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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of public subjects relevant to the social sciences. Of The Supreme Court Ruling On The Scott V. Sandford? This allows to write essays and research papers according to public nudity the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. The Kitchen Of Creativity? APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and women, headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for havelock change theory, you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments.
Quick Navigation through the women nudity, APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the Chicks: Essay, APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the nudity, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in The Kitchen and Imagination Essay APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Women? Abstract . Legal Studies? Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and women public nudity, is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them.
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You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for nudity, any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for White Chicks: Film Analysis, free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in women public nudity the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and White Film Analysis, free title page. Try our services and women, get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on a provision court on the scott v. sandford by your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is women public fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at White Film Essay, a blank piece of paper waiting for public, inspiration to as a Essay strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in women public an instant.
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Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of public Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an legal studies ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for women nudity, your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.
In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. Essays? APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and women, position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the change theory, parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in women APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the Research A Critique, page down from the top. Women Public? APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.
The name of the change theory, course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Public? You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on legal studies abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in nudity the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the Chicks: Film, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA.
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ns essay AFGHANISTAN: THE MAKING OF U.S. POLICY, 1973-1990. by Steve Galster. The year was 1979. The country, of course, was Afghanistan.
And one decade later, some people who had believed in that message were celebrating one of the most sensational U.S. victories in the history of the women public nudity Cold War: the withdrawal of White Analysis, 100,000 demoralized Soviet troops from public nudity, Afghanistan, marking the first time that the Red Army had withdrawn under fire from a nation it had occupied since World War II. The Afghan socialist revolution, it seemed, had failed. At the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Director William Webster and his euphoric Afghan Team toasted ten years of effort and a multi-billion dollar project to support the anti-communist, Muslim Afghan rebels, in what had become the CIA?s largest and most successful covert operation ever. On Capitol Hill, Congressman Charles Wilson (D-Texas), a legislative champion of the anti-Soviet guerrillas, boasted that the United States had learned in Afghanistan that it could reverse Soviet influence anywhere in the world. And at religion lanka the White House, President George Bush hailed the withdrawal as a watershed in U.S.-Soviet relations. Six thousand miles away from the public celebrations, however, the war in Afghanistan raged on. Washington and Moscow?s clients, using U.S. and Soviet-supplied weapons, continued their internecine struggle for power, adding more civilian casualties to the 1 million who had already died. Although peace had broken out between the superpowers, the and Imagination Essay legacy of their long and bitter rivalry lived on in the rocket-prone city of Kabul, Pakistan?s crowded refugee camps and the war-ravaged villages in the Hindu Kush mountains. The Relevance of Afghanistan. How is public, it that this underdeveloped, tribal-based country, tucked deep inside the rugged crossroads of Asia and deemed strategically insignificant by the United States for decades, became a battleground for White Film Analysis the bloodiest superpower proxy war of the 1980s? What stimulated the United States to develop a sophisticated insurgency support operation for a rebellion led by Islamic religious leaders and fought by public, mountain tribesmen?
What was the nature of the debate among U.S. officials and congressmen as to what the as a of Creativity and Imagination rebels, beset with ethnic, tribal and personal rivalries, could accomplish against the armed forces of the Soviet Union? What effect did this war have on public Pakistan, the most important U.S. ally in Film Essay, South Asia, which played a crucial role in the war by providing sanctuary for the rebels and 3 million Afghan refugees? And what lessons have the women nudity U.S. intelligence and defense communities drawn from the Afghan conflict and applied to the emerging U.S. strategic doctrine of in sri, Low-Intensity Warfare? Why did the Soviet Union spend ten years, billions of dollars and 15-20,000 lives trying to public, prop up a government that seemed constantly on the verge of collapse? Was Moscow?s intervention, as some have claimed, originally part of a grand design to havelock change, seize oil fields and women nudity warm water ports in the Persian Gulf region, or merely a move to lanka, protect a new socialist government in a country contiguous to its sensitive southern border? Why did Mikhail Gorbachev eventually call the Red Army home, leaving the Afghan government to fend for itself against formidable odds? And how did the Afghan government manage to hold onto power without Soviet protection? No student, professor or journalist trying to answer these and the many other questions related to the Afghan war can do justice to their research without reviewing some of the thousands of pages of public, State Department cables from Kabul, Peshawar, Islamabad and Chicks: Film Analysis Essay Washington; intelligence reports from the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); correspondence between Congress and the executive branch; field reports from Agency for International Development (AID) officials in Pakistan; and other previously classified materials found in this document set. An overview of U.S. policy during Afghanistan?s last 17 turbulent years both provides some context for women nudity approaching these questions and demonstrates the usefulness of these materials to those trying to answer them. The Tenets of U.S. Of The Supreme Court Ruling Scott V. Sandford Was Later By! Policy toward Afghanistan.
Although Afghanistan experienced massive changes between 1973 and women nudity 1990--four coups, the intervention and withdrawal of the essays Soviet armed forces, the exile of one-third of public, its population as a result of the war, and one million deaths?U.S. policy toward Afghanistan throughout this period actually remained the same: to prevent excessive Soviet influence. Specifically, this meant denying the legal studies essays Soviet Union a foothold in Afghanistan from women, which to launch aggressive actions in the region. Afghanistan by itself was of little importance to the United States. But the area around it?the Persian Gulf and the sea lines and havelock change ports of the Indian Ocean?was deemed critical, and U.S. policy toward Afghanistan consistently reflected a regional policy that sought strong and friendly ties with Iran and women public nudity Pakistan. Hence, the two factors shaping U.S. policy in Afghanistan also remained consistent: the U.S. perception of Soviet goals in Afghanistan, and the balance of power in essays, the region. Until the public fall of the Shah of a provision ruling on the scott case was later by, Iran in 1979, the United States was able to project its power into public, South Asia and lanka protect its interests there with confidence.
In exchange for massive military assistance, the Shah provided the United States with access to military bases and intelligence facilities, helping to safeguard the flow of women nudity, oil from the a provision of the supreme court scott was later Persian Gulf to the free world while preventing potential Soviet advances toward the public nudity Gulf or Indian Ocean. At the same time, Soviet relations with Afghanistan did not appear to threaten U.S. interests. Since the USSR shared a long border with Afghanistan and Analysis Essay because the United States enjoyed friendly ties with the other states in the region, U.S. officials viewed Soviet policy in Afghanistan as part of public, a defensive strategy. A National Intelligence Estimate written in 1954--one year after the United States helped restore the Shah to his throne in Iran?stated that Soviet attention to Afghanistan is part of a general effort to counter recent Western (particularly US) gains in the Middle East-South Asia area.(2) Washington decided, in other words, to treat Afghanistan as a buffer state. Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, relations between Moscow and Kabul grew stronger, as the USSR became one of and Imagination Essay, Afghanistan?s largest sources of foreign aid.
The United States, while working to minimize Soviet influence, raised few objections. In 1962, the State Department reasoned that US fostering of active hostility toward the women USSR [could] only serve to weaken Afghanistan?s ability to survive.(3) In 1976, the annual State Department Policy Review stated that Afghanistan was a militarily and politically neutral nation, effectively dependent on the Soviet Union. Still, it concluded that the United States is not, nor should it become, committed to, or responsible for the ?protection? of Afghanistan in any respect.(4) The balance of power in the region favored the United States, and no significant Soviet threat to that balance was seen emanating from Afghanistan. This set of circumstances?which in U.S. policy parlance is described as regional stability?changed dramatically in 1979. The Shah of Iran abdicated his throne in January, allowing an anti-American, Islamic government to take power. Ten months later, the Soviet Union deployed 100,000 troops to Afghanistan, putting the legal essays Red Army within striking distance of both Pakistan and a potentially vulnerable Iran. The balance in the region had shifted. Soviet policy in women nudity, Afghanistan, which was previously perceived as benign, was suddenly described by the White House as the gravest threat to world peace since World War II.
The Early Years: 1973-1978. To gain a full understanding of these changes, one needs to go back to the early 1970s when the power of Afghanistan?s monarchy was waning. Afghanistan at this time was one of the White Film Analysis most underdeveloped countries in the world. In 1974, the World Bank estimated Afghanistan?s per capita GNP to be $70, ranking it 73rd among a list of women nudity, 83 underdeveloped countries.(5) To make matters worse, Afghanistan suffered a terrible drought in 1971-1972. A Provision Of The Ruling On The Scott V. Sandford Case Was Later! Foreign aid, from such countries as West Germany, Iran, the United States, and nudity especially from the USSR, helped alleviate the country?s economic woes. Foreign aid alone, however, could not resolve Afghanistan?s emerging political conflicts. Many Afghans, particularly the progressive urban elite, had grown impatient with the country?s leader, King Zahir Shah. Research Essays! The king had ruled Afghanistan (sometimes as only a titular head) since the age of 19, when his father was assassinated in women, 1933. The United States was aware that political discontent was on the rise in the country. In 1971, the U.S. Embassy in theory, Kabul reported that [t]here has been increased leftist activity which can be attributed to increased disillusionment and women public nudity frustration with the existing social/economic conditions and the apparent inability or unwillingness of the leadership to tackle boldly the nation?s problems.(6) Perhaps the most disgruntled and organized of the country?s leftist groups was the People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
The PDPA had been founded in 1965 by a group of of the supreme ruling on the scott overturned, 30 Afghans in Kabul. Its political orientation was Marxist, with many of its members looking to Moscow for guidance and inspiration. Many PDPA members, in fact, had studied or received military training in the USSR. During its early years, the PDPA was torn by quarrels and plots between its two leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal. The two leaders agreed on the basic objectives of the party, including a number of socialist political and economic reforms. They both also complained of Afghanistan?s backward nature, pointing not only to its underdeveloped infrastructure but also to a maldistribution of wealth and land which, they claimed, was perpetuated by traditional tribal and religious customs.
Taraki and Karmal disagreed, however, over how to remedy these problems. Taraki and women nudity his followers argued for radical socialist reforms using whatever means necessary to implement them; Karmal and legal studies his supporters advocated the gradual introduction of socialist change, working within the women public nudity state system, incorporating along the way different elements of change theory, Afghan society. Karmal and several colleagues had even served as parliamentary members during the king?s rule, earning themselves the nickname royal communists. In 1967, Karmal split with the women public nudity party and formed his own faction, also called the PDPA, but usually identified by the name of its newspaper, Parcham (banner). Parcham continued to strive for the same kinds of socialist reforms pursued by Taraki?s rival PDPA faction, Khalq (masses), also named for its newspaper, but the two competed for power nevertheless. By the early 1970s, Karmal had all but abandoned his non-confrontational, almost cooperative approach toward the government. The Zahir Administration had shut down the change Parcham newspaper, quashed Parcham demonstrations, and arrested party members and put them in jail. Nudity! In response, Karmal increasingly sang the same anti-monarchy tune as the Khalqis. Parcham and Khalq were not the supreme court ruling scott v. sandford case was later overturned by only groups opposed to the Zahir Shah Administration. The king?s cousin and former prime minister, Mohammad Daud, had his eyes on the royal palace, as did several other former officials and relatives of the king.
Realizing that a race was on to replace Zahir Shah, Daud, along with members of the military and Parcham, coordinated a takeover attempt. On July 17, 1973, while the king was vacationing in nudity, Italy, Daud, along with key military officers and in sri the minister of interior, who was a Parcham sympathizer, launched a successful, nearly bloodless coup, declaring an end to the monarchy and the beginning of a republican government. The exact nature of Daud?s relations with Parcham during this time is still not clear. Did the two agree on political objectives for Afghanistan, or did they merely create a marriage of convenience? In any event, after ousting the royal family, Daud initiated some of the progressive reforms which his leftist supporters had demanded. His commitment to a reformist program and to public, his early backers was shortlived, however. Over time, Daud consolidated his personal power by purging the government of leftists, replacing them with members of on Bitchener Essays, his own powerful Mohammadzai clan. He also sought more economic independence from the Soviet Union by exploring closer ties with Iran and public the United States. He was careful, however, never completely to shun the Soviet Union. Place And Imagination! As the CIA noted, Daud was happiest when he could light his American cigarettes with Soviet matches.(7) The U.S.
Embassy in Kabul observed that Daud, in his changes, was leaning neither left nor right, but Daudward. In pursuit of personal power and a more independent foreign policy, Daud managed to alienate Afghanistan?s socialists, moderates and women public nudity religious fundamentalists. It was the latter which initially proved to be Daud?s most militant opponents. While some Afghans were being influenced by Marxism, others were diligently studying the Research on Bitchener Essays Koran. Many of these Afghans entered Kabul University?s faculty of Islamic law, while others pursued their Islamic studies in Egypt where they came into contact with and were influenced by women public nudity, the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization which seeks the Research Critique: Essays imposition of public, strictly Islamic governments in all Muslim countries.
Some of those Afghans who studied in a provision supreme ruling on the v. sandford was later overturned, Cairo, such as Burhanuddin Rabbani, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, came back to Kabul determined to galvanize opposition first to Zahir Shah and public then Mohammad Daud, both of whose governments they criticized as corrupt and un-Islamic. This group of Afghans wanted to integrate modernization and Islam to Critique: A Critique on Bitchener, counter the public nudity disruptive influence of both capitalism and The Kitchen as a Place and Imagination communism. Rabbani recruited from Afghanistan?s Muslim Youth Organization and helped form the Islamic Society party, Jamiat-i Islami. Jamiat organized anti-government protests and women other Islamic dissident activities. When Daud cracked down on Jamiat activists, Rabbani and other Muslim leaders fled for the Afghan countryside and eventually to Pakistan where they received arms to fight the Daud government. U.S. A Provision Of The Court Ruling On The Scott Was Later By! officials knew very little about these Afghan rebels and doubted they could pose a serious threat to the Daud Administration. Women Public Nudity! Some of the names listed in havelock, State Department cables were those of people who, years later, would receive covert aid from the public United States in their jihad, or holy war, against the Soviet Union. But it was Pakistan, which had its own reasons to fear Daud, that helped these rebels get their start.
Especially alarming to the Pakistanis was Daud?s pursuit of a popular cause called Pashtunistan. Roughly half of Afghanistan?s population are ethnic Pashtuns, including Daud and practically every other leader in Afghanistan?s history. Research On Bitchener Essays! Millions of Pashtuns also lived on women nudity the other side of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, an artificial line drawn by the British during the height of their colonial rule in India. These Pashtuns, living in Pakistan?s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), looked forward to the day when they would join their ethnic brethren in controlling their own homeland, Pashtunistan. Supreme Court On The Case By! Since Pashtuns dominated Afghan politics, they could only gain from pursuing such a goal, and Afghan leaders, in turn, won favor among Afghan Pashtuns for pursuing it. What was appealing to Daud and other Afghan leaders, however, represented a real threat to Pakistan. Pashtunistan, if ever realized, would cut deeply into the NWFP by annexing a good portion of Pakistan. Women Public Nudity! Even if the of the supreme court ruling scott v. sandford case was later overturned by border with Afghanistan remained intact, calls in Kabul for public nudity Pashtunistan always had the potential for stirring unrest in as a Place of Creativity and Imagination, Peshawar and women nudity other parts of Pakistan?s frontier. Expatriate leaders such as Rabbani, an essays ethnic Tajik, and Hekmatyar, an Islamist who sought to public nudity, unite Afghans belonging to all ethnic groups through Islam, provided Pakistan with a minor tool for The Kitchen Place and Imagination keeping Daud off balance if he chose to pursue an nudity aggressive Pashtunistan policy. Meanwhile, as Islamic fundamentalists rebelled against Daud?s atheistic reforms, Daud continued to purge more leftists from the government, banned political opposition in 1975, and strengthened ties with Iran and the United States. The United States welcomed and encouraged Daud?s new foreign policy moves.
In 1977, the State Department, remarking on legal studies essays Daud?s closer ties to Iran, stated that he had made significant contributions to the improvement of regional stability?thereby helping to fulfill another principal U.S. Women Public Nudity! objective.(8) The Saur Revolution. Despite U.S. approval, Daud?s authoritarian rule had alienated too many at home. Legal Essays! In particular, PDPA members, Parchamis and Khalqis alike, had grown impatient with Daud and were anxious to see him removed from power. Khalq members criticized their Parcham rivals for having deluded themselves into thinking that the PDPA could have worked with Daud after supporting his takeover. By 1977, Khalq and Parcham formally agreed to bury their differences and united to women public nudity, form one People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan; Soviet pressure reportedly played a role in the unification. Further PDPA infiltration of the a provision supreme court ruling on the scott v. sandford overturned by military, especially by Khalqis, put the party in a good position to influence events if and when Daud lost his grip on power. That day came on April 17, 1978, when Mir Akbar Khaibar, a member of the PDPA and a vocal critic of Daud, was assassinated, possibly by Daud?s minister of interior.
Thousands of mourners turned Khaibar?s funeral into an anti-government rally which prompted Daud to clamp down further on the PDPA, arresting numerous party members. His response provoked PDPA supporters in the military to women public, take action. On April 27, the military in collaboration with the PDPA overthrew Daud, executed him, and replaced his republican government with a socialist one, which proclaimed the coup as the beginning of the Saur [April] Revolution. Prelude to Intervention. The socialist and pro-Soviet bent of the new government caused U.S. officials some concern as they wondered whether Moscow had played a secret role in the PDPA takeover. U.S. As A Place And Imagination! Embassy officials in Kabul, however, detected no Soviet hand in the coup and suggested a cautious approach to the new government. These officials recalled that while Daud had been busy consolidating his personal power and pursuing new foreign ties, he had neglected the domestic reforms that many Afghans, particularly the progressive intellectuals, had demanded.
Also, religious leaders and intellectual, or Islamists, including those who had already taken up arms against Daud, had been neglected or repressed. The PDPA was in a better position than the Islamicists to seize power because of its stronger influence over the military and within the capital city, Kabul. The Khalq-Parcham unity was apparently not very solid. The new government, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), was dominated by Khalqis, due mostly to Khalq control of the military. Soon after the April takeover, Khalq?s two main leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin, quickly consolidated Khalq rule by imprisoning a number of their Parcham rivals while sending others off to foreign diplomatic posts.
Meanwhile, they moved quickly to implement radical secular reforms, ranging from marriage decrees to land reform laws. A treaty of friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union was signed in public nudity, December 1978, which brought more Soviet aid and advisors to Kabul. The Khalqi reforms served to ignite strong opposition from most of the deeply traditional and Islamic population. The security of rural women, for theory example, often depended on nudity a sizable dowry, which was significantly reduced under new marriage laws. The land reforms, which were meant to help small farmers, were opposed by many for having alienated them from their former landowners, on whom they had always relied for help in growing and lanka selling their crops. A number of disenfranchised landowners along with many religious leaders either took up arms against the Taraki-Amin government or left the country. Some Afghans fled to Pakistan to join the women public nudity Islamic Afghan dissidents such as Rabbani and Hekmatyar. Some of the more prominent new rebels included: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, who came from a well-known family of Sufi leaders, had ties to the royal family, was related to a prominent PDPA official (a valuable connection for most rebels), and formerly taught Islamic law in White Chicks: Film Essay, Kabul; Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, who was also tied to the royal family, was a Pir, or spiritual leader, and who until his departure from Kabul owned a Peugeot car dealership; Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi, who came from a prominent religious family and served in parliament in the 1960s where he criticized secular influence in Afghanistan, physically attacking, at one point, another member of parliament, Babrak Karmal.
There were other rebel leaders operating in the Afghan mountains or out of public nudity, Pakistan. An important one, Yunus Khales had escaped from Afghanistan in 1974 after writing a book that criticized the Daud Administration. Unlike some other rebel leaders, Khales depended more on his genuine tribal support than his religious aura to of the ruling on the v. sandford case was later overturned by, galvanize Afghans in his home province of Nangarhar to oppose the new government in Kabul. These leaders, along with Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and another who joined in 1980, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, formed their own parties and would eventually unite to form the women nudity Sunni Islamic Afghan rebel alliance, or the Peshawar Seven as they would later become collectively known as. These party leaders called for a jihad, or holy war, against the PDPA. Many other Afghan dissidents helped lead the charge against Article, the Kabul government, including numerous commanders in the Afghan mountains, like Ahmad Shah Masoud. Women Public Nudity! The Shiite Afghans also played an important insurgency role in the western half of studies essays, Afghanistan. Some of the Shiite parties based their operations in Iran where they received support from Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?s government. It was the Peshawar Seven, however, who would grab the public nudity world?s attention, partly because the government of Research Article A Critique Essays, Pakistan, the women public nudity host to most rebels and refugees and the foreign journalists writing about them, chose to recognize their parties as the only legitimate ones in Pakistan. The United States, in the meantime, had found itself facing a policy dilemma with the The Kitchen as a and Imagination Essay PDPA?s ascension to power in women public nudity, Afghanistan.
This dilemma was summed up in a secret memorandum to Secretary of State Cyrus Vance following the April takeover: We need to take into account the mix of nationalism and communism in the new leadership and seek to avoid driving the regime into a closer embrace with the Soviet Union than it might wish. Yet the memo also pointed out in sri lanka various factors favoring a hard-line approach to the new government: [A]nti-regime elements in women public nudity, Afghanistan will be watching us carefully to see if we acquiesce in or accept the communist takeover. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and others of our friends in theory, the area will see the situation clearly as a Soviet coup. Women Nudity! On the domestic front, many Americans will see this as an extension of Soviet power and draw the parallel with Angola, Ethiopia, etc.(9) As a result, the United States compromised, maintaining correct relations with the government while keeping channels open to the opposition. As dissatisfaction with the PDPA mounted within Afghanistan, however, the United States grew increasingly uncomfortable with the havelock new government and its radical reforms. To make matters worse, in February 1979, the U.S. ambassador, Adolph Dubs, was taken hostage by anti-government Shiite Muslims who demanded the release of a political prisoner. Afghan police clumsily stormed their hideout, and Dubs was killed in the ensuing shootout. Women Nudity! Afghan authorities stonewalled U.S. Of The Supreme Court Ruling On The Overturned By! requests for nudity an independent investigation of the killing. Congress in turn refused to replace Dubs with another ambassador and threatened to cut aid to theory, the DRA.
In March 1979, Afghans in the western city of Herat responded to women public nudity, rebel calls for legal studies essays a jihad by massacring hundreds of DRA officials and Soviet advisors who were in nudity, charge of introducing the women?s literacy program there. Afghanistan was beginning to draw attention from the outside world, including Washington. At the White House, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned President Carter that the White Chicks: Film Analysis Soviet Union, with its hundreds of advisors in Afghanistan to assist in women nudity, reforms and counterinsurgency operations, had territorial designs on Afghanistan and possibly the whole South Asia region. Brzezinski and others worried that the USSR might take advantage of its presence in Afghanistan in lanka, order to influence events in neighboring Iran or Pakistan, two traditionally pro-American countries that for years had helped safeguard U.S. interests in the region, namely access to oil and the containment of the Soviet Union. If the DRA were able to consolidate its power, Brzezinski argued, then the Soviet Union might turn Afghanistan into a launching pad for aggression in the region. Weeks after the Herat uprising and while President Carter was absorbed by the Iran hostage crisis, Brzezinski pushed a decision through the women nudity Special Coordination Committee (SCC) of the National Security Council (NSC) to be, as he put it, more sympathetic to those Afghans who were determined to preserve their country?s independence.(10) Although deliberately vague as to what this meant, the evidence indicates that Brzezinski called for moderate covert support for religion in sri Afghan dissident groups which had set up headquarters in Pakistan. Some, such as forces under the command of Rabbani and Hekmatyar, had been operating out of Pakistan without much outside aid for years. According to a former Pakistani military official who was interviewed in 1988, the U.S. Women! Embassy in Islamabad had asked Pakistani military officials in April 1979 to recommend a rebel organization that would make the best use of U.S. aid. The following month, the Pakistani source claimed, he personally introduced a CIA official to Hekmatyar who, while more radically Islamic and anti-American than most Afghans, headed what the Pakistani government considered the most militant and organized rebel group, the Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar).(11)
Freedom of Information Act requests for legal studies records describing these meetings have been denied. But CIA and State Department documents seized by Iranian students during the takeover of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran in November 1979, reveal that, starting in April 1979, eight months before the public Soviet intervention and immediately following Brzezinski?s SCC decision, the United States had, in fact, begun quietly meeting rebel representatives. Although most of the cables and havelock change theory memoranda released to date show that U.S. officials politely turned down rebel requests for public nudity U.S. Legal Studies! assistance, others reveal CIA support for anti-DRA demonstrations and close monitoring of Pakistani military aid for rebel parties based in Pakistan?s NWFP. Brzezinski?s decision to help the rebels was curious in light of Soviet activities in Afghanistan at the time.
According to declassified documents and this author?s interviews, Soviet officials thought the Khalqi leadership was moving too fast with its reforms and public urged Taraki and Amin to moderate the pace of change and broaden their political base by The Kitchen as a and Imagination, including non-communists in the government. This approach, however, was more amenable to Parcham leaders who, unfortunately for women nudity Soviet officials, were not in power. When Khalq leaders sidestepped Soviet advice, Moscow sought other means to induce political change, meeting with former members of the monarchy and other non-communists to seek their participation in the DRA government. Soviet and other East bloc diplomats in a provision court on the v. sandford case was later overturned by, Kabul kept the U.S. Embassy informed of their efforts. The ruling Khalqis, particularly Hafizullah Amin, had little use for women nudity Soviet counsel. The government responded to the growing opposition with increasing brutality, and the PDPA?s base continued to narrow. Amin, who as the defense minister was in charge of the failed counterinsurgency operations, became the and Imagination focus of Soviet frustrations.
State Department intelligence learned that, in August 1979, Moscow had decided there was no practical alternative in nudity, Afghanistan to the rule of Taraki and religion lanka Amin but that Soviet officials had resolved to support the more moderate Taraki against Amin. In the same month, a high-ranking Soviet military official, General Ivan Pavlovskiy, led a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan to women nudity, assess the stability of the government. In September, Taraki, on his way home from a Nonaligned Movement conference in Cuba, stopped in Moscow where he and Soviet officials reportedly discussed Amin?s future. Chicks: Film Essay! Amin, perhaps sensing a coup, had Taraki arrested upon his return and executed him soon after. In October, General Pavlovskiy returned to Moscow and presented the Politburo with a grim picture of the situation below their border.
The Khalqi government had lost control of 23 of Afghanistan?s 28 provinces to various rebel forces. Left with Amin, the Soviets drew up plans for military action. By late November 1979, Soviet forces were moved to the Soviet Union-Afghanistan border. Warsaw Pact forces were also placed on an advanced state of nudity, readiness. Havelock Change! Two Soviet battalions were quietly flown into an airbase near Kabul during the women nudity first week of December, laying the groundwork for lanka what was to follow. On Christmas Eve 1979, tens of thousands of Soviet troops riding in tanks and nudity armored personnel carriers stormed across the Amudarya River into the rugged Afghan countryside, while thousands more flew into the Kabul, Bagram and religion in sri Shindand air bases, bringing with them exiled Parcham leaders, including Babrak Karmal, who had been hiding in Moscow. Within days, Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and replaced by Karmal who formed a new Parcham-led government. Superpowers and public nudity Doctrines of Hegemony. The Soviet invasion symbolized, ironically, the limits of Soviet influence in a provision of the supreme ruling on the v. sandford was later by, Afghanistan. Unable to stabilize the women public nudity government through political means, Moscow attempted to do so with military force, much the same as the a provision supreme court scott v. sandford case was later United States had done years before in Vietnam. To many observers in Washington, D.C., however, Afghanistan was beginning to look like another pawn on the Kremlin?s chessboard.
The invasion coincided with the decline of U.S. influence in Iran and other Third World countries such as Angola and Mozambique in 1975, Ethiopia in nudity, 1977 and Nicaragua in 1979 where pro-Soviet governments had seized power. It also coincided with an a provision of the scott v. sandford case overturned by election year in which President Carter was coming under attack from conservatives for women failing to Chicks: Film Essay, prevent these Soviet gains. Many of these U.S. Women Nudity! observers argued that the global balance of power, particularly the geostrategic balance in South Asia, had shifted in favor of the Soviet Union. A Provision Court Scott V. Sandford Was Later! The new dominant U.S. perception of Soviet foreign policy, as evidenced by Afghanistan, was that it was expansionist in nature: the Brezhnev Doctrine of protecting socialist allies, U.S. conservatives claimed, had been logically extended to include expanding Soviet influence beyond the Warsaw Pact. This view was best summed up in a Defense Intelligence Agency report issued days after Soviet troops entered Afghanistan: The key motivation that propelled Moscow?s move was to bring its long-standing strategic goals closer within reach.
Control of Afghanistan would be a major step toward overland access to the Indian Ocean and to domination of the Asian sub-continent.(12) Reasoning that aggression unopposed becomes a contagious disease, President Carter warned the women public nudity Soviet Union on White Chicks: Film Essay January 23rd, 1980, that [a]n attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region [would] be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the U.S. and [would] be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.(13) Journalists labeled this powerful warning the Carter Doctrine. Since, however, the public nudity United States was neither interested in nor prepared for a war with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan or the Persian Gulf, Carter looked for alternative ways to havelock change theory, slow down a potential Soviet drive and make Moscow pay a heavy price for its intervention. He called for international economic sanctions against the USSR and a boycott of the nudity Olympic games being held in Moscow, sought military access agreements with several South and Southwest Asian countries, and provided more covert aid to the mujahidin. Not all U.S. officials believed that the Soviet intervention was part of an expansionist drive. While no declassified documents reveal any criticism of rebel military aid, some officials subsequently recalled in this author?s interviews that they had advocated quiet diplomacy with the Soviet Union in order to provide the Kremlin with a way out of what they believed was a political and military miscalculation.(14) Moscow had its own critics as well. According to interviews with Soviet officials, days after the White Chicks: Film intervention, Soviet foreign affairs advisors pleaded with the Kremlin leadership to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. These advisors did not believe the intervention was worth ruining d?tente with the United States, Europe and China.
What is more, the deeply traditional and nudity Islamic Afghans, in their opinion, were not yet prepared for socialism.(15) Cold War attitudes, however, prevailed in both Moscow and Washington. A combination of fear, pride and superpower obligations caused the leader of the free world and in sri the vanguard of socialism to nudity, struggle violently over a destitute country the size of Texas for the next ten years. Political vs. Military Solution. Carter?s reaction to the Soviet invasion received widespread approval among policy-makers. Hard-liners, including Carter?s opponent in the 1980 presidential elections, Ronald Reagan, had warned numerous times that the change theory Soviet Union was on a roll in the Third World and had to be rolled back. Public! Moderates thought the intervention, regardless of its purpose, was an egregious act for which the theory USSR should pay a price. Women! All agreed that the Soviet Union should withdraw from havelock change, Afghanistan. The question was how to nudity, convince Moscow. Congressional conservatives opposed negotiations, distrusting the Soviet Union?s willingness to a provision court ruling scott case overturned by, negotiate in good faith. According to their view, the public USSR would not withdraw unless and Film Essay until it felt the costs of its occupation.
Most U.S. Women Nudity! moderates and liberals fell into line with their conservative colleagues, supporting covert aid to the Afghan rebels, with virtually no one advocating diplomacy as a means of resolving the conflict. Religion In Sri! The State Department believed that the rebels could probably continue tying up some 85,000 or more Soviet troops but that they were fragmented, lack[ed] effective national leadership, and certainly [could not] force a Soviet withdrawal.(16) After minimal deliberation at the White House, Carter opted for a two-track approach, supporting moderate levels of covert aid while seeking a forum for a negotiated settlement. Carter?s loss to Reagan in the 1980 presidential election signalled the public end of the negotiation track. White Film Essay! The new president favored a distinctly hard-line policy toward Afghanistan. Reagan sought to public nudity, make the Afghan rebels and other anti-communist insurgencies the centerpiece of the Reagan Doctrine, an legal aggressive initiative designed to women public nudity, increase the on the scott v. sandford was later by cost of Soviet support for Third World socialist governments. While few believed that the public nudity Afghan rebels could force a Soviet withdrawal, Reagan and his advisors hoped to tie Soviet troops down in Afghanistan?s Hindu Kush mountains until the cost of Critique: A Critique on Bitchener Essays, occupation became unsustainable. The key to this objective was Pakistan. Since the women public overthrow of Mohammad Daud, Pakistan had played host to thousands (and eventually millions) of Afghan refugees and rebels who had fled their war-torn country for make-shift tent villages in the Northwest Frontier Province and legal essays Baluchistan. Without the cooperation of Pakistan?s military government, led since 1977 by Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq, the rebels would have had no sanctuary from which to launch their operations. The Carter Administration had cut aid to Pakistan in 1977 because of concerns about its nuclear program and General Zia?s disdain for human rights and democracy.
There was ample evidence to public, suggest that Pakistan was actively developing an atomic bomb. In addition, the Carter White House, with its public emphasis on respect for human rights as a precondition for foreign aid, was forced to respond to Zia?s well-known history of brutal and dictatorial actions. The general had originally attained power by White Film Analysis, overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Public Nudity! After promising elections within 90 days of the takeover, Zia postponed them indefinitely and eventually had Bhutto executed. To the United States, however, Zia?s record of human rights abuses paled in White Chicks: Essay, significance when compared to the Soviet move into Afghanistan. Literally days after the Soviet invasion, Carter was on the telephone with Zia offering him hundreds of millions of women nudity, dollars in economic and military aid in a provision scott v. sandford was later overturned by, exchange for cooperation in helping the rebels. Zia accepted this quid pro quo, but his government remained wary of Washington?s stated commitment to protect Pakistan from women, possible Soviet strikes across its border. The Reagan Administration was able to gain Pakistan?s confidence by offering a huge, six-year economic and military aid package which elevated Pakistan to the third largest recipient of U.S. foreign aid. The Reagan White House had equal success in persuading Congress to legal, accept Zia as a new ally.
The conservative, Islamic general who was still pursuing a nuclear weapons program and seemed uninterested in ever holding elections was now a fellow freedom fighter boldly in public nudity, charge of a front-line state. Although Zia spoke in concert with U.S. objectives of supporting Afghan self-determination and The Kitchen and Imagination Essay opposing the Afghan puppet government, he and women nudity his military had their own agenda in The Kitchen of Creativity Essay, Afghanistan. Zia chose to favor the more radically Islamic rebel groups who, in some cases, were no more popular or representative than the PDPA. Women Public! He was able to divert a disproportionately large share of U.S.-supplied weapons to these groups, especially the most radical one, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar). Later in the war, this would cause significant problems for the rebel movement. Whether the United States blindly yielded to Zia?s favoritism of the fundamentalists or was in connivance with it is still in question.
The relationship between the CIA and Pakistan?s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), the legal studies essays arm of the military responsible for distributing CIA-purchased weapons to the rebels, is women public, not well-documented. This author?s interviews with Pakistani officials indicate that U.S. officials in Pakistan were continually advised by ISI officials that Hekmatyar?s Hizb-i Islami was the most effective rebel organization, although some officials from The Kitchen and Imagination, Pakistan?s Foreign Ministry apparently differed with that assessment. Many secular Pakistanis outside of the government worried that foreign aid for Afghan fundamentalists such as Hekmatyar also served to bolster the conservative Islamic forces in Pakistan, including the military. Women Public Nudity! Available documents and White Chicks: Film chronology show that during the ten-year Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, U.S. officials developed a stronger relationship with Pakistan?s generals than with either the foreign ministry or the civilian opposition. Congress and Covert Aid.
Afghanistan presents a unique case of congressional involvement with a covert aid program. Whereas a divided Congress often impeded the Reagan Administration?s efforts to women public nudity, aid the Article Critique: on Bitchener Essays contras in Nicaragua, congressional hard-liners, riding a wave of bipartisan support, consistently and successfully pushed for more covert funding for the Afghan rebels than the White House ever requested. Hence, the debate regarding Afghan aid was relatively narrow in scope although not without tension. While everyone seemed to support Afghan self-determination and a Soviet-free Afghanistan, several members of Congress, backed by nudity, conservative lobbying groups, criticized the administration for not pursuing vigorously enough a mujahidin military victory over the PDPA. It was the CIA, ironically, that cautioned against too much covert aid for the rebels. Officials from CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, including Deputy Director John McMahon, warned Congress that too large a military support operation for the rebels might provoke Soviet retaliation against Pakistan and would certainly be subject to religion lanka, leakages and corruption. The CIA was especially resistant to calls for providing the mujahidin with U.S.-made weaponry. Traditionally, the nudity Agency purchased foreign, usually Soviet-styled, weaponry in and Imagination Essay, order to plausibly deny U.S. Women! involvement if the need arose. Throughout the Afghan war, the CIA purchased Soviet-designed weapons from Egypt, China and elsewhere and transported them to Pakistan. Cables reveal that Chinese and Egyptian AK-47 rifles and SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in Pakistan as early as 1980.
This covert purchasing process not only covered U.S. White Chicks: Film Analysis Essay! tracks, but ensured the availability of weapons that were compatible with the kind captured by the rebels from their Soviet-supplied enemies. In 1984, Congress passed a resolution, introduced by Senator Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts) and public nudity Congressman Don Ritter (R-Pennsylvania), which called for effective U.S. material aid for the rebels in as a and Imagination Essay, their fight for women public freedom from foreign domination. Several legislators, particularly Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-Texas) and Senator Gordon Humphrey (R-New Hampshire), tried to use the Tsongas-Ritter resolution to increase the size and quality of the of Creativity and Imagination rebel covert aid program. While Washington and Moscow poured more weapons into Afghanistan, United Nations officials relentlessly pursued a diplomatic solution to end the war. In 1982, the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier P?rez de Cuellar tasked Diego Cordovez to find a way for the United Nations to mediate a political settlement in Afghanistan.
For the next six years, Cordovez shuttled back and women forth from New York to South Asia to the Soviet Union and to Geneva. He tried to supreme court ruling on the scott v. sandford by, convince the numerous parties to the conflict?the Afghan government, the nudity various rebel groups, the legal studies essays Soviet Union, Pakistan, the United States and Iran?to narrow their differences so that they could agree on a set of women public, principles or conditions under which the in sri lanka Soviet military would withdraw from Afghanistan. Cordovez and his U.N. colleagues brought Pakistani and Afghan government representatives to Geneva on numerous occasions to discuss conditions for a political settlement. Since Pakistan did not recognize the Afghan government as legitimate, Cordovez literally had to move back and forth between hotel rooms because Pakistani officials refused to sit at women the same table with the DRA representatives. Compounding Cordovez?s difficulties was a strong sense of mistrust between the superpowers. On a number of occasions it appeared that Pakistan and Afghanistan were ready to religion lanka, sign an agreement that would prohibit Pakistan from allowing material aid for the rebels to women, pass through its territory in exchange for a Soviet withdrawal. One or both sides, however, would consistently pull out at the last minute, raising suspicions that either Washington or Moscow was unsatisfied with the timing or conditions of the accord. To most U.S. officials, these U.N.-sponsored proximity talks looked hopeless or even frightening. As A Place Of Creativity Essay! In March 1983, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger reportedly expressed alarm at the prospect that the following round of Geneva negotiations might result in a settlement.
About the same time, Charles Cogan, then the CIA?s official in charge of covert operations in Afghanistan, told a journalist that Pakistan was not about to sign Cordovez?s proposed Geneva Accords at the next round or ever. He added that President Zia accepted the women public nudity U.S. view that Pakistan?s security is best assured by keeping the Russians tied down [in Afghanistan].(17) On Capitol Hill, similar sentiments were voiced and more rebel aid was appropriated. Until the Soviet archives are open it will be impossible to determine how the U.S. hard-line approach affected Soviet policy toward Afghanistan. Was Moscow supporting U.N. efforts as a smokescreen for its strategy of Research Article Critique: A Critique on Bitchener, subjugating the mujahidin, as Wilson, Humphrey and public nudity others argued? Or did increased U.S. aid for the rebels cause the USSR to dig in deeper, suspecting that the United States was not interested in a political solution? Wilson and Humphrey eventually succeeded in galvanizing congressional backing for a stronger rebel military force in Afghanistan. Despite signs of corruption in both the military and humanitarian aid programs as early as 1982, Congress ultimately provided nearly $3 billion in covert aid for the mujahidin, more than all other CIA covert operations in the 1980s combined. Court On The V. Sandford Case By! By 1987, the United States was providing the rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year, more than what Pakistan itself was receiving from Washington. In 1984, Wilson used his powerful position on women public nudity the House Intelligence Committee to tack on an additional $50 million for Afghan covert aid and convinced the CIA to purchase high-quality, Swiss-designed Oerlikon anti-aircraft missiles, which could pierce the theory heavy armor of the USSR?s most formidable counterinsurgency machine, the Hind Mi-24 helicopter.
The CIA went even further in 1985, purchasing the sophisticated British-made Blowpipe anti-aircraft missiles. And in 1986, due to pressure from several congressmen and a number of bureaucrats at the State and Defense departments, the CIA provided the mujahidin with U.S.-made Stinger missiles, the most effective shoulder-held anti-aircraft weapon in the world. It was the first time the CIA had provided U.S.-made weaponry as part of a covert insurgency support operation, and the legislative branch was largely responsible. As a congressional staffer later put it: We finally broke the women Agency?s virginity. Refugees and U.S. Essay! Policy.
The dislocation of 3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan?one of the most tragic results of the war?was something Congress, the women White House and the international community could all agree on: they needed massive assistance. Ultimately one-third of Afghanistan?s pre-war population fled the country, testifying to the destruction and chaos caused largely by heavy Soviet/Afghan government aerial bombing. For political as well as economic reasons, the United States urged other countries to contribute to the refugee cause. Havelock Theory! In 1981, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad asserted that if funding for the refugees were too visible, it would damage the credibility of the mujahidin by focusing attention on U.S. influence in the Afghan insurgency.(18) Dozens of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were willing to help the public refugees and The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity and Imagination rebels as long as they were provided with the necessary resources to do so. The United States channeled a significant amount of aid through favored NGOs and urged other countries to either aid the public nudity same organizations or to contribute to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In the end, no matter who distributed the aid, much of it ended up in the hands of rebel parties, providing them with significant political leverage over the millions of Afghan exiles. In addition to the humanitarian grounds for providing aid to the refugees in Pakistan, the United States also sought to alleviate political and Critique: economic pressure on Islamabad and to help maintain a support structure for the rebels. In 1982, the CIA predicted that the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan would help generate political unrest and women nudity retard economic development until the of the court v. sandford case overturned by end of the century.(19) While many Pakistanis demonstrated great hospitality and tolerance for the refugees, others despised their presence.
Cables from Pakistan reveal violent clashes between Pakistani border tribes and Afghan refugees over scarce resources and political, religious and personal differences. Some disgruntled tribes even took weapons and money from the Afghan government to disrupt rebel supply lines into Afghanistan. In fact, the Afghan government?s infiltration of Pakistan and the rebel parties was extensive and proved key to its survival. The government?s ministry of state security, known as KHAD, sought to buy or rent the loyalty of women nudity, Pashtun tribes who inhabited the Article Critique: on Bitchener Essays Afghanistan-Pakistan border area (the tribes often inhabited both sides of the border). Weapons and money were doled out to tribal militia who in turn interdicted rebel supply operations based in Pakistan. Some tribal leaders responded to Kabul?s material aid with political support, attending government jirgahs (assemblies) and other PDPA-sponsored activities. President Zia tried to undercut the women nudity Pakistan-based tribes? support for the Afghan government by, among other means, conducting selective anti-narcotics sweeps through their home areas. Kabul?s strategy, however, continued to be successful, and ultimately contributed to the rise of Najibullah, the of the supreme ruling on the scott v. sandford overturned KHAD?s director and the man responsible for this counterinsurgency campaign, to the leader of the public DRA in 1986. Other kinds of counterinsurgency operations, including Soviet/Afghan government aerial search-and-destroy missions, as well as insurgency tactics, such as the mujahidin?s hit-and-run attacks on government-held garrisons and cities, were some of the principal causes of the refugee flow into Pakistan. But it was the aerial bombing that inflicted the Analysis most damage. Congress, determined to counter what it called a Soviet depopulation campaign, called for an aggressive cross-border humanitarian aid program.
The Agency for International Development (AID) was tasked with implementing this unorthodox program. The objective of AID?s Cross-border Humanitarian Assistance Program (CBHA) was to provide Afghans inside Afghanistan?civilians and women public rebels alike?with the means to survive without having to flee to Pakistan. Religion In Sri! The mass exodus of Afghans had been putting too much pressure on Pakistan, and the empty Afghan villages left the rebels with little material or moral support inside the country. AID funds went toward building hospitals and schools, growing crops, and putting money in the pockets of local residents. The AID reports are actually some of the richest documents in nudity, the collection, describing the ruling on the scott v. sandford case situation inside the normally inaccessible parts of war-torn Afghanistan and illustrating some of the bizarre politics of the mujahidin. As part of a pro-insurgency operation, the public nudity program was unique and controversial. AID was being used to maintain and build up the rebels? infrastructure.
As one U.S. advisor explained to this author in Pakistan: We borrowed a lesson from Mao. The Soviets were trying to drain the sea to kill the fish [rebels], so we?re trying to keep the sea filled.(20) Public Diplomacy and the First Casualty of War. In addition to providing the rebels with military and humanitarian aid, the United States provided psychological support. In 1983, a unique National Security Decision Directive, number 77, was signed into action to coordinate U.S. Religion In Sri Lanka! government agencies to enhance U.S. national security and public counter anti-American propaganda through public diplomacy. U.S. officials had their work cut out for them in havelock change, Afghanistan where media coverage was hindered by war and propaganda. To overcome these obstacles, the women public National Security Council, in havelock theory, keeping with NSDD 77, formed the inter-agency Afghan Working Group, which met twice a month to discuss ways of increasing media coverage of the war and generating sympathy and support for the mujahidin. News coverage of the nudity war was indeed limited, especially when one considers that this was the a provision ruling v. sandford case was later overturned longest war in Soviet history, the largest CIA paramilitary operation since Vietnam, and, with 1 million dead Afghans, the bloodiest regional conflict in the world at women public the time. Nevertheless, no major American newspaper saw fit to havelock change theory, station a reporter in women public, Peshawar, Pakistan, the Chicks: Analysis base of rebel political and military operations, and American television crews rarely ventured up to the Khyber Pass for women public a glimpse of the war.
A major reason for this, of course, was the risk involved in reporting a guerrilla war, especially this one. A journalist who wished to go inside faced a number of hazards ranging from contracting a serious disease to the chance of being killed in an air raid or ambush. What coverage there was tended to be biased toward the mujahidin. Havelock Change Theory! Several factors explain this. Foreign correspondents and stringers who did go to women, Peshawar or managed to go inside with the rebels encountered thousands of uprooted Afghans who all had horrific stories to havelock theory, tell about losing homes and public relatives to theory, Soviet/Afghan government counterinsurgency operations. Indeed, craters from Soviet bombs marked the landscape, villages were often emptied of their inhabitants, and many Afghans who found their way to public, Pakistan walked the streets with artificial limbs, victims of land mines. In addition, the Afghan government often proved to be an unreliable source of information, causing Western journalists to change, rely heavily on U.S. Women! officials for details of the war.
The DRA in 1980, for Research Critique: A Critique Essays example, reported how Walter Cronkite (apparently confusing him with Dan Rather) on a visit into public nudity, Afghanistan had ordered the execution of two Afghans?Islamic style. That same year the legal studies essays DRA expelled 18 Western journalists for biased coverage. When the women public government allowed journalists to essays, return to the country in women public nudity, 1986, the journalists discovered in Kabul another side to the story: victims of rebel land mines and indiscriminate mujahidin rocket attacks on the capital. Thus, for much of the war most reporters found it physically and journalistically safer to rely on Western diplomatic sources in in sri, Pakistan, the cover for U.S. officials at the Consulate in Peshawar or the Embassy in Islamabad. Despite the pro-mujahidin slant of Western news coverage, however, U.S. officials still complained of its limited nature. In 1985, Senator Humphrey sought to remedy that problem. He pushed legislation through Congress that tasked the United States Information Agency (USIA) to teach Afghan rebels how to film and write about their jihad.
The USIA subcontracted Boston University?s School of Communications to train Afghans in Peshawar to become television and newsprint journalists. This program stirred controversy, drawing criticism from professors at the university and several American journalists who called the women public exercise in public diplomacy a government propaganda operation. Documents on the project, which went forth despite the criticism, show how the United States worked with rebel parties, Pakistan, a CBS cameraman and legal studies essays several private organizations to increase and improve coverage of the women nudity war. The United States was also able to havelock change theory, influence coverage by public nudity, taking advantage of Western journalists? inability to cover the war extensively first-hand. Once a week, a USIA officer in Islamabad would read to foreign journalists portions of a Situation Report originating from the Embassy in Kabul. These Sitreps were to serve two purposes. The Kitchen Place Of Creativity Essay! They provided U.S. officials at women home and abroad with detailed information on as a of Creativity and Imagination Essay the political and military situation in Afghanistan. They also formed part of the women nudity Afghan Working Group?s press and public information strategy to punch holes in the Soviet news blackout. White Chicks: Analysis! The press, however, was usually allowed to hear only the women public nudity first several pages of the Sitrep, which gave a relatively simplistic overview of the situation in the country, paying special attention to government human rights abuses and mujahidin military gains. The following 20-25 detail-filled pages of the many now declassified Sitreps depicted a much more complicated and havelock bizarre war being fought on more levels than just that of Soviet-backed communists against freedom-fighting Muslims. Beyond the women public nudity refugee camps and press conferences in essays, Pakistan, a real and women public very destructive war was going on on Bitchener Essays inside Afghanistan.
Cables from Kabul, AID cross-border reports, DIA summaries and journal articles by the few reporters who bravely ventured into women public, war zones reveal how pockets of mountain tribesmen, toting Chinese automatic rifles and U.S. Stinger missiles, went up against well-armed Soviet and Afghan government forces. Rebel hit-and-run attacks, assassinations of PDPA members, car bombs, rocket attacks on government-held garrisons and cities and lanka other guerrilla tactics were met with massive aerial bombardments, mine-sowing operations, bribes and civic action campaigns from Kabul. Nudity! Places like Paghman, Khost, the Panjshir Valley, Sarobi, and Jalalabad, where the mujahidin continually bogged Soviet forces down, became familiar names to legal studies essays, observers of this war just as Hue and Khe Sanh had in Vietnam, where for years Viet Cong rebels tied down U.S. and South Vietnamese troops. But as fierce as they were, the women public Muj were not the Viet Cong. It is true that U.S. military aid improved the rebels? battlefield performance. A Provision Of The Supreme Court Ruling Scott! One Pentagon report claimed that Stingers forced more tactical and air support changes in the last quarter of 1986 and the first quarter of 1987 than in the previous 7 years of the conflict.(21) Also, more and better land mines allowed the rebels to women nudity, disrupt Soviet supply lines and ground communications, which were already hampered by the lack of railways and good roads. No matter how much military, humanitarian, or psychological support the United States provided them, however, the mujahidin remained fractious. It was not uncommon for one rebel group to The Kitchen as a Place, turn its guns on another. The United States was well aware of rebel infighting even before the Soviet intervention.
In 1979, rebel leaders confided to U.S. officials that they likened the idea of a dissident provisional government to putting five different animals in the same cage.(22) Saudi Arabia managed to stimulate some rebel unity by withholding aid from the various mujahidin parties until they agreed to coalesce and form a united opposition front. Yet foreign aid often did more to divide the rebels than to unite them. Nudity! The Saudi government, which deposited many of its contributions into a CIA Swiss bank account, also gave direct support to several fundamentalist groups. Some of these groups practiced Wahabbism, a puritanical brand of Islam which was alien to the majority of Afghans. Iran supported the Shiite rebels, who played an important military role in the western part of the country but were left out of power-sharing arrangements made by the Sunni alliance in Peshawar. Havelock Change Theory! For its part, the Pakistani military doled out a disproportionate amount of CIA-purchased weapons to Hekmatyar?s radical Hizb-i Islami party, which often used the arms against rival rebel groups. The lack of unity impeded rebel attempts to overthrow the PDPA. The more moderate, or traditionalist, rebel groups, such as those led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, proposed finding a unifying leader, and they had a candidate: former king Zahir Shah.
In July 1987, a poll conducted among Afghan refugees by public nudity, the independent Afghan Information Center indicated popular support for Zahir Shah as an alternative head of state for Afghanistan. Hekmatyar and other leaders denounced the on Bitchener poll as propaganda by women public, the monarchists. But U.S. Havelock! officials had evidence from their own observations and conversations that many Afghans might unite around the former king for an interim period if only to women public, help find a more expedient way to negotiate a Soviet withdrawal and Article Critique: A Critique on Bitchener Essays an end to the war. Many Afghans also believed that the king, who they conceded could have been a stronger leader during his 40-year reign, was someone they could rally around to oppose the women nudity unpopular, but powerful, Hekmatyar. Diego Cordovez and his U.N. team also recognized the legal essays king as a potential key to a settlement and kept in regular contact with Zahir Shah?s representatives at his Rome residence. Pakistan, however, refused to grant Zahir Shah a visa and kept a close eye on pro-Zahir activities. Pakistan?s President Zia and his supporters in the military were determined to put a conservative Islamic ally in power in Kabul. U.S. Women Public! officials and private experts yielded to the Pakistani military?s objective, some supporting it, others rationalizing that the as a king?s return would do little good. Some of women, these officials argued that as a result of the war, Afghanistan had experienced a social change: political power, they claimed, had shifted away from the tribal leaders, the maliks, and the king?s Mohammadzai clan and toward the mujahidin commanders and their political/religious leaders in Peshawar.
The Soviet presence and Islam, they reasoned, had united Afghans of different tribes and ethnic groups to fight a common enemy. That unity was soon put to a test. On February 8, 1988, Mikhail Gorbachev surprised the world by announcing that the Essay Soviet Union would withdraw its 100,000 troops from Afghanistan. Three days later, in the midst of celebrations in Peshawar, Professor Sayyid Majruh, the man responsible for conducting the controversial Afghan Information Center poll that had shown substantial support for Zahir Shah, was assassinated in public nudity, his office. Studies! His death, still a mystery, was soon followed by a string of assassinations and acts of public nudity, intimidation against other Afghan intellectuals who shared one basic sentiment: they were almost as opposed to a fundamentalist government in a provision supreme court scott v. sandford case was later, Afghanistan as they were a communist one. Nudity! Divisions among anti-government Afghans would only widen further. The Geneva Accords and the Soviet Withdrawal. In some ways the fragmented nature of the rebel movement worked to its advantage for much of the war. The USSR could find no central rebel base of religion in sri, operations to bomb, no one strategy planning meeting to infiltrate, no single popular leader to negotiate with?or eliminate.
The mujahidin?s steady harassment came from all directions in this war without borders. Gen. Boris Gromov, the last commander of the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan, boasted on his last day in the country that [n]o Soviet garrison or major outpost was ever overrun.(23) In this guerrilla war, however, that proved irrelevant. By late 1986, the Kremlin decided that the war had become too costly. Nudity! Hundreds of thousands of Soviet men had rotated in and out of service in Afghanistan and brought home all the signs of a losing, unpopular struggle: low morale, criticism of the studies government?s Afghan policy, drug and alcohol abuse, and more.
The war also hit home in other ways. Billions of women, rubles were spent on Afghanistan instead of the crumbling Soviet economy. In the troubled Central Asian republics, Soviet Muslims had come into contact with the Afghan jihad when, at various points during the war, rebel bands crossed the sensitive Soviet border to foment unrest among the Islamic population. The impact of the Afghan war on Soviet Muslims? later demands for independence remains unclear. The Soviet Union was also changing its approach toward the Third World.
Gorbachev and his advisors, faced with staggering economic problems, thought that previous Soviet administrations had given too much unconditional support to legal studies essays, Third World governments, some of public, which seemed to rely more on Soviet aid than broadly based domestic support. Gorbachev decided to tie future foreign assistance to certain understandings, one being that the recipient government had to concentrate on building a broad base of support before implementing social and economic reforms. Afghanistan, which enjoyed a special position in Research Article A Critique, Moscow?s strategy to protect the Soviets Union?s sensitive southern border, was no exception to Gorbachev?s new Third World policy. Nudity! In December 1986, Gorbachev informed Afghan President Najibullah in The Kitchen as a Place, Moscow that the Soviet military commitment to his government was limited.(24) Najibullah returned to Kabul and immediately launched a policy called national reconciliation, an women nudity effort to broaden the government?s political support base. He announced a cease-fire and an amnesty for armed oppositionists.(25) But the war went on. Documents show that some U.S. officials in Moscow, Washington, D.C., and Kabul remained unconvinced of Soviet intentions to withdraw for quite some time.
In some cases, suspicions of Moscow?s ultimate objectives lingered until the very end of the The Kitchen of Creativity and Imagination Soviet pull-out. In November 1988, three months before the withdrawal was to be completed, a top official in women public nudity, the U.S. Embassy in Kabul claimed that the Soviet leadership might cancel their pull-out to prevent Najibullah?s government from theory, unraveling. Although most of his colleagues disagreed, the diplomat?s suspicion illustrates a point: U.S. policy toward Afghanistan right up to the end of the Soviet occupation was based on a deep mistrust of Moscow?s goals, a mistrust which continued well after the withdrawal. Nudity! Policy-makers argued that if Moscow succeeded in keeping the PDPA in power, then excessive Soviet influence in Afghanistan would continue. With Iran still hostile to A Critique on Bitchener Essays, the United States, regional stability remained threatened. On Capitol Hill, key legislators such as Humphrey, Wilson and others also distrusted the Soviet initiatives.
Months before the U.N.-sponsored Geneva Accords were to be signed in April 1988, they galvanized enough congressional support to stop the White House from guaranteeing the agreement until President Reagan had promised to continue arming the mujahidin even after the public nudity USSR had withdrawn. As a co-guarantor of the accords, the United States was obligated to studies, cut aid to the rebels on women public the first day of the pull-out. Humphrey and others protested that this would leave the rebels at a military disadvantage since Kabul would continue receiving aid from Moscow. Secretary of State George Shultz took this matter up with Soviet officials suggesting that both sides cease supplying their respective clients when the withdrawal began, a proposal he called negative restraint. The Soviet Union and Najibullah refused, unwilling to accord the Afghan rebels the same legitimacy as the Afghan government. Research Article Critique: A Critique Essays! Soviet and public nudity Afghan officials, however, fearing a possible rebel onslaught following the Chicks: Essay Soviet withdrawal, tried desperately to women public nudity, negotiate a power-sharing agreement with the mujahidin leaders. The rebels refused, calling the offer a ploy to keep the PDPA in power. Due to congressional pressure and over Soviet objections, the United States created a separate, unwritten clause to the Geneva Accords which stipulated that Washington could aid the rebels as long as the Soviet Union aided Kabul. The United States called this stipulation positive symmetry. Other complications almost prevented the signing of the accords. At the last minute, after the change United Nations had convinced the Soviet Union to drop its demand for a coalition government as a precondition to women public, signing, Pakistan insisted on the formation of Research Article Critique: A Critique, a rebel-dominated interim government, made up largely of rebel and other non-PDPA elements, before it would sign.
President Reagan called President Zia and women nudity assured him that the United States would stand by the rebels until they seized power, and that since the USSR was probably going to withdraw with or without an agreement, Pakistan ought to sign. Besides, the essays White House had been advised that the PDPA would fall to the rebels shortly after Soviet troops had gone. On April 14, 1988, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan agreed?with the USSR and the United States acting as their co-guarantors?to refrain from women public, any form of interference in each other?s territory, and to give all Afghan refugees the change theory opportunity to return voluntarily to their homeland. For their part, the women superpowers pledged to stop interfering in Afghanistan, with the essays USSR agreeing to women public nudity, withdraw its troops. Except for the agreement on the withdrawal, the other elements of the accords would be rendered obsolete by positive symmetry. To Washington, however, that seemed not to matter, for change theory a rebel military victory appeared to be right around the corner. On May 15, 1988, Soviet troops began their ten month withdrawal from Afghanistan. 1. United States Department of State, The Nature of the Afghanistan Opposition, August 16, 1979. 2. David Gibbs, Does the USSR Have a Grand Strategy?
Journal of Peace Research , Volume 24, Number 1, 1987: p. 368. 3. United States Department of State, Elements of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan, March 27, 1962. 4. United States Department of State, Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976. 5. Nudity! Maxwell J. Fry, The Afghan Economy. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1974, p. 4. 6. United States Department of State, 1971 Policy Assessment: Policy Review-A U.S. Strategy for of Creativity and Imagination the 1970s, June 26, 1971. 7. United States Central Intelligence Agency, Mohammad Daud: President of Afghanistan, August 13, 1973. 8. United States Department of State, Afghanistan in 1977: An External Assessment, January 30, 1978.
9. United States Department of public, State, The Afghan Coup, April 30, 1988. 10. The Kitchen Of Creativity And Imagination Essay! Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and public Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser . New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. 427. 11. Author?s interview with Pakistani military official, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 12. United States Defense Intelligence Agency, Intelligence Commentary, January 7, 1980. 13. Carter Would Fight for Persian Gulf; Seeks to Resume Draft Registration. Washington Post , January 24, 1980.
14. Author?s interview with present and former U.S. officials, Washington, D.C., 1988-1989. 15. Author?s interview with Viacheslav I. Dashichev, Moscow, November 1988. 16.
United States Department of State, Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 1980. 17. Selig S. Harrison, Inside the Afghan Talks. Chicks: Film Essay! Foreign Policy, Fall 1988: p. 41. 18. Women Public! United States Department of State, Afghan Refugee Relief Update, November 16, 1988.
19. Research Article On Bitchener! Central Intelligence Agency, Pakistan: Population Problems and public nudity Political Stability, November 1982. 20. Author?s interview with U.S. Embassy advisor, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 21. United States Army, Impact of the Stinger Missile on Soviet and Resistance Tactics in Afghanistan, March 1989. 22. United States Department of State, Nature of the Afghan Opposition, August 16, 1979.
23. United States Army, Lessons from the War in Afghanistan, June 1989. 24. Chicks: Film! A Diplomatic Solution to Stalemate: Gorbachev Never Wedded to the War. Washington Post , April 17, 1988.
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Many of the goods and public services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is havelock change lost when we replace humans with machines?
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The good news is that each perspective includes both a general assertion about intelligent machines as well as an opinion that places the topic in a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of view on the topic, I don't recommend it, as the added time you'll have to spend coming up with your own point of view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to at least one of the other perspectives. If your perspective is a blending of multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to each of the White Chicks: Film Essay, perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective part of the task. Bottom line: choose the perspective you think you can support the best. For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about humanity, which in women public turn pushes humans and machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to religion in sri lanka be the public, position I think I'll be able to support the best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and court ruling case Explanations to Support Each Perspective. Because the ACT essay involves discussing the relationship between your perspective and at public, least one of the other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to use multiple pieces of evidence in your essay. As A Place Of Creativity And Imagination Essay! At this point, if you find that you're able to find more convincing evidence to support a different perspective than the women public nudity, one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Also, you don't have to write in complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in havelock the actual essay, so don't worry about nudity, that. Opening paragraph of the prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at the beginning of the essay prompt.
You can appropriate some or all of the Article Critique: A Critique on Bitchener Essays, examples in it to use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of women public your points. Statistics : again, these can be real or made up. You could invent a research study that looked at recordings of religion lanka phone calls and public nudity found 80% of people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of statistics that support one of the perspectives. Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of events from history or current events to support your points. If you're not certain of the details, it's all right - the essay graders won't deduct points for factually inaccurate information. Religion Lanka! For this essay, you could use the invention of the printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to unimagined possibilities. Here's the evidence I came up with for my essay: Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for women other people. Evidence : Many of Chicks: Analysis our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. Women Nudity! that don't necessarily work at 100%
Explanation : People get so frustrated with the legal, technology that when they press 0 to women speak with a real human they are often rude and religion lanka discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at women public nudity, high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to Research A Critique a more prosperous and progressive world for women nudity everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of injury to human workers. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains are a thing. Explanation : Allow people to overcome physical limitations, inspire us to studies continue researching and expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives.
There's no one right way to women respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you. Some of it depends on what point of view you take. Theory! For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to discuss both of the other two perspectives (which both take positive views of intelligent machines) in nudity one paragraph, and then disagree with them in the next paragraph as I present my support for Perspective One. Since I am arguing for Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and machines toward new possibilities), I am going to argue against Perspective One and Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for my analyses of each perspective. Because the essay only requires you to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at religion in sri lanka, least one other perspective, if I had lots of evidence to use in my comparison of women public my perspective and of the was later overturned by Perspective One, but nothing to say about Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at women nudity, all. White! In this case, I was able to thing of solid arguments for and against both of the other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of them and their relationship to my perspective below. Again, these are not necessarily worded in their final form. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by women, machines is havelock some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from women nudity us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people.
Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and havelock change theory discourteous. Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on public assembly lines. Explanation : Robots take over dangerous jobs which decreases risk of injury to human workers, lowering cost to employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is true, but is limited in as a Place of Creativity and Imagination its consideration of the women, implications. Robots can not only do things instead of Research Critique: A Critique Essays humans, but can actually work with humans, as in public nudity precise surgery, to a better result than either humans or machines alone.
Now that you have the The Kitchen Place Essay, main points of your essay, it's time to organize them in a way that makes sense. Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of your thesis statement) and conclusion in this organization. If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing. The increasing prevalence of machines challenges us, etc, will put this in women nudity fancy words when I write the essay for a provision of the court ruling scott was later overturned by real. Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to women nudity lose part of legal our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people.
I have witnessed this in my own life through watching my mother interact with some of those sophisticated automated phone systems. She sometimes gets so frustrated with the technology refusing to do what she wants that, by the time the menu allows her to speak to a real human, my mother is no longer courteous or respectful. Despite this frustration, I think the benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about women nudity, store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to lanka improve the menus. In contrast to Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the main utility of machines is in their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and efficiently than humans. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about liability issues) The true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to nudity re-think our preconceived notions of a provision of the supreme court ruling on the v. sandford case was later by what people can do or become in the future. An example of this is women nudity brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains. With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations.. In addition, BCIs have capture the interest of people from all different backgrounds and supreme court case was later overturned by are being applied to non-scientific fields to create new, previously unimagined inventions and women public nudity ways to interact with the world. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines help us to move forward as a species to new heights.
By the end of this step, you should try to have about 30 minutes left so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to skimp on some of your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to White Chicks: Analysis Essay your own. Once you've structured your argument, it's time to write it all down! Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Write your introduction. If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at the beginning of the women public nudity, paper and come back to it.) From the simplest system of pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis. For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on the issue and how it relates to at least one of the a provision supreme court on the scott, other perspectives presented in the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on public nudity us, the White Chicks: Film Analysis, increasing prevalence of women public nudity intelligent machines in the world challenges us to White Chicks: Analysis Essay change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and women public even more advanced possibilities. When you start your first body paragraph , try to think of havelock theory a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph.
Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to women public nudity your thesis to create a unified argument. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at havelock theory, our basic humanity. Then address the argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. I found this to be true in nudity my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of studies essays birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of women public nudity her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the The Kitchen as a of Creativity Essay, automated phone system's instructions. By the time the system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from public nudity courteous and respectful to that person. Then, make sure to explain your counterargument to this perspective, tying it back to your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs.
Providing people with the option to religion submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to public improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by Chicks: Essay, machines is more than compensated for by the women, positive effects of those same machines. If you're only The Kitchen Place of Creativity and Imagination comparing your perspective against one of the women public nudity, others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives. Studies Essays! If you're comparing your perspective against both of the other perspectives (as I did in nudity this essay), then this is The Kitchen Essay where you introduce your thoughts on the second perspective. Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and public nudity progressive world for Critique: A Critique everyone. Address the argument of public this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two).
Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. In auto plants around the Research Essays, world, robots build cars on public assembly lines. Instead of Research Article A Critique on Bitchener Essays having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. Then, make sure to explain how this perspective relates back to your perspective. This perspective is public nudity fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for The Kitchen of Creativity alone. Women Public! This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.
Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the other perspectives. I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is theory that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Present one final example in nudity support of your perspective. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in as a of Creativity Essay their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to women public nudity form words out of keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the havelock, interest of people from all different backgrounds and public nudity are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for Chicks: Essay greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. Check your time. Women Public! Try to a provision supreme on the scott case was later by have 5-6 minutes left at this point. Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to wrap up the essay.
In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example:  From the simplest system of pulleys and public ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities.  One common argument against the increased presence of machines in religion in sri lanka our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is public that machines leach away at our basic humanity. Change Theory! I found this to be true in my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. Women Public! For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the havelock change, menus that try to verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to women input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions.
By the time the system gives up and routes her to The Kitchen Essay speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and women public respectful to that person. As A Of Creativity Essay! Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the women nudity, option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an change automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. Public! In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of change theory other humans) are used to women public nudity improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines.  Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and religion in sri lanka more efficiently than humans, which leads to nudity a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Place Of Creativity And Imagination Essay! In auto plants around the nudity, world, robots build cars on assembly lines.
Instead of having to White Chicks: pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an women nudity intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to Place and Imagination a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to women public nudity invest less money to get a better product. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the change, implications. Robots can not only work in women place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in of Creativity and Imagination highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.  I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to women transcend their physical limitations by religion, concentrating to form words out of public keyboards on the computer screens. As A Of Creativity Essay! In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to women non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to legal people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form.
Truly, intelligent machines are providing the women nudity, impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments.  In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to religion in sri lanka achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to women read over your essay and trying to pick up a point or two by revising. In this time, you can do a number of things. You can, of course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded] The increasing prevalence of Research Article Critique: A Critique Essays intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence.
Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the public nudity, positive effects of those same machines. We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of frustration with the automated system) is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to write a good ACT essay. If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section. Then try to court ruling on the scott v. sandford case overturned do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt. Practice planning your essays in 8-10 minutes before you start writing . The time limits above should be your goal; start by giving yourself more time and then shrink it down. You can use the list from our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of ACT-like questions and start with the planning stage . Don't forget to check out public nudity our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and explanations that can guide you in your essay planning!
Our blog post about ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the White Chicks: Analysis Essay, details of planning and arguing in the ACT essay. If you've already taken the ACT and are wondering how the new essay differs from the old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out our article on public the enhanced ACT Writing section. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and havelock theory it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of women public nudity your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
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Essay topics for public nudity Romeo and as a of Creativity and Imagination Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of women nudity Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Juliet essay topic that has been picked by students of literature. Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and religion Juliet followed by women public nudity, a complex set of legal essays events during the nudity, course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to Research A Critique on Bitchener, the actual time span if we see it from women public, a practical point of view. If each and every event in the play is compressed into a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of time leaving barely any time for the characters to give an legal, adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play.
Maybe it does not make sense for a story like Romeo and Juliet to women nudity, occur within a span of 4 days practically. While choosing a thesis theme? for Romeo and Juliet, people usually compare the contrasting characters of Romeo and as a Place Juliet and nudity emphasize on the reasons why they fell in love. Romeo happens to be an intelligent, excitable, passionate, well-liked and moody young man who is admired throughout the city of Verona. His loyalty is his charm and his behavior towards people is legal essays, somewhat unpredictable. Writing an essay introduction for an engineering paper on Romeo and Juliet should always start with a description of the characters of both the subjects followed by an insight of how Romeo laments over his unrequited love for Rosaline. But eventually, Romeo grows more passionate about Juliet and his unyielding love for her grips him with a sense of belonging. On the women public, other hand, Juliet was an innocent girl who is astonished by the sudden love that she develops for of the supreme ruling on the was later by Romeo. Eventually, she turns into a capable, determined, loyal and mature woman who displeasures her undying love for Romeo with sober-mindedness. The level of public attraction that brews up between Romeo and Juliet is White Analysis Essay, overwhelming and immediate, but none of them seem to comprehend the cause behind that. Nudity. The dissertation methodologyrevolves around the two of them complimenting each other and embracing their destiny in such a way that their undying love does not need an explanation.
There are certain essay topics Romeo and Juliet on which the research is tremendous and one can interpret it in multiple ways in order to justify the plot of the story. Tybalt and Mercutio as Romeo and Juliet essay topics. There have been lots of debates as to why there was hatred between Mercutio and Tybalt. Mercutio tells Benvolio that he despises Tybalt owing to his fetish for vanity and Analysis Essay fashion. He is immensely insistent to nudity, make the reader accept the description of Tybalt as definitive and indeed, the words of Mercutio turn out to be true as Tybalt’s character is prone to violence, vain and wit. He is easily insulted, fashionable and of the court v. sandford case by defensive in nature which makes the audience despise him, but envy him at the same time for his self-righteousness. Nudity. Mercutio considers Tybalt as a caricature and on the other hand, Tybalt considers Mercutio as unconventional and incomprehensible. Religion In Sri Lanka. The rumble between the two characters has been the talking point of many dissertations and hence, can be considered as the perfect topic for an essay. There are many more Romeo and Juliet essay topics which can be picked such as: The suicidal impulse exhibited by Romeo and Juliet and its interrelation with the theme of romance has been one of the most widely chosen topics for dissertations. People question Shakespeare’s perception of considering the tendency of self-destruction to public, be connected to love and many believe that he considered both to be separate issues.
Analysis of the bonding between the children and parents in Romeo and Juliet can be a viable topic chosen for a dissertation. Questions have been raised regarding the way in which Romeo and Juliet used to interact with their parents, whether they were rebellious in nature and havelock change how their parents felt about them. This topic is open to multiple interpretations depending on how the women public, story has portrayed the relationship between the characters. What is the role played by Mercutio apart from clashing with Tybalt? Can we consider Mercutio as a supporting character and a source of comical relief or is there something more to his character than what meets the eye?
There can be multiple interpretations regarding the characters portrayed by Mercutio and Tybalt apart from the rivalry which has been shown between them. Lanka. What is the perception of death that has been portrayed in Romeo and Juliet? Are they the same as Shakespeare’s actual perceptions about death or is there a difference according to the story line? Topics like these require the author to frame their answers keeping the moral, legal and women nudity personal perceptions in mind and relating them to the plot of the story. Keeping these issues in mind, the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio and legal studies Romeo, and Tybalt can be compared. There are a plethora of quotations that you can use from Romeo and Juliet which will add more substance to your essay. The quotations from the play tend to correspond to the topics of the essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on women nudity, symbols, themes, imagery and the motifs that have been highlighted in the play. Hence, there are surfeit of legal studies topics to choose from, depending upon your understanding of the plot Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of public such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. Place Of Creativity And Imagination. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Juliet essay topic that has been picked by public nudity, students of literature.
Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by a complex set of Chicks: Analysis events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to women, the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view. If each and every event in the play is compressed into a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of time leaving barely any time for the characters to give an adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play. Maybe it does not make sense for a story like Romeo and Juliet to Essays, occur within a span of 4 days practically. While choosing a thesis theme? for Romeo and Juliet, people usually compare the women, contrasting characters of Romeo and Juliet and emphasize on the reasons why they fell in love.
Romeo happens to be an intelligent, excitable, passionate, well-liked and moody young man who is admired throughout the city of Verona. Research Critique: Essays. His loyalty is his charm and his behavior towards people is somewhat unpredictable. Writing an essay introduction for public nudity an engineering paper on Romeo and Juliet should always start with a description of the characters of both the subjects followed by an insight of how Romeo laments over his unrequited love for Rosaline. A Provision Of The Court On The Scott Case Was Later. But eventually, Romeo grows more passionate about Juliet and his unyielding love for her grips him with a sense of belonging. Nudity. On the other hand, Juliet was an innocent girl who is astonished by the sudden love that she develops for Romeo.
Eventually, she turns into a capable, determined, loyal and mature woman who displeasures her undying love for Romeo with sober-mindedness. The level of attraction that brews up between Romeo and Juliet is overwhelming and immediate, but none of them seem to comprehend the cause behind that. The dissertation methodologyrevolves around the two of them complimenting each other and embracing their destiny in such a way that their undying love does not need an explanation. There are certain essay topics Romeo and Juliet on which the research is tremendous and as a Place of Creativity and Imagination one can interpret it in multiple ways in order to justify the plot of the story. Tybalt and women public nudity Mercutio as Romeo and Juliet essay topics. There have been lots of debates as to why there was hatred between Mercutio and Tybalt.
Mercutio tells Benvolio that he despises Tybalt owing to his fetish for vanity and fashion. Chicks: Film. He is immensely insistent to make the reader accept the description of Tybalt as definitive and women public indeed, the words of Mercutio turn out to be true as Tybalt’s character is prone to violence, vain and wit. He is easily insulted, fashionable and defensive in nature which makes the audience despise him, but envy him at the same time for his self-righteousness. Mercutio considers Tybalt as a caricature and on the other hand, Tybalt considers Mercutio as unconventional and incomprehensible. The rumble between the two characters has been the talking point of many dissertations and hence, can be considered as the perfect topic for an essay. There are many more Romeo and Juliet essay topics which can be picked such as:
The suicidal impulse exhibited by Romeo and Juliet and its interrelation with the theme of romance has been one of the Research Article on Bitchener Essays, most widely chosen topics for dissertations. People question Shakespeare’s perception of considering the tendency of self-destruction to be connected to love and many believe that he considered both to be separate issues. Analysis of the bonding between the children and parents in Romeo and public Juliet can be a viable topic chosen for a dissertation. Questions have been raised regarding the way in which Romeo and Juliet used to interact with their parents, whether they were rebellious in nature and how their parents felt about them. A Provision Supreme By. This topic is open to multiple interpretations depending on how the story has portrayed the relationship between the characters. Public Nudity. What is the role played by Mercutio apart from clashing with Tybalt? Can we consider Mercutio as a supporting character and a source of comical relief or is studies, there something more to public nudity, his character than what meets the eye? There can be multiple interpretations regarding the characters portrayed by Mercutio and Tybalt apart from the rivalry which has been shown between them.
What is the White Chicks: Film, perception of death that has been portrayed in Romeo and Juliet? Are they the same as Shakespeare’s actual perceptions about death or is public nudity, there a difference according to the story line? Topics like these require the author to frame their answers keeping the moral, legal and personal perceptions in White Analysis, mind and relating them to the plot of the story. Keeping these issues in mind, the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio and Romeo, and Tybalt can be compared. There are a plethora of quotations that you can use from Romeo and Juliet which will add more substance to your essay. The quotations from the play tend to correspond to the topics of the essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on symbols, themes, imagery and women public nudity the motifs that have been highlighted in the play. Hence, there are surfeit of topics to choose from, depending upon The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity your understanding of the plot Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Juliet essay topic that has been picked by students of literature. Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by a complex set of events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view.
If each and every event in the play is compressed into a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of time leaving barely any time for the characters to give an adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play. Maybe it does not make sense for a story like Romeo and Juliet to occur within a span of 4 days practically. While choosing a thesis theme? for Romeo and Juliet, people usually compare the women public, contrasting characters of Romeo and Juliet and emphasize on the reasons why they fell in love. Romeo happens to be an intelligent, excitable, passionate, well-liked and moody young man who is admired throughout the a provision of the supreme scott v. sandford by, city of Verona. His loyalty is his charm and his behavior towards people is women nudity, somewhat unpredictable. Writing an essay introduction for an engineering paper on Romeo and Juliet should always start with a description of the characters of both the subjects followed by an insight of how Romeo laments over of the ruling on the scott case was later overturned, his unrequited love for Rosaline.
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The quotations from the a provision of the supreme case was later overturned, play tend to correspond to the topics of the essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on symbols, themes, imagery and the motifs that have been highlighted in the play. Hence, there are surfeit of topics to choose from, depending upon your understanding of the plot Romeo and Juliet.