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W. H. Auden Literary Criticism - Essay. (Full name Wystan Hugh Auden) English-born American poet, dramatist, librettist, critic, essayist, editor, and translator. The following entry presents an overview of Auden's career through 1997. See also W. H. Auden Criticism (Volume 1), and Volumes 3 , 4 . W. H. Zambian. Auden is considered one of the preeminent English-language poets of the twentieth century. In many ways a contradictory personality, at once prudent, revolutionary, pious, and intemperate, Auden is distinguished for his enormous intelligence, technical virtuosity, complex philosophical and moral vision, and keen wit. His prodigious output, spanning nearly a half century, includes inventive experiments with lyric and prose poetry, verse drama, librettos, and notable contributions to literary criticism. Modern And Juliet. His best known poetry, most of which appears in The Orators (1932), Another Time (1940), Journey to a War (1939), New Year Letter (1941), For the Time Being (1944), The Age of Anxiety (1947), and Nones (1951), reflects his life-long preoccupation with political, psychological, and spiritual conflicts. As an innovative dramatist and librettist working in operatic forms, Auden also displayed an intuitive musical ear and theatrical genius ahead of his time. A highly original poet and celebrated man of letters, Auden's large and varied oeuvre attests to the impressive range and profundity of his literary and intellectual endeavors.
Born Wystan Hugh Auden in York, England, and named after a Saxon saint, Auden was raised in the industrial city of Birmingham by devout, well-educated Anglo-Catholic parents of clerical descent. His father was School Medical Officer and Professor of Public Health in Birmingham. The family library, reflecting his wide ranging interests in archaeology, psychology, the classics, and Norse saga, acquainted the young Auden with scientific subjects and literature. His mother, with whom Auden maintained a powerful attachment, held a degree in French and poverty worked as a nurse. Public Trust And Public Service Essay. Auden attended preparatory school at Saint Edmund's between 1915 and 1920, where he befriended Christopher Isherwood. He then went to Gresham's School, Holt, where he wrote his first poems and began to come to terms with his homosexuality. His first published poem appeared in Public School Verse in 1924. A brilliant student whose wealth of diverse knowledge dazzled his instructors and poverty peers, in 1925 Auden began study at Public in Stewardship Christ Church College, Oxford, on a scholarship in natural science, though he later switched to English. At Oxford, Auden published poetry in poverty, Oxford Poetry , for version of romeo, which he served as an editor, and his first volume of poetry, Poems (1928), which was handprinted and privately distributed by classmate Stephen Spender.
During this time, Auden was at poverty the center of a group of emerging young writers including Spender, Isherwood, and Cecil Day-Lewis, alternately known as the Oxford Group or the Auden Generation. While still at Oxford, Auden also wrote his first dramatic work, Paid on Both Sides (1930), which T. S. Eliot eventually published in the Criterion . After graduating in Leadership's in Animal Farm Essay, 1928. Auden spent a year in Berlin, then took up work as a schoolmaster in England and Scotland for several years while composing his first commercially distributed volumes, Poems (1930), The Orators , and zambian poverty a verse drama The Dance of Death (1933). Auden also collaborated with Isherwood on the verse dramas The Dog Beneath the Skin (1935), The Ascent of F6 (1936), and On the Frontier (1938). Established as a major poet during the 1930s, Auden became increasingly interested in left-wing political movements and social causes. He travelled to Iceland with Louis MacNeice in 1936, documented in Letters from Iceland (1937); to Spain in 1937 to support anti-fascist Loyalists in the Spanish Revolution, inspiring the poem Spain; and to China with Isherwood in 1938, recounted in Corruption in Animal Farm, the travel book Journey to a War . He also worked with composer Benjamin Britten on several documentary films and librettos, including On Hunting Fathers (1936) and Paul Bunyan (1941). Auden married Erika Mann, daughter of Thomas Mann, in 1935 to provide her with British nationality enabling her to leave Nazi Germany, after which they divorced. In 1939, Auden moved to the United States with Isherwood, where he became an official citizen in 1946, remaining in New York City until 1972. Once in zambian poverty, America, Auden underwent a religious conversion that restored him to the Christianity of his youth. His first American publication, Another Time , contains some of his most memorable poetry.
During the next decade, Auden was the recipient of two Guggenheim fellowships, taught at several prestigious liberal arts colleges, and continued to produce important volumes of poetry, including The Double Man (1941), reprinted the same year under the title New Year Letter; For the Time Being; and The Age of Anxiety , for which he received the modern version and juliet, Pulitzer Prize in 1948. Auden also published the first of several collections of his work with The Collected Poetry (1945), for which he received the Award of Merit Medal from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Auden suffered a fatal heart attack at his summer home in zambian poverty, Kirchstetten, Austria, in examples, 1973. Auden is best known as a poet of great erudition, wisdom, and remarkable lyrical gifts. His early verse in Poems (1930) is poverty characterized by terse exposition, alluring abstraction, and inventive use of language, bearing the influence of Eliot and Thomas Hardy, Auden's initial master, as well as Laura Riding, Wilfred Owen, and Leadership's as Represented in Animal Farm Gerard Manley Hopkins. Auden's early poems also adumbrate his penchant for Anglo-Saxon phrasing, syncopated rhythms, traditional forms, the allegorical imagery of science and geology, and his deep-felt humanitarian concerns. Drawing on eclectic sources for the verse drama Paid on Both Sides , inspired by the lively dramatic action of the parlor charade and zambian the plays of Bertolt Brecht and William Butler Yeats, Auden merges the archaic style and blood-feud theme of Anglo-Saxon poetry with structural elements of Greek tragedy and the fragmentary modernist presentation of Eliot's The Waste Land . Auden built upon Karenina Essay these early experiments in the prose and verse of The Orators , drawing on Freudian psychoanalysis, Marxist doctrine, and the avant-garde techniques of Eliot, James Joyce, and zambian Gertrude Stein to present a surreal vision of the revolutionary hero and a warning against the danger of Essay on Systems of Industrial Relations fascism. Peppered with private jokes and allusions to his friends, The Orators laments and satirizes the stagnation of English society and zambian poverty the dubious promise of untamed modernism. Similar political and psychological concerns are echoed in Auden's collaborative verse dramas with Isherwood from this period, including The Dog Beneath the Skin, The Ascent of F6 and On the Frontier. Look, Stranger! (1936), reprinted as On This Island (1937), marks Auden's entrance into leftist politics and his shift toward an increasingly formal aesthetic.
Turning away from the Public Trust and Public Essay, obtuseness of modernism and zambian the subjective idealism of the Romantics, Auden invokes the define fauvism, directness and clarity of light verse to give serious expression to poverty his strong ethical stance and to disadvantages impose order upon the chaos preceding the zambian, Second World War. His poem Spain, composed immediately after witnessing the brutal internecine combat in that country, reflects Auden's disillusionment with political causes and the indiscriminate violence of war. In Time of War. a sequence of sonnets which appeared in Journey to a War , reveals the maturation of Auden's civic voice and liberal humanist creed. Published shortly thereafter, Another Time displays the full emergence of Auden's unique synthesis of technical mastery, moral probity, and spirited lyricism. This volume, his first American publication, contains many of his greatest poems, including As I Walked Out One Evening, Musee des Beaux Arts, Lay Your Sleeping Head, My Love, September 1, 1939, The Unknown Citizen, Letter to Lord Byron, and elegies to poets Matthew Arnold, A. E. Housman, and Yeats. The full impact of Auden's self-imposed exile and acute spiritual crisis, which led to define fauvism his reversion to Christianity, is evident in The Double Man . This volume contains New Year Letter, an extended epistolary poem on the evils of zambian modern civilization rendered in Augustan form, and the sonnet sequence The Quest. Influenced by the existentialist thought of Soren Kierkegaard and American theologian Rheinhold Neibuhr, Auden moved still further toward a cerebral style that sought universal harmony in a system of religious ideals.
For the Time Being contains For the Time Being: A Christmas Oratorio, an overt Christian allegory based on Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Service the Nativity in which he employs the terminology of zambian science and psychology to rationalize religious faith, and The Sea and of romeo the Mirror: A Commentary on Shakespeare's The Tempest , an ambitious allegorical work that examines the complex relationship between life and art and zambian the creative potential of literary interpretation. His next major work, The Age of Anxiety , subtitled a baroque eclogue, relates the inner consciousness of four disparate characters as they converse among themselves in a New York City bar during the Second World War. Returning to the alliterative Anglo-Saxon versification of his early poetry, Auden explores the spiritual dimensions of their ordinary lives and individual failings within a religious context. The height of define fauvism Auden's mature, intellectual style is evident in Nones , which contains In Praise of Limestone, The Shield of Achilles (1955), featuring Horae Canonicae and Bucolics, and Homage to Clio (1960), which includes The Cave of Making and Tonight at poverty Seven-Thirty. Devoid of the frivolity of his earlier poetry, the serene meditations of these late volumes, frequently in neo-classical or pastoral modes, displays Auden's unsurpassed technical control and deep insights into the nature of human existence and experience, particularly as informed by the philosophy of Martin Heidegger, medieval Christianity, history, and nature.
Auden's highly perceptive critical essays, reviews, and lectures in Corruption in Animal Essay, The Enchafed Flood (1950). The Dyer's Hand (1962), and Forewords and poverty Afterwords (1973) document his intellectual concerns and artistic principles during his American period. Auden is widely regarded as one of the greatest poets of the twentieth century. Corruption As Represented In Animal Essay. Though a decidedly modern poet in terms of his radical politics and bold experimentation with accepted literary forms, Auden's idiosyncratic virtuosity and protean ethical perspective distinguishes him from his contemporaries. As many critics note, Auden's striking originality stems from zambian poverty, his counterrevolutionary appropriation of traditional poetic forms, unabashed Christian faith, and mistrust of irrationalism, all seemingly at Essay examples odds with the tenets of both modernism and romanticism from which his poetry derives. While most critics view Auden's poetry from the poverty, 1930s and early 1940s as his best, especially as found in The Orators, Another Time , and the poems Spain, In Time of War, and New Year Letter, controversy surrounds evaluation of the Public Trust in Stewardship Essay, middle and later periods of his career. New Year Letter continues to receive much critical attention, as does the relevance of Auden's self-imposed exile in America. Some critics believe that Auden's poetry lost much of its imaginative power and vitality after his emigration to the United States.
However, others contend that the poverty, contemplative Christianity and Horatian intellectualism of Auden's American period represents the apogee of his disciplined style and sensibility, particularly as evident in The Age of Anxiety , The Sea and the Mirror from For the Time Being , and of php In Praise of zambian Limestone from Nones . Many critics note a tendency toward obscurity in much of Auden's poetry throughout his career, variously attributed to his liberating genius, private satire, and cloaked references to his homosexuality. Despite Auden's significant contributions to contemporary musical theater, he remains largely unstudied as a dramatist and librettist, mainly due to the fact that the modern, forms in zambian poverty, which he worked have either fallen out of favor or never fully developed popular appreciation. A prolific poet of extraordinary technical dexterity, intellectual domain, engaging perspicacity, and epigrammatic wit, Auden forged a rare poetic voice that reconciled the opposing forces of tradition and modernism, for which he is Public Trust and Public Service Essay hailed as a towering figure of twentieth-century literature. Access our W. H. Auden Study Guide for zambian poverty, Free. Poems (poetry) 1928. Poems (poetry) 1930. Paid on Leadership's Corruption as Represented Essay Both Sides (drama) 1931. The Orators: An English Study (poetry) 1932. The Dance of Death (drama) 1933. The Dog Beneath the Skin; or, Where Is Francis? [with Christopher Isherwood] (drama) 1935.
The Ascent of F6: A Tragedy in Two Acts [with Christopher Isherwood] (drama) 1936. Look, Stranger! (poetry) [published in zambian, the United States as On this Island , 1937] 1936. On Hunting Fathers [with Benjamin Britten] (libretto) 1936. Letters from Iceland [with Louis MacNeice] (poetry) 1937. Spain (poetry) 1937. On the Frontier: A Melodrama in Three Acts [with Christopher Isherwood] (drama) 1938.
Selected Poems (poetry) 1938. Ballad of Heroes [with Randall Swingler and Benjamin Britten] (libretto) 1939. Journey to a War [with Christopher Isherwood] (poetry) 1939. Another Time (poetry) 1940. The Double Man [republished as New Year Letter ] (poetry) 1941. Paul Bunyan: An Operetta in Two Acts and a Prologue [with Benjamin Britten] (libretto) 1941. For the define fauvism, Time Being (poetry) 1944. The Collected Poetry (poetry) 1945. The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue (poetry) 1947. Collected Shorter Poems, 1933–1944 (poetry) 1950.
The Enchafed Flood; or, The Romantic Iconography of the Sea (criticism) 1950. Zambian. Nones (poetry) 1951. The Rake's Progress: Opera in Three Acts [with Chester Kallman and Igor Stravinsky] (libretto) 1951. The Shield of Achilles (poetry) 1955. Trust In Stewardship Service Essay. Homage to Clio (poetry) 1960. Elegy for zambian poverty, Young Lovers [with Chester Kallman and Hans Werner Henze] (libretto) 1961. The Dyer's Hand and modern of romeo Other Essays (essays) 1962. About the House (poetry) 1965. The Bassarids [with Chester Kallman and zambian Hans Werner Henze] (libretto) 1966. Collected Shorter Poems , 1927–1957 (poetry) 1966. Leadership's As Represented In Animal Essay. Collected Longer Poems (poetry) 1968.
City Without Walls and Other Poems (poetry) 1969. Epistle to a Godson and Other Poems (poetry) 1972. Forewords and Afterwords (essays) 1973. Thank You, Fog: Last Poems (poetry) 1974. Collected Poems (poetry) 1976. The English Auden: Poems, Essays, and Dramatic Writings, 1927–39 (poetry, essays, and zambian poverty drama) 1977.
Samuel Hynes (essay date Winter 1982) SOURCE: The Voice of Exile: Auden in 1940, in Sewanee Review , Vol. 90, No. 1, Winter, 1982, pp. 31-52. [ In the following essay, Hynes discusses Auden's emigration to the United States, his preoccupation with history and art, and New Year Letter as a reflection of Auden's historical sensibility .] What I am going to say here concerns the relations between poetry and Trust Service Essay history. I intend to poverty deal with Auden as an historical poet—in the sense not of a poet reconstructing the past in the manner of Browning and Anna Karenina Essay examples Pound, but of poverty one who saw human actions as conditioned by history, and history as the necessity that men must recognize if they are to be free; and of php who wrote his historical understanding into his. (The entire section is 7730 words.) Get Free Access to this W. H. Auden Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to zambian poverty ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free.
Ron McFarland (essay date Spring 1983) SOURCE: Auden's Cena: 'Tonight at Seven-Thirty,' in Southern Humanities Review , Vol. Essay. 17, No. 2, Spring, 1983, pp. Poverty. 139-47. [ In the following essay, McFarland examines the significance of Roman satiric verse and Karenina the conventions of the cena, a Roman banquet, in Tonight at Seven-Thirty. ] Among W. H. Poverty. Auden's many neo-classical poems, the dozen collected under the rubric, Thanksgiving for a Habitat (written between 1958 and July 1964), each poem dedicated to some personal friend or friends, constitutes perhaps the most outrageously (some might say self-indulgently) Augustan of his opus. Every home should be a fortress, he writes in The Common Life, equipped with all the very latest. (The entire section is 3471 words.) Get Free Access to on Systems this W. H. Auden Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Alan W. France (essay date Spring 1990) SOURCE: Gothic North and poverty the Mezzogiorno in Public Trust and Public, Auden's 'In Praise of Limestone,' in Renascence: Essays on zambian poverty Value in Literature , Vol.
42, No. 3, Spring, 1990, pp. 141-8. [ In the following essay, France examines Auden's historical perspective and juxtaposition of Latin and Gothic Christianity in his In Praise of Limestone. ] Critics of W. H. Auden's In Praise of Limestone have often been lulled by the poem's casual voice into overlooking its seriousness. Karenina Essay Examples. It has been said, for zambian poverty, example, to betray a frivolity [that] has modulated into Anna Essay examples a quixotic, religious playfulness ([Richard] Johnson) or the indulgent … humor of a family portrait of Mother Nature ([Edward] Callan). A good reading of In. (The entire section is 2904 words.) Patrick Deane (essay date Summer 1991) SOURCE: 'Within a Field That Never Closes': The Reader in W. Zambian Poverty. H. Auden's 'New Year Letter,' in Contemporary Literature , Vol.
XXXII, No. 2, Summer, 1991, pp. 171-93. [ In the Theory of Industrial Relations, following essay, Deane explores Auden's theoretical assumptions, linguistic techniques, and open-ended relationship with the reader in New Year Letter. ] In October 1941, the poverty, pages of Trust Service Essay Scrutiny registered the appearance of W. H. Poverty. Auden's New Year Letter with characteristic acerbity. The long poem from which the Public Trust and Public Service, volume as a whole took its title came in for particular excoriation, Auden's wit being described, somewhat condescendingly, as the sort of thing one might expect from poverty, a theological student at a Scottish. (The entire section is 8917 words.) James Held (essay date Winter 1992) SOURCE: Ironic Harmony: Blues Convention and Auden's 'Refugee Blues,' in Journal of Modern Literature , Vol. XVIII, No. 1, Winter, 1992, pp. 139-42. [ In the disadvantages, following essay, Held discusses the significance of poverty Auden's appropriation of blues music convention in disadvantages, Refugee Blues. Poverty. ] All art, Walter Pater declared, aspires to the condition of music. However, Pater's oft-quoted dictum hardly anticipates its ironic implementation in W. H. Auden's Refugee Blues.
Refugee Blues adapts the conventions of the blues to disadvantages of php Auden's portrait of exiles in flight from zambian, Europe on define fauvism the eve of the zambian poverty, Second World War. Yet beneath the modifications which Auden grafts to it, the as Represented Farm, poem retains a core of integrity as a blues in. (The entire section is poverty 1534 words.) Alan Jacobs (essay date Winter 1995) SOURCE: Auden's Local Culture, in Hudson Review , Vol. 47, No. 4, Winter, 1995, pp. Modern Version Of Romeo And Juliet. 543-68. [ In the following essay, Jacobs examines Auden's communitarian sympathies and zambian moral vision. According to Jacobs, Auden understood both the costs and benefits of choosing to cultivate local knowledge and local attachments better than almost any political thinker writing about such issues today. ] One of the more interesting developments in American political and social thought in the last decade or so has been the emergence of communitarianism—in large part because, though no one knows exactly what communitarianism is, people do tend to think good thoughts about the Leadership's as Represented in Animal Farm Essay, notion of. Poverty. (The entire section is 8606 words.) Nicholas Jenkins (essay date 1 April 1996) SOURCE: Goodbye, 1939, in New Yorker , April 1, 1996, pp.
88, 90-4, 96-7. Disadvantages. [ In the following essay, Jenkins provides an overview of Auden's literary career and the significance of his expatriation in the United States .] No episode in the century's English-speaking literary world came as more of a surprise than the poet W. H. Auden's abrupt departure, in zambian, January of 1939, from Britain for the United States. Auden was the first major English-language poet to be born in the twentieth century (in 1907); now, as the century drains away, it seems likely that he will turn out to be the in Stewardship and Public Service, only poet of world stature born in England in the last hundred years. Poverty. He is more widely read than he has been for many years. (The entire section is 6334 words.) Charles Berger (essay date Fall 1997) SOURCE: Auden in Time of Public in Stewardship and Public Service War, in Raritan , Vol. Zambian. 17, No. 2, Fall, 1997, pp.
79-89. [ In the following essay, Berger examines the content, structure, and central themes of In Time of War. ] Auden's poetry of the thirties is suffused by a sense of diffuse crisis, or crises—economic, social, military—so there is no clear line of demarcation separating peace and war in of php, his poetry. In fact, there is very little represented peace in the early poems; moments of refuge are always shadowed by the sense of what they defend against. Early on, Auden tries to zambian imagine the role of poetry during revolution, or in and Public, a postrevolutionary society. This is the plot of poverty A Summer Night, written in of php, 1933. By the end of zambian the. (The entire section is 3755 words.) Robert L. Caserio (essay date Fall 1997) SOURCE: Auden's New Citizenship, in Raritan , Vol. 17, No. 2, Fall, 1997, pp. 90-103. [ In the following essay, Caserio discusses Auden's attitudes toward civic allegiance, the significance of in Animal Farm Essay his emigration to the United States, and the association of homosexuality with exile .] W. H. Auden underwent two conversions: one to Christianity, one to American citizenship. We treat the first conversion seriously.
We have no serious account of the second. Is it a sign of poverty our confused or divided attitudes towards citizenship that we gloss over the poet's manner of belonging to—or of appearing to own—one political state rather than another? Yes, we acknowledge Auden's civic voices. But as we work out in Stewardship Service the. (The entire section is 5419 words.) Boly, John R. Zambian. Auden and Leadership's in Animal Farm the Romantic Tradition in The Age of Anxiety. Daedalus 111, No. 2 (Spring 1982): 149-71. Examines Auden's reaction against and assimilation of romanticism as reflected in the major themes, artistic concerns, and structure of The Age of Anxiety . Bozorth, Richard R. 'But Who Would Get It?': Auden and the Codes of Poetry and Desire. ELH: English Literary History 62, No. 3 (Fall 1995): 709-27. Explores the significance of private allusions, coded language, and zambian poverty ambiguity in Auden's poetry as an expression of his homosexuality.
Bryant, Marsha. Auden and the 'Arctic Stare': Documentary as Public Collage in disadvantages, Letters from Iceland. Journal of Modern Literature XVII, No. 4 (Spring 1991): 537-65. Examines Auden's interest in documentary filmmaking and the politics of representation as reflected in Letters from Iceland . Christianson, Scott R. The Poetics and Politics of Eliot's Influence on W. H. Auden. Essays in Literature 19, No. 1 (Spring 1992): 98-113. Considers the poverty, genealogical and political influence of T. S. Eliot's poetry and literary criticism on the development of Auden's own poetry and critical perspective. Essay On Systems Of Industrial. Mendelson, Edward. 'We Are Changed By What We Change': The Power of zambian poverty Politics of Trust in Stewardship Essay Auden's Revisions. The Romanic Review 86, No.
3 (May 1995): 527-35. Examines the ethical significance of Auden's frequent revisions of his poetry as indicative of zambian his respect for the politics and Corruption as Represented in Animal shaping power of language. Pascoe, David. Auden and the Aesthetics of Detection. Essays in Criticism 43, No. 1 (January 1993): 33-58. Explores Auden's interest in English detective fiction and zambian elements of the genre in Corruption in Animal Essay, his poetry. Riffaterre, Michael.
Textuality: W. H. Auden's 'Musee des Beaux Arts.' In Textual Analysis: Some Readers Reading , edited by Mary Ann Caws, pp. 1-13. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1986. Examines the zambian poverty, principles and function of literary intertextuality through analysis of Auden's Musee des Beaux Arts. Spears, Monroe K. The Divine Comedy of W. H. Auden.
Sewanee Review 90, No. 1 (Winter 1982): 53-72. Examines the Essay Relations, development of Auden's poetry and artistic concerns in relation to the three books of zambian Dante's Divine Comedy . Spiegelman, Willard. Of Php. The Rake, The Don, The Flute: W. H. Auden as Librettist. Parnassus 10. No. 2 (Fall-Winter 1982): 171-87.
Discusses Auden's interest in operatic forms and the artistic principles applied to his adaptations of The Rake's Progress, Don Giovanni , and The Magic Flute . Additional coverage of Auden's life and career is zambian poverty contained in the following sources published by Gale: Authors and of romeo Artists for Young Adults , Vol. 18; Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography , 1914–1945; Contemporary Authors , Vols. 9-12R, 45-48; Contemporary Authors New Revision Series , Vol. 5; Dictionary of Literary Biography , Vols. 10, 12; DISCovering Authors; DISCovering Authors: British; DISCovering Authors: Canadian; DISCovering Authors Modules: Dramatists, Most-Studied, and Poets; Major Twentieth Century Writers; Poetry Criticism , Vol. 1; and World Literature Criticism . Zambian. W. Disadvantages Of Php. H. Auden Homework Help Questions. W. H. Poverty. Auden's Musee des Beaux Arts is a poem that exemplifies the version of romeo and juliet, literary technique of ekphrasis, the embedding of one type of zambian art form inside another. Thus, in this verse of lyrical rhyme. The poem The Average, by W. H. Auden, depicts the in Animal Farm, sad story of zambian a boy who was raised up by his parents to be more than they were.
Lost and having failed to find the success his parents desired for. In W.H. Auden's Funeral Blues, the speaker is preparing for the last line of the first stanza, which introduces the theme of death, as found with the words coffin and and juliet mourners. All poetry. In my mind, a critical analysis of the theme in Auden's poem would center on the idea of how death is experienced by those left behind. The poem takes the zambian poverty, point of view that death's impact is.
Auden's line that opens the as Represented Farm Essay, third stanza of the poem goes very far in explaining the importance of the deceased on the life of the zambian poverty, speaker. After using the second stanza to explain the social.
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HOW THE HELL DOES ROGER GOODELL STILL HAVE A JOB? My answers: I don’t know, I don’t know, I don’t know, I seriously don’t know, and poverty I can’t f-?-?-?ing figure it out (I don’t know). It’s official: Roger Goodell is the Relations worst sports commissioner of my lifetime. That’s something I nearly included in poverty, last week’s column about define fauvism his embarrassingly incompetent eight-year reign, ultimately deciding that it might be too harsh. It’s not too harsh. He’s the zambian worst. He’s worse than anyone in the original Lousy Commish Mount Rushmore: Fay Vincent, John Ziegler, Larry O’Brien and early Gary Bettman.
He’s worse than whoever ran the NASL into the ground. He’s worse than Vince McMahon during that one XFL season. Theory. He’s worse than William Regal. (Inside joke for the WWE nerds.) He’s worse than the zambian poverty guys who ran the WFL, USFL and examples MISL (three leagues that no longer exist). Goodell made history this week — for me, anyway — by zambian poverty becoming the first major sports commissioner ever to inspire me to disadvantages say, “Doesn’t this feels like Nixon all over again?” How can the same scandal blow up in someone’s face THREE DIFFERENT TIMES? It’s impossible! But this is America and people love going against zambian poverty the grain. I assumed that I would find at least a couple of reader emails that either defended Goodell or halfheartedly tried to make a case for him.
I was wrong. I didn’t find one. As always, these are actual emails from actual readers. Q: Why is TMZ doing a better investigation into Ray Rice than the NFL? BS: First, they actually cared about modern version finding the secret elevator tape … unlike the NFL, which clearly didn’t care even though every inch of a casino is being filmed by a camera at all times. Goodell maintaining that the NFL “kept asking for the tapes” is zambian poverty, right out of the dog-ate-my-homework school of bullshit that we learned to see through about 40 years ago. Seriously, just stop. You’re insulting us. Second, TMZ probably realized that Revel Casino was going out of business over Labor Day weekend, which meant its about-to-be-unemployed workers had nothing to lose by selling the tape. Why didn’t the NFL anticipate the same thing?
Because it’s obviously Jackass Central over there. That’s the only explanation. You know why I didn’t know Revel Casino was going under two weekends ago? Because I live in Trust in Stewardship Service, L.A., and because I’m not running a professional sports league that was one resurfaced mystery tape away from a crippling scandal. How did the NFL not know? And if they knew, how did they NOT get the tape? Who’s the NFL’s director of security, Brick Tamland? Which leads me to zambian poverty my third reason why TMZ outdid Goodell’s league: Either the define fauvism NFL is zambian poverty, run by an overmatched commish who orders around a slew of lackeys and buffoons and define fauvism never saw that day coming; they saw the zambian poverty tape but never expected it to come out; they watched the tape and define fauvism then buried it (the most nefarious of all the scenarios, by far); they underestimated the impact of the tape (and then some); and/or they were outwitted by the one and only Harvey Levin.
Whatever the answer, the NFL failed basic IQ standards here for seven months. It waited five months to poverty give a verdict, botched it so horrendously that it had to as Represented create a loophole-filled domestic-violence policy on the fly, then redid the Rice verdict a second time when the second tape came out. Last time I checked, real life doesn’t have a RESET button. This wasn’t Goodell’s first mega-screwup; we’re on no. 8 or no.
9 at this point. But it’s his most memorable botch job, and easily his most indefensible. He needs to go. Put the league in someone else’s hands, please. Poverty. We need the define fauvism help. Q: So I have to wait for someone Goodell hired to find out zambian, if Goodell is lying? I have no reason to think the Trust AP report isn’t true, and for owners to stand by Goodell because he’s made them enough money is zambian, terrible. —Lee Brewer, Los Angeles. BS: So you don’t have a ton of disadvantages of php, confidence in an “independent” investigation led by owners from two of the team’s oldest-run families (the Maras and zambian Rooneys) and conducted by someone who works for a law firm (WilmerHale) that just helped the NFL negotiate a 10-figure deal with DirecTV? And you think maybe it doesn’t look great that the current Ravens president (Dick Cass) spent 30 years working for that same law firm?
Hold on, what’s that smell? Q: Will we end up calling the NFL’s new domestic violence policy “The Ray Rice Rule?” BS: Too soon to say. When an define fauvism, athlete gets a rule or innovation named after him, he’s either being immortalized (like the Alcindor Rule, Gretzky Rule, Fosbury Flop, Hack-A-Shaq or even the zambian (Larry) Bird rights) or he lucked out for being in the right place at the right time (the Trent Tucker Rule). Ray Rice made a reprehensible choice, then his league covered it up reacted to Corruption as Represented Farm that choice in the worst possible way. Rice may have earned a different kind of ongoing immortality: the ignominious kind. Poverty. We will see.
Q: Why did it take the TMZ videotape to make this incident become “intolerable” and “outrageous” to on Systems of Industrial Relations the NFL and especially the zambian poverty Ravens? From what I have read and heard, Ray Rice never lied about what happened in the elevator. Yet, the Ravens stood by Rice, called him a good man, held a press conference in which he apologized to everybody but his wife, tweeted her apology for, I guess, allowing herself to be hit and knocked unconscious, and even implied that Ray had some justification for what happened. So if Rice told them what happened and define fauvism he was still a “good guy,” somebody the zambian Ravens were willing to stand behind, and disadvantages somebody who deserved only a limited suspension from the NFL, why is he now not that same guy? The Ravens and NFL were willing to embrace the zambian poverty man right up until public opinion made that a bad business move.
It’s jaded and it’s insulting and it needs to Leadership's Corruption as Represented in Animal Essay be called out. Zambian Poverty. The NFL and Ravens (and pretty much every media outlet) didn’t screw up by not finding the videotape; they screwed up by never realizing that what happened in disadvantages of php, that elevator is unacceptable and intolerable regardless of poverty, whether a video exists or not. Modern Of Romeo And Juliet. That’s where the focus should be, right? BS: The second video changed the conversation by poverty eliminating any and all ambiguities, as the impact of those visual images incensed just about everyone. On Systems Theory. And it wasn’t just the violence. Rice never reacted to the sight of his unconscious fiancee as if he were thinking, Uh-oh, I just injured someone I love ; more like, I don’t know if she’s alive or dead, I just know that I need to figure out what the hell to do with this body. Zambian Poverty. That video was appalling. Other than that, I agree with everything Erica wrote, especially this: “The Ravens and NFL were willing to embrace the man right up until public opinion made that a bad business move.” Perfect. That’s exactly what happened. And that’s my biggest issue with Goodell — it’s not just his tone deafness and his penchant for reacting instead of acting.
He’s so freaking calculated. About everything. For eight years, he’s handled his business like some father of a high school kid who’s hosting a prom party, sees some unresponsive drunk kid sprawled across the bathroom floor, then thinks to himself, Crap, I might get sued, what do I do? instead of and juliet, This kid might be hurt, we have to poverty help him! He needs to go. Q: If Goodell played the President on Anna Karenina examples 24 , would he take Jack Bauer off the job for no good reason, let the bomb go off then deny it’s going off, or hire a second terrorist group to purposefully stop so people would forget about the poverty first one? BS: Probably all three. Max just came up with the perfect way to describe Goodell — he really IS like a 24 president. In other words, he’s just realistic enough that you can’t figure out if he’s making these monster mistakes intentionally or unintentionally, only he’s just unrealistic enough that you keep muttering to Anna Karenina Essay yourself, “Wait, something just doesn’t add up here.” And you could definitely see him involved in poverty, a scene like this: Jack (on his cell): “I’m in Atlantic City — Roger, I JUST SAW THE TAPE!” [ Cut to Roger in modern and juliet, his office, listening on a speaker phone, looking furtively at two henchmen. ] Goodell [ long pause ]: “What tape?” Jack: “The tape!
Ray Rice! The original elevator tape!” [ We close in on Goodell as ominous music plays. ] Roger: Jack? I want you to un-see the tape. Roger: Un-see the zambian poverty tape. Jack: I CAN’T DO THAT. Q: Why can’t the NFL create an ESPN special to Theory of Industrial Relations announce the suspensions from every offseason? Run it during early July and the dream of owning the whole year is solved. Zambian Poverty. Get the fans involved by having Goodell let fans vote a player to get more or less via Twitter. The world needs this.
BS: Come on, ESPN would never run that show! We have standards! Sure, those standards don’t include refraining from Anna Karenina examples airing the (undeniably disturbing) elevator video on every ESPN network on zambian and off for 72 solid hours even though we wouldn’t run the of php Kevin Ware video, but hey, we have standards! Q: I can’t wait until next month when the league requires its players to wear pink, because Roger Goodell really cares about women’s health. BS: You just described why Goodell needs to resign before October 1. Or the NFL could keep him and change its name to the HFL (Hypocritical Football League). It’s a coin flip. Q: Please answer this in poverty, your column. Disadvantages. Do you believe Ray Rice should lose his football career? BS: I believe in second chances if the punishment has been served, and zambian if the punished person made an honest attempt to turn his life around AND atone for Leadership's in Animal Essay, his mistake.
If you read my eulogy for my first dog (The Dooze) in 2009, you wouldn’t have expected me to defend Michael Vick’s right to play football 20 months later. Poverty. But Vick suffered an appropriate penalty for his crimes, showed the right level of disadvantages, remorse, changed his life for the better and even spent real time raising awareness about animal abuse. Whether you loved dogs or not, denying Vick a chance to resume his career seemed unconstitutional. So what’s the appropriate penalty for Ray Rice? What should he do over these next 12 to poverty 24 months to change his life? How will he demonstrate the proper level of version of romeo, remorse? How can he help raise awareness for domestic violence in a way that doesn’t include the letters “TMZ”? That hasn’t played out yet. Poverty. It’s too early to have an answer here. Q: Does Goodell’s blown cover-up of the Rice tape finally give credence to the conspiracy theorists (like myself) that believe the Spygate tapes were so egregious, he destroyed them to save the Leadership's as Represented in Animal face of the NFL brand?
Remember, this is a man so drunk with power, he thought the Rice tape wouldn’t surface. BS: I have “drunk with power” as a +250 underdog to zambian poverty “stubborn and incompetent.” But to Theory of Industrial Relations answer your question, this was a big week for Spygate Truthers. I can’t come up with a good comeback other than this one. Q: I’m the Commissioner for zambian poverty, my fantasy football league. Where do I send in my resume to Leadership's Corruption in Animal replace Goodell? Seriously, I think I can be a better commissioner at this point. BS: I mean … you’re not going to be worse, right? How many years have you run that fantasy league? Does everyone pay on time?
When two owners get snippy on email, can you defuse it before someone quits the league? And are you smart enough to know that every casino elevator has cameras? You might be closer than you think. Q: Will we look back at the Ray Rice incident as the beginning of the end of the dominance of football’s reign as top sport? BS: I think we’ll look back at the entire Goodell era that way (not just Rice) … UNLESS the right commissioner takes over zambian poverty, and starts quickly repairing the modern version of romeo damage. Poverty. And by the way? Don’t rule that out. Following Goodell is gonna be like following the worst boyfriend ever — you can’t lose no matter what you do.
That’s why Steve Ballmer paid $2 billion for Anna Karenina examples, the Clips, right? It wasn’t just about the L.A. market or overpaying a little to join a hot league; Ballmer knew Clippers fans would love Anyone Not Named Sterling. Same logic goes for future NFL commish candidates. Terrific job, huge financial upside, huge social upside. So let’s find someone!
Maybe Adam Silver 2.0 is lurking out there. Speaking of … Q: The NBA seems to be an overwhelming winner of the TMZ-Rice scandal. The Levenson fiasco, which would have been the NBA’s second racist owner crisis in about four months, was almost completely buried, right at the time when the NBA seems to zambian be hammering out the Leadership's Corruption in Animal terms for its next TV deal. Zambian Poverty. Is there any chance that Adam Silver and on Systems of Industrial the NBA leaked the Ray Rice video to TMZ? BS: I love George — he roots for an NBA team that lost the world’s best basketball player under mysterious circumstances, then miraculously won three of the next four lotteries. And now he’s wondering if Adam Silver was involved in a DIFFERENT conspiracy?
Cleveland fans are the best. (Just kidding, Adam! But seriously, how great does Adam Silver look right now? Is there any way in a million years that he would’ve handled the Rice fiasco even 12.5 percent as badly?) Q: Why aren’t other players like Greg Hardy or Ray McDonald also being suspended? Does it need to be caught on tape so that it looks bad enough for the league to zambian poverty act? Greg Hardy not only Leadership's Corruption in Animal Essay, committed domestic violence, but had a pile of guns big enough to throw someone on to. Zambian. The message I’ve gotten from the on Systems Theory NFL is not “Don’t hit your wife,” but “Don’t be dumb enough to get caught on zambian poverty tape.” BS: And also, “We’re not gonna react unless there’s a damaging video.” I’d throw that one in there, too. Disadvantages Of Php. As Grantland’s Andrew Sharp pointed out on Tuesday, Rice was initially suspended for two games, but Ray McDonald and zambian poverty Greg Hardy played in Week 1? Why didn’t the league revisit its domestic-violence policy in 2012 after Javon Belcher’s horrific murder-suicide? Maybe it’s unfair to say that Goodell reacts instead of acts … sometimes he doesn’t react at all. (Unless he’s trying to butter up a media member. I forgot.)
Q: In the wake of the most recent scandal, I think this clip just about Anna Karenina sums up the country’s feeling toward Roger Goodell: BS: The guy who spent two weeks of his life making the “Vince McMahon Says You’re Fired For 5 Minutes” clip is devastated right now. Q: Like Tess told everyone in Ocean’s 11 ? “You of all people should know Terry, in your hotel [casino], there’s always someone watching.” When did that movie come out? 2001! Here’s another attack ad slogan for zambian, you: “ROGER GOODELL — THE GUY WHO TOOK ABSOLUTELY NOTHING AWAY FROM OCEANS 11 !” —Michael G, Richmond, VA. BS: That point can’t be banged home enough.
Just last month, Dave Jacoby and I were riding an elevator at Encore Las Vegas, glanced up to Essay Theory of Industrial Relations the bubble camera over our heads and had the requisite, “Where the hell is poverty, Ray Rice’s elevator video?” conversation. Again, Goodell spent five months figuring out disadvantages of php, a punishment after the initial Rice incident. None of his employees ever made the zambian poverty point, “It’s a freaking casino, that tape exists — you have to find it before you dole out that penalty”? Not one person said that? What about the AP’s report that someone in the NFL’s office confirmed receiving the casino’s tape, or OTL’s report that Ray Rice absolutely admitted to Goodell, way back in Theory, June, that he punched his wife in the face? And how do we reconcile the fact that, back in July, two well-connected reporters (Chris Mortensen and Peter King) reported what NFL sources had told them happened in that second elevator video … and they got the details correct? Now we’re supposed to believe nobody saw the tape? I mean, did they go to a f-?-?-?ing psychic together? This whole thing is so insulting. We have to free Jack Bauer!
He knows what happened! Q: I believe the biggest takeaway from the Ray Rice fiasco is how easy it now is to determine which journalists are in bed with the league and which aren’t? BS: My biggest takeaway was the zambian Peter Principle (no pun intended). Q: Would you please start calling Goodell “Eggo?” Tired of Essay on Systems Theory, this waffler. BS: I love waffles — I can’t give Goodell a nickname that makes me hungry. Poverty. If you want to give him a derisive nickname, isn’t it Roger Dodger?
Q: Add this to define fauvism the list of zambian poverty, Roger Goodell’s horseshit resume: he can’t even get the announcers of version and juliet, his own league to correctly name the product of their $400 Million (not an exaggeration) sponsor. How hard is it to tell make sure the zambian producer at every network knows the name of their sponsors? He couldn’t even just send out of php, a memo with the words, “MICROSOFT SURFACE” over and over again? BS: Can you imagine what this mailbag would have looked like if I tried to defend Goodell with every answer? I mean, on zambian poverty the bright side — he did make the owners an Essay on Systems of Industrial Relations, extra $400 million, right? Q: How is it possible that Roger Goodell cannot be fired? Would there be any better possible move than replacing him with Condoleezza Rice. How can you top replacing a privileged buffoon oligarch with a highly qualified African-American woman who has publicly stated that running the N.F.L would be dream job? BS: Co-sign!
Isn’t this the kind of stuff we should be using SportsNation for? Would Condi get 95 percent of the zambian vote? 96 percent? 99 percent? Have I mentioned yet that Goodell needs to version and juliet step down? Q: Cowherd was discussing Playmakers on ESPN Radio today. I remembered the zambian name but forgot what the show was about. While researching, I stumbled upon your 2003 review.
This was an actual quote from you: “Playmakers never seems totally believable; it’s like a distorted, over-the-top version of the NFL. For instance, Episode No. 2 revolves entirely around painkillers, crack, steroids, and players beating drug tests by injecting clean urine into their (expletives) with a catheter. Public Trust In Stewardship. Apparently strippers, lap dances, date rape and abortions are scheduled for zambian poverty, Episode No. Define Fauvism. 3.” Isn’t it unbelievable that in 2003 you (and society in general) thought the above episode plots were unbelievable for NFL players? Damn. BS: Ladies and gentlemen, the Roger Goodell Era! Q: Do you remember the zambian poverty show Playmakers , which reportedly was cancelled at the request of the NFL? In one season, the show dealt with steroid use, a gay football player, and a domestic violence incident involving a running back. In one season!
Was that the most realistic sports show ever (other than the pick-up game in Relations, the parking lot outside the zambian poverty night club)?! That has to surpass anything The White Shadow put together. BS: One more time, let’s hear it, ladies and gents … put your hands together and salute the Roger Goodell Era! Q: After seeing the Ray Rice video online, then hearing the define fauvism NFL state that they did not see the zambian video until TMZ put in online, I got to thinking — what are the 10 biggest lies of all time? In no particular order: 2. “There are no soldiers inside of that giant wooden horse.” 5. “At that moment I hit my face against the player leaving a small bruise on Leadership's Corruption in Animal Farm my cheek and a strong pain in my teeth.” 7. “I. Did. Not. Have.
Sexual. Relations. With. That. Poverty. Woman.” 8. “There are Weapons of Mass Distruction in Iraq.” 9. Disadvantages Of Php. “Welcome aboard the Titanic. Yes, this boat is unsinkable.” 10. “We requested from law enforcement any and all information about the incident, including the video from zambian inside the elevator. That video was not made available to Corruption as Represented in Animal Essay us and no one in our office has seen it until today.”
BS: You left out “I am not a crook,” “Lemme start by telling you this: I have never used steroids, period,” “Read my lips: no new taxes,” “I did not bet on baseball,” “Don’t be ridiculous, it doesn’t bother me at all that you did porn” and “the over/under for mailbags this summer is 3.5 — take the over.” Q: I have two daughters: a one-month old and zambian a two-year old. In the first year of Corruption as Represented in Animal Farm, my older daughter’s life she donned a Flacco jersey, learned to poverty say ” boo” at Essay, the mention of the word “Steelers”, and watched the Ravens win the Super Bowl. The following year (before the 2013 season) she received a Ray Rice jersey which still fits her as we enter her third Ravens season. Zambian Poverty. What do I do? Can she wear it?
If I’m in public or at version, a football party will people think I’m a horrible father — even fellow Ravens fans? Keep in mind that, as with the zambian Flacco jersey, the Trust and Public Essay Rice jersey is zambian, scheduled to be a hand-me-down for and juliet, the current one-month old daughter when her time comes, and poverty that I’m kind of Leadership's Corruption in Animal Essay, cheap. As you can see, the fallout from the Rice spectacle ranges far and poverty wide. —Stephen S., Washington, DC. BS: I thought about having Roger Goodell answer this question before realizing it would take him five months. So allow me to put on my serious Dad With A 9-Year-Old Daughter Who Doesn’t Think ESPN Should Show The Elevator Video And Takes This Stuff Personally hat for a second: Just get rid of the Rice jersey. On Systems. Buy a different one. Q: This isn’t a question and it’s not funny or silly or ironic in any way, and likely doesn’t belong in the mailbag, but I’m writing in nonetheless.
As a survivor of zambian poverty, domestic violence, I’ve carefully watched the Ray Rice situation play out on the national media and social media stages. Domestic violence, like addiction and mental health issues, is often misunderstood by the media and define fauvism the general public. It’s complex and poverty personally challenging for most people to understand how a woman or a man can return to their abuser, often repeatedly and for years. As a result, the victim is of php, often overlooked or the act is zambian, somehow justified (as initially was the case with Ray Rice). Trust Service Essay. Clearly, a reasonable person who watched the first video, which showed Rice dragging his unconscious fiance out of an elevator, easily could have determined that this result occurred from him striking her. Zambian. Instead, the NFL responded casually as did many in the media and general public. Some even pointed the finger at the victim with a “she antagonized him = she deserved it” kind of disadvantages of php, mentality, rather than the drawing the poverty more obvious conclusion of Rice’s guilt. I was 26, law school educated and Trust and Public working in the entertainment industry when I found myself in a two year relationship with an abuser. Zambian. What began as simple put downs and Leadership's as Represented Essay controlling behavior escalated into being choked, punched, kicked, shoved into walls, thrown out of a car naked without house keys, and zambian poverty more, as well as enduring tremendous mental abuse including being lied to and cheated on. I stayed with him because I was repeating a cycle that I had experienced as a child with a mentally checked out mother. With few other outlets, my abuser had become my entire life, however odd that may sound to those who have not endured domestic violence.
I had created my own emotional, physical and Theory of Industrial psychological nightmare and poverty I struggled to find a way out of of php, a toxic and twisted reality. That relationship ended nearly five years ago and zambian poverty it took me three years to recover from being “a shell of a person,” as a former co-worker described me. With intense therapy, a good job and an honest and loving support system, I’m “recovered,” or as recovered as someone who has been abused can ever be. It changes you and Essay of Industrial Relations it takes years to poverty feel better. Define Fauvism. I’m still wondering if I will ever be able to trust again.
So as my friends get married and have kids, I was pleasantly surprised a few weeks ago when I was able to zambian successfully go on a date. I share my story because today’s reaction by the Baltimore Ravens meant something to me. I know it was very late in coming and Leadership's in Animal Farm Essay it only resulted from the poverty release of a horrific video, but societal changes in opinion and attitude, especially on topics of Relations, gender, race and poverty discrimination take time to develop, and this week, we made progress and shined a national spotlight on an issue that often is hidden behind doors and Karenina Essay examples sometimes only whispered about zambian with disdain for the victim. BS: Thank you for the email. Coming Friday: my Week 2 picks. Like anyone cares.
This article has been updated to define fauvism correct the name of Ravens president Dick Cass. Bill Simmons is the zambian poverty founding editor of Grantland and modern and juliet the author of the New York Times no. 1 best seller The Book of zambian poverty, Basketball . For every Simmons column and Public Trust Service podcast, click here.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out zambian your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to of romeo and juliet, your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to poverty, get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of define fauvism, beautiful resume templates. Click the zambian poverty image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Essay of Industrial Relations, Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to zambian poverty, your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate.
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essay on papacy by Melissa Morris. (1) The topic of papal influence in the conversion of infidels is a necessary and important issue to consider when evaluating the role of zambian, Europeans in the colonization of the Americas. The idea to Trust Service research and examine the Catholic popes of the zambian poverty, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries originated in a class at Lehigh University. This class, The Literature of Justification , aimed to look at Public Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay how Europeans justified the zambian, use of violent means in the conversion of infidels in the New World. In order to better understand how these nations, such as Spain, Portugal, England, and others rationalized violent tactics and the denial of infidel rights, it is mandatory that the role of the Roman Catholic Church is introduced. (2) The discovery of the New World did not arise simply with the define fauvism, landing of Christopher Columbus; it began when European nations realized that a great deal of wealth and prospective Catholic believers could be discovered. The Catholic Church possessed a great deal of influence in the centuries leading to the exploration of the New World, and in the fifteenth century European nations looked to the pope to determine the right of colonization and conversion of foreign lands. Thus, before looking at nations such as Spain, England, or France, one must look at the role the Church played in granting or refusing acknowledgement of colonization to European nations. (3) Alexander VI, author of the papal bulls Inter caetera divinai , Inter caetera , and Inter caetera (II) , represents an example of the power and influence the pope possessed in poverty, the fifteenth century as exploration of the New Word was truly exploding. The following research reflects the history of and building of the papal influence that Alexander VI possessed; the actual wording and effect of Alexander's third bull on Spanish colonization, Inter caetera (II) ; how his bulls become the justification Spain wanted and needed to make a presence in the New World; and the precedence Alexander VI created in the partitioning of foreign lands by popes. Importance of Papal Influence in the Conversion of Infidels.
(4) In order to understand how and why European nations felt that violent conversion tactics against modern infidels was acceptable, one must look toward the Catholic Church. It is imperative to understand the zambian, expectations placed upon modern, religious and poverty secular leaders and the conflicts that arose between nations. As Represented Essay! The Church did not gain instantaneous say in the colonization tactics of European nations but, rather, had to conduct propaganda campaigns and influence kings one at a time to build trust and a say in political matters. The Church desired a voice in foreign expeditions because it recognized that the resources of the new worlds could ultimately be profitable for Catholics worldwide. (6) When studying the discovery of the New Worlds by Europeans in the twelfth through fifteenth centuries, few might consider the impact of the Roman Catholic Church. Poverty! After the blessing of St.
Peter as the first pope in 33 A.D., the Roman Catholic Church propagated and invested in a conquest of conversion to help educate all individuals in the ways of the Lord. The means of converting, colonizing, and conquering nonbelievers were manipulated depending upon Public in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, the time period and influence of the pope over Christian kings. Papal influence is zambian poverty important because in their attempt to reign in all matters, religious and secular, popes and the Catholic Church created the standards and expectations by which European explorers were to treat New World infidels. While trying to expand, unify, and solidify the boundaries of the in Stewardship and Public Service Essay, Catholic Church, papal leaders, kings, and explorers lost sight of the need to gently convert nonbelievers. With the poverty, promises of treasures, spices, and trade before their eyes, these Christians came to Essay on Systems of Industrial regard New World Indians as deserving of violence, as an poverty invisible entity, and as expendable in regard to Leadership's Corruption Farm Essay the larger cause.
Increasing the poverty, population, magnifying spirituality, and securing monetary wealth were necessary measures for the survival of the Essay, Church as the savior of mortals. Alexander VI's bull Inter caetera is an example not only of the role the Catholic Church took in the fight for poverty riches and land but also of the define fauvism, pope's power to poverty disregard human beings as deserving of kindness, respect, and the right to freedom in a quest for necessary Church gain. Inter caetera : Opening up a Whole New World for Europeans. (7) One of the in Animal Essay, most influential popes, Alexander VI, created a set of three papal bulls in zambian poverty, May of 1493, Inter caetera divinai , Inter caetera , and Inter caetera (II) . Inter caetera II , the main text discussed here, fully demonstrates the power of the papal throne and the influence it had amassed over European nations in the late fifteenth century. Written as the Leadership's as Represented in Animal Essay, final say on Spanish colonization of the Americas, Alexander created Inter caetera II with favoritism directed toward the Spanish crown, to help the Church expand its boundaries. To better understand the positioning of the Church within secular and religious discourses and poverty the role of Inter caetera II (hereafter referred to as Inter caetera throughout this text), the background of the define fauvism, papal throne must first be discussed. (8) The Holy See was not initially respected as a representative voice for both secular and religious matters. Originally, the pope was viewed as a human representative of Christ's divinity and presence on earth, with influence only over Christian Church issues. The amount of religious importance in poverty, early politics cannot be questioned, but until Christianity officially became the religion of Rome in 315 A.D., the Public Trust and Public, influence the pope publicly possessed over Christian individuals was not substantial enough to influence the conquest of land. It was not until religious leaders and popes became situated in the Vatican in 315 that Christians were motivated to look to the Church for guidance before looking to their king in nonreligious matters.
By convincing believers that Christianity was more important, that secular matters necessitated holy action in zambian poverty, all doing, the Church managed to swing the pendulum of influence from armed kings to Essay pious leaders. Pope Leo IX, in 1054, contributed the most to centralizing the power and influence of the pope in the Christian's eye. Leo IX set the tone and standards for future popes to poverty seek the recognition and support of Christians by reinforcing the of php, Catholic belief that without the zambian poverty, approval of Christ's chosen son, kingdoms were unholy. In acting upon or under unholy laws and rules, a Christian defied God's teachings of goodness. (10) With this faith that popes held the disadvantages, same ultimate profit goals as did kings and kingdoms, Catholics unwittingly allowed the Church to create a cloak or shield for the brutal conversion of nonbelievers. It was necessary to present nonbelievers as less than human and not worthy of the fair treatment most Europeans expected. Zambian Poverty! The Church and politicians preached that without faith a person was undeserving of equity. New World individuals were viewed as heathens and as sub-human, and the West's religion, civilization, and knowledge [were viewed as] superior to the religions, civilizations, and knowledge of modern version, non-Western peoples. This superiority as the redemptive source of the poverty, West's presumed mandate to impose its vision of truth on non-Western peoples was neither hidden nor denied (Williams 6).
Such a disavowal of the Native's right to freedom and personal belief helped to convince kings and commoners that heathen lands and the New World had to be tamed in order to obtain the riches and followers of God. (11) It is this standard that helped Urban II, in 1088, to recruit Catholics to push the boundaries of the Christian world further than had ever been attempted in history: Europeans, as Christians, had a duty to spread the word of the disadvantages, gospel and a right to engage in trade and to cultivate unoccupied land without interference. Conversely, the peoples of the New World had an obligation to receive the ambassadors of the pope, the zambian, trade expeditions and the colonists, and any resistance or hostility to on Systems Relations the European presence could be met with force of zambian poverty, arms. (Dickason ix) The need for more prestige, power, and land became an addictive and of php recurring process for the Catholic Church, and as more land was acquired and foreign conquests met with success, more eyes turned favorably toward the Holy See. Initiated with Urban's reign in 1095 and continuing throughout history, treasures and poverty land were motivators for the conversion of nonbelievers. Essay On Systems Of Industrial! The spreading of Catholicism was used as propaganda for recruiting crusaders and colonizers; religious motivation had never been the sole hallmark of medieval expansion […] The crusades, like the American frontier in zambian poverty, the nineteenth century, were to version of romeo and juliet be a safety valve, drawing off those who were too aggressive for peaceful life at home (Muldoon 5). Ultimately, the Crusades and the expansion of the Catholic empire were not truly movements to save heathen nonbelievers from eternal damnation but, rather, campaigns for profitable gains. (12) After the successes of the first Holy Crusade in 1095 were tallied and poverty assessed, Christian kings and Catholics themselves had come to believe that a man who could bring such success and profit to Christianity could do no wrong. With the Theory, faith of kings and commoners thus sealed, The pope held unquestioned universal jurisdictional authority on earth over all the Church's subjects, real and potential. Resistance to zambian poverty that authority constituted resistance to God's law.
The papacy possessed the power not only to punish the deluded pagans but also to assume the Public Service, rule over their territories, which rightly belonged to Rome in the first place (Williams 41). Urban's ability, and zambian poverty that of the popes following him, to define fauvism convince knights and kings to go to poverty war, commoners to contribute funds to the Crusades, and expand the population and land wealth of the Catholic states granted the pope more power than ever historically allotted to the Holy See. That power fluctuated a bit throughout history, but the pope did not again experience significant loss of influence until the English Reformation in the early 16th century. (13) It is this desire to continue possessing absolute power that allows the Church to condone the violence and brutal tactics used by colonists and conquerors on New World infidels. With the argument that the only way to achieve the ultimate end of world-wide Catholicism is to Leadership's Corruption as Represented use any means necessary, Pope Gregory IX, in zambian poverty, 1227, is able to use tradition to his advantage. Europeans had come to believe that any individual with faith in modern version of romeo, God was stronger, more deserving of success, and possessed the right to show nonbelievers the right manner in which to live. In order to convince nonbelievers of this right, Catholic Europeans began to express the belief that any means necessary must be implemented when converting nonbelievers. Zambian! In an explanation that mimics that of survival of the fittest, he explains the application of aggression and in Animal Farm hostility toward others in the conquest of land as acceptable: Who does not know that kings and princes derive their origin from zambian poverty, men ignorant of Corruption Essay, God who raised themselves above their fellow men by pride, plunder, treachery, murder—in short, by zambian, every kind of crime—at the Public Trust in Stewardship and Public, instigation of the Devil, the zambian poverty, prince of this world, men blind with greed and intolerable in their audacity (Williams 25). Pope Gregory effectively places the role of the Church and colonizer as that of a warrior against evil, or, more importantly, nonbelievers. It is this mindset that resonates throughout history. With the refusal to Public Essay change the zambian poverty, traditions of conversion, the Catholic Church continued to abuse infidels and disregard the actual beginning words of Christ.
Treating others as one would have done unto themselves was thrown to the wind in an effort to obtain riches and treasures in the New World. Religious Texts and Inter caetera. (14) With an Anna Karenina Essay understanding of how popes such as Alexander VI came to possess influence over kings, it is necessary to examine how that influence was conveyed through words. The bull Inter caetera is important because the nations of zambian, Spain and Portugal honored it. The new lines of property drawn were observed because they were lines created by the Church. Just as the power and influence of the pope himself fluctuated throughout history, so did the version and juliet, power of written papal law. As popes fought to gain a foothold in the realm of politics, the written word became an effective means of communicating and zambian persuading Christian kings worldwide to defer decisions to religion.
Innocent I even went so far as to claim that any actions occurring in Christian states must be communicated to him: […] all 'greater causes' [ causae maiores ] – a vague and almost infinitely expansible expression – should be reserved to the apostolic see. 'Whatever is on Systems Theory Relations done in the provinces', he laid down, 'should not be taken as concluded until it has come to the knowledge of this see' (Barraclough 24). Letters with directions such as these were not taken lightly; religion and religious beliefs, at that time, influenced a believer's every move. If a man of God claimed that no action would be deemed holy without consent of the Church, fear of damnation and poverty the eternal unknown forced believers to seek religious authority. (15) Pope Gregory VII, in 1076, used such power to his advantage and was influential in Anna Karenina Essay, the realm of public speech and propaganda. It was under Gregory's term that papal decree truly motivated or influenced Christian kings to take action in favor of or against the Church. Zambian Poverty! As the first pope who deliberately set out to cultivate new fields, outside and beyond the control of the Roman Empire, and thus to lessen the dependence of the papacy on the imperial government, Gregory VII needed to ensure that his plans and Essay Theory of Industrial wishes were able to reach a large audience (Barraclough 31). He was able to do so by having all religious leaders circulate his written plans and poverty suggestions for increasing the size and population of the Catholic Church by converting infidels. Documents that could not be read were shared verbally, increasing Gregory VII's audience ten-fold. (16) In 1088 under Pope Urban II, following Gregory VII's example, written copies of his decrees and plans for Holy Crusades into infidel lands became available for kings and religious leaders. Such widespread publication of and promotion of a holy war helped to Service Essay ensure that religious leaders across Europe were able to spread the word and influence both the nobility and the common man. These written proclamations, also verbally communicated in 1095 in his speech at Clermont, secured persuasion orally, textually, and politically.
Religious texts, in zambian poverty, the forms of letters, stories, and papal bulls, not only informed individuals of the positions of the disadvantages, Church but also advertised and stated laws to be obeyed in poverty, a holy light. Therefore, by the beginning of the eleventh century […] the papacy had laid up a considerable store of moral capital. The new nations [both Europeans and converts] looked to Rome for modern version spiritual leadership (Barraclough 51). Popes and religious leaders, throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries, had set out and successfully exercised one of the most influential propaganda schemes in history. Not only had they convinced secular leaders that the pope was the source of all knowledge and approval, they had convinced believers to go to war to win land, riches, and poverty new believers for the Church: It set the pope, in place of the emperor, at the head of Europe, and assured the papacy a moral leadership (Barraclough 91). The popes had completely and effectively made themselves princes of secular and religious status. (17) It is with this role of princely duty that the popes, especially after Urban II's reign, were able to further increase the profits of the Church and continue to publish proclamations of a nation's right to colonize and conquer infidel lands. Public Trust In Stewardship Service! The Papacy, too, had its special interests in the situation of the Holy Land and its Western communities. […] The popes were eager also to keep the Crusading armies under their own special control because power over future Christians ensured a successful growth in the population of Catholics (Brundage 190). Historical religious texts, especially bulls, are an zambian important aspect in the growth of the size of the Christian states. Written documents, such as Pope Eugene IV's Romanus pontifex and Alexander VI's Inter caetera , specifically marked where European Christians could and Essay examples could not colonize. In essence, the crusades have sometimes been styled the foreign policy of the papacy (Erdman xvi).
Specifications limited the ability of kings to conquer lands as they pleased and, in turn, made winning the approval of the pope's favor a profitable endeavor. (18) Thus, to win the support of the pope in word and deed, a nation had to be religiously and poverty politically appealing to the Holy See. In order to accomplish such a feat, kings used the excuse that colonization of new lands was purely for the benefit of nonbelievers. The connection between church and state was accompanied by […] the idea that the defense of the church against pagans and version robbers was a good deed particularly encouraged by God and the saints (Erdman 26). The Church could not condone any colonization efforts made by Christian kings unless they had cloaked their desire for poverty gold under the guise of Christian conversion. As long as the wars against pagans were truly defensive, religious motives were intermingled with the consciousness of fighting for hearth and home, but Christian kings merely had to suggest that their intentions abroad were of Anna Karenina Essay, a religious nature in order to zambian poverty obtain papal approval (Erdman 96). Though some kings did have intentions of Public Trust in Stewardship, converting infidels into Catholics, and poverty many might have had the natives' best interests first in mind, far too many leaders allowed the promise of land and gold to come before the needs and rights of nonbelievers. (19) Inter caetera and other papal bulls written by the popes are important in the realm of colonization. Ultimately, the treatment and unfair abuse of the infidels were considered and discussed in terms of means and ends. Though Innocent III had questioned the define fauvism, propriety of the exercise of power by non-Christians over Christians, but had not denied its legitimacy, the simple fact that he pondered infidel rights in Quod super his , written in poverty, 1199, was enough to begin a public discourse concerning what power the Essay on Systems Relations, papal see should or should not have in regard to infidel rights (Green 149).
Innocent IV, in 1243, extended the points discussed to include the right of Christians to take holy lands from zambian poverty, native nonbelievers, a right which he carefully supported by stating that only the Public and Public Service Essay, pope could authorize an attack on a non-Christian prince. While such a premise was supported by the Catholic nations, the issue introduced the zambian poverty, problem of injuring relations with potential Christians. Ultimately, Innocent IV, reflecting on Innocent III's discourses, publicly decided that Christians not only had the right but also a duty to Trust in Stewardship and Public Essay reconquer holy lands for Christians, and the obligation to follow religious decrees, even if infidels were hurt in the process. Innocent IV's decrees, based on the opinions of Innocent III, paved the way for Christians to reconquer holy lands for the Church – even if obeying such decrees meant killing the poverty, infidel peoples. (20) According to papal bulls created in 1455, 1456, and 1479, Portugal had been granted the right to all the newly discovered lands, but with the installation of Alexander VI in 1492, Spain gained favor in the eyes of the Church, and all previous allocations to Portugal were overlooked. Such a situation represents the of romeo, ever-changing politics and power struggles occurring between Catholic kingdoms and zambian poverty popes for rule over all matters – religious or secular. In order to show his dedication to and approval of Spanish exploration of Africa and the New World, Alexander VI, a native of Valencia, created three bulls dated May 3 and 4, 1493, to redraw the lines of Portuguese authority. As the final say on New World colonization, Inter caetera sets the precedence for modern of romeo all following bulls and legal documents condoning and poverty authorizing Christian kings to Trust Service Essay colonize heathen lands.
Though it did not completely disregard the Portuguese lands, it did not publicly recognize the zambian poverty, king or his conquests of African and South American lands, which hinted at the lack of power the Portuguese king held at the changing of Leadership's Corruption Farm, papal authority. (21) Romanus pontifex , the bull written by Pope Eugenius in 1453, had originally granted Portugal the right to colonize and settle the New Worlds. This bull set the structure by which Alexander VI wrote and published his Inter caetera in regard to the colonization status of Spain. Poverty! The bulls by Alexander VI and Eugenius are examples of how important and necessary papal approval of colonization had become in the conquest of new lands and riches. The pope had obtained, by the fifteenth century, the ability to come between nations and kings. He had the power and the prestige to determine which nations and in Stewardship Essay lands were worthy of recognition and power, a power only allotted to those who could offer the Church profits. Conflict and aggression between Spain and Portugal reared as Alexander VI weighed the pros and cons of zambian poverty, which nation should represent more land in the New Worlds under the Catholic flag: The outcome was rivalry between the two nations, and modern of romeo and juliet disputes about the rights and limits of discovery. Both crowns, Portuguese and Spanish, appealed to the Pope, who accepted the task of arbitrator. Zambian! His verdict resulted in establishing a line of Leadership's Corruption in Animal Farm Essay, demarcation, the right of discovery on zambian one side being allotted to Spain, on the other side to Portugal (Bandlier 1). The bull Inter caetera effectively arbitrated power to Spain and repealed power previously granted by Eugene IV from Portugal. (22) As a document that approves, endorses, and manipulates New World colonization and disadvantages the conquest of nonbelievers, Alexander VI's Inter caetera demonstrates the amount of influence and power the pope exercised over nations competing for land in North and South America.
The bull Inter caetera is a major document because it represents the development of and zambian the continuation of benchmarks for future legal documents written in the realm of legalizing colonization charters. Alexander VI was approached by define fauvism, Spain and Portugal because both disputed what rights the other had in the New World. Because of the historical precedence and prestige of the Holy See, both kings viewed the pope as an ultimate umpire and provider of closure. Alexander VI, sensing that having the final say in who should ultimately obtain greater plots of land in the New World would benefit the zambian, Church, graciously accepted the role of arbitrator in and Public Service Essay, the dispute. He demonstrates the power and final word of the papal see because in his bulls on zambian the subject, he repeals and overlooks the decisions made by modern version and juliet, former popes. Popes Adrian IV, Innocent III, Gregory IX, Innocent IV, and zambian Eugene IV had all written documents and issued papal bulls in regard to the rights and obligations of Christians who attempted to conquer heathen lands.
Alexander VI ignores the words of former popes, merely hints toward the Portuguese presence granted by Eugene IV in Romanus pontifex , and reallocates territory in Public and Public Service Essay, the New World in favor of Spain. (23) Written as a group of three, the Inter caetera divinai , Inter caetera , and Inter caetera (II) became public on May 3 and 4 of 1493. Poverty! The first two bulls, Inter caetera divinai and Inter caetera , name the Spanish kingdom of Castile as the proprietors of New World land. Of Industrial! The third bull, Inter caetera of May 4, specifically demarcates the lines of longitude and latitude provided to Spain, which embodied all undiscovered land. This bull only mentions lands already conquered by zambian poverty, Christian princes and does not name Portugal specifically. Alexander VI's bulls embody all of the papal struggles to obtain influence and power over Christian kings, and their ultimate ability to go back on previous proclamations while maintaining power. The third bull, viewed as the final say of the pope, gave the kingdom of Castile the exclusive rights to territory, trade, and the development of the lands in the New World. Conquest could begin west of the meridian one hundred leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands. Version Of Romeo And Juliet! The creation of this bull further intensified the unstable relations occurring between the kingdoms of Castile and Portugal and further spurred the zambian, race to discover new lands, but it also solidified the need to Anna Essay seek the pope's ultimate say in colonization matters. Inter caetera : Papal Allowance of Colonization.
(24) The May 4, 1493, Inter caetera is generally discussed and zambian highlighted because it is the final word of Alexander VI in the dispute between Spain and Portugal over Public in Stewardship and Public Service lands west of the Cape Verde Islands. It discusses the lands to be granted to Spain, reassures that the zambian poverty, Catholic religion will be spread, gives Spain the right to rule for future generations, denies previous papal decrees in favor of modern of romeo and juliet, Portugal, and permits Spain to use any means necessary against nonbelievers. Zambian Poverty! Often referred to as Inter caetera II , it closed the door on Theory further discussion concerning Portugal's right to all the lands of the New World supposedly first discovered by Christopher Columbus. Alexander VI effectively placed the power in Spain's hands as a favor to his homeland and as an investment in future land for the Church: all the lands discovered by or to be discovered in the name of the Spanish Crown in the region belonged legally to Ferdinand and zambian Isabella (Williams 80). Alexander VI took into account the in Stewardship and Public Service, manpower, military force, and political prowess of the Spanish crown, especially in relation to the limited powers of the zambian poverty, Portuguese kingdoms, and assumed that Spain would have better chances of colonizing and gaining Catholic power in New World lands. (25) Thus, his final Spanish bull, Inter caetera II began with a recounting of Karenina Essay examples, Spain's victory at Granada and other Spanish actions that had enlarged and expanded the Catholic Church to the delight of the pope and poverty affirmed the Church's desire to expand its boundaries (Williams 80-81). To ensure that the Church was not approached and accused of conquest merely for profits, Alexander VI made certain to include guidelines for the conversion of heathen peoples.
The usurpation of infidel lands was to come only in terms of in Stewardship, conversion, with land, gold, and treasures as secondary rewards. The pope himself barely disguises the greed of the Church for riches as the conversion of heathens comes within lines of treasures. He leaves the terms conversion and civilized loosely defined, and violent measures are not forbidden. Alexander VI mandated that the Indians be Christianized and civilized by the Spanish Crown, but he does not concretely specify what means are to be used. (26) Alexander VI defines and reassures religious and zambian secular leaders of the power of papal authority. He claims that his bull assuredly ranks highest in regard to all documents issued in the colonization disputes occurring between Spain and Portugal (Davenport 75). He recognizes the need to remind the Christian leaders of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, of of romeo, their duty to always put the Church first in zambian poverty, political actions.
In doing so, he solidifies the position of the Catholic faith in the New World. Alexander VI desires the augmentation of Christian boundaries because such increase in land and believers would increase the possibilities of Essay Theory of Industrial Relations, gaining treasures. In his warning to the Spanish, Alexander VI makes it clear that the ultimate goal of colonizing new lands is the complete usurpation of power in favor of spreading Catholicism: barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself (Davenport 75). He expects that the Spanish will meet conquering nonbelievers with success, and he also expects that the Spanish kingdom will stop at nothing in zambian poverty, the name of the Church. Without expressing or providing any support for the Spanish crown beside the approval of conquest, Alexander VI explains that the Spanish will endure hardships on their own: with every effort, zeal, and diligence, without regard to hardships, expenses, dangers, with the shedding even of your blood. Pain is necessary in the conquest of nonbelievers (Davenport 75). The Church, through Alexander VI's words, is able to of php maintain pressure on nations while distancing itself from violence and wrongdoing. (27) Inter caetera explains, without naming the original Portuguese colonizers, that the Spanish had full reign of the New World. Alexander's words allow the Spanish to make diligent quest for these remote and zambian unknown mainlands and islands through the sea (Davenport 76).
Such a vague and of php broad suggestion leaves all the zambian poverty, lands open while effectively closing conquest for other Christian kingdoms. He acknowledges that there are people who believe in a Creator and who are not heathens in the new lands; infidels who could embrace the Catholic faith and be trained in good morals (Davenport 76). Despite these qualities, he still condones the Anna Essay, creation of fortresses and strongholds in preparation for violence. Zambian Poverty! Alexander VI does not try to Essay on Systems of Industrial hide or deny the European belief that all nonbelievers ultimately need violent measures to ensure conversion and to zambian poverty obtain the gold, spices, and in Animal Farm very many other precious things of divers kinds and qualities (Davenport 76). Uttering the words of conversion and zambian poverty riches in the same breath signifies the ultimate goals of the Church. (28) Alexander VI embellishes his power to Public Trust in Stewardship Essay make law and take action while denying the rights of previous papal authority. By not recognizing the rights of colonization allotted to Portugal by Pope Eugene IV, Alexander IV demonstrates the expectation that Christian kingdoms must remain in present time and not look too far to the future while planning for conquest. Alexander VI uses words such as forever and all rights to poverty describe the power granted to Spain in discovering more land; he knowingly uses the same words previously allotted to Portugal. When viewed in the present tense, such words are incredible issuances of authority, but when viewed within the modern version, context of popes overruling previous decisions, papal authority becomes precarious and can be repealed at any moment.
Therefore, text such as any of said islands have been found […] kings of Castile and Leon, forever, together […] all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, all islands, and poverty mainlands found and to be found provide kingdoms with the assumption that New World lands will forever be theirs, but there is always the chance that such allocations can be overturned (Davenport 76). The power of the Church to leave kingdoms in fluctuation cannot be underestimated. (29) Such fluctuations occur because the pope does not recognize Portugal by name, which is a denial of the influence Portugal had been granted in the conquest of foreign lands. In a short, quick line, he acknowledges that Christian kings before Spain have colonized foreign lands, but he limits them to those lands. Portugal and other Catholic kingdoms have no right to cross past the Azores or Cape Verde Islands: none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line toward the west and south, be in modern version of romeo and juliet, the actual possession of any Christian kings (Davenport 76). The important emphasis of zambian poverty, his text is the version, word actual possession. Alexander VI is able to make such provisions because he is aware that no Christian princes have yet to effectively conquer lands west or south of the given line.
He does not mention the peoples of these lands, only the land itself. (30) Ultimately, Alexander VI creates a loophole to deny that the zambian poverty, Church condoned violence because he emphasizes land and not humanity. By leaving directions vague, the Spanish become responsible for the mistreatment of the heathen peoples: only by forcibly denying the Indians their freedom and appropriating their labor could the civilizing task of assimilation be carried out (Williams 83). The Church, by the fifteenth century, had gained enough political power to be able to draw lines and limitations for colonizing nations. By providing the power to nations for conquests of foreign lands but maintaining a documented distance from the define fauvism, actual actions of the conquerors, the Church was able to effectively maintain an air of moral righteousness over the very same nations they goaded into zambian poverty, violence for survival. Alexander instructs the Spanish king and queen to simply instruct the Leadership's Farm Essay, aforesaid inhabitants and residents in the Catholic faith and train them in good morals without forbidding violence or aggressive behaviors (Davenport 77). He places ultimate responsibility in the Spanish themselves with the threat of excommunication should they or any other nations disobey his instructions. The thought that future power might be lost must surely have been enough to convince nations to heed the pope's warning and demarcations of land. Inter caetera : The Grand-Pappy of Colonization. (31) Alexander VI's Inter caetera not only reinforces the ability of poverty, popes to deny proclamations issued before their decisions but also created precedence for future charters and approval of New World land.
Papal rule and influence had historically motivated Christians to war, and the bull Inter caetera laid the foundations for Spanish conquest and a pope's ability to determine who and on Systems Theory what could be ruled by Christian kings. Once a bull allowed a king to send colonists to a foreign land, that land would be led in Catholicism with the king's ultimate power flowing from the Holy See. Heathens were not considered deserving of zambian, land or power, and at no time were they considered as the owners of their land or as being entitled to define fauvism any role in connection with its disposition (Dickason 38-39). Thus, the Catholic Church had managed to convince believers of its power and influence in determining the fate of New World land and peoples. Bulls such as Inter caetera solidified papal say in colonization while distancing the Church from any ultimate responsibility in the treatment of nonbelievers inhabiting those lands. For the centuries following, the zambian, holy precedent of legal charters and grants became an everyday occurrence and a natural part of political life. Barraclough, Geoffrey.
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The Expansion of Europe: The First Phase . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1977. Williams, Robert A., Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest . Karenina! New York: Oxford UP, 1990.