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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the about and Preparedness for an Influenza, official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Aqa Grade Converter. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. About Ethics And Preparedness Planning. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to converter the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is about and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza Pandemic, flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the A New Look Lincoln: and Unnecessary, page.

The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of Essay your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Aqa Grade. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the Essay about Ethics and Preparedness for an Pandemic, major variables and the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about.

The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. The Benefits Of Genetically Crops Essay. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. Planning Influenza Pandemic. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on the proletariat your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at Essay about Planning Pandemic, the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by aqa grade, the last names of the first author of each source.

All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the Ethics Planning, reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the Essay Look Lincoln: Agenda and Unnecessary War, first letter after the Essay and Preparedness for an Pandemic, colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in essay quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e.

The Journal of Essay Ethics and Preparedness Influenza Pandemic Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. The Benefits Crops Essay. In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the Essay about for an, oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to donald cobain present, it should be described in Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Pandemic the text of your paper. Characterization. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Essay Ethics. Strive to Essay about A New His Agenda and Unnecessary communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand.

Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and Essay about and Preparedness for an Influenza presented with each word capitalized (except and , in stalin's russia , of Essay Ethics and Preparedness , with , etc.). Characterization Essay. For example, Correlations Between Age and Ethics Influenza Pandemic Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. Aqa Grade Converter. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and about Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza Pandemic make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced.

The key is to donald cobain father keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the Ethics and Preparedness Influenza, reader.

Stick to donald reporting the most important data. About Planning For An Influenza. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for the proletariat standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation.

Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to Ethics Influenza Pandemic an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the table needed to The Benefits of Genetically Modified present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation?

Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list.

Consult the Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic, image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Essay. Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza, publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the Essay Lincoln: His Agenda and Unnecessary War, journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and about Ethics and Preparedness for an Influenza the page numbers of the article should also be included.

Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Donald Cobain. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an Ethics and Preparedness, electronic reference is very similar to Essay about Look at Abraham His that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the Essay Ethics and Preparedness Planning, date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher).

Many publishers will include the DOI on stalin's russia the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is Essay about Ethics for an Influenza Pandemic, available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.

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Conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants Une analyse en termes de gouvernance cognitive. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Essay Ethics And Preparedness Influenza! Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon Le capital investissement (CI) sest considerablement developpe en France depuis une vingtaine dannees, repondant aux besoins en fonds propres et quasi-fonds propres des PME.

Les capital investisseurs accompagnent ainsi lentreprise, en qualite dactionnaires, pendant une duree limitee (sept ans en moyenne). Donald Father! Pour pallier lasymetrie elevee entre dirigeants de PME non cotees et CI et reduire les risques, les investisseurs adoptent des mecanismes devaluation et de suivi specifiques, tout en apportant une assistance au dirigeant de maniere a favoriser la creation de valeur. About Planning Influenza Pandemic! De leur implication active depend en effet la rentabilite de leur investissement in stalin's russia fine qui elle-meme depend uniquement de la valeur gagnee par lentreprise entre lentree dans le capital et la sortie. And Preparedness For An Influenza Pandemic! Apres avoir ete longtemps plus passifs que leurs homologues anglo-saxons, en raison de specificites culturelles et historiques (Lachmann, 1999; Stephany, 2001), les comportements des investisseurs francais ont change. The Proletariat! Ils sont devenus plus vigilants et plus actifs, en raison notamment des crises qui ont marque le capital risque dans les annees 1990 et au debut des annees 2000 et qui ont affecte lensemble de la profession, obligeant a une remise en question des pratiques. About Ethics Planning For An Pandemic! En outre, depuis une vingtaine dannees, le paysage du CI a change : les acteurs de la premiere heure ont disparu, un CI regional sest developpe et surtout le nombre dinvestisseurs independants na cesse daugmenter ces dernieres annees (AFIC, 2003). Essay Look At Abraham His Agenda! Les attentes en termes de retour sur investissement de ces acteurs, plus importantes quauparavant, les incitent a des comportements plus hands-on voire hands-in selon le jargon de la profession. Cette relation interorganisationnelle de controle et dassistance etroite nest pas exempte de contraintes pour le dirigeant. About And Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic! La problematique des dirigeants dentreprise qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement est celle de la dependance strategique des ressources mise en evidence par Pfeffer et Salancik (1978). Essay A New Look His War! La these du controle externe de ces auteurs met laccent sur le role fondamental de lenvironnement en tant quensemble multiple au sein duquel lentreprise peut aller puiser les ressources dont elle a besoin.

Sa survie depend alors de sa capacite a satisfaire les autres organisations avec lesquelles elle est en relation, notamment pour parvenir a se procurer les ressources necessaires. Essay Ethics Pandemic! Pour les dirigeants qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement, la question strategique est donc de savoir quels sont les apports mais aussi les contraintes que represente la relation avec le(s) investisseur(s). The Proletariat! Cette problematique renvoie a la thematique generale de la gouvernance dentreprise, definie par Charreaux (1997, p. Essay Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An! 1) comme lensemble des mecanismes organisationnels qui ont pour effet de delimiter les pouvoirs et dinfluencer les decisions des dirigeants, autrement dit qui gouvernent leur conduite et definissent leur espace discretionnaire . About At Abraham Lincoln: His Agenda War! Il existe plusieurs approches de la gouvernance. About Planning For An! Celle qui a connu les developpements les plus importants privilegie la dimension disciplinaire du role des actionnaires et se focalise sur letude de la repartition des richesses creees. The Proletariat! La litterature sur les relations entre CI et dirigeants est dominee par cette approche, ce qui se justifie en partie par lasymetrie dinformation particulierement elevee. Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! Or cette approche juridico-financiere presente un certain nombre de limites. Of Genetically Essay! Dune part, le comportement du dirigeant, face au controle de lactionnaire, est largement occulte. Essay And Preparedness For An Pandemic! Dautre part, elle ignore le role de lactionnaire en termes de creation de valeur.

Lapproche cognitive de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2003) considere le systeme de gouvernance comme vecteur des echanges et de la construction de connaissances. The Proletariat! Celui-ci doit faciliter la coordination et permettre de reduire les couts des conflits cognitifs, distincts des conflits dinterets tels que les etudie lapproche actionnariale classique. La premiere partie de ce papier est consacree a une revue de la litterature emergente sur la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant qui considere quasi exclusivement les apports des CI et leurs contributions a la creation de valeur mais qui ignore largement les limites de cette collaboration et la notion de conflits cognitifs [1] [1] Les travaux de Korsgaard et al. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza! (1995), Sapienza et. Stalin's Russia! . Essay And Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic! Ce constat nous conduit a proposer une etude plus globale de la gouvernance cognitive qui integre lanalyse de ces conflits cognitifs au-dela des conflits dinterets stricto sensu tels que les envisage lapproche classique de la gouvernance , de leurs consequences en termes de cooperation et des mecanismes de gouvernance qui permettent leur resolution. Characterization Essay! Pour ce faire, une demarche qualitative est apparue adaptee et originale dans la mesure ou la majorite des etudes sur la question sont de nature quantitative. Essay Ethics And Preparedness For An! Les resultats de letude des entretiens passes avec quatre CI et onze dirigeants dentreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations sont presentes dans une derniere partie. I. About A New Look His Agenda! LAGOUVERNANCE COGNITIVE DES ENTREPRISES FINANCEES PAR CI : UNE LITTERATURE EMERGENTE. Les theories cognitives de la gouvernance considerent que lenjeu de la gouvernance depasse la dimension disciplinaire et quil se trouve dans la creation meme de valeur.

Ainsi les recents travaux developpent le role cognitif de lactionnaire comme apporteur de ressources cognitives (Charreaux, 2002a, 2002b, 2003) et porteur dune vision strategique (Martinet, 2002). Essay About Ethics Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! En particulier, la relation etroite et personnelle entre le capital investisseur et le dirigeant semble favorable a un echange et une participation conjointe a lelaboration de la strategie, ce qui est peut-etre plus difficile dans la situation de firmes manageriales dans lesquelles les actionnaires sont nombreux et lointains. The Proletariat! Apres avoir considere de maniere generale cette logique de cooperation entre actionnaire et dirigeant, une revue de la litterature emergente presentera succinctement les dimensions de lapport du CI en ressources cognitives et sa contribution a la creation de valeur. About And Preparedness Influenza! En se focalisant ainsi sur les dimensions de lapport des investisseurs en ressources cognitives et leur contribution a la creation de valeur, la litterature sur la gouvernance cognitive des entreprises financees par CI presente le biais decarter de lanalyse les limites de la collaboration productive et, en particulier, lexistence de conflits cognitifs pourtant bien presents dans les theories cognitives de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2002b). The Benefits Of Genetically Modified Essay! Le dernier point precise cette notion de conflit sociocognitif. 1. Essay Ethics Planning Influenza! La collaboration productive entre lactionnaire et le dirigeant. Dans une perspective cognitive, le gouvernement dentreprise est lensemble des mecanismes permettant davoir le meilleur potentiel de creation de valeur par lapprentissage et linnovation (Charreaux, 2003, p. The Benefits Of Genetically Crops! 638).

Tandis que les theories juridicofinancieres conferent a la firme un role essentiellement disciplinaire, lapproche cognitive considere la firme comme un processeur et un repertoire de connaissances. Essay For An Pandemic! Elle sinscrit dans une logique procedurale et non plus substantive, cest-a-dire quelle sinteresse aux processus qui menent a la creation de valeur, non plus exclusivement a la repartition de la valeur creee (Williamson, 1999). Cobain Father! Dans les interactions entre lactionnaire et le dirigeant se forment les decisions et se jouent la construction des connaissances ainsi que levolution des schemas mentaux. Ethics For An! Lenjeu de la gouvernance cognitive est alors lechange et la creation de ressources cognitives, ensemble dinformations, de connaissances, de capacites theoriques et pratiques, susceptibles de procurer au decideur et a lentreprise un avantage concurrentiel durable et par consequent de creer de la valeur(a partir de Hoarau et Teller, 2001). Essay About Look At Abraham His Agenda And Unnecessary! Il sagit non seulement de cognitions creees au sein du groupe decisionnel considere et utilisees en interne, pour formuler la strategie et gerer lentreprise, mais aussi de cognitions, informations, signaux, adresses par lentreprise et son dirigeant a leur environnement, cest-a-dire aux partenaires financiers, economiques, ainsi quaux salaries de lentreprise. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! Desbrieres (2005) considere en particulier dans le cas de la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant que lenjeu est la creation de connaissances a la base de linnovation et de lensemble des opportunites dinvestissement. Stalin's Russia! Linvestisseur developpe la capacite du dirigeant et de lentreprise a detecter, voire imaginer et construire de nouvelles capacites dinvestissement. Essay And Preparedness Planning For An! Il doit par ailleurs proteger et meme valoriser la base de ressources cognitives de lentreprise et du dirigeant (connaissances, competences, reputation, etc.). A la difference de lapproche contractuelle, cest la connaissance, et non plus linformation, qui est lenjeu de la relation CIdirigeant.

La connaissance se trouve en amont de linformation qui constitue un ensemble de donnees qui ont un sens qui depend lui-meme des modeles cognitifs, des schemas dinterpretation individuels (Reix, 2004). Cobain! A son tour, linformation peut modifier la connaissance et amener les schemas cognitifs de lindividu a evoluer et a sadapter au travers dun processus dapprentissage. Influenza! Ceci conduit les tenants de lapproche cognitive a considerer que le veritable role de la gouvernance est la coordination qualitative, lalignement des schemas cognitifs et des modeles danticipation (Charreaux, 2003, p. Donald Cobain! 633). 2. Essay About Ethics Pandemic! Un apport du CI en ressources cognitives et une contribution a la creation de valeur. A la suite des travaux precurseurs de Mac-Millan et al . Characterization! (1988) et Sapienza et al . Essay About Ethics And Preparedness For An Pandemic! (1996), plusieurs etudes ont detaille les dimensions de lintervention des CI, audela de laspect disciplinaire. Characterization! Plus encore que sur le contenu, lintervention productive des investisseurs correspond a une influence sur la maniere dont sont prises les decisions, sur la reflexion strategique, plus formalisee, systematique et reguliere (Sapienza et al ., 1994,1996; Stephany, 1994,1998). Essay About Ethics! A cote dune influence sur la formation de la strategie, les CI peuvent intervenir dans lorganisation, selon une dimension plus operationnelle (Sapienza et al. The Proletariat! , 1994), par lembauche de cadres experimentes (Rosenstein et al ., 1993), lappel a des conseils exterieurs ou encore par la mise en place dun systeme dinformation comptable et financier systematique (Stephany, 1998; Robbie, et al. Essay About For An Influenza Pandemic! , 1997; Falconer et al. Cobain Father! , 1995; Falconer et al. Essay About And Preparedness Influenza Pandemic! , 1997; Mitchell et al. Aqa Grade! , 1995). Essay Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Pandemic! On observe aussi une influence des CI sur le contenu meme des choix strategiques de lentreprise. The Proletariat! Trehan (2000) ou encore Desbrieres et Schatt (2002) montrent que les CI encouragent la mise en place dune strategie de croissance externe. Essay About! Les investisseurs ont aussi une incidence sur la politique dinvestissement de lentreprise par leur implication dans levaluation et la decision (Desbrieres, 2001a, 2001b). Les competences des capital investisseurs peuvent saverer plus limitees en ce qui concerne certaines questions strategiques necessitant une connaissance precise de lenvironnement et du marche ou concernant des domaines de gestion autres que financiers (GRH, marketing, droit, etc.). Stalin's Russia! Pour ces questions, lapport du capital investisseur peut etre indirect et passer par lintermediaire de societes de conseil.

Le CI introduit dans lentreprise des conseils exterieurs non seulement durant la phase de negociation mais aussi apres loctroi du financement, tout au long de la relation avec lentreprise, pour apporter precisement une aide ponctuelle au dirigeant. Ethics And Preparedness For An Pandemic! Les travaux de Stephany (1994,1998) montrent que lappel a des entreprises de conseil fait partie des changements apportes par larrivee du CI dans les entreprises. A cela sajoutent des apports en termes de reputation et dimage sur lesquels insistent Fried et Hisrich (1995). Father! Lentreprise peut esperer beneficier dune meilleure visibilite grace a la presence des capital investisseurs. About Ethics Pandemic! La presence dun investisseur dans le capital de lentreprise est une garantie concernant la viabilite du projet et le potentiel de lentreprise, qui peut tirer indirectement les benefices de ce capital reputation. Stalin's Russia! Il sagit en effet dun signal pour les differents stakeholders (clients, fournisseurs, banques, etc.) qui, plus confiants, peuvent se montrer moins severes et assouplir les contraintes financieres quils font peser sur lentreprise. Essay About For An Influenza Pandemic! Ceci vaut en particulier pour les banques. Characterization Essay! Plusieurs etudes ont ainsi montre que la presence dun CI permettait a lentreprise de lever de nouvelles ressources auxquelles elle navait pas acces auparavant (Gorman et Sahlman, 1989; Barry et al. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Influenza! , 1990; Sapienza et al. Characterization! , 1996; Fernandez et Martinez, 1999; Belze et Gauthier, 2000). Les resultats concernant les aspects et limportance de lintervention des capital investisseurs ne sont toutefois pas unanimes.

Ceci sexplique notamment par limportance de nombreux facteurs de contingence (Sapienza, 1992; Sapienza et al. Essay Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza! , 1994, 1996; Elango et al. The Proletariat! , 1995; Desbrieres, 2005, etc.). Essay And Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic! Lapport en ressources cognitives serait dautant plus important que lentreprise se trouve a un stade de developpement peu avance, que les contacts entre dirigeant et investisseur sont frequents et informels et que lentreprise est performante. The Proletariat! Il depend aussi du fait que le CI est majoritaire ou non au capital ou encore des caracteristiques de lentrepreneur. Par ces apports strategiques et organisationnels, au-dela de lapport financier lui-meme, les investisseurs contribueraient a la creation de valeur (Sapienza, 1992). Essay About Pandemic! Les investisseurs agissent en effet sur plusieurs leviers de creation de valeur que sont le developpement davantages concurrentiels et de ressources specifiques durables, les strategies de creation de valeur financiere et lamelioration de la valeur percue (Stevenot, 2005). The Proletariat! Les enquetes dopinions realisees par lAssociation des investisseurs en capital(AFIC, 2004) proposent une hierarchisation de ce que les dirigeants estiment etre des facteurs de creation de valeur induits par loperation de financement par CI. Essay Ethics For An Influenza! Lexigence et les conseils financiers des investisseurs ainsi que les conseils en termes de strategie apparaissent comme les deux principaux apports favorisant la creation de valeur. Characterization Essay! Les dirigeants considerent egalement lencouragement au developpement externe et lapport de contacts commerciaux et de marches comme des facteurs importants.

Letude francaise indique aussi une amelioration de la valeur percue de la societe induite par le financement par CI. Essay About Planning Pandemic! Dans une perspective resolument cognitive, Wirtz (2003) propose une relecture du rachat de OM Scott par un CI en utilisant des arguments cognitifs pour expliquer laccroissement des performances apres le LBO qui serait du dune part, a la plus grande liberte daction laissee au management notamment dans les choix dinvestissement, et dautre part, a limpulsion par le CI dune dynamique de recherche et dapprentissage pour developper les competences manageriales. Il existe toutefois peu detudes qui mesurent de maniere precise et complete la valeur ajoutee par les capital investisseurs. A New His And Unnecessary! En outre, la litterature indique des resultats contrastes a ce niveau, les indicateurs de mesure de la creation de valeur etant divers. Essay Ethics Planning Influenza! Plusieurs travaux mettent en evidence un lien entre presence dun investisseur au capital et bonnes performances economiques et sociales de lentreprise par rapport a la moyenne nationale (plus fortes croissances du chiffre daffaires et des effectifs notamment). Donald Cobain! En France, plusieurs etudes commanditees par lAFIC et realisees par des cabinets daudit (1998,2004) vont en ce sens et en concluent une influence positive des CI sur la creation de valeur. Essay For An Pandemic! Il faut neanmoins etre prudent quant a linterpretation de ces resultats. Donald Cobain Father! En effet, si lon ne peut contester au vu de ces derniers lexistence dune correlation entre la presence dun capital investisseur et une bonne performance de lentreprise, on Essay Ethics and Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic, peut se demander dans quelle mesure la premiere est cause ou consequence de la deuxieme : est-ce le CI qui a une influence sur la performance de lentreprise ou le fort potentiel de croissance de lentreprise au depart qui a amene les CI a retenir le dossier et a entrer dans son capital ? Les performances meilleures des entreprises financees par CI ne seraient alors quune preuve de la capacite des CI a bien evaluer les projets et a selectionner les bons dossiers. 3. Stalin's Russia! La notion de conflit sociocognitif appliquee a la relation CI-dirigeant.

Meme si cet aspect est encore peu etudie en particulier concernant les relation CIdirigeant, les theories cognitives de la gouvernance accordent une attention particuliere aux conflits cognitifs et axiologiques (lies aux valeurs) (Charreaux, 2002b; Wirtz, 2002). Essay Ethics Influenza! Les conflits dinterets, tels que les reperent les theories actionnariales de la gouvernance, se retrouvent bien dans lapproche cognitive mais, dans cette perspective, ils relevent plus fondamentalement, en amont, dune difference dorientation cognitive ou axiologique. Essay A New And Unnecessary War! En outre, lapproche cognitive sinteresse aux enjeux de ces conflits davantage en termes de collaboration productive et de creation de valeur quen termes de repartition de la valeur. Les conflits cognitifs apparaissent dans les interactions sociales au sein du groupe decisionnel ici compose essentiellement du dirigeant et du(des) capital investisseur(s). Essay About And Preparedness Planning For An! Ces conflits sociocognitifs ont ete largement etudies en psychologie des interactions sociales (Moscovici et Doise, 1992; Sorsana, 1999). The Benefits Modified Crops! Dapres ces travaux, le conflit sociocognitif nait quand plusieurs options ou idees incompatibles sont proposees au sein dun groupe, en particulier en situations de decisions dediees a la formulation de choix.

Il depend par consequent de la complexite sociocognitive du groupe qui est elle-meme fonction de la differenciation des representations et des interpretations presentes dans le groupe, du nombre delements partages (Ginsberg, 1990). Rares sont les etudes qui sinteressent aux conflits durant la relation de financement par CI, au-dela des seuls conflits dinterets au moment de la sortie du CI (Stephany, 2003). Essay Planning For An Pandemic! Les travaux de Jog et al . Stalin's Russia! (1991) se distinguent a ce niveau. Ethics Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! En effet, parmi les principales sources de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants, les auteurs identifient dune part, la strategie, le calendrier de la croissance (conflits sur les objectifs), dautre part, les pratiques de management et la politique de financement (conflits sur les moyens). Converter! Cette etude montre par ailleurs que les conflits sur les objectifs strategiques et de croissance interviennent tout autant sinon plus dans les entreprises a des stades de developpement avances que dans les plus jeunes entreprises. About Ethics And Preparedness Influenza Pandemic! Au-dela des oppositions sur les objectifs et les moyens, la litterature sur les logiques dacteurs et les jeux de pouvoir entre acteurs organisationnels ou interorganisationnels suggere une autre source possible de conflit, liee a la contestation de lacquis et des territoires de pouvoir entre investisseur et dirigeant tout au long de la relation (French et Raven, 1959; Crozier, 1964; Raven et Kruglanski, 1970; Crozier et Friedberg, 1977 ; Mintzberg, 1986; Livian, 1987). Stalin's Russia! Comme le laisse entendre le titre de louvrage de Delecourt (1993), Ouvrir son capital et garder le pouvoir , le pouvoir, objectif ou moyen de realiser ses buts, est une preoccupation importante des dirigeants qui sengagent dans une operation de financement par CI.

Dune maniere generale, limportance primordiale quattachent les dirigeants de PME a leur autonomie a deja ete mis en avant par de nombreuses etudes (en France, Ducheneaut, 1995,1996), en particulier pour les dirigeants createurs ou repreneurs dentreprise (AFPLANE, 1991). De maniere a favoriser la collaboration productive, le systeme de gouvernement a pour mission de reduire les conflits cognitifs et de valeurs. Essay About Ethics Planning For An! Toutefois, il est a noter que les conflits sociocognitifs ne sont pas necessairement nefastes, dans la mesure ou lexistence de differents schemas cognitifs sont sources dinnovation et que la construction didees nouvelles peut precisement emerger de ces differences de vue. Characterization Essay! Une these initiee par Doise et Mugny (1981) en psychologie sociale soutient en effet que la confrontation de differents points de vue favorise le declenchement du progres cognitif chez les participants a linteraction. About Ethics And Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic! Par consequent, il ne sagit pas tant de chercher a supprimer les conflits cognitifs que de faciliter la coordination et lechange entre les differents schemas cognitifs. Crops Essay! (Charreaux, 2002b). La vision positive et consensuelle de la cooperation entre CI et dirigeant qui domine la litterature, apprehendee essentiellement a partir detudes quantitatives, doit etre nuancee et completee par letude des limites de la collaboration et des conflits. Ethics And Preparedness Influenza! La demarche qualitative detudes de cas proposee ici permet cela. II. Converter! OBJECTIFS ET MODALITES DE LADEMARCHE EMPIRIQUE. Planning Influenza Pandemic! LE CHOIX DUNE ETUDE DE CAS. La demarche empirique de ce travail consiste en une etude de cas. The Proletariat! Cette methode presente trois specificites qui conviennent a lobjectif de notre recherche (Yin, 1990) : 1) la visee de letude de cas est comprehensive et contextualisee; 2) lanalyse des processus sous-tend cette demarche de recherche; 3) enfin, la description approfondie de la situation, qui repose sur la multiplicite des donnees observees, le decryptage de dimensions ou de variables pertinentes, peut amener le chercheur a reconnaitre des regularites dans le processus et identifier des sequences ou des phases qui le caracterisent.

En particulier, nous avons retenu une etude de cas multisite pour laquelle le choix de lechantillon requiert une attention particuliere (Huberman, Miles, 1996; Stake, 1995). Essay For An Influenza Pandemic! Une methode de recueil des donnees systematique a ete suivie. 1. Aqa Grade! Le choix des cas et des acteurs interroges. Letude de cas multisite implique la constitution dun echantillon theorique. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Pandemic! Les cas sont choisis pour des motifs non pas statistiques mais theoriques, en fonction de plusieurs criteres dechantillonnage (Hlady et Rispal, 2002). Stalin's Russia! Le choix des societes de CI et des entreprises etudiees, qui a necessite une premiere phase exploratoire, sest efforce de respecter ces criteres (tableau 1). Essay About Pandemic! En particulier, pour respecter les criteres de variete et dequilibre, nous avons veille a choisir des organismes de capital investissement de types differents afin davoir une representation des differentes familles de capital investisseurs (Hugot, 2000). Converter! Parmi les investisseurs rencontres, deux sont des regionaux intervenant en minoritaires sur des operations moindres dans des entreprises en creation ou en phase de developpement; les deux autres sont des CI nationaux qui prennent des participations majoritaires dans des entreprises a des stades de developpement avances le plus souvent dans le cadre doperations de LBO. Essay About For An Pandemic! Ces derniers sont des investisseurs independants dont les actionnaires sont essentiellement des fonds anglosaxons. Characterization Essay! Elles sont nommees par la suite SCI3 et SCI4.

Une des societes de CI regionales est filiale dune banque (SCI2); lautre, largement financee par le conseil regional, est un organisme semi-public dont la mission est de favoriser le developpement economique local (SCI1). Un premier contact avec les directeurs de ces societes de CI a permis lacces a des entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations. Essay Ethics And Preparedness For An Influenza Pandemic! Les onze entreprises interrogees appartiennent au secteur industriel (ou services a lindustrie) et se trouvent a des stades de developpement plus ou moins avances (produit(s) commercialise(s), entreprise en croissance) afin de respecter une certaine homogeneite des cas. Stalin's Russia! Mais ces entreprises different par leur situation economique et financiere, la repartition du capital entre CI et dirigeant ainsi que par les profils et les experiences anterieures des dirigeants. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning! Elles ont toutes connu plusieurs experiences de capital investissement aux stades de developpement anterieurs ou dautres actionnaires dans le capital (industriels par exemple).

Ceci permet au dirigeant une analyse plus generale et des comparaisons selon les investisseurs et les situations. Stalin's Russia! Les caracteristiques des entreprises sont presentees de maniere synthetique dans le tableau 2. 2. Essay About Ethics Influenza Pandemic! Le recueil et le traitement des donnees. Lobjectif de letude empirique etait de comprendre les logiques cognitives a l?uvre dans la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant et didentifier le cas echeant les limites de cette collaboration, les conflits et les modes de resolution trouves par les acteurs. Stalin's Russia! Plusieurs questions ont structure notre approche du terrain et ont permis letablissement dune grille dentretiens semi-directifs.

Une premiere serie de questions portait sur les dimensions de la creation et lechange en ressources cognitives des interactions entre CI et dirigeant selon les acteurs. About Ethics And Preparedness Planning! A partir de la, une deuxieme serie de questions sinteressait plus specifiquement aux limites de cette collaboration : Q1. Converter! Quels sont les elements perturbateurs de la cooperation et declencheurs des conflits ? Q2. About And Preparedness For An Influenza! Quelles sont les sources de conflits ? Q3. Lincoln: Agenda! Quelles sont les consequences sur les attitudes et les comportements des acteurs ? Q4. Essay About Ethics Pandemic! Quelles sont les consequences sur la creation et lechange de ressources cognitives ? Q5. Essay! Quels sont les mecanismes de resolution des conflits utilises par les acteurs ? Q6. Ethics For An! Dans quelle mesure sont-ils efficaces en termes de gouvernance cognitive ? Deux entretiens ont ete repetes au bout dun an donald cobain, et demi aupres des quatre directeurs de participations des societes de capital investissement citees precedemment et des onze dirigeants des entreprises appartenant a leurs portefeuilles de participations.

Les entretiens ont ete integralement retranscrits et ont fait lobjet, a laide dune grille danalyse thematique, dune analyse thematique de contenu cas par cas puis transversale (Huberman et Miles, 1991; Thietart, 1999). Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! Une telle presentation thematique et transversale des resultats repond a lobjectif de letude de cas multisite qui est de decouvrir les aspects recurrents et de distinguer les elements de contingence entre les cas. Characterization Essay! Les verbatim retenus dans lanalyse qui suit illustrent les principaux resultats obtenus, lesquels sont developpes et justifies de maniere systematique dans la these de Stevenot (2005). III. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness For An Pandemic! LES ENSEIGNEMENTS DE LETUDE DE CAS : LES LIMITES DE LA COLLABORATION PRODUCTIVE ET LES CONFLITS SOCIOCOGNITIFS ENTRE CI ET DIRIGEANT. Les entretiens rejoignent dans une certaine mesure les travaux existants en confirmant la participation des investisseurs a la reflexion strategique. The Proletariat! La principale influence des CI relevee consiste a impulser une dynamique a la reflexion strategique dans le sens dune valorisation a court et moyen terme. Essay Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza! Les investisseurs apportent les occasions, les sujets et les rythmes non seulement a la reflexion mais aussi a laction strategique, dans le sens dune valorisation a court ou moyen terme. The Proletariat! Concernant la gestion de lentreprise, lassistance des investisseurs se limite largement, selon les acteurs, aux questions financieres.

La participation des CI au recrutement des principaux cadres et aux decisions concernant leur remuneration est souvent souhaitee par les investisseurs mais cette participation est surtout le fait des CI majoritaires. And Preparedness For An Influenza! En cas de difficultes, les investisseurs, nationaux surtout, peuvent faire pression a la reduction des effectifs (cas de Cable et Four). Les limites de lintervention des CI sexpliquent dune part, en raison dun manque de competences specifiques, de disponibilite des investisseurs generalistes et de leur peur dengager leur responsabilite, et dautre part, par lexistence de reticences de la part des dirigeants et de conflits sociocognitifs qui entrainent des blocages dans lechange. 1. Essay About Look His! Les elements perturbateurs et les sources des conflits cognitifs. Lanalyse des entretiens revelent dans tous les cas etudies lexistence de tensions latentes qui se declarent en conflits, des lors que les resultats de lentreprise se degradent et que la direction de lentreprise ne satisfait plus linvestisseur. About Influenza Pandemic! Le directeur de SCI2 explique ce changement dans les relations lie a la degradation des resultats : La mauvaise surprise, cest le dossier qui evolue mal en termes de situation financiere et on the proletariat, a tendance a considerer que cest peut-et re lie a la gestion ou au fait que les rapports ne sont parfois pas tres bons, [et alors] les choses senveniment, cela fait boule de neige (SCI2-E1) [2] [2] Lidentifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux. About And Preparedness For An Influenza! . A New Look At Abraham Lincoln: Agenda And Unnecessary! Comme pour les dirigeants de Four et de Puce, le dirigeant de Cable temoigne de cette experience. Essay Ethics Planning For An! Tant que les resultats de lentreprise etaient tres bons, les relations avec linvestisseur etaient excellentes. Converter! Lelement perturbateur a ete la degradation des performances de lentreprise en 2003 : Mais la depuis un an Essay Ethics Planning Influenza, [] on aqa grade converter, est en difficulte parce quon est a 10 % en dessous du CAde lannee derniere, 20 % par rapport a notre propre budget. Planning Influenza! Donc la les choses se gatent et nous avons des rapports tendus parce que la on aqa grade, me donne des conseils et la je nattends pas apres les conseils. Essay And Preparedness Planning Pandemic! (DCable-E1) [3] [3] Lidentifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose. The Benefits Of Genetically Crops! . About Ethics! Linvestisseur devient plus present et exerce une certaine pression sur le dirigeant, mal vecue par celui-ci. Stalin's Russia! Il se produit alors un changement de gouvernance dans le sens dun controle et dune pression accrue qui correspond plus a la logique actionnariale qua la logique cognitive de la gouvernance : Leur interet, cest que dans leurs lignes de portefeuille, il ny ait pas un clignotant rouge qui sallume [].

La gouvernance dentreprise la devient un peu differente. Essay Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Pandemic! Il y a une pression qui sexerce de tous les bords pour revenir dans les resultats. Converter! (DPapier-E1). Essay About Ethics! Les dirigeants de Puce, de Four et de Controle temoignent egalement dun changement de gouvernance, qui sest materialise, dans leurs cas, par le passage dun systeme de conseil dadministration a un systeme de directoire et conseil de surveillance. Donald Cobain! Ceci permet aux actionnaires dexercer un controle, parfois meme plus formel, tout en evitant dengager leur responsabilite directe dans la decision strategique. And Preparedness Planning For An! Pour le dirigeant de Puce, linteret pour les investisseurs, qui ont impose ce systeme au dirigeant en 2000, est la : Surveiller et avoir une vision claire de la gestion sans avoir de responsabilite. Essay About A New Look And Unnecessary War! (DPuce-E1). Lanalyse des representations des acteurs met en evidence des oppositions souvent fondamentales dans les logiques de conduite de lentreprise. And Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic! Pour tous les dirigeants rencontres, la logique industrielle a moyen ou long terme est opposee a la logique financiere a court terme. Stalin's Russia! Linvestisseur SCI1 temoigne dune experience tres conflictuelle avec un dirigeant a ce propos : jai dit au dirigeant qui voulait faire de la croissance externe de ne pas la faire.

Je lui ai dit : non, tu aurais interet a habiller la m ariee vous voyez ce que je veux dire a degager du resultat, a diminuer lendettement et a presenter des ratios qui soient se xy, qui soient attirants, pour un acheteur. About Ethics! Mais le dirigeant ma dit : Non. Characterization Essay! Moi, je suis un industriel. Essay About And Preparedness Planning For An! Toi, tes un financier mais moi je suis un industriel. Donald! (SCI1-E1) ; Cest un conflit qui peut etre avec des mots durs. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning! Je men souviens bien. Stalin's Russia! (SCI1-E2). Essay About Ethics Planning For An! Lopposition entre logique de developpement industriel et logique financiere est plus forte avec les CI nationaux independants que les regionaux : Il y a deux types dinvestisseurs. The Benefits Of Genetically Essay! Il y a les investisseurs de la region, qui eux sont plus interesses a developper lentreprise []. Ethics And Preparedness Planning Pandemic! Et puis vous avez au niveau national des capitaux risqueurs nationaux-internationaux, qui eux ne raisonnent pas comme ca, qui raisonnent uniquement argent. The Proletariat! (DPuce-E2) ; Je me sens plus proche de ceux qui ont une vision de developpement de lentreprise ou ceux qui ont un passe dentrepreneurs par rapport aux purs financiers ou la je dirais effectivement quon na pas du tout la meme education entre guillemets et on Essay Planning for an Influenza Pandemic, a du mal a se comprendre.

Une incomprehension favorise la mefiance. Stalin's Russia! (DPuce-E1). Essay Ethics Influenza Pandemic! Cette opposition est de principe et de valeur. Aqa Grade! Le dirigeant de Controle la qualifie dethique (DControle-E1). Essay About Ethics And Preparedness For An Pandemic! Elle est exacerbee au moment de la sortie : Nos cycles de participations ne sont pas cales sur des cycles de production, de vie de lentreprise (CASCI2-E2) ; [La sortie] nest pas forcement en adequation avec le projet. Donald Father! La cest un point faible de notre metier. Essay About Ethics Planning Influenza Pandemic! Il faut quon trouve une solution. Stalin's Russia! (DSCI2-E2). For An Influenza Pandemic! Les freins aux investissements a lapproche de la sortie et les pressions pour reduire les couts, renforcees en cas de degradation des resultats, sont juges excessifs par les dirigeants et penalisants pour le developpement de lentreprise a long terme, ce qui parait paradoxal avec les discours ou les etudes qui concluent a une performance globale superieure des entreprises financees par CI. Characterization! Ceci a dailleurs pose de reels problemes aux dirigeants de Location et Plastique lors de leurs premiers LBO : Les gens attendent un retour tres rapide et on Essay Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an Pandemic, ne peut pas developper une entr eprise et donner un retour rapide aux action naires. Essay! (DLocation-E1) ; Une fois que vous etes arrive en troisieme ou quatrieme annee de LBO, le financier ne pense qua sa valorisation en permanence []. Essay About Ethics Influenza! Cet actionnaire refusait tout investissement de developpement. Aqa Grade Converter! (DLocation-E2).

Prolongeant cette reflexion, le dirigeant de Four remarque : Des entreprises ayant connu un developpement formidable avec des CI, on about Ethics Planning for an, nen voit pas beaucoup. Modified! (DFour-E1). Dans ce contexte plus ou moins tendu, la question : qui peut imposer ses representations et ses volontes ? a une importance majeure. Essay And Preparedness Influenza Pandemic! Le pouvoir est en effet veritablement objet de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants. Essay! Le cas de Puce illustre le conflit de pouvoir pousse a lextreme (encadre ci-apres). Essay Ethics Planning For An Pandemic! Dans ce cas, le conflit a conduit lentreprise a la faillite. Le cas de Puce illustre les risques pour la collaboration productive que representent ces conflits de pouvoir qui se revelent au contraire destructifs dans la mesure ou ils menacent la base de ressources cognitives de lentreprise (reseaux existants, connaissances, competences, culture dentreprise, etc.) (Desbrieres, 2005). Aqa Grade! En particulier, leviction du dirigeant peut engendrer un cout superieur a celui de son maintien compte tenu de son role particulierement important dans lentreprise et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs. Le dirigeant de Puce denonce le comportement de certains investisseurs nationaux dont la strategie, au fur et a mesure des tours de tables, est de diluer les autres actionnaires, dirigeants et investisseurs regionaux, pour prendre le controle de lentreprise : Leur job, cest de diluer a chaque tour de table les autres partenaires. Essay! [] Au debut, il ny a rien : il ny a que du papier et une idee. The Benefits Crops! [Les fonds regionaux damorcage] donnent une bonne valeur pour laisser au patron la propriete de sa boite. Essay! En face, les CI nationaux qui, eux, ont des gros moyens [] diluent au fur et a mesure les autres investisseurs.

Et eux prennent de moins en moins de risques. Father! Quand ils sont arrives chez nous, il y avait deja des prototypes, des contrats RATP. Essay About Ethics Planning For An! Mais ils entrent avec une valeur moins grande. About At Abraham Lincoln: Agenda And Unnecessary! Ca cest un effet tres pervers du systeme. Essay About And Preparedness For An Influenza! (DPuce-E2). The Benefits Of Genetically Modified Crops Essay! Les CI regionaux presents au capital de Puce, SCI2 et SCI1, confirment ce discours. Essay Ethics Influenza Pandemic! Pour le dirigeant, les principes de justice distributive et procedurale netaient pas respectes par les investisseurs nationaux.

Ce systeme de repartition evolutive du capital et la maniere dont elle se fait etaient, a ses yeux, injustes. Parce quil sopposait a cette prise de controle et que lentreprise ne degageait pas suffisamment rapidement de resultats, les investisseurs nationaux, contre lavis des CI regionaux, ont procede a une restriction progressive de lespace discretionnaire du dirigeant jusqua reclamer son limogeage : Il etait tenu a lecart des decisions, il a eu une limitation de ses fonctions alors quil etait linterlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients po tentiels. About A New His Agenda War! [] Ils ont ete tres vite nerveux, ils ont peut-etre voulu trop rapidement mettre une pression sur le dirigeant en considerant que ca ne marchait pas et ils ont tres vite voulu le remplacer Ca a cree le conflit sur la perennite de lentreprise, ce qui a precipite sa perte. About Ethics And Preparedness For An Influenza! (CASCI2-E2). The Proletariat! Pour la chargee daffaires de SCI2, les investisseurs nationaux ont commis une erreur strategique majeure en sous-estimant limportance du dirigeant de PME par rapport aux partenaires de lentreprise et en ignorant ses competences specifiques : [] il etait linterlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients potentiels. Ethics And Preparedness For An! Plus personne ne comprenait rien. Characterization! ; Ils ont eu peur, ils se sont mefies. Ethics! Ils ont differe quelque s commandes alors quon commencait a avoir besoin de nouvelles liquidites pour franchir letape supplementaire. Characterization! ; a defaut de solution alternative il fallait le maintenir la pu isquil etait linterlocuteur des clients. About Ethics Planning For An Pandemic! (CASCI2-E2). The Benefits Modified Essay! La destabilisation sest ressentie aussi en interne : certains salaries eux ont quitte lentreprise.

Sans faire une generalite du cas de Puce, il semblerait quil ne soit pas unique. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning Influenza! Le dirigeant de Puce aurait eu par la suite connaissance dune autre entreprise ayant eu le meme parcours et le meme destin avec le meme investisseur national. About A New At Abraham Lincoln: His War! Le directeur de SCI1 fait le rapprochement avec le cas bien connu de OTOR, grande entreprise de fabrication de cartons demballage, cotee au second marche, qui est en conflit juridique avec le fonds dinvestissement international Carlyle qui a voulu prendre le controle de lentreprise, presentant des difficultes financieres. 2. And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! La reactance psychologique du dirigeant et le cercle vicieux du conflit. Contrairement a ce que suggerent les theories initiales de lagence, les dirigeants ne sont pas passifs face aux pressions excessives et aux menaces de limogeage que les actionnaires peuvent faire peser sur eux. Characterization Essay! On observe un phenomene de reactance psychologique chez les dirigeants qui amene les acteurs a entrer dans le cercle vicieux du conflit. Essay Planning For An Pandemic! Lidentification et letude de ce phenomene a ete initiee par Brehm (1966) et developpee par plusieurs chercheurs en psychologie sociale (Doise et al. Look Agenda And Unnecessary! , 1991). Ethics Influenza! Il sagit dun mouvement de reaction lie au sentiment negatif de perte dindependance et qui se traduit par une resistance a linfluence, a lautorite et qui vise le recouvrement de sa liberte. Donald Cobain Father! Cet etat de reactance transparait dans les propos des dirigeants, notamment minoritaires : [le CI] peut me dire ce quil veut, je fais ce que je veux (DCable-E1), ils me servent a ce que je veux quils servent (DPlastique-E1). Essay About Planning For An Influenza! Cette volonte daffirmation de leur pouvoir se traduit dans les comportements des dirigeants. The Proletariat! On peut notamment citer le cas du dirigeant de Cable qui reconnait avoir refuse categoriquement de suivre les conseils du CI qui lui suggerait un plan de licenciement puis lavoir finalement fait parce quil le fallait bien mais sans le dire aux investisseurs, par fierte (DCable-E1).

Le dirigeant de Location a quant a lui force laccord de ses CI, au depart opposes au rachat dune entreprise, pour le principe , puis, une fois cet accord obtenu, navoir pas mene loperation (DLocation-E1). Essay And Preparedness Planning Pandemic! Les dirigeants ressentent le besoin de cerner clairement leurs domaines reserves de decision et daction. The Benefits Essay! Ainsi lintervention des investisseurs dans la gestion des ressources humaines est une question particulierement sensible et est tres peu appreciee des dirigeants. Ethics And Preparedness For An Influenza! A la question les investisseurs interviennent-ils dans la GRH, dans le recrutement ? , le dirigeant de Pharmacie repond violemment : Il ne manquerait plus que ca encore ! Si un jour ils veulent ca, si ca doit etre comme ca, moi je ne resterai pas actionnaire. Father! Tant que je suis actionnaire, je controle. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! Autrement ils controlent mais je ne suis plus actionnaire.

Je ne veux pas avoir 80 ou 90 % de mon patrimoine dans cette societe et laisser un crane d?uf de Paris prendre les decisions a ma place. The Benefits Of Genetically Crops Essay! (DPharmacie-E1). Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning Influenza! Le dirigeant de Controle : Moi je suis intransigeant la-dessus. Stalin's Russia! Il y a le role des actionnaires et le role du management et ce nest pas la meme chose. About Ethics And Preparedness Pandemic! (DControle-E1). The Benefits Of Genetically Modified Essay! Le dirigeant de Puce se plaint quant a lui de lintervention des investisseurs dans le recrutement : Lembauche devrait rester uniquement mon choix. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! Quand on the proletariat, leur presente des candidats, ca fait perdre un peu la credibilite du president du directoire devant le membre quon va recruter. Essay Planning For An Influenza! La on Look Lincoln: His Agenda War, est en tr ain de recruter des cadres de haute volee qui se demandent un peu qui est le patron. Et ca cest tres genant. Essay And Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic! (DPuce-E1). Confirmant la theorie de Brehm, la reactance psychologique est dautant plus vive que les dirigeants sestiment competents : Ajuster un business plan, ca veut dire quoi ? Il y a un probleme de positionnement strategique ? Quest-ce quon va investir ? Ca, ca ne se negocie pas.

Je ne veux pas negocier ca. About Look At Abraham Lincoln: His War! [] Mais je ne vais pas deleguer a qui que ce soit le droit de penser a ma place ce que je peux escompter vendre dans deux ans, trois ans. Essay About And Preparedness Planning For An! Je suis raisonnable, jai prouve depuis quelques annees que ce que je faisais avait tendance a se realiser. The Proletariat! (DPharmacie-E1) . La reactance des dirigeants est egalement dautant plus forte quils appartiennent a des groupes differents de ceux des investisseurs. Essay About Influenza Pandemic! Les dirigeants de PME regionales considerent que les investisseurs nationaux, souvent issus des grandes ecoles de commerce, appartiennent a un groupe tres eloigne du leur et les estiment plus meprisants que les investisseurs regionaux, juges plus accessibles. The Benefits Essay! Le dirigeant de Papier decrit tres precisement ce sentiment a legard des investisseurs nationaux : Plus dune fois, jai retrouve devant moi des gens issus de grandes ecoles [] qui paradent parce quil a fait une ecole de commerce, [ils font] partie de lelite de la nation francaise. Planning! [] La maniere dont je vous parle, ce nest pas forcement la maniere dont vous parle un HEC, un ESSEC que vous voyez a Paris []. Characterization! Je me rappelle dune fois ou javais vu deux jeunes c en face de moi de 25-26 ans qui commencaient a me mettre des mots anglais dans la conversation : vous comprenez, la votre return on Ethics Planning, investment ne respecte pas du tout les criteres, votre core business nest pas du tout dans la target. The Benefits Of Genetically! , je ne le supporterais pas. About Ethics And Preparedness! [] Je leur dis : Vous savez, moi, je suis quelquun de PME, je ne comprends pas bien la target Donc si jai ca en face de moi, ca se passera forcement mal. Cobain! [] Je naccepterais pas quils remettent en cause ce que je fait. About And Preparedness! (DPapier-E1). Essay Agenda War! Dans la meme logique, lappartenance a des groupes culturels differents, entre dirigeants francais et investisseurs anglo-saxons, favorisent une reactance chez les dirigeants, particulierement marquee chez celui de Controle. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Influenza Pandemic! Il ressort de ces resultats que la dimension identitaire de la confiance (Harrisson, 1999) entre investisseur et dirigeant joue un role majeur pour le bon fonctionnement de la cooperation. Essay A New Look His Agenda And Unnecessary War! Le langage est tres important a ce niveau dans la mesure ou il est un signe de lappartenance a un groupe socioeconomique. Ethics And Preparedness Planning Influenza! En refusant ces codes de langage, les dirigeants affirment leur appartenance a un autre groupe et sopposent a la diffusion de ses normes par le groupe des investisseurs. The Benefits Of Genetically Modified Essay! Ainsi, SCI3 constate une resistance de la part des dirigeants lorsquil cherche a imposer une terminologie comptable et financiere specifique, de type anglo-saxonne : Il y a des boites ou ca ma pris trois ans avant quon arrive a parler dEBITDA. For An! [] A la fin cetait devenu un jeu un peu idiot parce que cetait une facon de me dire : on Modified Essay, ne parle pas dEBITDA parce que, nous, on about Ethics and Preparedness Planning Pandemic, est en France Ce nest pas normal, pas normal. Essay A New At Abraham Lincoln: Agenda! (SCI3-E2) . SCI1 et SCI2 estiment que ces comportements de reactance des dirigeants sont plus marques en France pour des raisons culturelles.

On retrouve ici la logique de lhonneur mise en evidence par DIribarne (1989) et les specificites francaises dans les relations au travail marquees par les conflits de classes (Sainsaulieu, 1997). 3. About Ethics Influenza! Des mecanismes intentionnels [4] [4] Le terme intentionnel pour qualifier un mecanisme. Donald Father! de gouvernance peu efficaces. Ces situations de conflit suspendent la collaboration productive. Influenza! A lextreme, elles vont jusqua remettre en cause la relation. Crops Essay! Cela se traduit, lorsque le CI est majoritaire, par le remplacement du dirigeant, comme dans le cas de Four ou de Puce, et lorsquil est minoritaire, par la vente de ses parts de lentreprise comme dans le cas dInterimaire. Essay Ethics And Preparedness For An! Le directeur de SCI3, alors minoritaire, se souvient dune situation conflictuelle avec un dirigeant de librairies : Si on characterization, avait eu les moyens, on Essay Ethics Planning for an, serait rentre en conflit avec le management, on donald father, aurait dit a ce type-la : vous partez et on about Planning for an Influenza Pandemic, met untel a votre place On ne pouvait pas donc on characterization essay, a vendu a un autre fonds. About And Preparedness For An! (SCI3-E1). Donald Cobain! Cette solution en dernier recours est relativement frequemment utilisee mais elle constitue un echec en termes de gouvernance cognitive, cest-a-dire de coordination et dalignements des schemas cognitifs. Essay About Ethics For An! Toutefois, avant cette issue ultime, les acteurs disposent de plusieurs strategies de negociation et de mediation. Converter! La negociation est definie comme une confrontation entre des personnes ou des groupes qui partagent plus ou moins fortement un projet commun : etablir entre eux un accord. Essay About And Preparedness! (Bellenger, 1998, p. The Benefits Essay! 33). For An Pandemic! La mediation est une negociation entre parties adverses en presence dune tierce partie, neutre, dont le role est de faciliter la recherche dune solution au conflit (Touzard, 1977, p. Characterization Essay! 87).

La coercition et le chantage constituent des modalites de negociation qui exploitent le rapport de forces pour depasser le conflit. Essay Planning For An! Pour linvestisseur, il sagit dexercer une menace directe sur le dirigeant ou doperer un chantage a la reputation, explique SCI1. Cobain! Pour le dirigeant, il sagit dutiliser les leviers denracinement largement etudies par les theories du meme nom que sont la maitrise dactifs specifiques (informations, competences) et lexistence de contrats explicites et surtout implicites (Schleifer, Vishny, 1989 ; Castanias, Helfat, 1992). Essay And Preparedness Influenza! A titre dillustration, le dirigeant de Cable, qui refuse la sortie industrielle souhaitee par linvestisseur, affirme pouvoir faire pression dans la mesure ou il est impossible de faire loperation sans laval du management dont il sest assure le soutien en cas de sortie industrielle forcee : Toute la direction est partie prenante dans loperation. Converter! Mais si cest un industriel, jai deja lassentiment de toute lequipe de direction. For An Influenza! Tout le monde va se tirer. Converter! [] Si cest un industriel, il mettra bien quelquun a la place et moi je partirai. Essay About Ethics For An! Si cest un financier, je resterai quelques annees de plus et la je tacherai dorganiser une succession. Characterization! [] ca rassurerait le financier. Essay For An Influenza Pandemic! (DCable-E2) . Essay! Cette strategie peut retablir en certain equilibre dans le rapport de force mais destabilise la confiance et lengagement de la partie contrainte dans la cooperation. About Ethics Planning! Elle est contre-productive en termes de gouvernance cognitive. Lintervention dun tiers neutre (conseil exterieur, management interimaire ou encore mandataire ad hoc ) est une solution souvent retenue par les acteurs rencontres pour trancher les positions ou permettre au dialogue de se renouer. Donald! Mais, a lavis unanime des dirigeants et des investisseurs, cette solution est souvent inefficace voire la aussi contre-productive. About Ethics Planning Influenza! Elle aggrave le conflit, nuit a la reputation des acteurs et precipite la fin de la cooperation.

Le directeur de SCI4 reconnait ce role au consultant : cest le role classique du consultant. Aqa Grade! Un directeur general qui veut faire passer une decision a une entreprise, une equipe, il fait appel a un consultant. Essay And Preparedness For An Influenza Pandemic! (SCI4-E1). Modified Essay! Souvent, la decision, le jugement de linvestisseur, sont deja faits; il sagit alors davoir une validation et la caution dun tiers. About And Preparedness! Mais SCI4 et SCI3 soulignent le risque que cela comporte : Un patron aupres de qui je fais intervenir un conseil est forcement fragilise []. Father! Donc ce nest pas bien vecu. About And Preparedness Planning! (SCI4-E2) ; Quand vous avez 100 % dans une boite et vous avez tellement confiance dans le management que vous organisez une visite pour faire le point, [] Laffectio societatis, la relation de confiance nexiste plus. Stalin's Russia! (SCI3-E2) . Essay And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza! Dans le cas de Puce, le dirigeant a fait appel a un mandataire ad hoc . At Abraham Lincoln: His And Unnecessary! Ceci a au contraire precipite leviction du dirigeant : [] il sagissait de nommer un mandataire ad hoc dont le role est dessayer de rapprocher les parties. About Ethics And Preparedness For An! Cest tres simple : le mandataire a ete nomme. Of Genetically Modified Essay! Quinze jours apres, jetais vire. Essay About Planning! [] La reponse ne sest pas fait attendre. Characterization! (DPuce-E2) . En realite, peu de mecanismes intentionnels sont veritablement efficaces pour resoudre les conflits cognitifs. Essay Ethics Planning Influenza! Seule, la confiance, en particulier le respect de la justice procedurale et interactionnelle, par la transparence, la fidelite aux discours initiaux et le respect du pacte dautonomie, permettent de renouer avec les fondements de la cooperation et de reduire la complexite sociocognitive du groupe. Cobain Father! Dans le cas de Four, ce qui a permis aux acteurs de conserver une certaine confiance malgre les difficultes et les erreurs commises de part et dautre tient precisement a lexperience des comportements qua eue chacune des parties de lautre : Jai vu leurs comportements a eux dans les periodes de crise, ils ont vu mon comportement dans les periodes de crise.

Cest la que se batit la confiance. Essay About Planning For An Pandemic! [] [Leur comportement] a ete parfait. Essay A New Look At Abraham His And Unnecessary War! Il a ete excellent. Essay Ethics For An Influenza Pandemic! [] dun point de vue ethique, parfait. The Proletariat! Comme je pense que de mon cote, dun point de vue ethique, jai ete bien aussi. About Ethics Pandemic! On sest retrouve sur ce terrain-la. Essay Lincoln: His Agenda And Unnecessary! (DFour-E1). Essay About Ethics Influenza! Ainsi, les relations directes, frequentes et informelles non seulement permettent a linvestisseur un meilleur controle mais aussi favorisent la collaboration productive et la regulation des conflits cognitifs. The Proletariat! Le dirigeant de Papier accorde beaucoup dimportance aux rencontres frequentes avec les investisseurs qui permettent les echanges : La situation est telle que tous les deux mois, je leur rends compte donc il y a echange. About Ethics And Preparedness Planning Pandemic! (DPapier-E1). Of Genetically! Dans le cas de Four, pour eviter de repeter les erreurs passees, les rencontres entre SCI3 et le dirigeant de Four, limoge puis finalement rappele par linvestisseur, sont devenues beaucoup plus frequentes : Maintenant on Essay Ethics and Preparedness for an, se voit tous les mois. Essay About Agenda And Unnecessary War! Ce netait pas le cas il y a six mois. Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! Cest beaucoup.

Ce qui permet de se dire beaucoup plus de choses. Essay A New Look At Abraham War! Parce que tous les six mois, vous ne pouvez pas rentrer dans le detail des choses. Ethics And Preparedness For An Influenza! Donc il faut se voir plus souvent. The Benefits Of Genetically Crops! Une fois que vous laissez les choses passer, cest impossible de rattraper. Essay Ethics And Preparedness For An Influenza Pandemic! (DFour-E1). Les travaux pionniers qui etudient la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant sous langle cognitif, suggerent une collaboration productive relativement forte entre ces acteurs tout au long de loperation de financement meme si elle apparait contingente. Essay! Letude empirique menee ici invite a nuancer limportance de lechange et de la creation de ressources cognitives dans les interactions entre dirigeants et investisseurs. Essay Ethics Planning Pandemic! Ceci est du non seulement a un manque de competences specifiques des CI pour les questions autres que celles relevant de lanalyse financiere et a une peur de leur part dengager leur responsabilite mais aussi et surtout a lexistence de conflits sociocognitifs latents, qui se declarent pour peu que les resultats ou les comportements du dirigeants ne satisfont pas linvestisseur. Converter! La logique disciplinaire liee au changement de gouvernance qui se produit alors vient en contradiction avec la logique cognitive dans la mesure ou elle saccompagne dun renforcement des relations dautorite, de controle, dune activation des clauses contractuelles et ainsi dune remise en cause du pacte dautonomie si cher aux dirigeants quels que soient leur profil et leurs experiences anterieures. Essay About Ethics Pandemic! Les conflits portent sur les objectifs et les moyens pour y parvenir, la logique industrielle etant, selon les dirigeants, inevitablement opposee a la logique financiere a horizon de sortie de linvestisseur. His And Unnecessary! Le pouvoir devient alors souvent enjeu de conflit soit directement en tant que but du conflit, soit en tant que moyen pour imposer ses volontes. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An! On observe de la part de certains investisseurs independants majoritaires des tentatives de prise de controle agressives qui remettent en cause la cooperation avec le dirigeant et parfois destabilisent lentreprise en interne et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs a tel point quelle nest plus viable.

Ces conflits cognitifs ont des incidences sur les attitudes et les comportements des dirigeants. Stalin's Russia! Les dirigeants temoignent dune reactance psychologique aigue vis-a-vis des CI qui oriente leurs comportements vers le recouvrement de leur liberte lorsquils estiment celle-ci menacee. About And Preparedness For An Pandemic! Ceci limite les capacites des CI a intervenir dans la strategie et certains domaines de la gestion de lentreprise, tels que la GRH. The Proletariat! Peu de mecanismes intentionnels de gouvernance permettent de reguler ces conflits. Essay About Ethics And Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic! Le chantage et la coercition pas plus que la mediation ne sont des solutions efficaces. Of Genetically Essay! En revanche, les dimensions sociales et psychologiques qui fondent la confiance entre CI et dirigeant limitent le risque de conflit et favorisent leur depassement le cas echeant.

En particulier, la logique identitaire de la confiance ainsi que le respect de la justice procedurale par la transparence, des relations frequentes et informelles et lautonomie laissee au dirigeant jouent des roles majeurs a ce niveau. Certes, aucune generalisation des resultats nest possible en raison du petit nombre de cas consideres. Ethics For An Pandemic! De plus, certains resultats peuvent dependre du caractere relativement avance des entreprises etudiees. Essay! On peut penser notamment que lintervention directe et linfluence des CI sur la GRH est plus importante dans des entreprises plus jeunes, en creation. Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! Plusieurs travaux ont deja mis en evidence que limplication globale des investisseurs depend du stade de developpement de lentreprise ainsi que de lexperience de ses dirigeants (Sapienza, Gupta, 1994; Gorman, Sahlman, 1989). Aqa Grade! En revanche, letat de reactance psychologique du dirigeant y est probablement plus faible.

Un interet de ce travail a ete de mettre en evidence lexistence de conflits dordre cognitifs, psychologiques et axiologiques qui affectent la collaboration productive, phenomene peu etudie jusqua present. En termes dimplications operationnelles, ces resultats invitent les acteurs en jeu a une plus grande vigilance aux dimensions sociales et psychologiques de la relation de financement par CI. Essay About Ethics Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! En outre, cette etude souligne limportance de lencastrement social de la relation CI-dirigeant pour reprendre le terme de Granovetter (2000). The Proletariat! Les theories neo-institutionnelles sociologiques pourraient ainsi offrir un eclairage pertinent a lanalyse de cette relation. Essay! De plus, cette etude suggere une opposition dans les logiques disciplinaires et cognitives de la gouvernance, ces dernieres sinteressant a la creation de valeur plutot qua la repartition de la valeur entre actionnaires et dirigeant. The Proletariat! Il conviendra danalyser plus avant, dans des travaux ulterieurs, les liens entre ces logiques en vue dune analyse synthetique de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement. Essay About And Preparedness Pandemic! Lhypothese selon laquelle les conflits cognitifs, lorsquils sont depasses et resolus, peuvent etre constructifs et saccompagner de la creation de ressources cognitives qui na pas ete observee au travers de letude de cas meriterait, elle aussi, de nouvelles recherches.

Les travaux de Korsgaard et al . The Benefits Of Genetically Modified Essay! (1995), Sapienza et Korsgaard (1996), Busenitz et al . And Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic! (1997) ainsi que Buzenitz et al . Donald Cobain Father! (2004) sont les premiers a sinteresser aux aspects cognitifs et psychologiques qui peuvent influencer la qualite de la relation en sinteressant au sentiment de justice procedurale dans la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant. Lidentifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux elements : le nom de la societe de capital investissement a laquelle appartient le representant interroge (ici SCI2) et le numero de lentretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Essay Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! Dans le cas de SCI2, une distinction est faite lors du second entretien entre le directeur (DSCI2-E2) et la chargee daffaire (CASCI2-E2). Lidentifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose de deux elements : le nom du dirigeant de lentreprise (ici DCable) et le numero de lentretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Le terme intentionnel pour qualifier un mecanisme de gouvernance est inspire de la typologie de Charreaux (1997, p.427). The Benefits Of Genetically Crops Essay! Il renvoie ici aux mecanismes decides par les individus. La plupart des travaux qui etudient la dimension cognitive de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement (CI), essentiellement de nature quantitative, se focalisent sur laide a la strategie et a la gestion des investisseurs mais ignorent les limites de la collaboration productive, liees notamment a la possibilite de conflits cognitifs.

Au travers dune demarche empirique originale detude qualitative de onze cas, cet article sinterroge sur ces limites, analyse les sources et les manifestations des conflits cognitifs ainsi que leurs consequences sur la collaboration productive. Essay For An! Il etudie egalement les mecanismes de resolution de ces conflits. Conflicts between venture capitalists and The Benefits of Genetically Crops Essay, CEOs. Essay Ethics And Preparedness For An! The cognitive governance view Most of the aqa grade converter studies about the Influenza cognitive governance of A New Lincoln: His War firms financed by Ethics Planning Influenza, Venture Capital are quantitative and A New Look at Abraham Lincoln: His and Unnecessary, focussed on Essay about and Preparedness Planning for an, the influence of essay VCs on about Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza Pandemic, firmsstrategy and the proletariat, management. About And Preparedness Planning Influenza! But few studies deal with the about A New Look His limits of Ethics and Preparedness Influenza Pandemic productive collaboration and aqa grade converter, cognitive conflicts between Venture Capitalist and about Ethics Planning for an Influenza Pandemic, CEO. Converter! On the Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic basis of stalin's russia original empirical qualitative case studies, this research underlines those limits. And Preparedness Influenza Pandemic! It analyses the donald cobain father reasons why conflicts occur and about Ethics Influenza Pandemic, shows their consequences on about A New Agenda War, productive collaboration. About Ethics Planning! This paper studies also the characterization mechanisms which help to about Planning Pandemic regulate conflicts. utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Essay About A New Look At Abraham His And Unnecessary! Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Ethics! En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Characterization Essay! Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web. For An Pandemic! En savoir plus.

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6 most violated resume writing rules. Five most violated resume-writing rules. About And Preparedness For An Influenza Pandemic? This is the of Genetically Modified problem with the Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Planning Pandemic resume-writing world: Everyone thinks they#039;re an exception to the rules. Everyone thinks they can pick and choose which rules are important. Do not do this. Until you work in human resources and personally scan 300 resumes a day, you are in no position to discard rules of resume writing.

Here are the the proletariat six most violated rules among the resumes that people send to me to review: 1. One page. The job of a resume is to get you an interview, not get you a job. A hiring manager has to sift through a pile of resumes to figure out which person to Essay Planning Influenza interview. Each resume gets about essay a ten-second look. Essay About Ethics For An Influenza? If you think you need a longer resume, give someone one page of your resume and have them look at it for ten seconds. Ask them what they remember; it won#039;t be much. They are not going to remember any more information in ten seconds if you give them two pages to look at; ten seconds is ten seconds. 2. Aqa Grade? Ditch the line about references on Essay Ethics Planning for an Influenza Pandemic, request. It#039;s implied. Of course, if someone wants a reference, you will give one.

No one presumes that you will not. So when you write that you will provide a reference you seem to not understand how the game is the proletariat played. Ethics Planning? (Bonus tip: If you have an excellent reference, like a CEO of aqa grade converter, a Fortune 500 company who vacations with your Mom, have the reference call before you even go to the interview. Sets the Ethics Planning Influenza tone for the employer to think you are amazing.) 3. Essay A New Look At Abraham His Agenda? Tread lightly on the personal interests line. Essay Ethics? Your personal interests are not there to make you look interesting. They are there to get you an interview. Every line on your resume is there to get you an interview. So only list personal interests that reveal a quality that will help you meet the the proletariat employer#039;s needs.

If you are in sports marketing, then by all means, list that you kayak. If you were an Essay and Preparedness Planning Pandemic Olympic athlete, put it down because it shows focus and essay achievement. If you are a mediocre hobbyist, leave it off. Personal interests that don#039;t make you stand out as an achiever do not help you. And personal interests that are weird make you look weird and you don#039;t know if your interviewer likes weird or not, so leave weird off the resume. About Ethics And Preparedness For An Influenza Pandemic? 4. You must list achievements, not job duties. Anyone can do a job. Achievements show you did the job well. Past performance is the best indicator of future performance, so don#039;t let someone think you just showed up for your last job and didn#039;t do it well.

It#039;s very hard to see your achievements from the stalin's russia trenches; you might think you did not have achievements because your boss doesn#039;t ask you to do achievements, your boss asks you to do tasks and projects. But you need to recognize that you do not see achievements and ask for help to see them. A resume coach, or even a friend, can help you to about Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza see them more clearly. 5. Don#039;t be a designer unless you are. If you have more than three fonts on your resume and you#039;re not a designer, I can promise you that you#039;ve botched the father layout. If design were easy, no one would get paid for it. Recognize your strengths and keep design elements to the bare minimum.

And please, save Photoshop for Essay Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an cards to your mom: Just because you know how to use the shading tools doesn#039;t mean you know how to use them well. 6. List your most recent job first. Chronological order is only a good idea if you are looking to get hired to donald cobain go back in time. Otherwise you look like you#039;re bucking resume writing convention in Essay Ethics for an Influenza Pandemic, order to hide something, which you probably are, but you have to do it with a better sleight of hand than that. The Benefits Modified Crops Essay? 17 comments on “ 6 most violated resume writing rules ” 2. #8220;Ditch the line about references on request.#8221; Very good advice. But if someone is dumb enough to about Planning for an Influenza Pandemic think I won#8217;t ask for Essay A New Look Agenda and Unnecessary War references if they don#8217;t put that line in, there#8217;s little hope of Essay Planning Influenza, them giving it up. I struggled #8212; struggled #8212; to get a friend to give it up without success. He consulted the VP in his company and that eminent personage (goofball) told him not to aqa grade listen to me. Essay And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza Pandemic? 1. #8220;One page.#8221; I don#8217;t agree.

It depends on stalin's russia, how much information you have to handle. Mind you, if you#8217;re in Gen Y, you won#8217;t have enough experience for two pages and then this advice would be fine. 4. #8220;List achievements, not job duties.#8221; A lot of Essay about and Preparedness Planning for an Pandemic, people who don#8217;t understand your job will be scanning your resume for duties they can match to the job specifications. I#8217;m one of those people. So, duties then achievements is what I look for. How do you feel about listing basic computer competence? I feel it is donald a waste of a line to put: proficient in MS Outlook, Powerpoint, Word, etc.

I think you#8217;d have a difficult time finding a professional today that lacks those abilities. You obviously don#8217;t have colleagues like mine, whose documents and spreadsheets I get called on Essay Ethics and Preparedness for an Pandemic, to fix almost every day#8230; (On the other hand, if people list computer proficiencies on their resumes, I would tend to be sceptical without a proficiency test.) on Reverse Chronological Order: what#8217;s the problem with this? I#8217;ve only ever seen resumes that start from the job you currently hold then work backwards from there. It makes sense for an employer to be able to see them in The Benefits Crops Essay, that order. Are you saying we should list our current job first, THEN list the first job I ever had? won#8217;t that look weird? Thanks for pointing out the error. Essay Ethics And Preparedness Planning Influenza? I fixed it. I agree with everything except number one. Characterization? There is no way a resume should be just one page long. I look for historical performance and job consistency.

And to be honest, I am also looking for keywords (skills) and how long those keywords were in use. Essay About Ethics Planning Influenza? If I have to go to Essay about A New Look at Abraham His and Unnecessary the 2nd or 3rd page to get those details so be it. Additionally, if you make the first cut your resume will be reviewed in more detail. One page doesn#8217;t provide much detail. What do you think about including an line in Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Planning Pandemic, your resume for your #8220;objective#8221;? As in, #8220;Objective: To make company xyz the aqa grade converter leader in widget production worldwide#8221;? My stepmother swears it#8217;s essential, but I think it#8217;s goofy. What do you think? Leave it off.

Your objective is to leverage your skills and experience to get a job with the company you are applying to. If your objective is anything else you shouldn#8217;t be applying. Essay Ethics For An Pandemic? As far as the one page resume I think this an aqa grade important rule to follow if it is even a question in and Preparedness for an Influenza Pandemic, your mind. At Abraham Lincoln: His Agenda And Unnecessary? By that I mean, if you are applying for an entry level or mid level job, one page. Essay Ethics For An? If you need more than one page you will #8220;know#8221; you need more than one page. Accomplishments for scanning by the human eye; a separate resume with duties for those machine scanners that have not yet evolved sufficiently to understand accomplishments. That initial 10 second skimming seldom gets beyond the stalin's russia middle of the first page. At that point a one or multi-page resume is irrelevant. But if that 10 seconds generates interest, the reader then WANTS information. The more experienced applicant will lose interviews if enough information to make a decision is lacking. About For An Influenza Pandemic? I have redone my resume a million times over.

I am at wits end#8230;#8230;.can#8217;t seem to find a job in this Houston. Aqa Grade Converter? Moving to PA, my hubby got a job there#8230;.seems they have jobs there#8230;#8230;..are there sites that can help in about Ethics Planning for an Pandemic, doing my resume for a fee.. This is AMAZING. The Benefits Of Genetically Essay? Extremely useful and helpful but also hilarious at the same time :) I am sick and tired of rewriting and revising resumes too. Now, what is your honest advice in curbing the gap barrier. Twenty-three plus years of experience is 23 years. Where does a person begin at 57 years of age?? By the way, make it 2 pages and 3 if need be. Thanks for the opportunity.

I am always looking for a job. I work in the event industry and it was hit pretty hard by the recession. Also, there is a lot of change in the industry, tons of freelancers. All this means is that I#8217;m an Essay for an expert job seeker #8212; unfortunately. I used to be an agency recruiter and cobain have been interviewed by a lot of HR people, as well as other agency recruiters and Essay Ethics and Preparedness Influenza have been on Essay about Look His Agenda and Unnecessary, the hiring end, both for Essay Ethics Planning Influenza a company and an agency, also as a salesperson selling recruitment services into aqa grade, any company. So, seeing the full spectrum of things has really openend my eyes on how to job hunt.

I agree with all the points listed except the Essay Ethics Planning Influenza first one. Funny, young people think a one pager is not enough, older people think a 2 pager is too long. Some people feel that a binder of all achievement documents are required for an interview. All I can say is, do what suits your personality. If you just graduated, use one page. If you have been around for 20 years like me, do 2 3 pages. Always apply with a cover letter, it looks more professional, it doesn#8217;t matter if its generic. Use a career objective, it means you have a goal.

List job duties/responsibilities, because agency and HR software look for keywords, like #8220;operations#8221; #8220;sales#8221;, etc. Type up your achievments and take them with you to stalin's russia the interview, talk about yourself using that. I never much liked people who listed their personal interests. It takes away from the fact that a resume is a summary of your career history. Something more interesting and Essay Planning for an relevant is volunteer work.

At least its commendable. One more final point. No one ever reads a resume from beginning to characterization essay end, unless its the owner a company and he#8217;s hiring you out of his own pocket. Ethics Pandemic? Then the fine tooth comb comes out. The Benefits Crops Essay? Otherwise, HR people are way too busy to read, most of them are women and women are attracted to nice things. Make sure you format the resume to #8220;look#8221; very appealing.

This will get you a phone call for about Ethics and Preparedness for an Pandemic sure. Also, if you never want to worry about having a hard time finding work, try to get a job at a big company doing anything and stalin's russia stay there for as long as possible. And Preparedness Planning For An Influenza? Recruiters and HR people always look for stalin's russia what is safest for themselves and their company first. THey only hire the ones that fit into Essay Pandemic, a certain mould. Big brand company names that are well known will always get interest before joe blow company ever would. Okay, I will try this. For some reason, I have never been taught about the cover letter, but common sense told me to write a one-page #8220;RESUME#8221; that fits in just after my job history. May I assume the of Genetically Modified Essay correct way would be to cut that out, and make it my front page? After all, it is my entire history, rewritten in a sort of Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Influenza Pandemic, engaging, friendly and story-like manner. I am a recruiter and I agree with much of characterization, what you stated here with the exception of cramming everything on to one page. I would rather see an informative resume.

If two pages is necesssary to bullet point out Essay Ethics Pandemic, 5 job duty lines along with 3-4 accomplishments that would be useful. I dont need to see what you were doing 20 years ago or jobs that have no relevance to the open position. One page? Sorry, that is just not enough for an accomplished, experienced professional and results in underselling your achievements. At least from the perspective of about at Abraham Lincoln: His War, every recruiter to whom I have ever spoken about the subject, the Essay Ethics Planning Influenza #8220;one-page-rule#8221; applies, at most, to the entry-level job seeker.

Fire the middle man (the recruiter) and the job market problem will be solved, the company will save and the proletariat the employees will be happy. thanks for your advice. but, i have a few questions to Essay about for an ask. it looks like most recruiters are looking for an experience and stalin's russia accomplishment in Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an Pandemic, a resume. so, how can i write a resume if i dont have any experience and any relavant achievement that match the job?. please help me here, then i will start to build my resume from the cratch. Essay? i have been looking for jobs for about for an so long since i am a Computer Science Graduate.

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coca cola job resume Coca-Cola bottle concept by Andrew Kim takes up less space than traditional round bottles and comes with a cool collapsible design for easy recycling. As an added bonus, each bottle features an Ethics Planning Influenza, opening at the bottom that allows multiple bottles to be stacked. Characterization! This increases efficiency during transportation and reduces the amount of space needed for storage. Great concept, I think more aesthetically pleasing and neater than the old plastic bottle shape. And a bit more beneficial to Ethics Pandemic, the environment too. Hopefully going into the shop and characterization essay, picking up one of these will be a reality soon. A collapsed bottle has the about Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza, same amount of plastic as a bottle that isnt collapsed. I dont understand how this bottle leaves a smaller carbon footprint.. @Sachawinter: this design will consume less space, means, one container will loads more coke, which in turn less transportation cost, less crate, or smaller carbon footprint

Very neat and well thought out design concept. Aesthetically more pleasing for me, as my taste are more contemporary. Sustainability is very important, going green is a great. *Although, the shape of the of Genetically Crops, bottle has somewhat become part of Coca-Colas identity including our worlds pop culture. When you see that shape it automatically correlates with the brand. About Ethics And Preparedness Planning Influenza! They have changed it slightly over the years but stayed true to the overall shape and design for that last almost 100 years (since 1915).

Changing this is stalin's russia, huge and Pandemic, may have negative impact. Square bottle + carbonation/pressure of a coke = sides pop out and it becomes rounded. Great concept. Square bottle wont be rolling on the floor of a vehicle, therefore will not get a change to get underneath break pedal. If that really happened, dont you think they would have figured that out? Come on, man. 1. The plastic would have to characterization essay, be really thick to counteract the pressure of the soda.

I dont see it staying square, even with the sculpted curve. Making the plastic thicker means youre going less green than the original. Testing this would require real bottling conditions, not just pouring soda in there. 2. The bottle shape is as essential to Ethics and Preparedness for an Influenza Pandemic, Cokes brand as their name or logotype. I cant see them giving up the bottle shape just to reduce their carbon footprint.

3. Unless the stalin's russia, corners split open, that bottle wont compact at Essay about Ethics Planning Influenza all. Besides just the shape, the sculpted curve will work against you. I also think it would be better to encourage recycling, not just make folks feel less guilty for aqa grade converter trashing it. 4. Essay Ethics And Preparedness Influenza! You now have to line up the bottles when putting them on aqa grade converter, the shelf or in a cooler. Ethics And Preparedness For An! The old way required no thought, just stack them in there. A New Look Lincoln: His! Minor, perhaps, but I imagine this will mess up machines at the least. 5. Looks unfomfortable to Essay about Ethics Planning Influenza, hold. The old round shape fits your hand well. The way the top is offset means you will have to line the bottle up to drink. Not good in the car or in donald father, other drinking while otherwise occupied instances.

You dont want the location of the top to Essay about Ethics Influenza, change based on the proletariat, how your hand is Planning, twisted. 6. Essay About Lincoln: Agenda And Unnecessary! Honestly, it isnt very attractive. And Preparedness For An! Thats personal prefence, though :) Pretty amazing, they should do this. Or Pepsi should steal it since Coca-colas shape is a trademark. Now we need square cup holders in stalin's russia, the car.

Great critique. This design doesnt really work that well. Your argument is completely one sided. The shape of the bottle probably wont mess with cokes consumption in todays society. No matter what shape the bottle is, people will still drink it. And if they dont like the bottle, get a can.

And besides, most relate cokes can design more than the and Preparedness for an Influenza, bottles. The rectangular design would be easier to package and shelve. The Proletariat! It wouldnt take much longer to stack and straighten the new design than it does the old. About Planning For An Pandemic! Plus, space would be saved on selves, for there would be less empty space between bottles (in shipping and stocking). Cobain! As for machines, Im sure it wont mess with most contraptions, since most just drop the bottle into the hole for you to Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Planning, grab anyway. There are plenty of stalin's russia, other bottled juices and pops with awkward shapes to hold. Its all a matter of how picky you are about and Preparedness Influenza Pandemic, how uncomfortable hold the bottle will be because obviously youre going to have to hold that thing for much longer than the donald, two minutes you need finish the drink. I believe the new concept is not necessarily meant to look good, though it doesnt look bad, it is Essay about Ethics for an Influenza Pandemic, something different and the proletariat, will generally catch the publics eye. Not to Ethics Planning for an Pandemic, mention just more promotional hype about a new green design.

Im not so sure about the collapsible aspect of it, there may be flaws in that. Look His Agenda And Unnecessary War! But it is Essay about and Preparedness Planning, a nice idea to have a bottle you can easily take to your local recycling depot without your bin overflowing. Im not necessarily saying this is the best idea in the world, but Im not going to take a bias side. And just thought Id give the positive since Pete was so kind to cobain father, point out all the about and Preparedness Influenza Pandemic, negative. HAHA! I think its really, really funny when pedantic consumers think they know more than the aqa grade converter, top-notch experts in and Preparedness for an Influenza, any given field. It reminds me of an ex-boyfriend who was SURE that concrete would be better to pave highways than asphalt, as if city planners just hadnt thought of donald, it, when really there are very clear reasons.

If you think youve found something wrong with a square bottle design that the engineers at Coca-Cola didnt think of, youre wrong. They know more than you do, have more experience than you do, and and Preparedness Influenza Pandemic, have (gasp!) actually tested some of this stuff. Seriously. Oh, and square = tighter packaging = no/less wasted space = more product per square foot = more efficient trasport = less oil burned = GOOD FOR EARTH. i dont think that this would work its a nice idea but coke wont give up there bottle shape i could see it working better for like a new product or a juice. also it is stalin's russia, just a concept from some person not from about Ethics and Preparedness Pandemic coke or at least thats how i read this so in concepts there are a lot of flaws to work out. @YoureDoom amd @Loni: I think both of you expect that this concept is made by Coca Cola and they cant be wrong. I guess you missed that this is a midterm project/school project (follow designers link). However, I think its an stalin's russia, amazing concept and hopefully it will inspire not only about and Preparedness Planning for an Pandemic us and the folks at Coca Cola. Converter! And maybe some day ideas from this concept will be realised :) Brilliant presentation anyway. The square design is not a completely new concept.

I like the idea but the collapsible nature of the bottle is Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an, very forward thinking. While there are flaws, I think it is an interesting idea. However, the donald, idea of it being greener in relation to the picture is slightly misleading. About And Preparedness For An Influenza! The square container would have to stalin's russia, carry the same amount of Essay and Preparedness Pandemic, Coke in a smaller container, or otherwise there is no net effect. From the picture, it looks like both containers would need the same square area, so only if the Look at Abraham Lincoln: His and Unnecessary, square bottle had a smaller footprint or was shorter would there be less wasted space. What about just using good old re-cycleable glass? Idea is Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Pandemic, great and stuff.

But they have made bottles round because of the grip and aqa grade converter, not to about and Preparedness Pandemic, forget that every cup holder and every drink fending machine is made for round bottles, even the ones in your fridge. It would be unlogical to pull that idea throug. Sorry if I have incorrect spelling or grammar in my piece. This was posted on donald cobain father, digg 3 days ago and this is what one of the diggers had to say about about Ethics for an Influenza Pandemic, it: 1. Its a concept by about A New His Agenda, a student, not something from Coke. 2. It wont work for carbonated drinks because of the pressure. (Im guessing art student, not engineering)

3. It wont make transport any more efficient because the problem is weight, not space. Current containers stack just fine etc. 4. Coke is for the most part not shipped around the world in containers, its produced locally and moved on about Ethics and Preparedness Planning Influenza Pandemic, trucks that are limited by weight, not size. 5. Glass containers are far more environmentally friendly. Those bottles look cool! Would we see this on the market?

Who knows I love this green concept! That concept its good as pouring CocaC. directly in of Genetically Modified Crops, hands of costumers. I think the target is messingtry with fruit juice! wow you guys are pretty good at commenting only seeing the Essay about Ethics, pictures. anyway, nice concept! @2lv2, i agree why not just make them out of glass in a square shape if plastic wont work.

Dont beat the guy up! He had an idea, he was bold enough to test it to the extent he did, and subsequently share it with the converter, world. Critique constructively. Everyone benefits from the sharing of ideas, and Im sure hes learned a great deal from Essay Ethics Pandemic all the feedback left in the comments stream. The Benefits Modified Crops! Thats what its for, right?

Im sure theres a good reason coke doesnt make it in glass anymore. Ethics Planning For An! Probably far more expensive than the plastic. Plastic is just more convenient. The Proletariat! You cant have glass at ballparks and sporting events, so Coke would still have to produce a large amount of plastic bottles anyway. I really only see glass versions of coke in Influenza, those novelty small (8 oz?) bottles, and even then, very rarely do I see those. Plus, glass breaks easily. Not to say that plastic is completely drop-proof, but I imagine it is more-so than glass.

If a plastic bottle breaks/cracks, just the soda makes a mess. If a glass bottle breaks, the soda and the glass makes a mess. If you are from an urban area and stalin's russia, ever see broken glass on the street, you know this is a valid point. No one has gloves on hand when casually carrying around a glass bottle of coke in Essay about and Preparedness Planning Influenza, case it breaks. Also, glass doesnt provide the re-seal-ability for lack of donald, a better term that plastic does. About Ethics And Preparedness Influenza Pandemic! Re-sealing a beer for a long period of time even if it is a twist off is never a good idea. @ Lori: HAHA! I think its really, really funny when people look like idiots when theyre trying to look smart. I cant believe you thought this was actually a concept by Coca Cola. You must be pretty dense.

And concrete IS better for highways than asphalt. It lasts much longer and needs far less maintenance. Its just more expensive, which is why smaller towns and counties dont do it. The true design is starting to take its place in Crops Essay, the world. A square bottle uses more plastic per volume of Essay about and Preparedness Planning Influenza, coke than a round bottle. +1 for Josh. Best arguments on here (even though they werent necessarily his). lets really recycle, glass bottles do this. Maybe you should work for them then!

Since you know everything about it and all it looks like the future. Not sure why the bile. Folks put their designs out for critique. Im thrilled that they do that. No, this wasnt from Coke; it was a student project. Even if this was from characterization Coke, I hate to break it to you child, but corporate product designer and marketers dont always get everything right. (New coke anyone? or at least for those of you old enough to remember. About Ethics And Preparedness Planning For An Pandemic! New pepsi logo anyone?).

They often have constraints and Lincoln: His War, pressures that interfere. No, not all the Planning for an Influenza, ideas were thought through. Although if you look at the original presentation on the site, certainly a lot of thought actually went into donald cobain father, it. Yes, this is a neat design. Yes, it was creative.

No, it wasnt professional. It shows a lack of both bottle and vending engineering knowledge for one. Essay Ethics And Preparedness Influenza! It concentrates primarily on the green aspect, something which is extremely hard to do correctly. For example, the smallest shape for any given volume is a sphere. Deviate from the proletariat that and you use more plastic. Due to Planning for an Influenza, how plastic molding works, youll use quite a bit more due to the reinforcement required at cobain father the corners (or the corners will need to be rounded quite a bit) No, it doesnt show knowledge of Essay for an Pandemic, how Coke is actually shipped. I cant say that Ive ever heard of Coke hitting a shipping container, but I suppose it happens. Its usually shipped as syrup. Finally, no, a real product designer would NEVER completely discard something so essential to the brand that they have a patent on it (the bottle shape).

You dont hint at donald cobain father something that critical. When the defense is it wont take much longer and depends on how picky you are about Influenza Pandemic, how uncomfortable, it doesnt say much for stalin's russia the practicality. Neat idea, just not practical and doesnt live up to and Preparedness Planning Influenza, the mission. I love seeing new ideas here. Not all of them are winners, though, even if they *are* creative. The person who did this is quite talented, but that doesnt mean its a good design. I completely agree. Does anyone else see the blatant conflict between Coca-Colas scripty logo and the futuristic packaging?

And, if we want to design to decrease carbon footprint, I dont think changing a shape is as effective as changing the Essay about Look War, materials biodegradable plastics maybe? This guy is creative sure. But, it looks to me like the Essay Ethics for an Influenza Pandemic, sort of project you come up with by finding the first thing you see a Coke bottle what if it was square!? Weve all had one of those projects. Now Im just a 15 year old school student so correct me if I am wrong but I see multiple flaws in this design. many of which have already been pointed out such as loss of brand identity and the structural flaws of a square shape. One of which that hasnt been addressed is the lack of grip it provides. To be fair considering the coca cola brand itself the worlds most recognisable brand I do not think they need to worry about loss of brand identity. but my suggestion would be to use a triangular shape with a sires of groves around the middle.

This would keep all the stalin's russia, benefits of the square but also add better grip and Planning for an Pandemic, the cap could still be centred in the middle solving the problem of orientation. The Proletariat! The problem of strength would still remain though. As far as I can tell from my basic knowledge of engineering and shapes, any shape other than a circle would require more plastic to reinforce it as the pressure would not be distributed evenly, therefore counteracting the green effects the product has on transportation with increased material usage leading to more waste. Also although the Essay Ethics Planning Influenza, bottle looks good here it is only because the minimal packaging. In a real world situation it would be far more cluttered with info and would only be a thin band around the centre of the stalin's russia, bottle as seen on the current ones.

As for using glass bottles they tried it in the UK but everybody kept buying the plastic ones as they were more practical. Voda Voda bottle has square design for more than 5 years I like the design and I think it would help people to Ethics Planning for an Pandemic, be greener because of the the proletariat, fact that it can be folded up although I dont think it looks as good as the round bottle. I am a welding engineer not a plastics engineer but i know about statics and about Ethics and Preparedness for an Influenza, strengths of stalin's russia, materials. Also a little bit on how plastics work.

Though i am not going to do the mathematics involved, i will just give a visual analysis. From the design the about Ethics and Preparedness for an, bottle should not have a problem becauseA) the corners are rounded and the bottom is so the stress risers will be small. B) the surface area of the flat parts should be enough to distribute the force of the pressure from cobain father carbonation which means that it shouldnt bulge out that much. C) Since the and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza Pandemic, bottle will be blow molded the sides and the center panels will have slightly less plastic then the little ridges that cover the stalin's russia, bottle, this should increase bending limits so the bottle will be stronger to withstand the about and Preparedness for an Pandemic, forces (though a slight bulge will probably occur it would be small). Thats about stalin's russia, it i am not going to do the math. It would take me i do not know 1-3 hours since there is only 4 sides i would have to calculate plus a longer time to calculate the strengths of the plastics. About Ethics And Preparedness Influenza! This analysis took me 3 minutes so i have no idea how right i am but since other engineers have not commented i have nothing to The Benefits of Genetically Modified Crops, compare too. (there is Essay Ethics for an, always at least 3 engineers doing this in A New Look at Abraham His War, a group to compare to one another) Great concept, would love to see it in stores, even if it was just a test run; Beautiful design overall. Glad im not in this students class.

Its a rectangle. Its nothing revolutionary. I am a Design Engineer myself, with some FEA and about and Preparedness Planning for an Pandemic, structural experience. I have comments RE: A) the corners are rounded and the bottom is so the stress risers will be small. B) the surface area of the stalin's russia, flat parts should be enough to distribute the force of the pressure from and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza Pandemic carbonation which means that it shouldnt bulge out that much. You are right stress risers should be small but that is not the structural issue here.

Stress risers are more important when we analyze failure (breakage) but in main problem here is not breakage but deformation. We hope to design the rectangular bottle not only not to break but not even to bulge, so we have to look at stalin's russia deformation, not breakage. So, dont worry about stress risers. The issue here is to have a pressurized vessel (filled with carbonated drink) with flat walls. Essay Ethics Planning For An Influenza! Saying the surface area of the flat parts should be enough to distribute the force of the pressure is not completely correct. Look At Abraham Lincoln: Agenda War! Force=pressure*area, so the about Ethics and Preparedness for an Influenza, more area you have the more force you have bending (bulging) that surface.

You do not distribute the force of the characterization essay, pressure. You **add** the force of the pressure on Ethics and Preparedness for an Pandemic, every individual square inch of the surface and that is what causes the wall to bulge. Cilindrical/ spherical walls are, as a rule, better for Essay A New Lincoln: Agenda and Unnecessary War pressurized vessels because they are already bulged and they cannot bulge anymore. Not to be technical but a flat wall, being flat, will develop bending stresses, hence it will bulge. A cylindrical wall will develop only tensile stresses, hence it will NOT bulge (it will just inflate a little). To repeat previous comments here and elsewhere, there is Essay about Ethics Pandemic, some likelihood that bottle plastic weight for aqa grade converter the rectangular bottle will have to about and Preparedness Planning, go up to have a small enough bulge, therefore increasing carbon footprint, use of plastics and so forth. Detailed math (FEA) analysis and experiments are needed here to Modified Essay, figure out what is Ethics and Preparedness for an Influenza Pandemic, what (and this is, actually, my specialty). Having said that, I want to be first in line to hire Mr.

Andrew Kim when he graduates in about 3 years. And if this is example of his work as a freshman, I want to be first in line for Mr. Andrew Kim **TO HIRE ME** in Essay Look at Abraham Lincoln: His and Unnecessary War, about 7 years. Master Andrew, drop me a line, Ill email you my mechanical design engineer resume! What about Ethics Planning Influenza, states that have deposits? I live in Michigan and almost every large store (meijers, walmart, krogers, ect.) have machines that you deposit your bottles into. The machines then read the stalin's russia, barcodes and count how many bottles/cans you return. Essay And Preparedness For An Influenza! you push a button and it prints off a slip that you present to the cashier to receive your deposit back. I see a problem with the bottles collapsing and the machines then not being able to read them. All in all its a great idea, a bottle that is easly collapasable, that takes up less space and such.

I dont think people quite understand that concept artists arent exactly experts in the fields of physics or real bottle design. The shape simply wouldnt work because of the carbonation pressure. Also, it would be rather uncomfortable to hold. I could care less about the of Genetically Crops, iconic shape, but I dont want to be holding a cold rectangle that has bumps all over it. I think it is a great design. As an artist, I have to say I think it is a cool design. Maybe it would be a good design for bottled waters as they dont have carbonation. As a consumer, I dont buy my drinks in plastic simply because they retain heat. Essay About Ethics For An Pandemic! If you touch a stone or glass or even metal it is cold to stalin's russia, the touch, but if you touch a plastic or resin it is warm to the touch.

I personally drink my Coke in cans. I have too often purchased a cold bottle of soda only to find the contents were warm. Ethics And Preparedness! Yuck. I think the designer was preoccupied by the idea of making a square bottle and completely failed to realize why bottles are round, not much of an accomplishment for a product design. Why not make the aqa grade converter, square bottle like a lego brick. Essay About Ethics Planning For An Influenza Pandemic! The bottle could be filled with sand or dirt and essay, then stacked to make a wall. The sand or dirt would serve as insulation. There would be less bottles in landfills and more of them used as a building material. If your are in any doubt about the ability of the bottle with carbonized drinks check out Blue Marlins design of Isklar carbonated water. Innovation at its best!

A square bottle will require 13% more plastic to hold the same volume of liquid. And that is not including the additional plastic due to thicker walls required to provide the Essay Ethics Planning for an Pandemic, same structural support. So, the bigger tradeoff here would be more plastic required per stalin's russia bottle. Deer Park water has done a great job of utilizing a minimalist/collapsable design for its water bottles. All that said, aesthetically the bottles look great and would help update Cokes image.

Following the above comment, it would be interesting to study of the tradeoff between the Essay about Ethics and Preparedness Influenza, additional plastic required for a square bottle versus the savings and polution reduction due to stalin's russia, transportation, storage and Essay about Ethics for an Influenza, logistics that Andrew illustrates so well. Overall, this is a great example of how a simple design can have very complex ramifications! Heres what makes sense to me If the same type and thickness of plastic is used, each bottle of coke takes up more room and uses more plastic: high school math says so. What is gained is the unused space in between the bottles in the crate, that means more product per tray of bottles, and therefore more coke in a single shipment. However, that means more weight on the shipping vehicle and increased transportation costs. So that would be, fail, fail, and aqa grade, weight for it epic fail. Check out Walmart rubbing alcohol bottles, they are also fishy. Im a blow molded product development engineer / manager, and I skimmed a few of the comments here as I made my way down the Ethics and Preparedness for an Influenza Pandemic, list. I know Im late to Modified, the game, but heres my input:

I like the design overall, but as mentioned, loses the Coke bottle brand identity, and kills the comfort in Essay Ethics and Preparedness Pandemic, your hand. The neck cant be off-center on a PET bottle design, you will have huge issues with varied wall thickness through the bottle. Thick wall on the side closest to essay, the neck, thin wall on the opposing side away from the neck. You need a minimum radius in Ethics for an Pandemic, all corners or 1/8? / 3mm in the bottle body when it comes to PET bottle design. The bigger the better. That design you have there, while original, is setting itself up to be a huge failure during drop testing. Sharp corners are a huge No-No in PET design. The Proletariat! Also, add healthy draft angles wherever possible to prevent bottle scuffing on Essay about Pandemic, part ejection from the essay, mold, which is Essay and Preparedness Planning for an Pandemic, always a big issue in PET design. Youll also find yourself running into blow ratio issues once your blow ratio goes beyond 2.2:1. Meaning the bottle width or depth really shouldnt exceed 2.2 X the E diameter, (The minor diameter of the threads on the neck finish,) if you can help it. Although it has been done plenty of times before, its a good guideline to live by if you can help it.

I like the Essay Lincoln: Agenda and Unnecessary, idea of a square design, that certainly the most efficient way to ship product, much better than a round. But even with healthy design techniques like adding good corner radii to Essay about Ethics Planning for an Pandemic, the shape, giving the bottle panels some radius, etc., the processor is again going to the proletariat, be battling varying wall thicknesses here. Theyll be challenged by a rib of thick material down the center of the bottle panel, and thin corners at all corners of the square shape, leading to more challenges in drop testing. Onto to Essay and Preparedness for an, collapsing the bottle. About A New At Abraham Lincoln: Agenda And Unnecessary! Ive never seen a successful bellows design in Essay about and Preparedness Planning Pandemic, PET that will allow a shape to collapse as intended. You can do it in A New Look Lincoln:, HDPE, but the amount of sharpness you would have to apply to the corners of your bellows design to get the plastic to collapse would override the minimum radius you could feasibly blow mold in Essay Ethics Planning, PET, bringing you back to more thin corners and drop testing failures. Sorry, like the concept, but its a manufacturing nightmare. why not try with a bigger head for its top? The cap part can be a bit larger,well, the gas has to go somewhere right?

This is NOT a new concept.. I own a SQUARE Coke bottle. orinally produced In Kenosha, Wis. years ago. It is glass with a rounded top. Cobain! with the Essay about Planning for an Influenza Pandemic, city name actually.