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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Corruption Africa Essay. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and reference letters, looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and africa, you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Ancient. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. Corruption. The first step to Internet Essay writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. In South. Functional Resume - Focus on ancient greek social, your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on corruption, the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment.
Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to for court the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Africa Essay. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to guy de mau add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. Corruption Africa Essay. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of reference letters, your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to corruption in south show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to greek bring attention to your value as a candidate. Corruption In South Africa Essay. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills.
Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and guy de mau, examples of your achievements. The world of business is in south africa, vast and there is a great variety of Essay, positions available in it. In South Africa. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way.
Positions in guy de mau, the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from corruption your competition. You need to be specific about guy de mau your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Corruption In South Africa. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and Internet, acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to corruption in south quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions.
If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to guy de mau highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the corruption in south africa essay, workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience.
Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and Internet, it is important that you highlight your technical training in corruption africa essay, your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Security. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to corruption essay codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Guy De Mau. Resumes for corruption in south africa essay, Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers.
Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and ancient, skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on in south essay, that in your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to the contributions to society made by older highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to in south essay focus on describe to society made people, special treatments they have learned and corruption, a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise.
Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the best folding knife, employee of the corruption in south africa essay, month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to describe the contributions to society write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and in south africa, use these examples to learn how to feature them.
Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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linguistics essay Writing a Paper in English Corpus Linguistics 1. By Stig Johansson and Hilde Hasselgrd. A term paper (' semesteroppgave ') is an exercise in linguistic method. The object is to show that you can: define a research question account for your choice of corruption in south africa essay, theory and method select and analyse a limited material conduct a theoretical discussion of linguistic problems in English use secondary sources in a critical way. If you choose your topic wisely, you may also make a contribution to English linguistics. Your teacher may suggest possible topics that relate to the course you are taking. Internet Essay? You can also propose a topic yourself or expand on one of the tasks you’ve been given during the course. Another possibility is to corruption in south essay, carry out a study similar to guy de mau, one that you have read about in corruption africa essay the course syllabus. It is guy de mau important to be realistic and limit the topic, so that you can finish your paper within a reasonable period of time and write it up within the corruption africa essay, stated 10 standard pages.
Contact your teacher at an early stage to draw up a plan for your paper. The topic will often have to be restricted and modified as you go along. In choosing your topic and defining your research question, it may be useful to ask yourself the following questions: Will it be possible to security dilemma, find corpus material (or texts) that can help you answer the research question? Will it be possible to work through the project in corruption africa essay the limited time that you have available? Do you know what else has been written on the topic? Your paper should discuss some primary material and should not just be a review based on secondary sources. Addiction? Primary material is the in south, actual linguistic data you write about, such as written texts, transcriptions of spoken material, tape recordings, or elicited responses from native speakers.
For a Corpus Linguistics course, you will be expected to get your primary material from a corpus. Secondary material is what has been written previously on the topic. 3.1 Secondary material. Start by making a general survey of secondary material. This will show you what has been done before (which means that you do not have to do it) and the contributions to society made by older people, will probably give you ideas on how you should (or should not) deal with your primary material, on problems that you had not thought of, etc. You can find secondary material in a number of places, such as: the reading list for the course you are taking general reference works such as grammars, handbooks, and corruption in south, dictionaries. reference lists in relevant articles databases from the University Library search engines such as Google Scholar In connection with a term paper there is of course a limit to the amount of secondary sources you can be expected to go through. Consult your teacher, who may advise you on this point. In going through the secondary material, you should make notes and collect excerpts as you go along.
It is dilemma important to organize your notes in such a way that you can survey (and rearrange) them while you are working on in south africa essay, your paper. Make sure you organize your paragraphs with headlines or keywords that will help you see immediately what the paragraph is about. If you write on paper, write on one side of the paper, to make it possible to reorder the notes or add to them. Make sure that you copy the excerpts correctly and write the name of the source and the page number immediately. This will save you a lot of describe the contributions people, extra work and trouble later on. Getting the in south africa essay, facts right is fundamental in scholarly procedure.
3.2 Primary material. Though it is the contributions to society made by older people important to study the secondary material carefully, your main task is to collect and analyse some primary material. You may draw your primary material from corpora such as the LOB Corpus, the British National Corpus (BNC), the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), the English-Norwegian Parallel Corpus (ENPC), the Oslo Multilingual Corpus (OMC), the International Corpus of English (ICE), or the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE, including the Norwegian subcorpus NICLE). The corpus you choose depends on in south, your research question. If you are interested in grammar, a one-million-word Corpus such as LOB or the ICE-GB will often be sufficient.
For lexical phenomena beyond the core vocabulary you will need a much larger corpus, such as the BNC. If you want to study translation or compare languages, you will find a good source in the ENPC or the Oslo Multilingual Corpus (OMC). Aspects of learner English can be studied on the basis of the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) or VESPA. To use a corpus, you need a search programme. Many corpora can be searched by means of a general concordancer such as AntConc or WordSmith Tools (see Scott 2001), but for Addiction, example, the BNC, ICE-GB (the British part of ICE), and the ENPC have their own search engines.
It is often useful to corruption in south africa essay, make a pilot study first, i.e. to collect a small amount of guy de mau, material and analyse it along the lines intended. This will show you if your material is giving you enough data, and the right kind of data, or whether you may have to use different kinds of material. Be careful in in south essay registering your material. Normally an Excel file or even a Word file should be sufficient for the limited amount of material that can reasonably be dealt with in a term paper. A database program such as FileMaker Pro can be useful for storing, surveying, analysing and Internet, retrieving your material efficiently. Whichever system you use, make sure to copy each example correctly, to corruption in south, copy enough context, and to note the source correctly at once, to save time and trouble later on. This is because you may want to look up the example in the corpus again (for example, if you need to look at the wider context) and because you should specify the source when you give quotations from your material.
4 The investigation process. We can broadly distinguish between the following stages: 4.1 The research question. Suppose you are interested in studying the position of the ancient, direct object with phrasal verbs; i.e. do you say she switched the corruption in south, light on or she switched on the light ? The secondary sources will tell you that a pronoun as direct object is placed between the verb and the particle (e.g. she switched it on ), while a noun or noun-headed phrase may appear either before or after the guy de mau, particle. You decide to focus on the word order problem in corruption in south africa essay the latter case. The working title of your term paper could be What factors determine the placement of nouns and noun phrases as direct objects of guy de mau, phrasal verbs? . 4.2 Data collection. To start your investigation you first need to collect relevant examples from a corpus. In South Africa Essay? The examples may be extracted in the form of describe by older people, concordance lines, sentences, or other units, depending on corruption essay, your research question. Remember that each example should have a reference tag showing which corpus – and which part of the corpus – it has been taken from. In collecting the material you immediately meet a number of problems.
It is not always easy to distinguish phrasal verbs (e.g. she put on her coat ) from folding, other superficially similar constructions, e.g. Corruption In South Africa? constructions with prepositional verbs (e.g. she called on Mr. X to speak ) or with prepositional phrases as adverbials (e.g. she called on Monday ). And what about examples like these (from the greek social, LOB Corpus): Dr Horn swayed two or three inches back , Ugo had his glasses off now , I own some land up in the foothills ? The first example looks superficially like a construction with a direct object, but should no doubt be analysed as containing an adverbial. In the last example up clearly goes with the africa essay, following prepositional phrase rather than with own . The second example is character letters a real problem. Do we recognize have off as a phrasal verb? Collecting the primary material is not easy. It is necessary to corruption in south africa essay, be alert, so as not to security dilemma, miss out relevant examples or include irrelevant ones. If you have studied the secondary material carefully, you will have a good idea about essay what to look for and how to distinguish relevant from irrelevant examples. The Contributions By Older People? Nevertheless, there will always be doubtful examples. Make sure to corruption in south essay, include these, with a note on the type of problem.
Such material is usually important to discuss in your paper. As you go on you may discover that it is necessary to limit the material a great deal. For example, in a study of guy de mau, phrasal verbs, it may be necessary to limit the in south africa, search to certain verbs with different particles, or to the contributions made, certain particles with different verbs. A dictionary of phrasal verbs will guide you in the process. In a study of phrasal verbs (1986) Stig Johansson decided to focus on in south, all examples in the LOB Corpus of Internet Essay, six lexical verbs co-occurring with a noun or noun-headed phrase as direct object and ten particles; see Table 1 . To find these, it was necessary to search for all forms of the relevant verbs followed within a certain span by one of the ten particles. Such searches can be easily done using a program like WordSmith Tools. After irrelevant instances had been discarded, the material was as presented in corruption in south africa essay Table 1. The table gives some useful information; it shows that there is describe the contributions to society by older people one clearly dominant order ( V part O , i.e. verb + particle + direct object). But this is only the corruption in south, starting-point of the analysis. 4.3 Classification of the material. The next logical step in ancient social the investigation process is the classification of the in south africa, material. It is natural to start thinking about the classification while the material is being collected.
To take our example with the order of greek social, direct objects with phrasal verbs, we classify each example according to the parameters which we suspect may affect the word order (based on the secondary reading or our own preliminary hypotheses); see Figure 1 . Here FileMaker (or a similar database program) is an invaluable tool. Corruption Africa Essay? Needless to say, it may be necessary to revise the classification in the course of the investigation and/or add new parameters. 4.4 The analysis. Having classified the examples, we can now rearrange and best tactical folding, analyse the material in various ways. In a quantitative study it is in south essay usually best to draw up tables first, and then go on to describing and commenting on guy de mau, the data. Note that you should not just present the in south africa essay, tables; you must comment on them and give examples from your material. Make sure that each table is numbered and has a legend that says what the table is guy de mau supposed to show and corruption, explains any abbreviations or codes. Be careful in using numbers. Do not give percentages without presenting the raw frequencies. If you give averages, also provide some measure of dispersion. In addition to tables, you may wish to present figures or diagrams.
These too should have a legend and adequate explanation. 4.5 Discussing the findings. To continue with our example case, see Tables 2-5 . Addiction? These show that the less common order ( V O part , with the direct object between the verb and the particle) is in south essay more frequent with a short direct object, a definite form as direct object, and with a literal meaning of the verb plus particle combination. We can now deal with each parameter in tactical turn, illustrating the main tendencies and commenting on any deviations from the corruption in south africa essay, main tendencies. We find, for example, that the security, four examples in Table 2 of V O part with a direct object consisting of three or more words are all definite and that the particle in three of the examples is followed by a prepositional phrase indicating direction, as in: (1) . bring these opulent days back to life . LOB F35:68. With respect to the seven examples in Table 3 of V O part with indefinite noun phrases, we find that the direct object is short (one to two words) and in several cases followed by a prepositional phrase indicating direction, as in: (2) The barman put two glasses down on the counter. LOB L11:73. With both literal and figurative meaning ( Table 4 ) there is a clear preference for V part O , but the preference is much stronger in the latter case. The examples which deviate from the main pattern generally contain a particle followed by adverbial specification in the form of africa, a prepositional phrase, as in: (3) A final dividend of 10 p.c. brings the guy de mau, total distribution up to 17.5 p.c. . Essay? LOB A16:178. Such adverbial specification is also common in the V O part pattern with combinations used in a literal sense. Analysing the material means asking interesting questions about it . In our case we found three parameters which turned out to ancient, be important: the length of the direct object, the in south africa, definiteness of the direct object, and literal vs. figurative meaning of the verb + particle combination.
The minority pattern V O part is used particularly with short and definite noun phrases as direct object and when the to society, verb + particle combination has a literal meaning. In South Africa? In the process of the analysis we discovered another important factor: the reference letters, occurrence of adverbial specification after the particle in the form of a prepositional phrase. This strengthens the corruption africa, minority pattern V O part . The results may not always be clear-cut; see Table 5 . Security? There seems to be a slight tendency for the minority pattern V O part to be more frequent in essay fiction. In such cases we need to ancient greek social, bring in statistical tests. We must also consider whether the difference might be due to some other parameter.
Could it, for example, be a reflection of the length of the direct objects? We could expect noun phrases as direct objects, like noun phrases in corruption in south africa general, to be less complex in fiction than in informative prose. If there really is a difference between fiction and describe the contributions made by older, informative prose which is not due to some other parameter, what might it be due to? These are the sorts of questions that must be asked. If our results are to in south africa, be of real value, we should try to generalize beyond our data and find deeper explanations for the regularities observed. Do we have reason to best tactical folding knife, believe that the corruption in south essay, regularities we have noted extend to phrasal verbs in general (and do not just apply to the six verbs and the ten particles we selected for security, our material)? Can we find a deeper explanation for the regularities observed?
In our case we can relate two of our parameters to corruption in south essay, two general word order principles: end weight (cf. Table 2 ) and end focus (cf. Table 3 ; indefinite noun phrases are more likely to introduce new information and appear in guy de mau final focus position). It seems reasonable to suppose that a figurative combination (cf. Table 4 ) is corruption africa less likely to be broken than a literal one; we know that idiomatic combinations are characteristically more frozen. The parameter of adverbial specification can again be given a reasonable explanation. Note that there is a tendency for adverbial particles to be attracted to related prepositional phrases; the result may even be a compound preposition: into , up to dilemma, , out of in south essay, , etc. An indirect result of this attraction is that we get the minority pattern V O part , with the particle plus prepositional phrase in greek final focus position. In other words, we have answered the question posed at the start of the study and have been able to relate our findings to other phenomena in the language. We have reached the final stage of the investigation process and can finish the writing of the paper. The writing of the paper should not be deferred to the last day before the deadline.
It is natural to write notes while working on the material, such as comments on examples or notes or ideas that you think may become useful later. You might even have a brainstorming session at an early stage when you write down in corruption africa essay telegraphic form whatever you think is relevant to the topic. At a fairly early stage it is useful to write a brief outline of your paper, organized according to some major headings (very often the ones taken up below will be useful) and Internet Addiction, with some notes under each heading. The challenge in writing the paper is to corruption in south essay, present it in such a way that it is guy de mau suitable for your reader. What do you need to explain? What can be taken for granted? It is often natural to skip the introduction and write the corruption essay, main body of the guy de mau, paper first. The first draft is . a draft. Make sure that there is a logical progression in your paper, without gaps in in south essay the argument.
Ask your teacher or a fellow student to dilemma, read your draft. And be prepared to re-write! There are at least two ways of presenting your investigation (and they can be combined): inductive : let the reader take part in the process of discovery; proceed gradually; do not start with revealing your results. Corruption Africa? deductive : you start with (a taste of) the security, conclusion, and show how you have reached it. 6 Some characteristics of linguistic discourse. To a linguist (as opposed to a literary scholar), describing the language of a geographical area, a period, a genre, or a writer, is something that may be worth doing as such. This is exactly what descriptive linguistics is about: describing the language as it is actually used, not as certain people think that it should be used. Describing somebody's language therefore should not normally contain prescriptive comments. (An exception to this may be if you use learner data and want to identify errors in corruption essay the learners' English.) By comparison, if you write about a novel or a poem, you will often have to make subjective interpretations which are not simply tied to words or combinations of words but to associations and experiences of your own which may go far beyond the guy de mau, text itself. Nevertheless, a linguistic description is not simply a presentation or summary of some material.
Judgements have to corruption africa, be made at dilemma, all different stages of the investigation, and these should be reflected in the written paper. Corruption? What sort of a problem are you dealing with? What material might be appropriate to use as a basis of the investigation? How should it be delimited? What method of describe the contributions to society by older people, analysis is appropriate? Example material may require interpretation. What patterns can you see? What do they mean? What is the corruption africa essay, effect of describe the contributions to society by older people, this or that construction? The results of the analysis must also be interpreted.
How do they fit in with previous knowledge about the language? To what extent have you been able to answer your research question? In order to describe and analyse the linguistic properties of discourse you need precise categories. You must also use the corruption, terminology correctly and consistently. Your secondary reading will provide guidance on terminology. Note also that there are dictionaries of linguistic terms (such as Crystal 2008, Matthews 2007). There are situations where there is disagreement about terminology.
Then it is an advantage if you know the best tactical knife, criteria by which a category is pinned down. There are also occasions when you cannot rely on ready-made categories; sometimes you may have to in south, define your own, in case the Internet Addiction, categories found in your reading are inadequate, or if the topic is corruption in south africa essay very specific. In this area, too, you will discover that language description is a complex matter. There are many instances of fuzzy categories. For example, where do you draw the line between adjective and verb with forms ending in - ed and - ing ? How do you delimit phrasal verbs from related constructions? There are scales or gradients which show that differences can be graded, and that it is not always true that the distinctions are clear-cut. Describe To Society People? In sum, describing the language involves a good element of interpretation. 7 Supporting your statements. In your discussion, make reference to corruption in south, your own data and the secondary sources. When you quote, include as much as is necessary, but no more. If you need to abbreviate an Internet Essay, example or a quotation from a secondary source, insert three dots (indicating ellipsis).
Editorial comments can be added within square brackets. When you quote or make a summary in your own words, always give a reference to your source. In giving examples from essay, your primary material, you may find it useful to best folding knife, use numbered examples (as above). Corruption Africa? This makes it easier to security, refer to in south africa, them in your discussion. Each example should have an identification of the source.
Look at social, the articles on africa, your syllabus to see how this is done. Distinguish between safe conclusions clearly validated by the data, and uncertain ones, for which you have inconclusive or incomplete evidence. Do not conceal data which may be difficult to account for. Best? On the contrary, such material may require special comment. Organize your paper into sections, with headings. This makes it easier to follow the steps in your investigation. It is corruption in south essay often useful to number the sections (as in greek this paper). 8.1 Before the main text.
On the title page, write the title of the paper, your name, the name of the department, the date (term), and the course your term paper relates to. Make sure the title of the paper reflects its aim and scope. If your paper is long, add a separate contents page. If you use a lot of abbreviations (apart from conventional ones), you should have a list of abbreviations. If your paper includes many tables and corruption in south africa essay, figures, include a list of these. There should also be a signed declaration confirming that the best folding, paper is your own work. Corruption Africa Essay? The declaration is normally available in the submission folder in Fronter.
8.2 The main text. The main text can often be organized as follows (needless to say, the organization may vary depending upon the type of topic): Introduction . State your aim briefly and give the reasons why the subject of your paper is worth writing about. Give a brief, critical survey of earlier work dealing with your subject. Aim and scope . State your purpose in greater detail and tell the reader what aspect you intend to investigate as well as what will be left out. Material . State the security dilemma, nature and limitations of your primary material: whether you use a corpus, elicited material, etc. Describe your method of collecting data as well as the advantages and/or limitations of your material. Consider whether your choice of data is africa essay likely to affect the results in an important way. Method . (a) State along what lines your investigation will be conducted, and, if possible, give the best tactical folding, most important sources of inspiration. (b) Define your terms and principles of classification.
Explain your use of abbreviations and symbols (if these are numerous, give a list of abbreviations/symbols at the beginning of your paper). State any technical conventions you intend to in south africa, follow. To Society People? (c) If your investigation is long and complex, give a step-by-step description of what you intend to do. Essay? Analysis and discussion . First you present the guy de mau, results of corruption essay, your study of the primary material, and then you analyse them. You will probably want to present your results in the form of tables or lists of examples, or both. Dilemma? Focus on one aspect at a time. To return to our example study above, there were separate sub-sections on: overall distribution (cf. Table 1), length (cf. Table 2), definiteness (cf. Table 3), literal vs. figurative meaning (cf.
Table 4), adverbial specification, and corruption in south africa, text category (cf. Table 5). Support your arguments with reference to tactical, the data and to your secondary material. Long and complicated sections should have a short summary at the end. Conclusion . In South Essay? To what extent have you been able to answer the question raised at the contributions to society by older people, the beginning of the paper? Give a general summary of your results and state the conclusions you can draw on in south africa essay, the basis of guy de mau, them. To what extent do your conclusions agree with what was known before? If some of corruption in south essay, your results are inconclusive, e.g. because you have not had enough material, say so. Also indicate what aspects or areas require further study . 8.3 After the main text. Footnotes/endnotes . Short references consisting only of a page reference to a certain work are given in the text within brackets, e.g. (Quirk et al . 1985: 243f.). Longer references and comments are given in footnotes (placed at the bottom of the relevat page) or endnotes.
Endnotes should be placed just before the guy de mau, list of references. References . Under this heading you list your sources in alphabetical order according to the author's surname. In South Africa Essay? The references may be divided into two sections, one for dilemma, primary sources, and essay, one for secondary sources. If you have used abbreviations for dictionaries or your primary sources, these should be clearly indicated in the list of best tactical, references. Click here to see how you go about corruption africa essay making references and reference lists. There is also a useful site here: http://www.ub.uio.no/english/writing-referencing/ Appendices . It is guy de mau often useful to relegate some material to appendices, e.g. long lists of examples or detailed tables.
But examples and tables which you comment fully on should be given in the body of the paper. 9 Some writing/formatting conventions. Writing about linguistic items: Use italic type to mark out a word or phrase that you are discussing and which is not an integrated part of the running text. Examples: (1) The most common word in the English language is the . (2) The word foot enters into a lot of more or less fixed phrases such as foot the bill , foot-and-mouth disease , put one’s foot in it and africa, set foot in … . Quoting examples: Use normal type for the example. However, you may want to add emphasis (for instance by using italics) for security, the part of the in south essay, example that is best folding most relevant to in south africa, the discussion. Examples should be numbered for ease of reference. They can be set with single spacing even if the rest of the text has double spacing. See further advice on how to best folding knife, quote examples.
Chapter and section headings: You may use bold type or a different/enlarged font for corruption essay, chapter and section headings. Security? Normally chapter headings are more prominent than section headings. In a term paper it will often not be necessary to subdivide sections (e.g. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3), but in an MA thesis this is often done, just as in corruption essay linguistics books. Don’t go over board with your decimals; as a general rule, try to avoid using more than two or three sublevels (so 2.1.1 and possibly 188.8.131.52 are all right, but not 184.108.40.206.2). Before you hand in your paper, make sure that it is free of errors in language (grammar, vocabulary, spelling). Best Folding? Check that pronoun references are clear: do not overuse this and that in referring to the preceding text. Make sure the verbs agree with their subjects. Avoid sentence fragments, without a subject and a verb. On the other hand, do not use long run-on sentences, with main clauses loosely strung together. Essay? If you can replace a comma by best tactical folding knife a full stop, do so.
Be careful with paragraphing #150; this contributes greatly to the clarity and coherence of your paper. It is natural to adopt a fairly formal style. Africa? Avoid contractions ( she's , aren't , etc.). Reduce reference to yourself to a minimum. Note that there are many ways of expressing opinions: I think/doubt/disagree , etc. may be regarded as too informal for character reference for court, an academic paper. Alternatives include such expressions as it is clear/doubtful/possible , clearly/possibly/no doubt , correctly/brilliantly/wrongly/mistakenly etc. Qualify your statements as appropriate, but note that too much hedging becomes ludicrous: 'It might perhaps seem doubtful . '. Say what you think is true, but no more and corruption essay, no less.
It may be a good idea to describe people, collect useful and/or elegant turns of phrase from books and articles about linguistics. Finally, to avoid boring your reader you should try to vary your language (but not at the expense of corruption in south essay, clarity!). A synonym dictionary or a thesaurus may give you ideas for alternative ways of expression. The English language, the tactical folding knife, subject of your paper, is a rich and flexible instrument, and it is good if this shows in your paper. This paper is based on Stig Johansson’s manuscript Writing a Term Paper in English Linguistics: Some Hints for Mellomfag and corruption essay, Hovedfag Students (unpublished, University of tactical folding knife, Oslo , 1997).
Sections 1, 3, and 7-8 of this paper are based on Altenberg et al . (1980). Section 6 draws on material provided by Kay Wikberg . For more detailed guidance on corruption in south africa, the writing of research papers in English linguistics, see Johannesson (1993). Altenberg, Bengt , Jan Svartvik , and Gunnel Tottie . 1980. How to the contributions made people, write a term paper in English linguistics. Department of English, Lund University . Unpublished. Crystal, David.
2008. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics . 6th ed. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell. Johannesson , Nils- Lennart . 1993. Corruption Africa Essay? English Language Essays: Investigation Method and Writing Strategies . 4th ed. English Department, Stockholm University . Johansson, Stig . 1986. Some observations on the order of adverbial particles and objects in the LOB Corpus. In Sven Jacobson (ed.), Papers from the Third Scandinavian Symposium on Syntactic Variation, Stockholm , May 11-12, 1985 . Stockholm Studies in English 56. Stockholm : Almqvist Wiksell . Reference Letters? 51-62.
Matthews, P.H. 2007. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Africa Essay? [Available at the UiO here] Scott, Mike. 2001. Best Folding? Comparing corpora and identifying key words, collocations, and corruption, frequency distributions through the WordSmith Tools suite of computer programs.
In Mohsen Ghadessy , Alex Henry, and Internet Addiction, Robert L. Roseberry (eds), Small Corpus Studies: Theory and Practice , 47-67. Amsterdam : Benjamins. © Stig Johansson/Hilde Hasselgrd and corruption africa, the Department of Literature, Area Studies and security dilemma, European Languages, University of Oslo.
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An Exam Reader#039;s Advice on corruption africa Writing. Lakeland High School. During my experience as a Reader, I have learned a few things about writing that I would like to share with other teachers. Internet Essay! I hope you’ll find my observations helpful as you think about encouraging your students to do their best on the writing section of the AP English Literature Exam. Students should not begin writing until they fully comprehend the prompt and/or the passage.
Mere parroting of the prompt often leads to corruption africa floundering around instead of security, developing a clear direction. I recommend that you advise your students to write directly on the passage and make quick notes and outlines in the margins. This planning enables most writers to organize their ideas more efficiently. I have found that teaching students acronyms for reading and writing strategies (DIDLS, TP-CASTT, etc.) can work wonders. (These terms are discussed in the AP Vertical Teams Guide for English , 2002.) While your very best students might not need them, less able students can find them useful ways to begin. Essay! I often suggest that my own students not only mark up the character reference letters for court, passage, but also use the corruption in south africa, margins to fill in some of the dilemma, acronym steps. This active planning takes an extra five minutes or so, but I’ve found that it’s well worth the corruption in south africa, time. Students who fail to read closely frequently wind up paraphrasing rather than analyzing the passages.
Planning helps them stay focused. Although AP Readers are instructed to read the entire essay and not to be prejudiced by a weak introduction, a strong opening paragraph can be a real asset to a student’s paper. When answering the dilemma, free-response part of the AP English Exams, writers should answer the question quickly and avoid beginning with ideas that do not relate directly to the prompt. The following hypothetical introduction for corruption africa Question 1 on the 2002 AP English Literature Exam provides an example of what not to do: “All people at some point in time have encountered a great deal of trouble in tactical their lives. I know of corruption in south africa essay, so many people who have been embarrassed by best folding knife parents that will wave at you from across a room. I have a friend who told me that her parents did this very same thing.” Such generalities often signal a writer’s inability to respond in a thoughtful manner, suggesting that the africa, rest of the paper also may be incoherent or rambling. The Reader might begin to suspect that the describe to society by older, student is just trying to bluff his or her way through the question. One-sentence perfunctory introductions—especially ones that repeat the wording of the corruption africa, prompt—also work poorly, suggesting to the Reader that the student isn’t particularly interested or doesn’t care. I recommend that teachers tell students to create an ancient greek introduction strong enough to earn a grade of 3 all by in south essay itself. That means that students should learn ways to answer the letters, entire prompt—not simply repeat it—in the introduction.
This indicates to the Reader that the paper could be heading into the upper-half zone. One way to corruption africa help students improve their beginning is by describe the contributions people providing them with several introductory paragraphs from papers that have earned a wide range of scores and asking them to identify stronger and weaker openings. (Sample papers are available on corruption africa the Exam homepage for the course.) Rubrics especially designed for introductory paragraphs also can be helpful. After having students collect examples of several strong openings, you may want to ask them to develop their own rubric for introductory paragraphs. Use paragraphs and topic sentences. Although it may seem like a small matter, students should indent paragraphs clearly. A paper without indentation or with unclear indentation often confuses a Reader. Reference! Paragraphs create the fundamental structure of the essay, and without them good ideas can get muddled.
Most essays I’ve seen that do not use paragraphs tend to be full of confused and in south africa, rambling thoughts. Many writers find topic sentences a useful tool both for organizing paragraphs and also for helping Readers navigate through the essay. To score at least a 3, students would be wise to make use of pertinent references from the text. Encourage them to character use specific quotations to back up their assertions. However, remind them that they must explain their quotes clearly and in south, demonstrate how they are relevant to the question. It is important for young writers to realize that offering long quotes without explanation bogs down the guy de mau, essay and can give the undesirable impression that the student is corruption, trying to fill up space rather than answer the prompt! Short, choppy sentences without variety indicate a student who has little background in grammar and style, perhaps someone who has read and written minimally. Teach students how to connect ideas with transitional wording, participial phrases, appositives, subordinate clauses, etc. I ask my students to imagine children making the same tower or castle each time they played with blocks.
They soon would become bored. Likewise, both writers and best knife, readers get bored when everything is formulaic, lacking some individual pizzazz! I suggest asking them to experiment with different sorts of syntactical devices to help them develop a sense of corruption africa, style. For Court! An arsenal of appropriate vocabulary and analytical wording reveals a brilliant mind at work, but writers should make certain that the words fit. Corruption Africa! Some students stick in big words just to sound scholarly.
Ironically, some of their papers score only a 2 because they lack clarity and sometimes say nothing of relevance to the prompt. I advise my students to Addiction Essay use the active voice as much as possible as one remedy for repetition and other superfluous wording. I also suggest encouraging them to corruption develop a mental thesaurus, so they will have a large variety of letters, words available as they compose.
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essay on upbringing Bishop Alexander (Mileant) T he following sources were used: The Religious upbringing of Children, by Archpriest Sergey Schukin; The Orthodox Upbringing of Children in Our Days, by Bishop Gregory Grabbe; and other Orthodox articles. #9;All aspects of a man's life - his character, sense of responsibility, good and bad habits, ability to in south africa cope with difficulties, and his piety - are shaped primarily during his childhood. The bright memories of his childhood can strengthen and warm a man during trying times, and, contrarily, those who have not had a happy childhood can in guy de mau no way remake it. When we meet an orphan who has never had parental affection, or a step-son or step-daughter whose broken spirits are a result of difficulties at home, or those left to the care of in south strangers, we can sense in guy de mau them the in south essay, imprint of character letters for court painful early impressions. #9;The absence of a religious upbringing unfailingly manifests itself in a person's character - a sort of fissure can be perceived in his spiritual makeup. A child is corruption in south extraordinarily receptive to religious impressions. He is instinctively drawn toward everything that opens up the character reference letters for court, beauty and meaning of life. Take this away from him and corruption essay his soul will become dulled and he will feel lonely in an unfriendly and cruel world.
Something similar happens with the guy de mau, physical appearance of a child. If he lives in dismal, damp surroundings, he will grow underdeveloped, ailing and without joy. In South Africa Essay. In both cases of malady, physical or spiritual, the fault lies with the parents. On the other hand, when we consider prominent and successful people, people of great integrity and energy, we see that the majority of them came from large, hard-working families, brought up in describe the contributions by older people religious traditions. #9;It may happen that in someone's later life immoral behavior may weaken the faith in God that a person acquired in childhood.
He starts neglecting religion and the salvation of his soul without any apparent hope of recovery, but God will not abandon a person who carries the corruption in south essay, seeds of goodness deep in his heart. When something frightening befalls him, he begins to guy de mau recognize his limitations and helplessness and starts to reflect on the purpose of his life. Long forgotten impressions and instructions revive within him, and the grace of God again touches his soul. This helps him to come back to God. Corruption In South Africa Essay. Thus, the hallowed memories of childhood become very helpful. This is why it is so important for parents to make every effort to lay a spiritual foundation in their children. When they are adults, they will appreciate their parents' efforts. #9;In this pamphlet we will discuss the aim of describe the contributions to society made a Christian upbringing and its main components. In South Essay. We will explain the importance of the guy de mau, family, of the church and of parochial school, and we will discuss some difficulties and in south africa essay errors in bringing up children.
Upbringing and the scholastic education. A Christian upbringing lays a moral and spiritual foundation in a child, while a scholastic education aims at developing his mental abilities. These are two different activities. There is no reason to think that scholastic education automatically facilitates the moral development of a child. Some people may be very educated but ill-bred and unspiritual. On the other hand, totally uneducated peasants can be highly spiritual and security dilemma moral people. #9;Any upbringing, either within the family or the school, can only pursue temporary aims related to in south essay the needs of the family and security society when divorced from religion. For instance, the aim of education in totalitarian countries is to make a person an africa essay, obedient instrument of the government. In contemporary public schools in the USA and many other countries, the object of education is not a person's highest welfare or his spiritual integrity, but the material needs of the government and community. An Orthodox religious upbringing, on the other hand, is ancient greek social concerned with the moral development of the soul and is guided by eternal spiritual principles . In South Africa Essay. Here the content does not change with political trends or new sociological ideas but is founded on Divine revelation . Parents should direct their child not according to fashion or society's needs but according to for court the Word of corruption africa essay God. The aim of a Christian upbringing.
A Christian upbringing aims to dilemma give children proper spiritual direction, so that they will be able to withstand temptations and become good and religious people. In South Africa Essay. For this, they should not only learn rules of behavior but also develop integrity and a clear distinction between right and best tactical knife wrong . This goal of Christian upbringing is revealed in the prayers of the sacrament of in south Baptism. The priest reads the guy de mau, following words, among others: O Master, Lord our God, call Thy servant (name) to Thy Holy illumination . Put off from africa essay him the old man , and renew him unto life everlasting . That he may be no more a child of the body, but a child of Thy Kingdom. Character Reference Letters For Court. During Baptism, a person undergoes an important and substantial inner transformation: he dies to sin and is reborn spiritually. Here he receives all the corruption africa essay, tools for inner growth - the ancient greek, power to love God and to love everything that is in south africa good. These qualities liken him to the Incarnate Son of Internet Essay God Himself, as is sung during the procession around the in south africa essay, baptismal font: As many as have been baptized into greek Christ, have put on africa, Christ (from the dilemma, epistle to the Galatians). The seed of the Holy Spirit is implanted; from now on, the responsibility for strengthening it and making it grow passes to the parents and god-parents. #9;Since our nature is two-fold, consisting of body and soul, every child needs not only physical but also spiritual nurturing. If the parents only nurture the child physically, while neglecting him spiritually, he will grow up a child of nature and a slave of carnal desires.
St. John Chrysostom says the in south, following about this: To educate the hearts of children in goodness and virtuousness is the sacred duty of parents. The violation of this duty makes them guilty of spiritual infanticide . Security. There are parents who spare no efforts to make their children happy and wealthy; but for in south essay their children to be good Christians - for such matters the parents have little need. This is a terrible shortsightedness! This is the very reason for the problems from which society groans . If the fathers strove to to society give their children a good upbringing, there would be no need for laws, or courts, or punishments. Prisons and executioners are necessary due to the lack of morality. #9;The Gospel teaches that the principal thing in a man's life is the proper state of his heart . One should understand heart as the center of one's spiritual life, wherein all the feelings and desires are concentrated. Here is the location of the origin of a person's behavior and moral attitude.
If, according to the Savior's words , out of the in south africa, heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries. (Matt. 15:19), then it should become evident that the main task of rearing a child is to give a proper direction to his heart. Because temptations are unavoidable, it is important to educate a child to ancient distinguish unambiguously between right and wrong, to choose virtue and to despise immorality. Parents should nurture in their child a deep love of God from a very early age, before he loses his sensitivity and receptiveness. When should the upbringing begin? T here are differing opinions regarding the best age to begin the spiritual upbringing of a child. Some parents think that in the first several years a child needs only external care, and consider him like some amusing kitten, unreceptive to spiritual influence. Such an opinion contradicts Christian teaching and experimental evidence. Psychology has established that a child is receptive to many external influences right after his birth.
A certain scholar compared the subconscious process of a child to that of a movie strip, which records all perceptions non-stop. A child may as yet lie in the crib, but his soul already amasses impressions, picks up sounds, follows movements around him with his eyes, discerns voice intonations and even the mood of his parents. From all these non-stop impressions the child's personality is corruption in south essay formed, and after they sink into best knife his subconscious, they cannot be blotted out by any means. #9;Besides, modern psychology has established that the impressions of early childhood play a decisive role in the subsequent development of men. Corruption Africa. For instance, some bad habits and infirmities in guy de mau adults can be traced to negative impressions from early childhood. That is why parents should give the greatest care to the early impressions of their infant. Right from birth they should begin to develop not only the body but the child's soul as well. #9;This is precisely what our faith teaches us also.
In the Gospel we read that when some children were carried to Jesus, the disciples forbade the parents to approach, not wanting to disturb their Master. Seeing this, Jesus became indignant and in south africa said to the Apostles: Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the Kingdom of God.' And embracing the greek, children, He placed His hands on them and africa blessed them (Mark 10:13-16). Take note that these children were not led to Christ but were carried to Him, which means that they were too little to walk by Internet, themselves. The disciples did not permit such little ones near Christ, thinking, as many contemporary parents do, that infants are unable to assimilate spiritual things. How did the Savior react to this? He became indignant. We know that the merciful Christ became indignant only when truth was suppressed by delusion; for instance, at the hypocrisy of the africa, Pharisees, the desecration of the temple by the money changers, etc. That is why He said to the disciples: Suffer the little children to come unto me. for of such is the Kingdom of Heaven . It turns out that children are more receptive to goodness and Divine grace than adults. They instinctively strive toward God. #9;Following the instructions of Jesus Christ and guy de mau His Apostles, the corruption africa essay, Church teaches that a religious upbringing should begin at the contributions, the earliest age.
The Church's wisdom and experience in connection with the upbringing of children is reflected in its services and customs. From his very birth, the Orthodox Church welcomes a child with several prayers: on the first day (the day of essay his birth), on the eighth (at the selection of his name), and on the fortieth (his introduction into the temple). These prayers contain petitions for the child's physical and spiritual well-being and for best his sanctification by Divine grace. Following Baptism, the church prescribes bringing the child to corruption in south essay the temple and taking him to Communion as often as possible, having him kiss the Cross and the Holy icons and drink Holy water. All these would be in vain if children were unreceptive to spiritual impressions. #9;Thus, the most proper time for the enlightenment of the soul is early childhood. In fact, the ethical foundation of a person is laid during this period.
The soul of a child, until six to seven years of age, resembles clay, from which one can mold his personality. After that age, the main characteristics have been established, and it is best knife almost impossible to change them. Corruption Africa. A mother does the right thing when she brings her child to the icons, when she blesses him with the sign of the cross, when, overcoming her tiredness, she holds him in her arms during church services, and when she prays over his crib. With all of these actions she prepares him to be a good Christian. The struggle with bad inclinations. P arents make a mistake when they consider their child to be completely free from Internet Addiction evil. Experience shows that a child comes into corruption africa the world not only with good tendencies but with bad ones also.
Science calls them inheritances, and best tactical folding the Church, the seeds of original sin. Everyone is born with his nature partially corrupted by sin. That is africa essay why the education of a child should include some basic training on how to struggle against bad inclinations. Without this, the child will grow unarmed against temptations. When a child is abandoned to his own desires, then, no matter how talented he might be, his good qualities may become completely overwhelmed by character reference for court, his evil inclinations. #9;Every child bears some resemblance to in south africa his parents and relatives. Together with their physical characteristics, he assumes some of their spiritual qualities as well, which in general are a mixture of good and reference letters for court bad. The problem is that the bad predispositions often develop and strengthen much faster than the good ones. Africa Essay. For example, in to society made people the herbaceous world, weeds are more robust and aggressive than garden and in south africa essay vegetable plants.
In order to grow something worthwhile, one must constantly fight weeds. #9;Observing a child carefully, one can notice in him some germinating negative characteristics: occasionally he is capricious, or becomes angry, or may insist on reference letters for court, doing something forbidden. At an early age children become lazy, are prone to slyness and deceit, and manifest greed and cruelty toward other children. At five years of age one can already see hints of his future character. If the parents do not teach him to overcome his bad inclinations, these may grow into passions and vices.
Sometimes parents occasionally lament about their children: Where does he get such stubbornness, capriciousness, and inclinations toward the forbidden? He does not see any of this in us. Actually, there is corruption in south no need to guy de mau teach a child evil - it is already rooted in him. A mother observing her child said, He clearly manifests the negative characteristics of his father. Unfortunately, the good qualities are acquired with effort and constancy, while their opposites, as weeds, flourish on their own. #9;Young parents tend to underestimate these weeds, considering them mere signs of immaturity: Let him grow a little, and he will realize by himself what is good and what is wrong. Essay. Hoping that this will happen automatically, they leave his bad inclinations unattended and fail to Essay teach him how to struggle with them. Some parents prefer to corruption in south essay appease every capricious inclination of the child, adopting the attitude: Anything for a quiet life!
Psychology and religion, on the other hand, teach that it is better to nip any manifestation of evil at its root before it takes hold. Failing to do so will allow it to Internet Addiction Essay become a habit. Afterwards parents will bitterly repent that because of undue mildness, they failed to discipline their child. St. John of Kronstadt writes the essay, following: Parents and reference for court educators, guard your children against corruption in south capriciousness. Ancient Social. Otherwise, they will infect their hearts with malice, losing their early holy love, and will bitterly complain at corruption in south africa, reaching adulthood that in their youth they were indulged in knife their whims. A whim is in south africa essay a germ which corrupts the heart. #9;A child should always know what is guy de mau permissible and what is not. Sensible prohibitions and light punishments are absolutely necessary. On understanding that the violation of imposed rules results in unpleasant consequences, the child will avoid the forbidden. Thus a healthy foundation will be laid in in south essay him, and his will, which is just beginning to form, will be prepared to submit to God-established moral laws.
The spiritual foundation. B y nature, children are gentle, compassionate and sincere. Describe The Contributions People. These valuable qualities are as yet weak in them and have to be directed and strengthened . In South Africa Essay. While the child grows, parents should strengthen in him a disposition to struggle automatically against any temptation as soon as it appears. Fortunately, every human being possesses a wonderful quality known as conscience. The task for parents is to develop and strengthen in their child a discerning conscience and to accustom him to tactical knife listening to its voice. This task should be approached not abstractly, but from the religious standpoint, i.e., referring to God, whom we should love and obey. We are all responsible before him for our actions. Without such a religious foundation, an upbringing will be shaky and unconvincing.
#9;Some think that the notions of God, of good and evil, etc., are too abstract and complicated for a child. Nevertheless, experience shows that, at three to corruption in south essay four years of age, these concepts are accessible to a child when they are presented to him with visual support such as a holy pictures, the sign of the cross, simple prayers, religious music, and so forth. Reference Letters For Court. The pure child's soul associates these first religious impressions with the africa, voice of conscience, and thus a simple and healthy piety is formed within him. For those who would question the guy de mau, reality of childhood piety, we note that faith in God is an inborn human quality. Corruption In South. Therefore, it is available to all, regardless of their age or mental development. The lowliest uneducated man as well as the highest scholar are both capable of folding knife believing in God.
Each person comprehends and experiences the faith to his degree of development. #9;Because the Christian faith is so natural to in south africa essay human nature, it can be successfully rooted in little children, and their upbringing can be built upon it. One can only security dilemma be amazed at how easily and deeply children accept faith in God and what a beneficial influence it has on them. Corruption In South. Faith in describe to society made God not only helps a child to fight bad inclinations, but it also helps him to understand many fundamental questions which are inexplicable in human terms regarding the nature of corruption in south africa good and evil, the appearance of the world, the aim of life, etc. Essay. The main point is that faith in corruption in south africa God is the key to the development of all the positive qualities in a child - piety, love, compassion, sensitivity, repentance and the wish to improve. #9;Every parent from his own experience may be convinced that the notion of God provides him with a powerful tool for the rearing of children.
When we speak of God as the origin of every goodness and the Supreme Judge of mankind, we bring true notions of right and wrong into a child's consciousness. We do this not with formal rules, but by helping him to perceive the Living Person Who stands over the world, and before Whom we all are accountable. This Supreme Being draws us toward good and repels us from ancient social all that is perishable. Thus a child recognizes sin as something shameful, harmful and subject to punishment. This notion of sin is not totally alien to a child because the feeling of fault, shame, and an elementary distinguishing between right and wrong is corruption africa essay part of his nature. The Christian faith only clarifies and guy de mau strengthens in him these deeply rooted notions. #9;The concept of right and wrong opens to the child the path of moral choice and an awareness of his responsibility before God. Now the child becomes aware that his bad actions not only transgress the requests of essay his parents but also the security, order established by God. He may be punished for his sins not only by corruption in south, them but also by his Heavenly Father. Furthermore, all spiritual and material welfare comes to him not only from security dilemma human efforts, but also from the Lord Who provides for us.
Holy Scripture designates such a spiritual state as the fear of God and teaches that it is the beginning of wisdom (Prov. Africa Essay. 9:10). #9;The expression fear of God requires some explanation. It is far from that primitive fear which savages experience before the the contributions by older, raging forces of nature. In accordance with the corruption africa, Gospel, our relationship with God must be expressed in filial love, and true love never pains its subject. For instance, a good son obeys his father not because he fears punishment, but out of love for him and unwillingness to character distress him. Likewise, in the Christian faith, God-fearing is linked with the thought of God the Father, whom we do not wish to offend. Hence, fear of essay God is a disposition to venerate God and is a healthy feeling which should be experienced by every Christian. Religious upbringing demands the incorporation of this feeling into tactical a child from the earliest age. A s mentioned above, while a child is small, he assimilates preeminently through his feelings. Africa. His will and intellect have yet to develop, together with his physical growth.
Because an individual lives mainly by impulses and desires in dilemma the early stage of in south africa essay his development, it is important not to burden a child with moral admonitions and logical proofs. Upbringing begins with obedience, and the sooner a child becomes used to following the parent's requests, the describe made people, easier it will become later to instruct him. At first, some interdictions are necessary, like: Don't do that . You must not act like that . Corruption In South Essay. This is good. As the child grows, positive direction and instruction should follow as well. Here some difficulties may arise, since words alone are not always sufficient to inculcate in a child the rules of conduct. Occasionally, one may meet with stubbornness and refusal. In order to overcome this, parents sometimes might have to resort to stronger actions.
#9;There are two approaches: physical punishment and religious influence. Of course punishment is sometimes indispensable, but if it is applied too frequently, it may bring negative results. The child gets used to ancient social performing his duties by the rod and does not learn to follow his own good intentions. Besides, frequent punishment tends to make the child irate, secretive and distrustful, and leaves a painful imprint on his character. #9;A religious upbringing gives more successful results. There is almost no need to resort to corporal punishment when parents impress upon the child not their own rules, but those demanded by the Lord . A Christian mother may say to her child: Don't do that - the corruption africa, Good Lord does not like that . This is not allowed - the Good Lord does not allow that. Or: If you do this that way - God will punish you! And if a child hurts himself because of his disobedience (like burning his finger), the mother may say: See, God punished you because you disobeyed Him. #9;Thus, step by the contributions to society made by older people, step, the parents inculcate in their child the feeling of dependence on God . If he does something forbidden secretly, they can tell him: Don't think that the Good Lord cannot see what you are doing while I'm away! God sees everything, - and while saying this they point to the Holy icon in the corner. One youngster wanted to steal some candy from the sideboard; he climbed up and turned the icon towards the wall so the Good Lord would not see, and his mother explained to him that God is everywhere and that it is impossible to hide from him.
#9;It is not only prohibitions that should be admonished on religious grounds. Most importantly, positive requests to a child should be based on Divine authority. It must be explained to him that God is our Creator, the Source of life and corruption africa essay happiness, and that He will help him to succeed in good actions. The child must understand that he can attain nothing without God's help , and Internet Addiction that the main tool for obtaining God's help is corruption in south prayer. Besides, it is necessary to teach the child to thank God for everything he has - life, health, food, happiness, for all material and spiritual things - and also to pray for his parents. Addiction. From the earliest age the child should perceive God as his Heavenly Father, Who loves him and cares about his well-being.
For instance, when a child stays home alone or is among strangers, the mother may console him: You are not alone, the Good Lord always watches over you. Also it is beneficial to explain to the child about the Guardian Angel, who accompanies and in south essay protects him. This will free him from the fear of darkness and being alone. To love God with the whole heart should be the ultimate goal of character letters for court upbringing. #9;In order that these instructions not remain abstract, they must be reinforced with vivid illustrations and specific actions , like making the sign of the cross, attending services in Church, kissing icons, lighting candles, looking at biblical illustrations, common familial prayer, drinking Holy water, receiving Holy Communion, bowing the head, etc. Corruption. Thus the guy de mau, child becomes habituated to following religious rules, and his will becomes used to submissiveness to africa essay the supreme will of the Creator. As the child develops, parents must direct his actions toward strengthening in him Christian piety. Its main characteristics are sincere faith, truthfulness, modesty, kindness, diligence, steadfastness, readiness to forgive, etc.
If one adds to tactical folding knife that the habit of the observance of important fasting periods and holy days, then there will be established for the child a favorable environment, which will make unnecessary any physical punishment. #9;If we compare this method of upbringing to others that exclude the Christian faith, we see that some parents resort to shouting, beatings, tedious lecturing, etc. This, of course, fails to elevate the child's feelings. At the opposite extreme, there are parents who favor undisciplined and capricious behavior, which promotes all sorts of passions and bad habits. Both of these approaches can but only cripple a child. Is it not because of such diversity in upbringing that children differ so drastically in their characters: some are gentle, trusting, sensitive to all good and compassionate; others, on the contrary, are peevish, distrustful, heartless and corruption capricious? A purely worldly upbringing robs the guy de mau, child of the most precious and highest human qualities. #9;Certainly, in an upbringing, the greatest influence comes not from africa words alone but from personal example . The behavior of those close to a child has the greatest influence on him.
Children come into contact with two groups of people: with their own family and with outsiders - schoolmates, friends and neighbors. While parents may do their best to give a good example to their child, schoolmates and security dilemma neighbors often influence him negatively. In South Africa. That does not mean that he should be isolated from people, because this would deprive him of the dilemma, necessary preparation for life. Rather, parents should make sure that their child meets with good friends, attuned to Christianity, and that the influence of the in south africa essay, family predominates. Describe To Society Made By Older People. Here we summarize the main qualities that Christian parents should possess: 1) love of essay God above all, 2) love of their children in the Christian sense, 3) fairness to them and.
4) consistency in their actions. It is heartwarming to see how young couples, while striving to raise their children, pull themselves up, educate themselves and become better Christians. So it happens that not only the parents bring up their children, but the children educate their parents as well. It is desirable that both parents belong to the same Church. In the case of a mixed marriage, an describe to society made people, agreement should be made between the corruption africa, couple (preferably prior to the wedding) that their children will be baptized and character reference letters brought up in the Orthodox Church. Divergence of opinion regarding faith, and especially quarrels between parents, cause a rift in a child's consciousness and causes great harm. Besides, when parents criticize or abase each other in the presence of the africa essay, children, they undermine their authority.
#9;In general, parents should be very careful about what they say in the presence of a child. Some may think that the the contributions, child is too small to understand. Africa. But not being able to discern most of the details, the child nevertheless grasps the main direction and moral value of the discussion, and this can leave an unfavorable impression in his subconscious. Best Tactical Folding. This can later evoke some questions on his part that the parents will be unable to explain and raise doubts difficult to dispel. It is best to completely avoid mentioning some problematical subjects in the presence of children and corruption africa essay also to avoid mocking others or showing disrespect to things which should be regarded as sacred. Guy De Mau. Woe unto him, who shall seduce one of these little ones , said Christ, it would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck, and he were drowned in the depth of the sea (Matt. Corruption Africa. 18:6). I n some countries the theory of a liberal upbringing of children has gained popularity.
This theory rejects all constraint and punishment and insists that a child must be left to himself so that he may freely express and best tactical folding develop his individuality. Can a Christian embrace such an approach to upbringing? Hardly, if he accepts what the Bible teaches concerning original sin and essay the corruption of human nature. Scripture unambiguously teaches that the thoughts of man's heart are evil from his youth (Gen 8:21). Without spiritual guidance a child will learn to pursue only his egotistical interests and to reject any moral obligations. With time his conscience will become completely indifferent to the means of guy de mau reaching the desired goal. #9;The Church, on the other hand, teaches that a child from a very early age must learn to discern between what is allowed and what is forbidden. Corruption Africa Essay. The parents must guide their child's actions so as to prepare him for Internet Essay an independent life based on corruption africa essay, spiritual and moral values.
This guidance should begin as early as possible. At 10 to 12 years of age, it may be too late to correct shortcomings already acquired. In order to letters for court recognize the importance of constraint in upbringing, one should consider the following: (1) A child's mind is not fully developed to understand unmistakably in all circumstances what is right and what is wrong. (2) Even when he understands, his will is too weak to withstand all temptations and to direct his actions toward good but difficult tasks. (3) A child becomes used to being responsible when he is asked to perform feasible things. (4) A sensible and corruption in south africa essay moderate combination of guidance with punishment imprints on a child's character a sense of moral responsibility and good habits. #9;Punishments that are not so much direct and corporal but are indirect and yet no less effective include: leaving meals without dessert, depriving him for a time of the usual games and describe the contributions to society by older people TV, denying visits of friends and corruption in south africa other pleasures, performing additional tasks, etc. One way or another, when words are found to best tactical folding knife be insufficient, one must exert influence on a child with a more productive method. (The saying, Waste not words, when authority is required! from Krylov's fable, The Cat and the Cook.) Since every child is born not only corruption in south africa essay with good, but also with bad predispositions, one must struggle with the latter from the guy de mau, very beginning.
What kind of struggle can take place without restrictions and punishments? Remember your own childhood, and you will be convinced that knowledge and good habits did not come automatically but were obtained with struggle, persistence and sometimes with tears. St. Paul says: No chastening seems to be joyful for the present, but painful; nevertheless, afterward it yields the peaceable fruit of corruption essay righteousness to those who have been trained by it (Heb. 12:11). Hence, let too sentimental parents not be afraid to cause grief to ancient greek social their children when the situation demands it. B ecause the primary objective of the Church is to lead people towards faith and essay righteousness, the temple with its services and educational means can be a big help to parents in bringing up their children. Amidst surroundings of wantonness and disbelief, the temple stands as a spiritual lighthouse, an island of sanctity for adults and the young. Its setting and its divine services have a special beneficial influence on guy de mau, a child. The candles, the icons and frescoes, the smell of incense, the corruption in south, singing of the choir, the greek, sound of essay church bells - all leave bright impressions on a young soul.
When parents bring their child to church often, he becomes used to it and learns to love its inspiring services. #9;The Orthodox faith is rich in security feast days, magnificent services and noble customs, which produce a steadfast influence on Christians. Bring to mind Palm Sunday, Passion Week and the procession with the corruption africa, Holy Shroud, the Easter service (which no one celebrates as joyously as the Orthodox), our blessing of the waters on Epiphany, the celebration of the Holy Trinity with its abundance of flowers and greenery, the describe made by older people, bringing forth of the Holy Cross, the blessing of the fruits of the in south africa essay, harvest on the feast of the Transfiguration . what a rich nourishment for the child's soul! For their children's sake, parents should make no excuses to skip church services. #9;The house of an Orthodox family is supposed to complement the holy environment of the temple. Of particular significance are common prayers, the beautiful corner with its holy images and glowing lamp, the first meal after Lent, memorial days, the blessing of homes and greek social other religious celebrations. Because the religious upbringing of a child is attained not so much by means of the intellect as through feelings, children who attend church services and participate in family prayer become like a ploughed up field, receptive to the seeds of goodness, which in due time will bear fruit. #9;The first Confession at the age of africa essay seven comes as an important milestone in the life of a youngster. Essay. After Confession a person becomes as holy and chaste as after Baptism.
It is vital that parents have taught their children by corruption in south essay, this age to note their shortcomings and to repent sincerely in what they have said or done wrong. His first Confession indicates to a youngster that he is becoming mature enough to begin consciously to strengthen his faith and to take responsibility for his actions. Formerly the sacrament of Communion nourished him through the parental faith. Now he approaches the Holy Chalice with personal conviction. So, the preparation of tactical folding a youngster for corruption essay the proper partaking of his first Confession and first conscious Communion is a major accomplishment in the spiritual development of a child.
#9;Starting from dilemma this age, or perhaps a little later, boys may begin to serve as altar boys, and in south girls to sing in the church choir or to assist in best knife removing candle stubs in front of icons. This will accustom them to participation in divine services. Corruption. Active involvement in the Liturgy and close contact with the security dilemma, priest draws a sensitive child toward the Church and toward spiritual life. This will broaden his horizons to understand that his earthly life is only the first step in his existence and that it has an important purpose. The parish school. P ublic schools are often unable to stand against the ungodly and corrupting influences in corruption africa essay society or to prepare children to choose properly between right and wrong. There are many internal and external factors that push the family toward disintegration and society toward moral decline. Character Reference. Noteworthy among these factors are the media and in south essay the movie industry, which swamp children with low-grade movies saturated with scenes of violence and sex. #9;To counterbalance the materialistic and antichristian environment which surrounds children, the parish school should give the children religious knowledge, which strengthens their faith and best tactical folding knife teaches them a proper way of life, including the in south africa essay, means to resist temptations and to become true Christians. The purpose of the parish school is to deepen and enhance the character, religious fundamentals acquired at home.
During catechism lessons, children systematically receive important knowledge: they memorize prayers, become familiarized with the sacred history of the Old and New Testament, and study the corruption in south, foundation of the Orthodox faith, the commandments of reference letters God and the content of the divine services. In the senior classes, we are behooved to familiarize the students with the particulars of heterodox denominations and with the proper approach to contemporary moral problems.#9; #9;The parish school assists the family in the matter of religious upbringing, and the parent's care of course goes much further than the school's. The school gives theoretical religious knowledge, while the application of this knowledge is achieved within the family. Without a Christian atmosphere at home, all the information received at school will remain a theory that children will forget in the course of their years. #9;In conclusion one must note that neither the family, nor the school, nor the Church, can independently bring up a child. This is corruption in south africa feasible only by a combined effort of these institutions. That is why the more there is interaction and mutual assistance among them, the more successful the upbringing of the dilemma, children will be in their care. T he Orthodox church always regarded the family as the main source of the Christian enlightenment of children. The Apostles used to call the family the in south, domestic church and taught spouses to strive conjointly for made by older a spiritual life. #9;To bring a Christian environment to the house, all members of the family should pray together.
The best times for this are mornings and evenings. When possible, they should pray before and after meals. Combined prayer joins and strengthens the family. On Sundays all must attend church, observing the fourth commandment: Remember the Sabbath day [day of rest], to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the corruption in south africa, seventh day is the day of the best folding knife, Lord your God (Exod. Corruption. 20:8). Giving us six days of the week, God kept one for Himself, but those Christians who devote the seventh day for themselves, rob the Lord of what belongs to Him and ancient break their covenant with Him.
#9;Discussions of spiritual topics and the reading of the Holy Scriptures, as well as the lives of the Saints and other edifying books, have a beneficial effect on the whole family and create a conciliatory atmosphere in the house. Africa. One cannot disdain the fast-days, which are periods set by the Church for the development of self discipline and security religious firmness. The Lord Jesus Christ, as well as His disciples and the first Christians, all fasted on certain days. For instance, from the first century of Christianity, it became the corruption, norm to fast twice a week: on best knife, Wednesdays and corruption africa essay Fridays. At that time the Great Fast, also know as Lent, was established for the period prior to Easter. #9;In the absence of a parish school, the job of catechismal instruction falls on the parents. It is certainly very helpful to this end that the children get used to reading a children's Bible and other religious books on their own. Later they retell to the parents what they have read and Addiction Essay learn how to apply what they have learned. These readings and conversations should be carried out on a regular basis because without consistency it is difficult to achieve lasting results.
O ne of the main contemporary problems is the preservation of the corruption in south africa essay, family. When families split, the whole society disintegrates. The statistics regarding the number of guy de mau divorces and crimes among young people are alarming. What are the reasons for this social crisis? We think that the main reasons are the corruption essay, weakening of tactical knife faith in in south essay God and folding the straying from Christian moral principles. #9;In order to preserve the corruption, family and to bring up children properly, it is guy de mau imperative for parents to build the family on a Christian foundation. God and corruption essay the salvation of the soul must take first place, and material goods second.
Of course, this is not easily achieved in the present conditions of a sped-up pace of life and growing economic difficulties. If some years ago a typical family could exist on the earnings of one working person, usually the father, today it becomes necessary for both spouses to work. Thus parents become overworked and security dilemma too busy to spend time with their little ones. Corruption In South Africa. When children feel lonely, they start meeting with neighbors and friends, who may be undesirable companions from a Christian standpoint. Sometimes tired and nervous parents start to quarrel between themselves, raise their voices and even insult each other. This creates an unhealthy atmosphere at home, which harms the spiritual development of the best folding, children. #9;In order to avoid this situation, it is necessary for parents to slow down their lives. It is preferable to lead a more modest life than to africa strive for an abundance with bitterness and disagreements. Guy De Mau. According to statistics, persisting economic problems and the pursuit of wealth often lead to divorce.
Common prayer with children (to be said in the morning and evening) helps parents to find a balance in their everyday cares and corruption in south essay draws God's help to them. #9;Of course errors and to society people misunderstandings are inevitable even in the healthiest and most religious family. Spouses must resolve their problems in frank and friendly discussions. It is good to adopt the rule of corruption africa having amicable discussions of common concerns on a regular basis, supplementing them with prayer and the reading of Holy Scripture. This will attract Divine guidance and help. Both parents should learn to listen patiently to each other's arguments and to respect each other. Never should one raise one's voice, insult or abase another - especially in Internet Essay the presence of children. One must ask forgiveness before going to bed, even when one feels he or she is in the right.
The Apostle Paul instructs spouses: When angry, do not sin. Do not let the sun go down on your wrath, nor give place to the devil (Eph. 4:26). If a couple neglects this advice, anger will accumulate more and more in their subconscious, and corruption in south they will gradually become alienated from one another. #9;Parents must pay attention to what constitutes home entertainment, namely television and music, which have such a strong influence on children. Television would be an excellent invention if suitable programs were selected and it were used in character moderation. In practice, television has an adverse effect on children. Occupying the most preeminent place in the home, like an idol in corruption africa essay a pagan family, it not only devours a lot of time but also habituates children to a passive diversion of no educational value. Many studies report that TV programs as a rule are permeated with violence, triviality and even profanity. Tactical Folding. This is the most dangerous form of pollution. Corruption Africa Essay. Besides, children who spend much of the contributions made by older their time watching television have a poor learning record.
They become wilful, rude and begin to manifest objectionable behavior early. #9;It has also been noted that television has a hypnotic and obsessive effect. People who regularly watch TV develop such a passionate fondness for it that they can no longer live without it. Essay. In this regard it becomes similar to the habit of smoking or drinking. Television gradually takes away any desire to read, meditate, pray or do something worthwhile. Therefore, parents who, for the sake of their children, abstain from acquiring a television or keep it under strict control, do the right thing. #9;Music, as all art, should bring out in Internet an individual elevated and noble feelings. There is a broad selection of good classical and essay folk music.
Unfortunately, one cannot say the character, same about contemporary music, such as rock-and-roll or heavy metal, which brings out in the listeners stormy, erotic and wicked feelings. Some of these contemporary songs even contain anti-religious and occult language. Christian parents have the responsibility to protect their children from such pollution. #9;It may seem to some parents that many of the self-limitations imposed by our faith are too severe and corruption in south essay unnecessary in our days. But they must remember the words of the Gospel regarding the letters for court, perils of in south africa a wide road, followed by character, the majority, and of the narrow road leading to africa essay salvation. In these pre-antichrist times, Christians should realize that the world is wrapped in evil, and that, as Jesus said, the prince of this world - is the devil (1 Jn. 5:19; Jn.
12:31, 14:30). #9;Some families suffer from guy de mau a halfhearted and superficial approach toward Orthodoxy. For instance, in pre-revolutionary Russia, many people, especially the corruption in south, intelligentsia, were mindful of knife church only during great feasts and main family events, like baptisms, weddings, and funerals. In South. The remainder of their lives passed without any relation to the Church or attention to its requirements. It is ancient social natural that these people, who had such a scornful attitude toward their faith, passed it on to their children. That is probably why the Russian revolution took such monstrous dimensions, and why Christians were so passive during the destruction of churches, the extermination of relics and the persecution of the clergy. #9;The struggles and corruption in south essay difficulties that parents go through in the upbringing of their children have a positive aspect. Describe To Society Made. Striving to direct their children to the righteous path, they simultaneously strengthen their own faith and grow spiritually.
According to the Creator's plan, this is the very object of the family. To teach others we have to learn first, and by saving others we save ourselves. Corruption Africa Essay. When parents, realizing their ineptness and weakness in the task of bringing up their children, turn to God for guidance and help, God truly assists them, and family life flows safely under the shelter of the Almighty. T hus, within the family, a person receives the foundation of faith, moral direction and the sense of guy de mau duty. From the first days of his cognizant life, the new member of the family learns to appreciate the care and love of his parents. Hard work and even a kind of austerity are useful ingredients to a family's environment: they strengthen the children's characters, accustom them to work, and confer a sober outlook on life. In South. The family is the guardian and disseminator of Christian tradition. Here a child receives his first spiritual impressions.
Here is laid the foundation of faith, prayer and good deeds. #9;Child psychology teaches that toward the third year a child starts to realize his individuality and begins to say I. At this time parents should start to train him to be obedient. During the first several years of his life a child acquires approximately one third of the guy de mau, notions of an adult. After this, a person mostly broadens and deepens that which was imprinted on his soul during childhood. #9;From infancy, a child must learn what is permissible and what is not. This knowledge should be imparted to him not abstractly, but by putting it on a religious foundation - on faith in God and our relationship with Him - with love, thankfulness, and corruption hope in His help. The notion of right and wrong gives a child a sense of responsibility. Now he realizes that any bad behavior breaches not only the demands of his parents, but also the reference, natural order directed by God, Who may punish him for disobedience.
#9;Simultaneously, parents should give to their child an example of Christian life . In South Essay. If they try only to stuff his head with dry rules, he will regard them as useless theories. A good example has a determining role in a child's development. To this end, all the members of a family must strive to respect and love each other, to best tactical pray together, discuss religious topics, attend Church, take Communion often, observe fast days, and help the needy. #9;Failure in a child's upbringing may evolve from the parents' weak faith and engrossment in the material side of life. It may come also from their irritability and anger, which in turn are the results of selfishness and a lack of discipline. The irritability of parents summons a responding irritability in children.
#9;Children must be protected from temptations, which usually seep into them through television and voluptuous music. If the africa, parents insist on having a television in their home, they must restrict the amount of time they spend in front of the TV and also check the contents of what they watch. #9;It is crucial to remember that good results in rearing children are unachievable without a religious environment at home. The Church with its instructions, prayers and sacraments can only help parents in the process, and so mothers and fathers must strive to have the grace of the Lord in their home. This grace will guide and save their whole family. A prayer for our children. O Lord, Our Heavenly Father, have mercy on our children (names), for whom we humbly beg You, and whom we entrust to Your care and protection. Instill in them the true faith, teach them to be reverent before You and deign them to love You dearly, our Creator and guy de mau Savior. Direct them to righteousness, so that they do everything to Your glory. Teach them to lead a pious and virtuous life, to be good Christians and worthy people. Corruption In South. Give them spiritual and physical health and success in their endeavors.
Protect them from the wily snares of the devil, from many temptations, from bad passions and from all godless and disorderly people. For the sake of Your Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, through the prayers of His most Holy Mother and Essay all the saints, bring them toward Your calm refuge and Your everlasting Kingdom, so that they, with all the in south essay, saved, forever thank You with Your only begotten Son and best knife Your life-giving Spirit. Amen. Missionary Leaflet 55E. Copyright 2001 Holy Trinity Orthodox Mission.
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essay workers duel January/February 2010 Issue. Respecting Boundaries €” The Don€™ts of Dual Relationships. By Claudia J. Dewane, DEd, LCSW, BCD. Engaging in dual relationships is risky business for social workers. Corruption In South Africa Essay! Read about the Addiction, boundaries you shouldn€™t cross. Social work is corruption in south essay a profession that prides itself on the use of self, the person in the process (Mattison, 2000). As distinctive and positive as it is, this concept lends itself to character letters for court developing secondary relationships. These relationships can include nonsexual and legitimate interactions, many of which are unplanned and corruption, inadvertent, yet still have ethical ramifications. Ethical issues related to professional boundaries are common and complex. Addiction Essay! Similar to a Rubik€™s cube, the issue is multifaceted and rarely do all the corruption in south, sides line up correctly.
We should be concerned with dual relationships primarily because they can hurt clients but also because they can hurt the profession and social workers. Reversing a historical trend, the number of lawsuits filed against social workers has recently increased. A primary reason why clients sue is because they feel they have been exploited, and exploitation is at the core of the dual relationship issue. A debate has emerged in the social work field about made dual relationships. Corruption In South Essay! On one side are those who support avoiding dual relationships at all costs.
On the other side are those who say these relationships are situationally and contextually determined. They argue that being too dogmatic about character letters for court avoiding dual relationships diminishes the essence and authenticity of social work. These two polarities represent deontological (categorical imperative) ethics and corruption in south africa, utilitarian (situational, or €śthe ends justify the means€ť) ethics: absolutists vs. relativists. An absolutist believes that certain actions are ethically right or wrong and that certain values should always determine the moral course of action. A relativist believes that moral standards are personal, subjective, and situational.
The morality of a decision is measured by the goodness of the outcome. Guy De Mau! The deontological view focuses on process; the utilitarian view emphasizes outcome. This is a case example from the National Association of Social Workers (NASW): An oncology client with a terminal diagnosis, widowed six months earlier, is unemployed and has a 5-year-old daughter for corruption in south essay whom she feels incapable of providing good care. Reference Letters For Court! She has no next of in south kin, so she has decided to relinquish her daughter for adoption. The client notices that her social worker is good with her child. The client also overhears the social worker talking about character reference for court her plans to try to adopt a child. The client asks the social worker if she would consider being the africa essay, adoptive parent for her daughter. An absolutist might argue that there should be no blurring of roles because there is a foreseeable risk of exploitation.
A relativist might argue that it is a win-win situation. Addiction! In this context, the mother would feel relief, the child would have a good home, and the social worker could adopt as desired. The decision is measured by the goodness of the outcome for corruption in south essay the most people. The social work Code of Ethics stipulates that if a dual relationship is guy de mau exploitative, whether it begins before, during, or after a professional relationship, it should be avoided. There is room for interpretation, and many of the dual relationships social workers encounter are much more subtle than the egregious exploitation of a sexual relationship: developing a friendship with a client, participating in social activities with clients, belonging to the same social advocacy group as a client, accepting goods instead of money, sharing religious beliefs, counseling a friend. What€™s Right or Wrong With Dual Relationships? The potential for africa exploitation or harm to a client is what makes dual relationships insidious. Dating, bartering, and reference letters for court, entering into in south business arrangements with clients represent examples of letters situations that are best avoided.
But are these situations always wrong? Often they are inevitable, especially when the social worker is in private practice or practices in a rural setting or a denominational agency. In a small community, same sex social activities are limited and thus may be attended by africa essay, both client and for court, worker. The incidental occurrence of boundary crossings may be unavoidable. Corruption! And there may be therapeutic reasons for crossing the professional boundaries, too, such as eating a meal in a family-based treatment visit or attending the funeral of a hospice patient. Freud (2002a) has written about the describe the contributions to society by older, inadequacy of the corruption essay, Code of Ethics in addressing dual relationships.
In fact, she prefers calling them consecutive or concurrent relationships, arguing that the contexts in which dilemmas arise do not easily fit into the guidelines of the code. She agrees that there is a need for clear boundaries for the following three reasons: 1. Protection of the therapeutic process: The professional relationship is a fiduciary one. It is not a friendship and guy de mau, even minor boundary transgressions can give a mixed message; a boundary symbolizes limits of a professional transaction. 2. Protection of clients from exploitation: Clients are vulnerable, and social workers are entrusted to protect them from more harm. 3. Protection of corruption africa social workers from liability: The previous discussion of malpractice suits attests to this need. However, Freud also asserts that maintaining the rigid power hierarchy of professional-client relationship adds to distancing and Essay, reduces authenticity. Africa! €śThere may even be instances when purposeful cultivation of the contributions dual relationships may be necessary for corruption in south essay successful entry, professional legitimacy, and knowledgeable intervention€ť (p. 486).
She objects to the concept of perpetuity, the belief that once someone is a client, he or she is always a client, meaning a social worker should never have any relationship with a former client. She refers to the American Psychological Association, which provides the following specific contextual factors when deciding whether a dual relationship is appropriate: €˘ the amount of time that has passed since the professional relationship; €˘ the nature, duration, and intensity of the professional relationship; €˘ the Addiction, circumstance of termination; €˘ the client€™s history and corruption essay, vulnerability; €˘ the client€™s current mental status; and. €˘ the reference letters for court, likelihood of an adverse impact on corruption africa, the client.
It could be argued that these criteria provide a loophole for retrospective rationalization for impaired objectivity. But does this trend toward legitimization serve only to rationalize poor judgment (Johner, 2006)? Reamer (2000) indicates that social workers€™ emphasis should not necessarily be on tactical folding knife, avoiding dual relationships at corruption in south, all costs but instead managing risk. In some cases, risk management may call for security avoidance. The distinction between crossings and excursions may lie in the difference between inadvertent and deliberate. A blurring may occur unexpectedly when you see a client in the grocery store and he or she introduces you to in south africa essay family members. An excursion, however, may be more deliberate, as when you serve as an evaluator for an adoption to someone you know. Rural communities often have a limited pool of healthcare and mental health providers. In rural or small towns, the possibility of simultaneous personal and professional involvement is high if not inevitable (Brownlee, 1996). The relative isolation of the area, distinct community and cultural norms, and limited resources and options all contribute to the high possibility of secondary relationships (Roberts, Battaglia, Epstein, 1999). If there is no other referral source, is describe to society made people it better to corruption leave the need unmet or provide the service?
This is a case example from the NASW: A rural social worker who provides clinical services at a nursing home has agreed to assume medical power of attorney for a number of patients who have no other appropriate resources. Describe The Contributions People! The social worker differentiates the roles, never providing counseling to the patients for whom he has the fiduciary role and responsibility. One effect is that clients to whom he provides counseling can never have the corruption africa, opportunity to select him as their legal representative, and clients for whom he has power of attorney cannot receive clinical services. Another example is if a social worker attends the same 12-step group as a client. Should the to society by older, social worker limit his or her involvement in the group? Social workers have an obligation to their clients but also to their own well-being (Rothman Sager, 1998).
Possible courses of action in such a situation include the following: €˘ Assuming an absolutist stance, the social worker may decide to go to a meeting where clients are unlikely to attend. €˘ The social worker may make the corruption africa essay, best of an made by older awkward situation, stay at in south africa essay, the meeting, and be selective about what experiences to tactical folding share, maintaining some boundary with the corruption africa essay, client. Security! But while the social worker may be modeling the importance of attending meetings for the client, he or she may be deprived of a full personal experience. €˘ The social worker may decide to corruption africa essay participate fully, which is a risk he or she may feel comfortable managing. Any option is acceptable provided they are given thoughtful analysis and the social worker can justify his or her decision based on foreseeable risk. Reamer (2001) proposes a typology of the ancient, following five categories of dual relationships in social work: 1. Intimacy: Not all physical contact is sexual, such as holding the hand of corruption in south a patient in hospice.
What about character reference letters intimate gestures such as sending a card? 2. Personal benefit (monetary gain): Social workers should not borrow from in south essay, or lend money to clients, but what about social being named in a will or finding a house before it is offered on corruption africa essay, the market because a client is a realtor? How about accepting referrals from current clients? Is the counselor using the client for his or her own financial gain? What about bartering goods and reference letters, services rather than money for social work services? I had a student who reported that her field instructor/supervisor was being €śpaid€ť for her social work services by receiving massages from her client who was a masseuse. Freud contends that bartering can be an corruption in south essay empowering equalizer, that the traditional distancing accepted in psychosocial counseling prohibits authenticity and keeps the client in a one-down position, as if they have nothing to give. Those with egalitarian practice perspectives may agree. 3. Emotional/dependency needs: Many of us are in the social work profession because we find it rewarding; it fills an to society made by older people emotional need. But when our needs interfere with a client€™s needs, we have violated a boundary, such as adopting a child you€™ve been working with.
For instance, I was aware of a case in which a social worker became involved sexually with a client while she (the social worker) was in a postpartum depression. 4. Unintentional/unplanned relationships: These accidental crossings, particularly in small communities, are not inherently unethical but require skillful handling. Inadvertent situations€”meeting a client in the grocery store or at in south africa essay, the gym, attending a family gathering and best folding knife, realizing your cousin€™s boyfriend is your client€”are the ones in which we try to minimize risk to the client. 5. Altruism: The most common reason we enter into dual relationships is because we want to africa essay help: A client asks you to purchase wrapping paper for her daughter€™s school fund-raiser; you give a client your old computer because she needs it for her studies; a client needs a ride home. Security Dilemma! Such good intentions can feel like a bribe, create dependency, or have detrimental symbolic meaning. Factors to consider when deciding whether to enter into a second relationship include the following: €˘ How will this secondary relationship change the corruption, power differential or take advantage of a power differential in to society made, the therapeutic relationship? €˘ How long will this relationship last? Is it a one-time occurrence or expected to last indefinitely? €˘ How will ending one relationship affect the in south, other relationship? €˘ How much will objectivity be impaired?
€˘ What is the dilemma, risk of exploitation? Imagine different scenarios, hopefully with the help of corruption in south africa a trusted colleague, and guy de mau, consider all the possible ramifications of changed relationships.. Cultural sensitivity may also influence the decision. Feminists use self-disclosure to equalize the power differential in a therapeutic relationship. Africentric approaches emphasize mutual aid that €śit takes a village€ť to corruption help. To not assume a neighborly style may inhibit the development of a trusting relationship. In contrast, some Latino cultures emphasize the concept of personalismo, or behavior that indicates partiality, in to society, order to in south be considered trustworthy.
Contextual factors that have been addressed in the literature (Freud, 2002; Brownlee, 1996; Roberts, 1999) are as follows: €˘ Type of practice: Community organizing or a private clinical counseling? €˘ Setting: Family-based service or outpatient psychiatric setting? €˘ Level of community involvement: Is community involvement needed to gain access to a population? €˘ Client€™s sense of self: How vulnerable is the client? Is he or she likely to misinterpret behavior, or does he or she have a strong sense of self that could distinguish roles? €˘ Legality: Are there legal ramifications? €˘ Culture: Does this client€™s culture require more or less friendliness? €˘ Social worker€™s self: Is the people, worker trying to fulfill some personal need? €˘ Available supervision: Is competent consultation available and used? Social work is a profession in which dual relationships are common because of the in south africa, nature of the work and clients€™ vulnerability.
It is our responsibility to protect clients and demonstrate appropriate standards of care and boundaries. Handle each situation with the describe the contributions to society by older people, utmost professionalism. Seek consultation through professional organizations; support networks are even available electronically for those in remote areas. €” Claudia J. Dewane, DEd, LCSW, BCD, is senior lecturer at Temple University€™s Graduate School of Social Administration. She is the corruption essay, founder of Clinical Support Associates, providing supervision, consultation, and training to professional social workers. Dual relationships have been found to to society by older be more prevalent in rural areas (Brownlee, 1996; Roberts, 1999). Gottlieb (as cited in Brownlee) developed a model for analyzing the corruption africa, appropriateness of a dual relationship in Essay, rural settings that can be applied to most social work settings. Using the critical dimensions of power, duration, and termination, the model recommends that social workers do the africa, following: €˘ Assess the current and Internet Addiction, future relationship on africa essay, the dimensions of power, duration, and termination. €˘ Determine the extent of role incompatibility. €˘ Seek consultation.
€˘ Discuss the decision with clients in terms of possible ramifications. If your assessment of power, duration, and termination are all in low range, then perhaps dual relationship is not prohibited. If your assessment of guy de mau two or three dimensions are in low-to-mid range, proceed cautiously. Essay! If any of the assessed dimensions are in the high range, it is best to avoid. Brownlee, K. (1996). Ethics in community mental health care: The ethics of non-sexual dual relationships: A dilemma for the rural mental health profession.
Community Mental Health Journal , 32(5), 497-503. Freud, S., Krug, S. (2002). Beyond the code of ethics, part I: Complexities of ethical decision making in social work practice. Families in Society , 83(5), 474-482. Freud, S., Krug, S. (2002a). Beyond the code of Addiction Essay ethics, part II: Dual relationships revisited. Families in Society , 83(5), 483-492. Gottlieb, M. Corruption Essay! C. (1993). Avoiding exploitative dual relationships: A decision-making model.
Psychotherapy , 30, 41-48. Johner, R. Describe The Contributions Made! (2006). Dual relationship legitimization and client self-determination. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics , 3(1) Mattison, M. (2000). Ethical decision-making: The person in the process. Corruption Essay! Social Work , 45(3).
Reamer, F. G. (2001). Tangled relationships: Managing boundary issues in the human services . New York: Columbia University Press. Ringstad, R. (2008). The ethics of dual relationships: Beliefs and behaviors of clinical practitioners. Families in Society , 89(1), 69-77. Roberts, L. W., Battaglia, J., Epstein, R. Internet Addiction Essay! S. (1999). Frontier ethics: Mental health care needs and corruption in south africa essay, ethical dilemmas in rural communities. Security! Psychiatric Services , 50(4), 497-503. Rothman, J., Sager, J. (1998).
From the front lines: Student cases in corruption in south, social work ethics. Allyn and guy de mau, Bacon.