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Book excerpt: But Seriously by John McEnroe. Chinese Exclusion! John McEnroe (left) and shalott Ivan Lendl competing in the men's singles final of the Tournoi de Roland-Garros (French Open), at the Stade Roland Garros, Paris, June 1984. On The! Lendl won the match 3-6, 2-6, 6-4, 7-5, 7-5. Former tennis champion and bestselling author John McEnroe brings his uncompromising commentary from the sidelines of Wimbledon and other Grand Slam tournaments to his new book, But Seriously (Little Brown), a brutally honest memoir in treatment which he writes with characteristic brazenness about the on The Chinese Act, sport, broadcasting and fatherhood. In the excerpt below, McEnroe replays his 1984 French Open match against Ivan Lendl, which would prove to be one of his worst days on court, in no small part due to persuasive, his behavior and how it soured the crowd. 5:14 a.m., June 8, 2015, Paris. On The Exclusion! I wake up in a sweat. Shalott! My pillow's damp and Essay Chinese Act I don't know what day is.

Did I miss the match? Am I playing later? For a few seconds I don't even know where I am. Then it hits me. Persuasive Essays! I already played the match. I already lost it. Jesus, it was back in Essay on The Exclusion 1984 and I'm still haunted by it. Even now, more than thirty years later, I'm as hot as I was in the fifth set and Wage I can taste the red clay on my tongue. It was a match I should have won and it turned into the worst loss of my career. I'd been playing my best tennis ever, I was undefeated that year, and although serve-volleying wasn't the obvious way of winning the French Open on Chinese Act the slow clay of Roland-Garros, I was playing Ivan Lendl.

Ivan had so far lost four Grand Slam finals in a row and I sure as hell wasn't planning on breaking that run for him by shalott handing him his first title. In fact, I was planning on beating his ass. At first, that's exactly what I did. After two sets, I was up 6-3, 6-2, and on The Chinese I was all over him. The crowd was behind me, Allez, John! Allez.

As far as I was concerned, I was in argumentative essays control, I had this in the bag. But as it got hotter, the crowd started losing focus. Then my friend Ahmad Rashad -- a great former wide receiver for the Minnesota Vikings -- who was there rooting for Essay on The me, got up to leave. Essays! You got this, Mac! I'll see ya back at the hotel. S***, the last thing I needed was a jinx.

It's an unwritten rule in sports that friends and family don't leave until the match is Essay Chinese over. Not that I'm blaming Ahmad for the loss, but that's when little doubts started creeping in for the first time. Argumentative Essays! I still thought I was going to win but those negative thoughts began to get to me. Everything suddenly became a distraction. At the next changeover I couldn't help but notice the noise from a nearby cameraman's headphones. Chinese! Someone was obviously trying to get this guy's attention.

The third set had barely started when, I swear to God, I heard something like, When the match is over, we'll focus on John and then stick with him through the trophy ceremony. He's got this, so make sure he's in sex addiction the shot. In English. In Paris. It was the American TV cameraman listening to the producer's instructions in his headphones, but they were so loud I could hear them too. Unbelievable!

Now I was feeling even more jinxed. On The Chinese Act! So I walked to the guy's chair, grabbed the treatment, headphones o#64256; his head, and screamed as loud as I possibly could into his mic: SHUT UP! I knew immediately that my frustration wasn't a good enough reason for me to do this, and while I didn't care about the cameraman, I did care about the crowd. I needed them. But they sure as hell didn't need me and my bad attitude.

That was the on The Exclusion, point when they turned on me. They just wanted the match to go on -- who could blame them -- and what better way than to change corners and root for treatment my opponent? After all, that French crowd was known for being fickle. On The Chinese Act! I tried to block them out. I was still the best tennis player in the world and there was no way I was losing to Lendl. I failed to break his serve at the lady 22 in the third, despite him being 0-40 down. No matter. Essay Chinese Act! I still had my mojo. Shalott! I was still convinced I could win this thing, all I needed to do was stick with my game plan: serve-volley, and break him -- as soon as possible.

Except he won the set 6-4. I had to Essay on The Chinese Exclusion, pull it together. I reminded myself I was two sets to developmental, one up; better than him. On The! Don't panic. Don't let the heat get to you. Don't let these people get to Must, you. They know I can beat this guy.

I know I can beat this guy. But it didn't happen. In the fourth set, I found myself serving, 4-3, 40-30. I'd broken him and was five points from the title. I really thought I could close it out. But in the heat of the moment, my normally soft hands pushed my first volley a fraction beyond the baseline. Somehow, in the blink of an Chinese, eye, the set was over. He'd won it 7-5 and we were now two sets all. In the fifth, the iphone versus galaxy, heat became stifling, Lendl's confidence ignited, and the crowd got behind him. My legs felt more and more like Jell-O and, with my strength draining fast from my body, I lost my grip on the match. I tried and Chinese tried, but in the end, I was the hr macys net, one walking to the net with my head down, while Lendl was smiling goofily, his hands up, jumping around as he sealed his first Slam title.

Does it surprise you that I still have that nightmare, all these years later? It wakes me up every year when I'm in Paris, commentating on the French Open -- at least once, usually twice. But every time I have this bad dream, it's a little easier to get over. Maybe I've gained some perspective on Essay Chinese this dark moment in my career. Maybe time does heal all wounds. But any way you look at it, this was the closest I ever came to winning this clay-court major. Thankfully I've had a couple of small chances for revenge since then (although let me be clear: nothing could EVER EVER EVER make up for what happened that day). The first was in October 2010. And it was in developmental stages Paris. Essay On The Chinese Exclusion Act! That morning when I awoke I didn't have to have the The Minimum Must Be Raised Essay, nightmare, because after eighteen years, I was finally going to be playing Ivan Lendl again.

For me, it was a big deal to Essay Act, meet him on court once more. My chance to Essay, get one back on him. I'm not kidding. That 1984 Roland-Garros defeat still burned my guts. We'd come up against each other on a number of occasions since then; sometimes I'd won, mostly I'd lost. We'd last played each other on the main tour back in 1992 in Toronto, but by then we were both on the downward slope of Exclusion Act, our careers, so it hadn't felt like a proper opportunity for payback. Once I started on teenage developmental stages the seniors circuit, there was a long period where Ivan was kept o#64256; the court because of Essay on The, a clause in galaxy an insurance policy that looked like it would stop him from ever playing again. But somehow that got ironed out. So now, in Essay Chinese Act the city where I'd su#64256;ered the most painful loss of iphone versus galaxy, my career, I finally had the Chinese Exclusion, chance to lay that ghost to rest -- the one that had been haunting me for twenty-six years. Must Essay! From But Seriously by John McEnroe, published by Little, Brown.

Copyright (c) 2017 by Essay on The Exclusion John McEnroe. Reprinted with permission. The Minimum Wage Must Be Raised Essay! All rights reserved. A look back at the esteemed personalities who left us this year, who'd touched us with their innovation, creativity and humanity. The world's best TV commercials 2017. Watch the winners of this year's Clio Awards for the most creative TV ads. Could Vegas gunman’s gambling habits reveal his motive? Teachers, veterans, mothers among Vegas shooting victims. Physically ill: Manager who sold guns to Vegas shooter speaks out. Marine saves woman he met at Las Vegas concert.

Police say Vegas shooter had escape plan, lived secret life Vegas gunman planned other attacks? Tropical Storm Nate approaches U.S. On The Chinese Exclusion! Watch CBS News anytime, anywhere with the new 24/7 digital news network. Argumentative! Stream CBSN live or on demand for FREE on Essay your TV, computer, tablet, or smartphone.

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Capitalism , Coates , Coats PLC 1573 Words | 5 Pages. Personal and professional developme Understanding how self-managed learning can work Evaluate the learning approaches to self-managed . learning The ways which a lifelong learning in personal and professional could be encouraged Benefit of self-managed learning to Chinese Exclusion Act the individual and galaxy, organisation (outcome) (s) Learning through research is an important part of Essay on The Chinese Exclusion Act modern independent learning.ability to stages use the Exclusion, internet can provide up to the minute data from a range of iphone sources. Career , Learning , Management 899 Words | 4 Pages. The Sage Encyclopedia of Human Relationships Personal Idioms by Sandra Metts, Illinois State University Sylvia Mikucki, University of . Essay Chinese Exclusion Act! Illinois Raining cats and dogs. Green with envy. Easy as pie. What these odd expressions share in common is the classification as cultural idioms. They are colloquial expressions that use the the lady shalott, English language in Essay Chinese Exclusion Act creative ways to capture an attitude, image, or a feeling. A person who came to America from hr macys net another country would have to study the sky during. Communication , Friendship , Human sexual behavior 1335 Words | 4 Pages. Personal selling occurs where an individual salesperson sells a product, service or solution to a client.

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There are many definitions. Failure , Individual responsibility , Personal 793 Words | 3 Pages. Lead By Example SSG Alfred J. Stringer NCOA Abstract This paper makes the argument that the examples set by iphone galaxy leaders . will directly affect the actions and overall effectiveness of their organizations. On The Exclusion Act! Morality and upholding the iphone galaxy, Army Values and the basic principles of the United States of Essay on The Chinese Exclusion America are paramount principles of versus character that leaders should possess. Subordinates will many times copy and mirror their leaders so it is critically important for superiors to set good examples . Soldiers. Ethics , Moral , Morality 1008 Words | 3 Pages. ? What is Essay Exclusion Act, personal space? Personal space was an teenage, idea first developed by German born Swedish psychologist David Katz in 1937. It . is very often describes as an emotionally charged bubble of space which surrounds each individual or alternately Personal space is the region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs. Most people value their personal space and feel discomfort, anger, or anxiety when their personal space is Chinese Exclusion Act, encroached. On the other hand, some research suggests.

Culture , Distance , Interpersonal relationship 1878 Words | 6 Pages. ? Personal Responsibility Ngo Duong GEN 200 March 18, 2014 Ronald White Personal Responsibility Father, what . degree do you have? I reply to my children, I do not have a degree because college is Wage Be Raised Essay, not for on The Chinese Exclusion me. Versus Galaxy! Beside I have to work to provide the Act, family needs in daily life. Are that enough responsibilities? Or is The Minimum Wage, that an excuse you want to give to your children. On The Chinese Act! Or you accept your responsibility by Wage Essay going to Essay on The Chinese Exclusion Act college to a degree. Iphone Versus Galaxy! What is personal responsibility?

To me, it is being responsible. A Great Way to Care , Academic degree , Higher education 814 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Responsibility and College Success FOUNDATIONS FOR GENERAL EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL SUCCESS/200 September xx, 2014 . Personal Responsibility and College Success Not every college student has to Essay Chinese Exclusion have hours of the lady shalott study time to learn the course material to Essay Chinese Exclusion be successful. Attending class, paying attention to the lectures, reading assigned text, and dedicating quality study time are good practices so they do not get behind in school work. Its the students personal responsibility. Education , Learning , Management 502 Words | 4 Pages. ? College Success and Personal Responsibility Gen/200 November 24, 2012 College Success and treatment, Personal . Responsibility Honesty is the key component in personal responsibility because it shows that an individual can be trusted with key information or completion of homework assignments. There is a strong belief that ones word is their bond, meaning what the individual states or a claim is Essay Exclusion, valid and iphone versus galaxy, true.

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explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will take this form, but every SAT essay question will . The Lady! require you to take a position and defend it with examples . Heres the sample prompt again: Consider carefully the following quotation and the assignment below it. Then plan and Essay Chinese, write an essay that explains your ideas as persuasively as possible. Keep in mind that the support you provideboth reasons and examples will help make your view convincing to iphone the reader. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Personal Selling, relationship building and sales management Personal selling, unlike advertising or sale promotion, involves . Essay Chinese! direct relationships between the seller and the prospect or customer. In a forma sense, personal selling can be defined as a two-way flow of communication between a potential buyer and a salesperson that is designed to accomplish at sex addiction least three tasks: (1) identify the Essay Chinese Act, potential buyers needs; (2) match those needs to one or more of the hr macys net, firms products or services; (3) on. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 1020 Words | 3 Pages. MODUL Introduction to on The Act personal development in health, social care or childrens and argumentative essays, young peoples settings (L2) (3) (M) 1.1 . Describe the duties and responsibilities of Essay Act own role My duties and The Minimum Wage Must Be Raised Essay, responsibilities as a carer are: to provide high quality care for residents while complying with the companys policies and procedures, any legislations and standards relevant to care work so the physical, emotional, social, intellectual and on The, spiritual needs of individuals I look after are met and. Career , Ergonomics , National Occupational Standards 720 Words | 3 Pages. Explanation | Example | big | large in size, degree or amount | a big stone | great | much bigger than average | a great success a great . time | high | measurement from the bottom to the top; greater than normal | a high mountain a high level | large | big in size and the lady shalott, quantity | a large country a large number of people | tall | greater height than average | a tall man | Note: We use high or tall when we talk about buildings. On The Chinese Exclusion! | borrow or lend Word | Explanation | Example | borrow. Gerund , Grammatical tense , Noun 777 Words | 4 Pages.

Personal Branding is already conflicting with Company Branding outside the sex addiction treatment, work place. Exclusion! A middle school teacher was suspended with pay for teenage stages . making remarks about her students on Face Book (Norwalk, 2010). A woman was fired after criticizing her boss on face book (Fired over Essay on The Chinese Exclusion, Facebook, 2011). A young man was rejected for a position at Cisco because he tweeted that he had to weigh the fat paycheck against the drive and work (Popkin, 2009). Stages! These examples go on and on. Entire sites have been dedicated. Brand , Clay Shirky , Employment 1552 Words | 5 Pages.

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Stroock Stroock Lavan LLP - The Inside View. Lean staffing is the norm at this New York mid-sizer that punches well above its weight. A FORMER hiring partner, Claude Szyfer, recalls being taught, as a young lawyer, the secret to success at Stroock: One of my mentors used to always say 'I want people to take ownership over a case and make it their own'. Essay On The Exclusion! The type of developmental stages people who succeed at Stroock are those who can work independently, because we staff so leanly. The prospect of doing BigLaw in a more intimate environment had been an appealing draw for Essay on The Chinese Exclusion Act, the current batch of juniors we interviewed: I'd heard this was a big firm in versus galaxy, terms of the work you get, one told us, but not in the cut-throat attitude there is elsewhere. Newly appointed co-managing partner Jeff Keitelman, the firm's first based in DC, suggests an opportunity to make a meaningful difference is one thing that sets Stroock apart. A new hiring partner, Nicole Runyan, took over from Claude Szyfer in January 2017. Big work comes from big clients including JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs, AIG and American Express. Chambers USA ranks Stroock for its work in New York, DC, California, Florida and nationwide, singling out for particular praise its insurance, international trade, and real estate practices. New York, LA and Essay on The Act now DC currently take new entry-level associates, and Claude Szyfer reveals that we're thinking more nationally as a firm, which involves the New York, DC, Los Angeles and persuasive argumentative essays Miami offices working more interactively in collaboration. That's something that's proven very exciting for our attorneys.

Summer associates get to pick first-choice practice areas, so when making offers we can give them a sense of Chinese Act where they'll be, says HP Claude Szyfer. Sex Addiction! Litigation and corporate take in most new associates, who typically start as generalists within the team before finding a niche. Financial restructuring, IP, tax, real estate and other groups also accommodate newcomers. Exclusion Act! Associates reported that all the departments have an administrative partner. They're the central point for all assignments and as new matters come in they'll staff them. Once they'd got to know partners and developed relationships, you get work informally, but it's a mix of both.

Even in your second year you still get work from the formal system. The Lady! Repeat work from on The Act certain partners is how people specialize. In litigation, juniors typically do legal research and persuasive argumentative essays drafting of papers. Many are put onto a large document review for a couple of months. There's also substantive drafting of briefs and Essay on The Exclusion motions. For most, work wasn't hard to come by, and The Minimum Be Raised Essay our group jokes that you have no problem hitting billable requirements. The majority felt the rush wasn't constant, and breaks were welcomed as all of a sudden a ton of work comes and you're harking back to Chinese Exclusion Act the days it was quiet! A broad mix of clients includes financial institutions and real estate agents. In many cases there's a fair amount of client interaction, and juniors get significant responsibility. There's usually not several associates between junior and partner, thanks to lean staffing models. You have no problem hitting billable requirements! Corporate work spans a whole plethora.

There's a big private funds practice, mutual funds, derivatives, insurance, some energy work. We do smaller MA. Specialization in a particular subsection over time was common, though not universal. Juniors initially got familiar with checklists and closing documents. In the second year they're still part of the day-to-day, but there's a noticeable change from that to credit agreements, drafting ancillary and smaller documents. You get a lot more ability and autonomy. Happy to generally do pretty substantive work, corporate associates felt you're not buried, but given opportunities. The financial restructuring team typically does creditor-side representation in bankruptcies or out-of-court restructurings. The Lady Shalott! It's pretty varied as a first-year there's lots of Chinese Act research, but it's nice that once you've done a couple of things for someone they're willing to give you as much as you can handle. IP work primarily consists of developmental stages patent litigation and prosecution, and trademark litigation. One junior enjoyed immense responsibility. When things are busy I'll be writing motions and drafting briefs from start to Essay finish. I even went to trial as a first-year! The smaller teams provide more scope for specialization early on.

There's a week's orientation at the start, which runs you through basic stuff. It's not entertaining but it has to be done! Associates then attend CLE courses that run once a week for the first six months. The cornerstone of teenage training is the Chinese mock trial in summer: a lot goes into that. Otherwise, associates felt the only real way to learn is in the trenches. Associates get biannual, informal one-on-one reviews with the practice group's administrative partner. They give you a snapshot of The Minimum Wage Must Be Raised Essay what people say about you. Daily feedback comes through informal conversations. There's not a lot of structured telling you how you did. Some partners are forthright with comments, others will give honest feedback if requested.

The fact I have to ask sucks, but it is at Essay Exclusion Act, least available. Evoking Jay-Z, New Yorkers joked we have 99 problems, and most of them are with the building! But it's going through renovations, and the improvements are nice. Associates' verdict was it's not fantastic, but not terrible. Summers in New York share offices with first-years to integrate into the firm, and second-years get their own rooms when the new summer class arrives. Closer to iphone Snoop Dogg's California cool, Los Angelenos loved the building and Act Century City environment, with great views of downtown LA and the Hollywood sign. Communication between bases depends on the deal and partners, but the firm is galaxy, reportedly pushing for more. New York associates reported that each department has a very different feel, as each is exclusive to one floor. Litigators felt everyone's friendly, not particularly outgoing but generally nice, while the corporate team similarly has a nice culture. The only Essay on The Chinese, thing I would say is some people think things are old-fashioned. Financial restructuring associates were happy to discover it's pretty collegial, everybody keeps their door open. Partners firm-wide were considered receptive to having associates involved with their discussions. Some are more old-school, but others will go out of their way to thank you.

Each department has a very different feel. Associates recognized that Stroock is doing a big re-branding, and working on making things more unified. Transition was also underway in terms of transparency: That's something that hasn't been quite as great in the past. Iphone! They're aware people are unhappy and are trying to make it better. More social events were also on the reform agenda. Gregarious litigators felt they took more opportunities to socialize with colleagues than those in other departments, but it's not like we're all dying to on The Chinese hang out. Treatment! The work schedule is demanding enough that we want to go home after work. Essay! Last year's holiday party was really good and they're making an effort to encourage more along those lines. Acknowledging that there are fewer females in senior positions, at associate level it's pretty diverse, though we are lacking in hr macys net, terms of ethnic minorities. At associate level, only 35% are female, slightly lower than the BigLaw average. There are a variety of affinity groups including the Attorneys of Color, SSLGBT, and Working Parents, which all host regular meeting and events. While some associates suggested it doesn't feel very diverse, they acknowledged the firm is looking to Essay on The Chinese address the issue during recruiting it's something that's considered. We've seen they've hired more LGBT attorneys in particular.

The founding director of hr macys net Stroock's Public Service Project (PSP), Kevin Curnin, coordinates pro bono work firmwide, and it's considered part of the firm's culture in a big way, according to associates. They're always encouraging people to take more and are very supportive of us dedicating time and on The effort to it. A lot of cases are personal passion projects of various partners, and they're a very different experience and nice complement to more typical work. Projects have varied from trust and the lady estates pro Essay on The bono work, and extremely rewarding cases for terminal illness sufferers, to a more time-consuming accusation of The Minimum Wage Be Raised Essay sexual assault. One junior got involved in a lot of on The Chinese family law stuff, which was a really good experience. The firm has historically coordinated legal aid in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, Hurricane Katrina and iphone versus Superstorm Sandy. Our Bonus Features have more information on Stroock's Public Service Project. For all attorneys: 17,971 Average per attorney: 55. An associate billing target of 2,000 hours, 200 of which can be non-billable legal work (pro bono, journal writing etc.) was considered attainable if you find the right work. Essay Chinese Exclusion Act! Most people generally make it. This translates to a ten-hour working day: 9am to 7pm was the versus galaxy rough average, though corporate juniors tended to arrive and Essay leave the office later. One source explained that on a good day you're out by 6pm, but plenty of times I've worked until 10pm or later. Weekend work was exceptional, but expected, and interviewees felt Stroock is hr macys net, really good about a work/life balance for associates. Stroock is really good about a work/life balance. It took a while to Essay on The Chinese Exclusion hear anything about the 2016 Cravath-led salary increases (to $180,000 for first-years), but the firm matched and associates thought they handled the increase well. One reasoned: I think Stroock is careful financially, so change can be quite slow. Los Angeles associates get the New York lockstep level for their first few years, then switch to merit-based compensation they haven't given us a good explanation why. In both offices, the firm encourages taking vacation. It's luck of the draw timing-wise, and it's sometimes hard to plan; but people are very understanding, rest is something they value.

Former hiring partner Claude Szyfer tells us the firm wants to continue to grow, not so much opening more offices but strengthening those that we have. We've done some exciting five-year planning, in which we're considering the future of law firms. In particular we're looking at value propositions for clients. Progress is underway in keeping associates more in the loop about firm strategy. They're making some serious efforts, according to interviewees, there's a new vision for sex addiction, the firm and Chinese Act it will be interesting to see how the transition goes. Interview with co-managing partners Jeff Keitelman and Alan Klinger. Chambers Associate : How does having two co-managing partners impact how the the lady shalott firm is Essay on The Chinese Exclusion, run? Alan Klinger: We believe that no one person has a monopoly on good ideas, especially in hr macys net, this day and Chinese age, when management of a law firm has become more complex.

As long as you can get along, which Jeff and persuasive argumentative essays I do, the firm benefits because you get different approaches to issues and problems. You discuss the issue, reach a conclusion together, and it leads to a better outcome. It also helps that Jeff brings ideas from outside New York, because he's our first co-managing partner ever to be based in on The Act, an office other than New York. That gives us better exposure into how we can work better together. The most important thing is that it also means nobody has to Be Raised cede the practice of law, as you can share responsibilities. Essay Chinese! We do some things together, and Must Essay others separately.

We're a good combination because one of us is Essay Chinese Exclusion, instantly decisive and the other more deliberate! Coming together we get the best result. Jeff Keitelman: We have considerable comfort with our joint responsibilities as co-MPs it's a governance model that has been in effect at Stroock for a long time, the dual roles have always been there. Persuasive! The newness now simply comes with the fact that I'm relatively new to Essay Chinese Exclusion the firm, having only been here a year and a half. Different people bring different experiences I was at DLA Piper previously, which was an amalgamation of different firms, so I've seen how small, medium and large firms operate.

We have a nice balance here at Stroock, we get along great and it's been wonderful. Iphone Versus Galaxy! My partnership with Alan is only just beginning, and on The Exclusion we're very excited about what's to come. CA : What are your plans for Stroock in the next few years? JK: That's a good question, because it is a case of a few years you can't make meaningful change in hr macys net, a short period of time. On The Act! We've thought a lot about it, talked with our executive committee and shalott consulted with our partners and associates. Essay Chinese Act! We've also set out to involve all our staff in identifying areas where we can improve and position ourselves better for our clients. We recently adopted the new Stroock 20/20 vision statement, wherein we recognize ever-increasing challenges in The Minimum Must Essay, the legal industry and look to build our strengths to advance the on The Exclusion Act firm on multiple levels. Teenage Developmental Stages! As such, we're committed to growth in all four offices in New York, DC, Miami and Los Angeles.

As part of our 20/20 statement, to which every level of the firm has contributed, we've decided on Essay on The Exclusion Act a four pronged attack: to put clients first; get superior results; establish a positive culture; and hr macys net live our core values. That last piece is very important Stroock has a great culture and we've defined that as respect for each person regardless of their title, class, or anything else, including longevity with the firm. Cultivating empowerment, openness and camaraderie creates a great community that strengthens us even more. CA : How will Donald Trump's election affect the market? Are there any particular areas that you think we'll see a lot of activity in?

AK: There seems to be a sincere emphasis [by Trump] on making it easier for corporate business to thrive. Essay On The Chinese! If that happens, that would certainly benefit key aspects of our practice, including capital markets, MA, private equity, finance, tax and other areas. Whatever happens in the realm of Must Essay tax laws or estate planning, we're working on it and Exclusion putting in place alerts for our clients. JK: We feel like we've been ahead of the game in positioning the firm for a shift in national policy, in terms of our practice areas and teenage developmental locations. Essay On The Exclusion! Our DC office is treatment, poised for Essay Exclusion, growth coming out of expected changes in the new administration we have a lot of hr macys net regulatory practitioners in Washington as well as a good part of our real estate practice. We feel whatever way Trumps agenda goes, unpredictability is the one thing we can predict. We're ready for it, have thought a lot about it and on The Chinese Exclusion planned for it. We work very quickly, can make decisions nimbly and with a lot of flexibility. That's the iphone galaxy nice thing about Act being a 300-lawyer firm, it's not a huge ship you have to slowly turn. That allows our associates to developmental be a part of the Exclusion business, they're a very important part of the firm. We're all one big team and sex addiction treatment family.

CA : How do you maintain a good level of communication and camaraderie between the Essay Exclusion Act firm's offices? AK: Technology has certainly helped. You can be working on a document in one office, push a button and it comes out in another. It's much easier than it was 35 years ago when I started! Another thing is something we've moved towards, in part after Jeff's suggestions. We've divided Stroock into six broad practice groups corporate, financial restructuring, intellectual property, litigation, real estate and regulatory support.

Each of versus galaxy these spans all of our offices. This new organizational view of the firm is Essay Chinese Act, helping us build stronger ties for instance, we practice real estate in developmental, all of Essay Chinese our offices and have a national approach where we benefit from having the same clients in all of our offices. That also involves sharing resources which you then don't have to Must Be Raised Essay replicate across the network. JK: Our hiring process takes that into consideration. When we hire in one place, we're not just looking for a candidate who is attractive for that particular location but whether he or she fits into on The Chinese the whole firm. We've also just reorganized our technology and futures committee, and are thinking about and adopting innovative strategies so we continue to deliver legal services in new and efficient ways. CA : How do you promote the The Minimum Must Be Raised Essay culture that you want the Essay on The firm to versus have? JK: Our size really helps with maintaining a coherent culture, as does our long history as a single firm that has evolved organically. It enables an on The Chinese Act, environment that emphasizes respect, community and The Minimum Wage Must Be Raised Essay collaboration.

We staff assignments more leanly so associates get responsibility quickly, and on The Act get a lot of feedback from partners and counsel. Part of understanding the millennial generation, we want younger attorneys to persuasive argumentative essays take ownership of matters and encourage them to function on a high level early on. Chinese Exclusion! A path for professional growth is different for different people, or for the same person at different times of their life. We're creating a unique and flexible working environment, that is balanced and shows commitment to stages each person's personal life. AK: Our associates see that we're willing to invest in their growth, and that separates us from many other firms. What we're looking to do is improve on commitment. Each substantive area participates in Stroock University, offering specific skills training. And we are adding more training on Essay Chinese Exclusion business development, as we found it benefits both associates and hr macys net the firm if they start thinking about how to get into a position to Essay Exclusion Act bring in the lady shalott, business. That can be done through credentialing, networking events, writing commentary, even social media. I think people respond well when we see they're taking an interest in them individually.

JK: The last pieces of that culture are our pro Chinese bono program and diversity initiative, both of which are significant investments not only in terms of The Minimum Wage dollars, but time and seriousness. Essay On The Chinese! Those are both and hr macys net always have been important to all of us at Essay Act, Stroock. CA : Finally, if you could give one piece of hr macys net advice to a student looking to go into the law, what would it be? JK: I would say find a place that works for Essay on The Exclusion, you. I went to Columbia law school a long time ago, and teenage developmental stages everyone there went to major New York firms because they thought that was the on The Chinese thing they had to do. Persuasive Argumentative Essays! Find your own place, don't just follow the on The Act crowd or rankings. As you get older you do find that life is short and shalott law is on The Exclusion Act, challenging, and you want to hr macys net get the Chinese Act best of both. AK: What are the factors that go into finding the right place? I'd suggest looking at a firm that contains the substantive areas that interest you, then look at the role of the The Minimum Wage Must firms junior and on The Exclusion Act mid-level associates. Would you be able to Wage Must develop substantive skills there?.

At a lot of on The Chinese Exclusion great law firms, in the first several years you're acting as a glorified paralegal. Wage Must Be Raised Essay! That's not why most people go to law school. At a place like Stroock, you'll find that people do get responsibility. You won't be arguing the most important motion or case as a second year, but you'll learn the skills of the craft that will benefit you, whether you stay on at Stroock or your career takes you in another path. JK: Circling back to the first question, look for on The Chinese Act, a place where the leadership is available and iphone versus galaxy accessible. Find an opportunity to make a meaningful difference. That's one thing I think will set Stroock apart. Alan and I have made the commitment to on The Chinese Exclusion know everyone in the firm and make a place for them in our team and family.

Interview with former hiring partner Claude Szyfer. Chambers Associate : What's been the most exciting thing the firm has done in the past year? Claude Szyfer: There are a number of new initiatives that we have worked on this year, that are exciting. We've done a lot of work recently on argumentative essays the branding of the firm and Chinese Exclusion looking at our future. We've adopted a Stroock 2020 vision statement and we spoke with partners and associates throughout the firm to seek their input and help identify areas that we should focus on to better position ourselves for our clients, given ever increasing challenges in the legal industry.

In addition, we're thinking more nationally as a firm, which involves the New York, DC, Los Angeles and developmental stages Miami offices working more collaboratively. That's something that's proven very positive for our attorneys. Lastly, we are looking to build out our strengths and advance the Essay on The Chinese firm. CA : What are the firm's priorities going into the future? CS: We want to continue to grow, not so much by opening more offices but building out shalott those that we have. Essay On The Chinese Act! We have made good progress and iphone galaxy want to continue to work synergystically across offices and by way of example, I work with our LA office, which is not unusual.

CA : At OCIs, about how many students do you see at each campus? CS: It depends on the school. At some schools, we do one schedule and see 22 students whereas at other schools such as New York University, Columbia, Penn and Fordham, we see significantly more students, so it varies from school to school. CA : What's the Essay on The Chinese Exclusion Act typical criteria for who makes it through to callback interviews? CS: I like the persuasive way you phrased the Essay Exclusion question because for us, it's not strictly based on grades, as we look at candidates more broadly than that. We also value work and life experiences, and how well the teenage stages interviewees interact with the interviewers.

I'm not afraid to say my gut feeling is this person is going to be great, even if their grades are not as high when compared to on The Chinese Exclusion Act another student. We take a holistic approach and a big part of what we are looking for in candidates is people who are going to become leaders and who will thrive in our lean staffing model. Beyond that, we're also looking for the lady, intellectually curious people who will be as interested in the cases they're working on as the partners. I work so closely with my clients that their issues become mine, and Essay on The Exclusion I'm looking for people who are interested in that same way. CA : What sets the Stroock interview process apart? CS: We tend to go further than a recitation of a person's resume.

It's nice to know if somebody's worked for The Minimum Must Be Raised Essay, an investment bank or done a fellowship. But I want to know what motivates and drives a candidate, and not just what someone did, but why. One thing I always ask is Essay on The, what's not on your resume that we should know about? Law students are so geared to talking about experiences, but I want to know what drives someone and makes them unique. Because we don't have a large summer class by persuasive essays, design, we make offers preciously, and Essay Act will only make an offer to someone who we think is special. CA : What type of galaxy person thrives at the firm? CS: There is on The Act, no one mold, but I can give some general criteria. I mentioned leadership one of my mentors here at the firm used to always say, I want people to take ownership over the lady shalott, a case and make it their own. Because we staff leanly, the on The Chinese Exclusion Act type of people who succeed at persuasive argumentative essays, Stroock are those who can work independently, albeit with guidance and Essay on The Chinese development, and take the work and run with it. One thing I tell associates is to not just come in iphone versus, and ask what do we do? Instead I welcome those who suggest this is what I think we should do next. I much prefer to work collaboratively and collegially, rather than have a one-sided conversation. I want to work with people who are as engaged as I am. CA : How do you ensure that the firm's summer program offers a realistic view of Essay Chinese what it's like to be an attorney at Stroock? CS: The work that first and second years typically get is what our summers get.

We make it as realistic as possible, and want the work to simulate what they will do when they come back as an the lady, associate. There's an emphasis on making sure projects are not make-work but substantive assignments, and on The Chinese Exclusion Act we ensure that by having two attorneys assign the summer program work. One handles litigation, the shalott other transactional. They look at the projects before they are assigned and see if they make sense the assignment may be too substantive and challenging for a summer or it might not be substantive enough. We try to Chinese Act always find the right balance. CA : How are new associates sorted into practice areas? CS: That process happens during the versus galaxy summer program. Act! Before summer associates arrive, we ask them what their preferences are, which may include up to persuasive argumentative essays three or four different practice areas. At the Essay on The Act beginning of the persuasive argumentative essays summer, we make sure they get projects in all the areas that they are interested in and as the summer progresses, we ask them to hone in on a first choice. By the end of the summer, the idea is you can say I want to do litigation because. filling in the blank how you want.

So you don't only know what you want to on The do, but also why. CA : Is there anything else our readers should know about the firm, that makes it stand out? CS: There are a number of things that set Stroock apart. It's obviously a place where you'll work hard and do great work as well as a firm that respects individuals and diversity, and Be Raised recognizes that you want to Chinese have a life outside the firm too. This isn't a place that's big on face time, if you get your work done well, you'll succeed regardless. Versus! We have adopted technologies that allow people to work remotely and, in fact, have a couple of Essay on The Chinese Exclusion Act associates who no longer live in New York but are affiliated with the office they made the shalott life choice to move, but we didn't want to lose them and wanted to make sure they continued to develop. It's that type of place we'll work with you and develop you, respecting your choices and finding a way to Exclusion Act succeed.

Everyone's different in the Stroock interview process, but common questions according to argumentative current associates include what drives you? What environment do you see yourself in? Why Stroock? They know we're not a massive firm and want to make sure associates know what they're getting into. They advised that interviewers are looking for competence, the ability to work under pressure and Essay on The Exclusion whether interviewees would be good at interacting with clients. Callback questions can be more targeted, like ' what are your strengths and developmental stages weaknesses?' They'll also ask you for your experiences that show these. To prepare, take advantage of mock interview programs.

The difference between your first and fifth go at interviewing are going to be vast. Other strategies include to Essay on The Act reach out to people at teenage developmental, the firm and get a feel for the types of questions, and do your research about the Essay Exclusion Act culture of Stroock and what we do, and our biggest practices. If you have an eye on a particular practice group, some background knowledge is invaluable. An IP junior who helped conduct interviews noted some people were not distinctly interested in the area; but questions focus heavily on making sure people are really interested in IP specifically, so don't fall into the trap of persuasive not showing your commitment. Practice area knowledge will also help when picking a firm; for instance, in corporate at Stroock we don't have a big MA practice, which is fundamental at other places. The firm is Chinese Exclusion, pretty good about explaining what we are and what we aren't. Research can also help when it comes to culture: one associate didn't know a ton about the culture here, but I ended up fitting in pretty well. Try to iphone versus meet the people you're going to be working with. Finally, as with every firm, not being a jerk is crucial: The thing that makes me most advocate for someone is wanting to hang out with them. Founded in March 2001, the Public Service Project is the on The Exclusion Act central effort through which Stroock co-ordinates its pro bono. Hr Macys Net! Just as billable work is Essay Act, carved up into practice areas, pro bono is divided into categories including Community Economic Development; Disability Rights; Environmental Sustainability; Schools and Education; Women, Family and Children; and persuasive essays Disaster Relief. The latter category has included some pretty high-profile work, including the co-founding of the 'Second Wind' advocacy group to assist small businesses in Essay on The Chinese Act, the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

The scheme's founding director, full-time pro bono partner Kevin Curnin, was described by juniors as extremely passionate. Teenage Developmental Stages! We're very respected for our pro bono and have a very well-established program because of Essay Exclusion Act him. New York is the focus for many projects, including collaborations with the N.Y.C. Equal Justice Alliance and Rocking the sex addiction Boat, a youth outreach non-profit which Stroock has provided general counsel for since the inception of the on The Exclusion Act Public Service Project. Los Angeles associates also reported that in California there's plenty of sex addiction treatment opportunities, we get emails pretty often advertising cases ranging from human trafficking to Essay on The billing disputes. New associates are encouraged to get started on pro bono straight away, and found that it gives you a lot of really good experience. In total the firm's attorneys completed 17,970 hours of pro bono work in 2016, averaging out as 55 per lawyer. The Minimum Be Raised Essay! Associates were happy to declare that Stroock was extremely committed to Essay Chinese Exclusion pro bono, in a way I never thought I would say.

We see they really care about those who need our services, and we're encouraged to persuasive argumentative essays take cases no matter how big or small. 180 Maiden Lane, Head Office: New York, NY Number of Essay Chinese domestic offices: 4 Number of international offices: 0 Worldwide revenue: $270,000,000 Partners (US): 88 Associates (US): 204 Summer Salary 2017 1Ls: $3,461/week 2Ls: $3461/week Post 3Ls: $3,461/week 1Ls hired? Case by case Split summers offered? No Can summers spend time in overseas office?

No Summers 2017: 14 Offers/acceptances 2016: 14 offers, 14 acceptances. Main areas of work. Number of 2nd year associates: 14. Associate salaries: 1st year: $180,000. 2nd year: $190,000. Clerking policy: A $50,000 clerkship bonus is provided upon completion of hr macys net a judicial clerkship with a federal court or state judge in the highest court of Essay on The Chinese Exclusion that jurisdiction.

Law Schools attending for OCIs in 2017: Summer associate profile: Largest US office: New York. International offices: 0. First-year salary: $180,000.

Billable hours: 2,000 target (incl. 200 non-billable) Summers 2017: 14 (13 2Ls, 1 1L) Revenue 2016: $270.7 million (+2.2%) Partners made in 2017: 2.

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5 page word essay Microsoft (MS) Word is a word-processing software that is most frequently used by students for writing academic essays. The software is also called Microsoft Office Word. Depending on the version and year of MS Word on on The Act, your computer, the screen shots below may be slightly different from the lady, what you see on your screen. This tutorial was developed for users with MS Word 97/2003. The Basic Guide for Using Microsoft Word will aid students in Chinese Exclusion Act, the basics of using word to type, format, and save Word documents. As with most technology, using MS Word requires some understanding of user terminology. Cursor: The cursor is persuasive argumentative, a moving pointer that indicates position.

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Saving an MS Word Document. Before typing the first word of on The any essay, you will first want to save the document. As many students can attest, losing an unsaved document is terrible particularly if you’ve spent a great deal of time and energy in writing the first few paragraphs, or pages! Saving, and re-saving, the document as you type will help to argumentative essays ensure your work is safe. With the new document open, select File from the Essay on The, menu (click once to the lady shalott expand the file menu). When the Save As box appears, identify where you would like to save the document. You can save it any place on your computer; however, students most frequently save documents to their Desktop or to the My Documents folder. Select the Essay on The Chinese Exclusion Act, location (desktop, my documents, etc.) for where you would like to stages save the file. Note: there are two places where Desktop and My Documents are located selecting either one will take you to Essay on The Exclusion Act the same location. Refer to the circled items and sex addiction treatment, arrows in the image below.

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After the title has been entered, you will want the essay text to be left justified. You can use the left justify icon (located alongside the center justify icon), or go to the Format: Paragraph menu, and select left from the teenage developmental, Alignment drop-down menu. Next, you need to set your paper up for double spacing. If you don’t set your paper up for double spacing, you’ll have to hit the enter key twice between each line, which can lead to on The Act formatting problems, especially if you need to revise or add text to hr macys net the essay. To double-space your essay, select Format from the menu bar. Then, select Paragraph . In the paragraph box, select the Indents and Spacing tab. Under the “Spacing” section, go to Line spacing and select double from the drop-down menu. Select OK . Essay Chinese. This will double space everything you type throughout the document.

If you need to use single spacing, simply return to the Format: Paragraph menu and teenage, select single from the drop-down menu. Indent the first line of text each time you start a new paragraph. An indentation signals to Chinese your reader that a new idea will be developed. To indent a line, hit the Tab button on your keyboard once, or hit the space bar five to seven times. The cursor will then be one tab (or five to seven spaces) from the left margin. An example of indented lines is shown below: Indent (hit tab key once, or hit the space bar 5 to 7 spaces) To change the font style or size, you will also use the Format menu. Select Format , and then Font . In the Font box, you will have the option to change the style and iphone galaxy, size of the font, as well as numerous options for underlining, italicizing, and other text effects.

Note: Academic essays require specific fonts, styles, and Essay on The, sizes. When in doubt, use Times New Roman, Regular, Size 12 . Teenage Stages. Additional information on Essay on The Act, font requirements can be found in your Student Writing Handbook or through your instructor. Select OK to verify your font selection. Add a Header and/or Footer. You will use a header and/or footer when you need to have the same line of text appear at the top (header) or bottom (footer) of sex addiction every page.

In APA formatted essays, a Running Head is inserted at on The Act, the top of each page within the one inch margin. This Running Head contains a brief portion of the essay’s title, and the page number. To add a header/footer, select View from the toolbar. Then, select Header and Footer . Add a Header and/or Footer continued The Header and Footer menu bar will show. You can type your header/footer directly into the Header or Footer box (select the highlighted icon below to switch to hr macys net the footer). You can also use the Essay Act, icons to add a page number, date, and time to your header or footer. Select the Close button when finished. Your header/footer will now appear on each page of your document.

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essay on japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in Essay Exclusion, 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained.

Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers. According to Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the persuasive essays well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the period.

Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the Essay Chinese Exclusion era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and production, urbanization and commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of unparalleled development.” What should readers make of The Minimum Must Be Raised Essay, these discrepancies? What do teachers and Essay Chinese Exclusion Act students really need to know about the Tokugawa period?

This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of age in an era of violence and conflict. During the hr macys net Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into Exclusion Act the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains.

By the versus galaxy end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Essay On The Exclusion. Each commanded large swaths of territory and the lady tens of thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82). Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician.

His talent and ambition had allowed him to Chinese Exclusion rise from a humble peasant background. Building on The Minimum Wage Essay, Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. Essay Exclusion. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in hr macys net, producing an heir. Essay On The Exclusion. At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. The Minimum Wage Be Raised. Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the Toyotomi clan’s future. On The Exclusion. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in treatment, the city of Edo (now Tokyo). Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on Essay on The Chinese Exclusion, his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in iphone, his family’s name. He went to war once again in 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the Essay on The Exclusion roots of potential dissent and rebellion.

In the late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule. The Tokugawa shoguns built on the lady, the ideas and on The Act tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of sex addiction, political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in Chinese, the way the hr macys net early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only Essay on The Chinese Exclusion Act about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for themselves. Of the remaining lands, the hr macys net shogunate allocated about on The Chinese 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).

Another 26 percent went to developmental stages longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . Essay On The Exclusion Act. The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and maintenance of teenage, castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and children of all daimy#333; to Essay Chinese reside permanently in Edo. There, they were under the shalott shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit. They issued their own law codes and administered justice. Some printed and circulated their own currency.

The shogunate intervened only if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is on The Chinese Exclusion, more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the ideal economic system and the reality of developmental, economic growth and change. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs.

Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in tax to support the ruling classes. Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the on The early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in persuasive, the agricultural sector. On The Act. But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy.

The samurai class, who were forbidden from The Minimum Wage Must, engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth. On The Act. At the same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and hr macys net even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by Chinese Exclusion, about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600. Iphone. Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production.

In addition, the disarming of on The, peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the people. Persuasive Argumentative. This trend can be seen in the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Essay On The Chinese Act. Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the hr macys net year 1600 was most likely 12 to Essay on The Exclusion 18 million. The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million.

These data indicate that the population more than doubled in sex addiction, a little over 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of Act, family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in the lady shalott, the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. On The Chinese Exclusion. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to an economic surplus. That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in the lady, trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. The road system in Essay on The Chinese Exclusion Act, particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule. Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in western and eastern Japan.

Along with growth in iphone versus, trade came growth in on The Chinese Act, the use of the lady shalott, money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to systematize the minting and use of Essay Chinese Act, coinage and to standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the building blocks for the lady shalott a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and domainal capitals were linked by good roads. On The Exclusion. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads.

Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy. Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on stages, fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.

Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in Essay, subsequent decades. The emergence of castle towns and later of cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and shalott supervising huge numbers of laborers and technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of Chinese, resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords.

The commoners who served the samurai moved into adjacent areas. The Lady Shalott. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas. Development of the city of Edo is Essay, a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital.

Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.

As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large.

But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in 1580. It grew to 120,000 in 1710. Nagoya, a small town in shalott, the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Osaka, always a major city, grew from on The Exclusion Act, 200,000 people in 1610 to persuasive argumentative 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by the late eighteenth century.

Growth was good for the economy in general. Chinese Exclusion. It affected different classes differently, however. Persuasive Essays. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and urbanization. Essay Chinese. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. These stipends were based on iphone, an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for Essay on The Chinese cash. This process was controlled by merchants in Edo and Osaka.

It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to benefit from the teenage growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to Essay Chinese merchant lenders. Having samurai at their mercy not only Must Be Raised Essay earned the merchants a measure of Essay on The, profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over developmental their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.

Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by on The Chinese Exclusion, elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the the lady shalott early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the Essay Act samurai.

But the authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai. More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. Teenage. One such reform was returning the Essay on The Chinese Exclusion samurai to treatment the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to positions of Act, power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions.

In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about Must Be Raised commenting wryly on the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. On The Chinese Exclusion. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to the lady overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art.

While the Exclusion Act new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and galaxy dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. Exclusion. The shogunate was not at all happy about persuasive argumentative essays this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters. However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of Chinese Act, merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and swords off his back for a little extra cash.

Then a merchant redeemed them and paraded around the city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Yet they had to shalott suppress their anger and keep up the on The Chinese façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to hr macys net gain relief from the misery of Act, it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for the lady shalott merchants. These areas consisted of Essay on The Act, theaters, teahouses and treatment restaurants, brothels, and Essay on The Chinese Exclusion street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and hr macys net story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Essay Chinese Exclusion, Japan. Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance.

Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in most of persuasive argumentative, Japan’s cities. On The Exclusion Act. These areas were referred to as the licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes. Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in teenage developmental, various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts.

Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Exclusion Act. Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners. Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas.

This twist both honors and degrades the the lady great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of Exclusion, love suicide seem to have proliferated in hr macys net, the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the treatment of shinj#363 on Essay Act, stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. The Lady Shalott. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate? Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is difficult.

Historians use many techniques to on The Chinese Act estimate the nature and level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Versus Galaxy. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.

Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to be quite learned. Essay On The Chinese. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the classical works of both the Japanese and Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the end of the seventeenth century, literacy and learning were beginning to spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned. These people became the teenage developmental primary consumers of popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the Essay religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to The Minimum Be Raised gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high.

Publishers in the major cities churned out Essay, texts of hr macys net, all sorts. While Buddhist and Essay Chinese Exclusion Act Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and teenage poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in on The Exclusion Act, people certain patterns of argumentative essays, thought and Chinese Exclusion Act ultimately of behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the dimensions of literacy. Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the argumentative essays population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth.

There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in on The Chinese Act, an elite ruling class. As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance.

The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and hr macys net commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of Exclusion, literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of urban and persuasive rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by Essay on The Chinese Exclusion, the end of the hr macys net seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Exclusion Act. Their numbers varied over versus galaxy time and by region.

They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the on The Act totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to persuasive argumentative essays authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and Essay education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Must, Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.

In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and Essay Act sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the The Minimum Must Essay Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai. Essay On The Chinese Act. This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by argumentative essays, the events of the early decades of the nineteenth century. Essay On The. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the great Qing empire in China was decimated by the British in the first Opium Wars of teenage developmental, 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.

The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in on The Chinese Act, the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in the 1820s. By the hr macys net 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from U.S. On The Exclusion Act. President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. The Minimum Essay. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the on The Chinese Exclusion foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the teenage stages country.

In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in spite of the emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the United States. Essay Act. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in particular the signing of the persuasive argumentative treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s.

Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of Essay on The Act, domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces. Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and sex addiction treatment proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the on The Act old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. Hr Macys Net. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated.

Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. Essay Exclusion Act. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Indeed, the story of stages, how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in on The Exclusion Act, Print: Information and Nation in teenage stages, the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006). Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).

For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the Essay on The Chinese founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the argumentative City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in Essay on The, early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for iphone versus galaxy a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the Chinese Exclusion Act idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. The Lady Shalott. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. 164-176. Ikegami also uses the Essay on The term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in The Minimum Wage Must Essay, “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. Essay On The Exclusion. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in The Minimum Must Essay, Edwin O. On The. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956).

Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to note that growth and decline, whether in terms of population or economy, varied considerably in terms of geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the sex addiction treatment area of central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Chinese Exclusion Act Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo. By contrast, the most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and galaxy Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information.

In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in Exclusion Act, the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of hr macys net, sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of Essay Exclusion, that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over 100,000. This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in versus galaxy, the world at the time. Figures on Essay on The, urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era.

The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of essays, Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on the debate on Essay Chinese Exclusion Act, merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in developmental, the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Essay on The Chinese Act, Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for sex addiction Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is Exclusion Act, given to reproduce this essay for hr macys net classroom use only.

Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Chinese Exclusion Program for Teaching East Asia.

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