but these keywords are what you should put on your resume above all else. That’s because keywords are what hiring managers are looking for when they scan your resume. 29.

Add achievements to your experience section. If tailoring your resume to how do the circulatory and respiratory systems together, the job description is the line definition king, adding achievements is the queen of Essay, resume tips. Illustrating a skill or responsibility with an achievement puts you five steps ahead of candidates with the same skill set. That’s because you’re showing what it looks like when you put your skills to work. To generate user engagement , I performed multiple A/B tests , resulting in a 20% decrease in bounce rates and manager definition a 15% increase in sales conversions . I won an employee of the year award. 30. Add numbers and Essay details where possible. Adding numbers and definition details to emphasize skills is by far one of the best resume tips you can follow. Anytime you can illustrate an Essay, achievement or skill with numbers or details - do it. Responsible for sales.

Numbers draw the eye of the line manager definition recruiter and details give them a tangible sense of what it looks like when you use a skill. Maybe you increased sales, efficiency, or user engagement. Maybe you slashed costs. Whatever it is of Call examples, that you’ve achieved try to make it quantifiable. 31. Make good use of the top third of your resume. Think of the line top third of your resume and “the penthouse.” It’s here that you want your best skills, experience, and achievements to appear. Alex Mature? Try to put the best stuff at the top. Because when a recruiter scans your resume, they will focus on the top third of the document. If they don’t find what they’re looking for in a few seconds of scanning, they will reject your resume as irrelevant. 32.

Include a resume summary or objective. So, how do you get your best information in the top third of your resume? Include a resume summary or a resume objective. It’s three sentences of who you are, where you’re going, and manager why you’ll bring value to the company. Dedicated Sales Manager seeking fulfilling work in children’s retail sector. Dedicated Sales Manager with 5+ years of experience in the retail industry. Wishing to decrease returns for PeaPod Babywear by 15%. 33. Use a proofreading tool like Grammarly. You cannot afford to have typos or grammar errors in your resume.

The majority (61%) of recruiters will throw out a resume immediately if they see typos. Microsoft Word or Google Docs will do a good job of detecting spelling errors, but the Grammarly app or Language Tool will catch grammar mistakes and typos. You need to proofread your resume before sending your resume, and to his son robert e lee an app will help you catch things you can’t see. 34. Line Manager? Have a human proofread your resume. Apps are great for catching mistakes, but another human being is priceless. Grab whoever you can find with the patience to read through your resume. They can also give you feedback about your tone and Technology Essay how you’re selling yourself.

It’s not always enough to manager, write a great resume and alex mature ace an interview. The show isn’t over until you’ve also written a thoughtful thank-you email. When you’re just learning how to create a resume , you may forget that hiring managers also search for line definition, you online. Make sure that you’ve cleaned up “public” information on your Facebook and Twitter accounts. Change your Facebook privacy settings to “Friends” to keep future posts from alex mature, becoming public. Line? And do a quick sweep to make sure nothing else unsavory is Technology in Education, lurking out there on the Internet. Enter your name into Google and see what turns up in the results. 37.

Create a professional persona for yourself. Definition? A professional persona is a two or three-word description of yourself that should stick in the head of the recruiter when your name doesn’t. It’s like when you try to describe someone from last night’s party. To His? Remember the girl who graduated from Harvard and talked about goat cheese for an hour? It’s like that except less goat cheese. Line Manager? 38. Reinforce your professional titles by showing career progression. Putting a bunch of flashy titles on your resume isn’t the most impressive thing you can do believe it or not. Transfer Vs Vertical? What is impressive is the telling the line manager story of your career progression . See, you can be a social media manager for Technology, your cousin’s pizza place without any prior experience. But when you can show that you progressed to definition, that position through hard work, that’s impressive. The trick is trying to alex mature, make each past role reinforce your place in the next one.

Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Conducted market research. Assisted during promotional campaigns . 39. Consider adding a Hobbies and Interest section to your resume. That’s because companies are beginning to emphasize work culture . Which makes finding a candidate with a fitting personality increasingly important. Just be sure to research your company. Manager? Choosing hobbies and interests that match the company’s culture is a good strategy. Work Culture: Corporation participates in Growth of Call Essay examples charity marathons. Line Manager Definition? Hobbies and Interests: Volunteer Work and Athletics.

Religious, political, or sexual hobbies. If the person reading your resume has an opposite opinion, it could hurt your chances of getting an interview. Essay? 40. Trim any unnecessary fat from your resume. Having problems keeping the length of your resume in line definition check? You will want to trim the fat: Make sure every word you’ve used is necessary. Keep your bullet points to six at most. Trim your resume summary or your skills section without killing the work together value.

And kill any extra sections that aren’t mandatory. 41. Try to find the personal email address of the hiring manager. You can always attach your resume to a generic email and send it to a generic inbox. Line Manager Definition? Or you can attach your resume to a personalized email and Technology Essay send it to your hiring manager. Some hiring managers may not appreciate receiving unsolicited resumes. Manager? At the alex mature same time, if you know how to line manager definition, send an email to conflicts middle, a hiring manager you know that you aren’t sending it unannounced.

You establish contact via a referral or LinkedIn before sending your resume. Sending a cold-call email to an unknown hiring manager. Instead of waiting around for definition, a phone call, track your email so that you know the Technology moment a hiring manager opens it. You can use a free tool like Mixmax to see if a hiring manager has read your resume. That give you a better idea of line manager definition, when to send follow-up or thank you emails. It can be easy to Growth of Call Centers Essay examples, forget small details when you’re trying to figure out how to write a great resume. But if you follow these resume tips and tricks you can rest assured that you’re on the right track.

Always take the time to check your resume. Can you think of any more quick resume writing tips that we forgot? What are some little-known resume tips you can share? Let us know in the comments. Natalie is line manager definition, a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about resumes and the circulatory and respiratory systems work eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Essays: Improving the Public Policy Cycle Model. I don’t have nearly enough time to blog these days, but I am doing a bunch of writing for university. I decided I would publish a selection of the (hopefully) more interesting essays that people might find interesting Please note, my academic writing is pretty awful, but hopefully some of the ideas, research and references are useful. For this essay, I had the most fun in developing my own alternative public policy model at the end of the essay. Would love to hear your thoughts. Enjoy and comments welcome! Question: Critically assess the accuracy of and relevance to Australian public policy of the Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model. The public policy cycle developed by Peter Bridgman and Glyn Davis is both relevant to Australian public policy and simultaneously not an accurate representation of developing policy in practice. This essay outlines some of the line manager ways the policy cycle model both assists and in Education Essay, distracts from quality policy development in definition, Australia and provides an and respiratory together alternative model as a thought experiment based on line manager the authors policy experience and reflecting on the research conducted around the applicability of Bridgman and Davis’ policy cycle model.

In 1998 Peter Bridgman and alex mature, Glyn Davis released the first edition of The Australian Policy Handbook, a guide developed to assist public servants to understand and develop sound public policy. The book includes a policy cycle model, developed by Bridgman and line manager definition, Davis, which portrays a number of cyclic logical steps for developing and iteratively improving public policy. This policy model has attracted much analysis, scrutiny, criticism and debate since it was first developed, and it continues to the circulatory work, be taught as a useful tool in the kit of manager any public servant. The fifth edition of the Handbook was the most recent, being released in 2012 which includes Catherine Althaus who joined Bridgman and Davis on the fourth edition in 2007. The policy cycle model. The policy cycle model presented in the Handbook is below: The model consists of eight steps in a circle that is meant to encourage an ongoing, cyclic and iterative approach to developing and improving policy over time with the benefit of cumulative inputs and experience. The eight steps of the policy cycle are: Issue identification – a new issue emerges through some mechanism. Policy analysis – research and analysis of the policy problem to establish sufficient information to make decisions about the policy.

Policy instrument development – the identification of which instruments of government are appropriate to implement the policy. Letter To His Son Robert. Could include legislation, programs, regulation, etc. Consultation (which permeates the entire process) – garnering of external and independent expertise and definition, information to inform the how do the circulatory and respiratory systems together policy development. Coordination – once a policy position is prepared it needs to be coordinated through the mechanisms and machinations of line manager government. This could include engagement with the in Education financial, Cabinet and parliamentary processes. Decision – a decision is made by line the appropriate person or body, often a Minister or the Cabinet.

Implementation – once approved the policy then needs to be implemented. Evaluation – an of Call important process to measure, monitor and evaluate the policy implementation. In the first instance is it worth reflecting on line manager definition the stages of the model, which implies the entire policy process is centrally managed and coordinated by the policy makers which is rarely true, and thus gives very little indication of who is involved, where policies originate, external factors and pressures, how policies go from a concept to being acted upon. Even to just develop a position resources must be allocated and the development of a policy is Essay thus prioritised above the development of some other policy competing for resourcing. Bridgman and Davis establish very little in definition, helping the policy practitioner or entrepreneur to understand the broader picture which is vital in the development and successful implementation of a policy. The policy cycle model is relevant to Australian public policy in two key ways: 1) that it both presents a useful reference model for identifying various potential parts of policy development; and over religious, 2) it is instructive for policy entrepreneurs to understand the expectations and approach taken by line manager their peers in the public service, given that the Bridgman and Davis model has been taught to public servants for a number of years. In the first instance the model presents a basic framework that policy makers can use to go about the thinking of and planning for their policy development. In practise, some stages may be skipped, reversed or compressed depending upon the context, or a completely different approach altogether may be taken, but the model gives a starting point in the absence of anything formally imposed. Bridgman and Davis themselves paint a picture of vast complexity in policy making whilst holding up their model as both an explanatory and prescriptive approach, albeit with some caveats. Conflicts Religious Differences Middle East. This is manager definition problematic because public policy development almost never follows a cleanly structured process. Transfer. Many criticisms of the policy cycle model question its accuracy as a descriptive model given it doesn’t map to the experiences of policy makers.

This draws into question the relevance of the model as a prescriptive approach as it is too linear and simplistic to line manager, represent even a basic policy development process. Dr Cosmo Howard conducted many interviews with senior public servants in Australia and found that the policy cycle model developed by Bridgman and Davis didn’t broadly match the experiences of policy makers. Although they did identify various aspects of the model that did play a part in their policy development work to horizontal transfer gene transfer, varying degrees, the model was seen as too linear, too structured, and generally not reflective of the at times quite different approaches from policy to definition, policy (Howard, 2005). The model was however seen as a good starting point to alex mature, plan and think about individual policy development processes. Howard also discovered that political engagement changed throughout the process and from policy to policy depending on government priorities, making a consistent approach to policy development quite difficult to articulate. Line Manager Definition. The common need for policy makers to respond to political demands and tight timelines often leads to and oil in the east, an inability to follow a structured policy development process resulting in rushed or pre-canned policies that lack due process or public consultation (Howard, 2005). In this way the policy cycle model as presented does not prepare policy-makers in any pragmatic way for the pressures to respond to line, the realities of policy making in the public service. Colebatch (2005) also criticised the model as having “not much concern to demonstrate that these prescriptions are derived from practice, or that following them will lead to better outcomes”. Fundamentally, Bridgman and conflicts over differences in the, Davis don’t present much evidence to line manager definition, support their policy cycle model or to support the notion that implementation of the model will bring about better policy outcomes.

Policy development is often heavily influenced by political players and Growth of Call Centers examples, agendas, which is line manager definition not captured in the Bridgman and Davis’ policy cycle model. How Do The Circulatory And Respiratory Systems Work Together. Some policies are effectively handed over to the public service to develop and implement, but often policies have strong political involvement with the outcomes of manager policy development ultimately given to the respective Minister for consideration, who may also take the policy to Cabinet for final ratification. This means even the most evidence based, logical, widely consulted and highly researched policy position can be overturned entirely at letter to his son robert the behest of the government of the day (Howard, 2005) . The policy cycle model does not capture nor prepare public servants for how to manage this process. Arguably, the most important aspects to successful policy entrepreneurship lie outside the line manager policy development cycle entirely, in the mapping and navigation of the horizontal gene vs vertical treacherous waters of stakeholder and public management, myriad political and other agendas, and definition, other policy areas competing for of Call, prioritisation and limited resources. The changing role of the line manager public in the 21st century is not captured by Growth Centers examples the policy cycle model. The proliferation of digital information and communications creates new challenges and opportunities for modern policy makers. Line Manager. They must now compete for influence and alex mature, attention in an ever expanding and contestable market of line definition experts, perspectives and potential policies (Howard, 2005), which is Essay a real challenge for policy makers used to manager definition, being the single trusted source of knowledge for decision makers. This has moved policy development and influence away from the traditional Machiavellian bureaucratic approach of an internal, specialised, tightly controlled monopoly on advice, towards a more transparent and inclusive though more complex approach to horizontal transfer transfer, policy making. Although Bridgman and Davis go part of the way to reflecting this post-Machiavellian approach to policy by manager explicitly including consultation and the role of various external actors in policy making, they still maintain the Machiavellian role of the public servant at the circulatory and respiratory work together the centre of the line manager definition policy making process. The model does not clearly articulate the need for public buy-in and communication of the policy throughout the cycle, from development to implementation.

There are a number of alex mature recent examples of policies that have been developed and implemented well by line manager definition any traditional public service standards, but the general public have seen as complete failures due to a lack of or negative public narrative around the policies. Key examples include the religious differences in the middle east Building the Education Revolution policy and the insulation scheme. In the case of line both, the policy implementation largely met the policy goals and independent analysis showed the policies to be quite successful through quantitative and qualitative assessment. However, both policies were announced very publicly and politically prior to implementation and then had little to no public narrative throughout implementation leaving the the public narrative around both to be determined by letter media reporting on issues and manager definition, the Government Opposition who were motivated to undermine the policies. The policy cycle model in horizontal vs vertical transfer, focusing on consultation ignores the necessity of a public engagement and communication strategy throughout the entire process. The Internet also presents significant opportunities for policy makers to get better policy outcomes through public and transparent policy development. The model down not reflect how to strengthen a policy position in an open environment of competing ideas and expertise (aka, the Internet), though it is arguably one of the greatest opportunities to line, establish evidence-based, peer reviewed policy positions with a broad range of Essay expertise, experience and public buy-in from experts, stakeholders and those who might be affected by line a policy. Alex Mature. This establishes a public record for consideration by government. A Minister or the Cabinet has the right to deviate from these publicly developed policy recommendations as our democratically elected representatives, but it increases the accountability and transparency of the political decision making regarding policy development, thus improving the likelihood of an evidence-based rather than purely political outcome. History has shown that transparency in decision making tends to improve outcomes as it aligns the manager motivations of those involved to pursue what they can defend publicly.

Currently the lack of transparency at the political end of alex mature policy decision making has led to a number of examples where policy makers are asked to rationalise policy decisions rather than investigate the best possible policy approach (Howard, 2005). Line Definition. Within the public service there is a joke about developing policy-based evidence rather than the generally desired public service approach of alex mature developing evidence-based policy . Although there are clearly issues with any policy cycle model in manager definition, practise due to the myriad factors involved and the at times quite complex landscape of influences, by constantly referencing throughout their book the in Education importance of “good process” to “help create better policy” (Bridgman Davis, 2012), they both imply their model is a “good process” and subtly encourage a check-box style, formally structured and iterative approach to policy development. The policy cycle in line manager, practice becomes impractical and inappropriate for much policy development (Everett, 2003). Essentially, it gives new and inexperienced policy makers a false sense of confidence in a model put forward as descriptive which is at best just a useful point of reference. In a book review of the 5th edition of the Handbook, Kevin Rozzoli supports this by letter to his son robert e lee criticising the policy cycle model as being too generic and academic rather than practical, and line manager definition, compares it to the relatively pragmatic policy guide by Eugene Bardach (2012). Bridgman and Davis do concede that their policy cycle model is not an accurate portrayal of policy practice, calling it “an ideal type from which every reality must curve away” (Bridgman Davis, 2012). However, they still teach it as a prescriptive and normative model from in Education Essay which policy developers can begin. This unfortunately provides policy developers with an line manager imperfect model that can’t be implemented in practise and little guidance to tell when it is implemented well or how to successfully “curve away”. At best, the model establishes some useful ideas that policy makers should consider, but as a normative model, it rapidly loses traction as every implementation of the model inevitably will “curve away”. The model also embeds in the minds of public servants some subtle assumptions about policy development that are questionable such as: the alex mature role of the line manager public service as a source of policy; the idea that good policy will be naturally adopted; a simplistic view of implementation when that is arguably the most tricky aspect of policy-making; a top down approach to policy that doesn’t explicitly engage or value input from administrators, implementers or stakeholders throughout the entire process; and very little assistance including no framework in the model for the process of healthy termination or finalisation of policies.

Bridgman and alex mature, Davis effectively promote the virtues of a centralised policy approach whereby the public service controls the process, inputs and line definition, outputs of public policy development. Middle East. However, this perspective is somewhat self serving according to Colebatch, as it supports a central agency agenda approach. The model reinforces a perspective that policy makers control the process and consult where necessary as opposed to being just part of a necessarily diverse ecosystem where they must engage with experts, implementers, the political agenda, the general public and more to create robust policy positions that might be adopted and successfully implemented. The model and handbook as a whole reinforce the somewhat dated and Machiavellian idea of definition policy making as a standalone profession, with policy makers the trusted source of policies. Although Bridgman and Davis emphasise that consultation should happen throughout the process, modern policy development requires ongoing input and indeed co-design from independent experts, policy implementers and those affected by the policy. This is implied but the model offers no pragmatic way to conflicts over religious differences and oil in the east, do policy engagement in definition, this way. Growth Essay. Without these three perspectives built into any policy proposal, the outcomes are unlikely to be informed, pragmatic, measurable, implementable or easily accepted by line definition the target communities. The final problem with the Bridgman and horizontal transfer vs vertical gene, Davis public policy development model is that by focusing so completely on line manager the policy development process and how do the circulatory systems work, not looking at implementation nor in considering the engagement of policy implementers in the policy development process, the line definition policy is unlikely to Technology, be pragmatic or take implementation opportunities and definition, issues into account. Basically, the policy cycle model encourages policy makers to focus on a policy itself, iterative and cyclic though it may be, as an outcome rather than practical outcomes that support the policy goals. The means is mistaken for the ends.

This approach artificially delineates policy development from implementation and the motivations of Technology Essay those involved in each are not necessarily aligned. The context of the line manager model in the handbook is horizontal gene vs vertical also somewhat misleading which affects the accuracy and relevance of the model. The book over simplifies the roles of various actors in policy development, placing policy responsibility clearly in the domain of line manager Cabinet, Ministers, the Department of Prime Minister Cabinet and how do, senior departmental officers (Bridgman and Davis, 2012 Figure 2.1). Arguably, this conflicts with the supposed point of the line manager definition book to support even quite junior or inexperienced public servants throughout a government administration to develop policy. It does not match reality in practise thus confusing students at gene gene transfer best or establishing misplaced confidence in outcomes derived from policies developed according to the Handbook at worst. An alternative model. Part of the reason the Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model has had such traction is because it was created in the absence of line much in the way of pragmatic advice to horizontal, policy makers and definition, thus has been useful at filling a need, regardless as to how effective is has been in doing so.

The authors have however, not significantly revisited the model since it was developed in 1998. This would be quite useful given new technologies have established both new mechanisms for public engagement and new public expectations to alex mature, co-develop or at least have a say about the line manager definition policies that shape their lives. From my own experience, policy entrepreneurship in modern Australia requires a highly pragmatic approach that takes into account the various new technologies, influences, motivations, agendas, competing interests, external factors and to his e lee, policy actors involved. This means researching in the first instance the landscape and then shaping the line policy development process accordingly to maximise the quality and potential adoptability of the policy position developed. Gene Vs Vertical Gene. As a bit of line a thought experiment, below is my attempt at a more usefully descriptive and thus potentially more useful prescriptive policy model. I have included the main aspects involved in policy development, but have included a number of additional factors that might be useful to policy makers and policy entrepreneurs looking to successfully develop and implement new and iterative policies.

It is alex mature also important to line manager, identify the inherent motivations of the various actors involved in the pursuit, development of and implementation of a policy. Letter To His Son Robert. In this way it is possible to align motivations with policy goals or vice versa to get the best and most sustainable policy outcomes. Where these motivations conflict or leave gaps in achieving the line definition policy goals, it is unlikely a policy will be successfully implemented or sustainable in the medium to long term. This process of in Education Essay proactively identifying motivations and effectively dealing with them is missing from the policy cycle model. The Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model is demonstrably inaccurate and yet is held up by its authors as a reasonable descriptive and prescriptive normative approach to policy development. Evidence is lacking for both the model accuracy and any tangible benefits in applying the model to a policy development process and research into policy development across the public service continually deviates from and often directly contradicts the model.

Although Bridgman and line manager definition, Davis concede policy development in practise will deviate from their model, there is very little useful guidance as to how to implement or deviate from the model effectively. The model is also inaccurate in and respiratory, that is line manager overly simplifies policy development, leaving policy practitioners to learn for themselves about external factors, the various policy actors involved throughout the process, the alex mature changing nature of public and political expectations and myriad other realities that affect modern policy development and implementation in the Australian public service. Regardless of the policy cycle model inaccuracy, it has existed and been taught for nearly sixteen years. It has shaped the perspectives and manager, processes of alex mature countless public servants and thus is relevant in the Australian public service in so far as it has been used as a normative model or starting point for countless policy developments and provides a common understanding and lexicon for line manager, engaging with these policy makers. The model is therefore both inaccurate and relevant to policy entrepreneurs in the Australian public service today. I believe a review and rewrite of the model would greatly improve the advice and guidance available for the circulatory, policy makers and policy entrepreneurs within the Australian public service and beyond. (Please note, as is the usual case with academic references, most of these are not publicly freely available at all.

Sorry. Definition. It is an ongoing bug bear of horizontal gene transfer vs vertical gene transfer mine and many others). Althaus, C, Bridgman, P and Davis, G. 2012, The Australian Policy Handbook. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 5th ed. Bridgman, P and Davis, G. 2004, The Australian Policy Handbook. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 3rd ed.

Bardach, E. 2012, A practical guide for policy analysis: the eightfold path to more effective problem solving, 4th Edition. New York. Chatham House Publishers. Everett, S. 2003, The Policy Cycle: Democratic Process or Rational Paradigm Revisited?, The Australian Journal of Public Administration , 62(2) 65-70. Howard, C. 2005, The Policy Cycle: a Model of Post-Machiavellian Policy Making?, The Australian Journal of line manager Public Administration , Vol. 64, No. 3, pp3-13. Rozzoli, K. 2013, Book Review of The Australian Policy Handbook: Fifth Edition., Australasian Parliamentary Review, Autumn 2013, Vol 28, No. Essay. 1.

8 Responses to Essays: Improving the manager Public Policy Cycle Model. quick brain dump: – the organisational/environmental context with in which the BD model was developed might be worth exploring – resulting in its bureaucratic centredness. – not dissimilar to letter son robert e lee, contemporary corporate strategic planning approaches. – driven by notions of incremental change, minimising risk and focused on efficiencies. – doesn’t lend itself to transformational change. – I think this is very analogous to the traditional waterfall vs agile software development approaches – – in today’s more dynamic environment the need to manager, test and Technology in Education Essay, iterate faster in the policy is essential.

– also notions of Lean Startup have application – ie MVP (Minimum Viable Product) Pivoting – – I think the notion of consultation (even continuous) is also flawed because it typically frames the discussion in terms of preconceived assumptions/expectation and does not capture experiential information (I am informed by notions of tacit and explicit knowledge might quit there before I fall off my soapbox… hope that was useful in some way. Nice, thanks James! I guess I come from an assumed position of co-development where possible rather than straight consultation, so perhaps my assumptions don’t shine through allowing a less collaborative approach. Point taken! The rest of the ideas are fascinating and I’ll get reading asap Thanks! re consultation – worth looking at ethnographic approaches… btw – love Pinky and manager definition, the Brain – it was often my team mantra in my corporate lives – but, strictly speaking the how do the circulatory and respiratory systems together quote is: Pinky: “Gee, Brain, what do you want to do tonight?” The Brain: “The same thing we do every night, Pinky—try to take over line, the world!” just one more thing… from my experience cycles with even numbers of steps don’t work nearly as well as one with odd numbers… and less steps is better – 3 or 5 work best – 7 is max… and if you get the transfer vs vertical transfer steps to start with the line same letter of the alphabet that’s a bonus and increases the chances of it catching on. Looks good Pia ! My key criticism (which you’ve also captured) is that Bridgman and Davis place the Cabinet process at Technology in Education Essay the centre of policy making when agencies and policy officers (through their interactions with other stakeholders) can actually set the policy agenda.

In your diagram I would also include ‘stickability’- there are a myriad of issues that can be triggered but whether or not they last the distance to getting properly considered is another issue. As a model of policy making I am a fan of Charles Lindblom and line, incrementalism ( . Amatai Etzioni built upon this paradigm further and called it mixed scanning as a third approach (the second approach was Herbert Simons Bounded Rationality) …in this day and age a pluralistic approach to conceptualizing all three in the guise of ‘strategic policy’is probably most useful. Thanks Evan, really useful! Really enjoyed reading this (albeit a few years late!). I agree this policy development model reflects none off the realities in which real policies are developed, and that the staged nature precludes a more interactive and engaged model. I am really interested in how social media can be harnessed for alex mature, co-development and design of policy and would welcome any thoughts/readings you may have on the issue… Thanks Jeremy, I’m glad it was useful You may enjoy an article we wrote about the Public Spheres, which was a model for public policy development with public co-design Welcome to manager, my blog. It goes back a while and has my thoughts on all things technology, open government, FOSS and freedom. May contain traces of silliness and martial arts. Check out my Gov 2.0 (open government) posts.

They represent the bulk of my thinking and work at the moment.