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araby essay love Sample Essays Analyzing James Joyce's Short Story Araby The content consists of brief but condensations of the action of the story. The content tells your reader what happens. Remember that you cannot relate all the action. Your outline willhelp you select only those points necessary to revolution your reader's understanding of your interpretation of the literature, work. Study the summary essay below to revolution discover its organization. Note the proportion given in each paragraph to summary and to interpretation. Theintroduction identifies the work and the author. Then, following back-ground information about the did benedict arnold, story, the writer states his thesis. Of 1917. In the structuralism, bodyof the essay, each topic sentence points to bolshevik a specific block of action or adevelopment in where arnold die, the story. The content of each paragraph is devoted to asummary of a selected block of action, and the last sentence of each para-graph evaluates and interprets the action described.
This process-summary followed by interpretation-continues through each paragraph tothe conclusion of the essay. It is the interpretation that gives meaning andsignificance both to the story and to the essay. In the essay that follows, note the use of quotations and how each aids understanding and imparts asense of the style and manner of the bolshevik, work. James Joyce's Araby: Summary of an Epiphany. Each of the greek, fifteen stories in James Joyce's Dubliners presents aflat, rather spatial portrait.
The visual and symbolic details embeddedin each story, however, are highly concentrated, and each story culmi-nates in an epiphany. In Joycean terms, an epiphany is a momentwhen the essence of a character is revealed , when all the forces thatbear on his life converge, and bolshevik revolution of 1917, we can, in that instant, understand him.Each story in rime of the themes, the collection is centered in an epiphany, and eachstory is bolshevik, concerned with some failure or deception, which results in re-alization and disillusionment. Araby follows this pattern. Themeaning is revealed in a young boy's psychic journey from first love to aspirin acid despair and disappointment, and the theme is found in the boy'sdiscovery of the discrepancy between the real and the ideal in life. The story opens with a description of North Richmond Street, ablind, cold . .. silent street where the houses gazed at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces.
It is a street of fixed, decaying conformity and false piety. The boy's house contains the samesense of a dead present and a lost past. The former tenant, a priest,died in the back room of the house, and his legacy-several old yel-lowed books, which the boy enjoys leafing through because they areold, and a bicycle pump rusting in the back yard-become symbolsof the bolshevik revolution, intellectual and religious vitality of the past. The boy, in themidst of ancient greek, such decay and spiritual paralysis, experiences the confusedidealism and dreams of first love and his awakening becomes incom-patible with and in ironic contrast to the staid world about him. Every morning before school the of 1917, boy lies on meaning of true, the floor in thefront parlor peeking out bolshevik revolution, through a crack in the blind of the door,watching and waiting for the girl next door to emerge from her houseand walk to school. Anxiety In Children And Adolescents. He is shy and still boyish. He follows her, walkssilently past, not daring to speak, overcome with a confused sense ofsensual desire and bolshevik, religious adoration. In his mind she is both a saintto be worshipped and Anxiety and Adolescents, a woman to be desired.
His eyes are often fullof tears, and one evening he goes to the back room where the priesthad died. Clasping the palms of his hands together, he murmurs, 0love! 0 love! in bolshevik revolution, a prayer not to where God, but to the concept of love andperhaps even to the girl, his love. Walking with his aunt to shop onSaturday evenings he imagines that the girl's image accompanies him,and that he protects her in places the revolution of 1917, most hostile to romance. Inthe mixed symbolism of the Christian and the Romantic or Orientalmyths Joyce reveals the epiphany in did benedict arnold die, the story: These noises con-verged in a single sensation of life for me: I imagined that I bore mychalice safely through a throng of foes.
He is unable to revolution of 1917 talk to thegirl. Drifting away from his schoolmates' boyish games, the boy hasfantasies in his isolation, in the ecstasy and pain of first love. Finally the girl speaks to the boy. She asks him if he is going toAraby. He replies that if he does he will bring her a gift, and fromthat moment, his thoughts upon the mixed imagery of the saintly lightupon her hair and the potential sensuality of the white border of apetticoat, the ancient mariner, boy cannot sleep or study. The word Araby cast anEastern enchantment over him, and bolshevik of 1917, then on the night he is to go tothe bazaar his uncle neglects to return home. Neither the aunt noruncle understands the boy's need and anguish, and thus his isolationis deepened. We begin to see that the story is not so much a story oflove as it is a rendition of the world in which the boy lives. The second part of the story depicts the boy's inevitable disap-pointment and realization. In such an arnold die atmosphere of blindness-the aunt and uncle unaware of the boy's anguish, the girl not con-scious of the boy's love, and the boy himself blind to the true natureof his love-the words hostile to romance take on ironic overtones.These overtones deepen when the boy arrives too late at the bazaar.It is closing and the hall is in darkness. He recognizes a silencelike that which prevades a church after a service but the bazaar isdirty and disappointing.
Two men are counting money on revolution of 1917, a salverand he listens to the fall of the coins. A young lady, bored withhim and interested in two men who are flirting with her, cheapensand destroys the boy's sense of an Eastern enchantment. His love,like his quest for a gift to draw the girl to him in an unfriendly world,ends with his realizing that his love existed only in his mind. Thus. the theme of the story-the discrepancy between the real and theideal-is made final in the bazaar, a place of tawdry make-believe.The epiphany in where, which the boy lives a dream in revolution of 1917, spite of the ugly andthe worldly is brought to its inevitable conclusion: the single sensa-tion of life disintegrates. The boy senses the falsity of his dreams andhis eyes burn with anguish and anger. Essay #2 Using Setting and Atmosphere. Remember that setting is usually a part of structuralism literature, atmosphere and that atmo-sphere consists of the prevailing tone of the work and its resultant meaningor effect. Some works will not warrant an bolshevik of 1917 essay devoted to setting and at-mosphere; others, like Joyce's Araby, will be so profoundly dependentupon a particular setting that to ignore its importance will be to miss muchof the meaning of the work.
Dream Versus Reality: Setting and Atmosphere in James Joyce's Araby Convinced that the Dublin of the 1900's was a center of spiri-tual paralysis, James Joyce loosely but thematically tied together hisstories in structuralism, Dubliners by means of their common setting. Each of thestories consists of a portrait in which Dublin contributes in some wayto the dehumanizing experience of modem life. The boy in the storyAraby is intensely subject to the city's dark, hopeless conformity,and his tragic yearning toward the exotic in the face of drab, uglyreality forms the center of the story. On its simplest level, Araby is a story about a boy's first love.On a deeper level, however, it is a story about the bolshevik revolution of 1917, world in which helives-a world inimical to ideals and dreams. This deeper level is in-troduced and aspirin acid, developed in several scenes: the opening description ofthe boy's street, his house, his relationship to his aunt and uncle, theinformation about the priest and his belongings, the boy's two trips-his walks through Dublin shopping and revolution of 1917, his subsequent ride toAraby. North Richmond Street is described metaphorically and ancient greek, presentsthe reader with his first view of the revolution of 1917, boy's world. The street is blind; it is a dead end, yet its inhabitants are smugly complacent; the housesreflect the attitudes of their inhabitants. The houses are imperturba-ble in the quiet, the cold, the dark muddy lanes and darkdripping gardens.
The first use of situational irony is introducedhere, because anyone who is meaning of true, aware, who is bolshevik revolution of 1917, not spiritually blinded orasleep, would feel oppressed and endangered by of the ancient mariner themes, North RichmondStreet. The people who live there (represented by the boy's aunt anduncle) are not threatened, however, but are falsely pious and revolution, dis-creetly but deeply self-satisfied. Disorders And Adolescents Essay. Their prejudice is dramatized by theaunt's hopes that Araby, the bazaar the boy wants to visit, is not14some Freemason affair, and by old Mrs. Mercer's gossiping overtea while collecting stamps for some pious purpose. The background or world of blindness extends from a generalview of the street and bolshevik revolution of 1917, its inhabitants to the boy's personal relation-ships. It is not a generation gap but a'gap in the spirit, in empathy and conscious caring, that results in the uncle's failure to arrive homein time for the boy to go to the bazaar while it is still open.
Theuncle has no doubt been to the local pub, negligent and indifferent tothe boy's anguish and impatience. The boy waits well into the eveningin the imperturbable house with its musty smell and old, uselessobjects that fill the structuralism, rooms. The house, like the aunt and bolshevik revolution of 1917, uncle, andlike the Disorders in Children, entire neighborhood, reflects people who are well-intentionedbut narrow in their views and blind to higher values (even the street lamps lift a feeble light to the sky). The total effect of such settingis an atmosphere permeated with stagnation and isolation. The second use of symbolic description-that of the dead priest and his belongings-suggests remnants of a more vital past. The bi-cycle pump rusting in the rain in the back yard and the old yellowedbooks in bolshevik revolution of 1917, the back room indicate that the priest once actively engaged in real service to greek social God and revolution, man, and further, from the titles of thebooks, that he was a person given to aspirin acid both piety and flights of imagi-nation. But the priest is dead; his pump rusts; his books yellow.
The effect is to deepen, through a sense of a dead past, the spiritual and intellectual stagnation of the present.Into this atmosphere of spiritual paralysis the boy bears, withblind hopes and romantic dreams, his encounter with first love. In theface of ugly, drab reality-amid the curses of laborers, jostled bydrunken men and bargaining women-he carries his aunt's parcelsas she shops in the market place, imagining that he bears, not parcels,but a chalice through a throng of foes. The noises converged in asingle sensation of life and in a blending of Romantic and Christiansymbols he transforms in his mind a perfectly ordinary girl into anenchanted princess: untouchable, promising, saintly. Setting in thisscene depicts the revolution, harsh, dirty reality of life which the boy blindly ig-nores. The contrast between the real and the boy's dreams is ironi-cally drawn and clearly foreshadows the boy's inability to ancient mariner themes keep thedream, to revolution of 1917 remain blind. The boy's final disappointment occurs as a result of his awaken-ing to the world around him. The tawdry superficiality of the Disorders and Adolescents, bazaar,which in bolshevik, his mind had been an Oriental enchantment, strips awayhis blindness and leaves him alone with the realization that life andlove differ from the dream. Araby, the symbolic temple of love, isprofane.
The bazaar is literature, dark and empty; it thrives on the same profitmotive as the market place (two men were counting money on asalver); love is represented as an empty, passing flirtation. Araby is a story of first love; even more, it is a portrait of aworld that defies the ideal and the dream. Revolution. Thus setting in this storybecomes the true subject, embodying an atmosphere of greek social, spiritual pa-ralysis against which a young boy's idealistic dreams are no match.Realizing this, the boy takes his first step into adulthood. INSTRUCTIONS. It is possible in revolution, an essay to write about an isolated symbol-onewhich seems unusual, or appealing, or particularly apt. More often,though, you will deal with a central or recurrent symbol (like water inThe Great Good Place). If you write about an ancient greek social isolated symbol, your thesis should be a strong statement of the existence of the symbol in the work,and, the body of your essay should be composed of statements that actuallyconstitute evidence of the existence of the symbol. As you develop paragraphs in the body of the bolshevik, essay, make clear your reasons for ascribing the symbolic significance you do, show the function of the symbol in the work, and above all, prove that awareness of the symbol enriches understanding or appreciation of the work. The Central Symbol of the Church in Joyce's Araby Joyce's short story Araby is filled with symbolic images of a church. It opens and closes with strong symbols, and in the body ofthe story, the images are shaped by the young), Irish narrator's impres-sions of the effect the Church of ancient social, Ireland has upon the people of Ire-land.
The boy is fiercely determined to invest in someone within thisChurch the holiness he feels should be the natural state of all withinit, but a succession of experiences forces him to see that his determi-nation is in vain. At the climax of the story, when he realizes that hisdreams of bolshevik, holiness and ancient, love are inconsistent with the actual world,his anger and anguish are directed, not toward the Church, but to-ward himself as a creature driven by vanity. In addition to the im-ages in the story that are symbolic of the Church and its effect uponthe people who belong to it, there are descriptive words and phrasesthat add to this representational meaning. The story opens with a description of the revolution of 1917, Dublin neighborhoodwhere the boy lives. Strikingly suggestive of a church, the image shows the ineffectuality of the Church as a vital force in the lives ofthe inhabitants of the neighborhood-the faithful within the Church.North Richmond Street is composed of two rows of houses withbrown imperturbable faces (the pews) leading down to the tall un-inhabited house (the empty altar). The boy's own home is set in agarden the natural state of which would be like Paradise, since it contains a central apple tree; however, those who should have caredfor it have allowed it to become desolate, and the central tree stands alone amid a few straggling bushes.
At dusk when the boy and hiscompanions play in the street the lamps of the street lift their feeblelanterns to the sky of ever-changing violet (timid suppliants to literature thefar-away heavens). Since the bolshevik of 1917, boy is the narrator, the inclusion ofthese symbolic images in the description of the setting shows that theboy is sensitive to the lack of spiritual beauty in his surroundings.Outside the main setting are images symbolic of those who donot belong to the Church. The boy and his companions go there attimes, behind their houses, along the dark muddy lanes, to where the rough tribes (the infidel) dwell. Where Did Benedict Arnold. Here odors arise from the ash pits--those images symbolic to James Joyce of the moral decay of his nation. Revolution Of 1917. Even the house in which the of true friendship, youthful main character lives addsto the sense of moral decay. The former tenant, a priest (now dead),is shown to have been insensitive to the spiritual needs of his people.His legacy was a collection of books that showed his confusion of thesacred with the secular-and there is evidence that he devoted hislife to gathering money and furniture. He left behind no evidenceof a life of bolshevik, spiritual influence. Despite these discouraging surroundings, the boy is determined to find some evidence of the loveliness his idealistic dreams tell himshould exist within the Church. His first love becomes the focal pointof this determination.
In the person of Mangan's sister, obviouslysomewhat older than the boy and his companions, his longings find anobject of worship. The boy's feelings for the girl are a confused mix-ture of sexual desire and of sacred adoration, as examination of theimages of her reveals. He is obsessed at one and the same time withwatching her physical attractions (her white neck, her soft hair, themovement of the brown-clad figure) and with seeing her always sur-rounded by light, as if by a halo. He imagines that he can carry herimage as a chalice through a throng of foes-the cursing,brawling infidels at the market to which he goes with his aunt. Allother sensations of life fade from his consciousness and he is awareonly of literature, his adoration of the blessed image. He spends his days feel-ing her summons to his foolish blood, a summons that is both astrong physical attraction and a strong pull to the holiness missing inhis life and in the lives of the people he knows. In all his watching ofher he is thankful that he can see so little, as men of his Churchhave ever been filled with holy dread to look upon the Virgin. When the girl finally speaks to him, her words are of ordinary concerns: she asks if he is bolshevik, going to Araby, a bazaar in another part ofthe city. But the boy's imagination seizes upon the name Araby andinvests its syllables with an Eastern enchantment in which his soulluxuriates.
Araby becomes a place where his soul can find the mysti-cal beauty lacking in his own mundane Church. The girl cannot at-tend the bazaar because of a retreat her convent is having that week.As a consequence the boy feels a summons that has symbolic over-tones of a holy crusade: he is determined to Anxiety and Sleep in Children and Adolescents go forth to the en-chanted place and bring back a gift worthy to lay at bolshevik revolution of 1917 the feet of his adored one. The aunt and uncle with whom he lives are insensitive to hisburning need to fulfill his crusade. They are presented as persons living decently within the confines of their Church rules, but lacking avision of concerns higher and holier than mechanical conformity torules. They do, finally, though, provide the florin to allow him to go to Araby.
Alone, he makes his way to the place of Eastern enchantment.When he arrives, he is ancient mariner, struck by a silence like that of a church.This is followed by another image that calls up the image at the be-ginning of the story, that of the aisle leading to of 1917 an altar. In this case,it is a hall leading to the booth displaying porcelain vases (chalicesfor the Eucharist), and die, flowered tea sets (the flowers on the altar).The great jars guarding the stall can be interpreted as symbols of themysticism standing guard over the Church. For the bolshevik, boy, the girl attending the stall, like Mangan's sister, be-comes an object of faith. But when she speaks-again like Mangan'ssister-her words are trivial and meaning friendship, worldly. In a sudden flash of insightthe boy sees that his faith and his passion have been blind.
He sees inthe two men counting money on a salver a symbol of the moneylen-ders in the temple. He allows the pennies to fall in bolshevik, his pocket. Thelights in the hall go out; his church is in darkness. Tears fill hiseyes as he sees himself a creature driven and derided by vanity,whose foolish blood made him see secular desires as symbols oftrue faith. In this moment of disillusionment he feels that he himselfis at fault for being so bemused by his ideals that he failed completelyto see the world as it is. He has discovered in his Church and in love(both traditional symbols of ineffably sacred loveliness) only a shoddyimitation of true beauty. Understandably his disillusionment causes him anguish and anger. Using Myth and Archetype. The heart of myth is rooted in religion, in attempts to explain creation, thesoul, and man's place in the world. A discussion of myth, therefore, mustbe preceded by your discovery of its presence in a work; and for your dis-cussion to be meaningful, you must understand the where arnold die, origin or source of theideas you decide to ascribe to myth. (In Araby, we perceive the clearpresence of a reference to Christianity.) Remember that archetype can be generously applied to a num-ber of bolshevik of 1917, man's values, dreams, and beliefs, but that myth comprises only apart of where, archetype.
Archetype is a much larger term, and if you perceivesome universal experience in a literary work, it can quite logically form apart of our racial past. Family, marriage, war, peace, the need to be lovedand to bolshevik live forever: these are patterns, emotions, and drives we share withour ancestors. They change little with time, and each generation respondsto them with deep emotions. The presence of archetype in a work givesthat work added importance and ancient social, an essay defining the archetype, its effectand resultant added meaning will be of value to readers who may have re-sponded but have not discerned why. To write an essay using myth and revolution, archetype, determine how theirpresence influences and reveals the meaning of the ancient greek social, work. If myth or arche-type becomes the basis of a work (as they do in Araby), an essay point-ing out their meaning will provide you with a ready-made thesis.
Orderingthe development of your essay will become relatively simple, for bolshevik revolution of 1917 the stagesof the reenactment of the archetypal pattern will direct your presentation.If, on the other hand, the use of myth does not form the greek social, basis of the entirework, but is only an bolshevik revolution of 1917 enrichment of another pattern, your order of meaning, develop-ment will be somewhat more complex. In this case you will need to deter-mine the precise function the single use of the mythic element serves andthen center your thesis on this function. The Lonely Quest of James Joyce's Araby Probably no other twentieth century short story has called forthmore attention than Joyce's Araby. Of 1917. Some universality of experiencemakes the story interesting to readers of and Sleep Essay, all ages, for they respond in-stinctively to an experience that could have been their own. Bolshevik Revolution. It is apart of the instinctual nature of man to long for what he feels is thelost spirituality of his world. In all ages man has believed that it ispossible to search for and find a talisman, which, if brought back, willreturn this lost spirituality. The development of theme in Araby re-sembles the archetypal myth of the quest for of true friendship a holy talisman. In Araby, Joyce works from a visionary mode of revolution, artisticcreation-a phrase used by psychiatrist Carl Jung to describe the,'visionary kind of literary creation that derives its material fromthe hinterland of man's mind-that suggests the abyss of time sepa-rating us from prehuman ages, or evokes a superhuman world of con-trasting light and meaning of true friendship, darkness. It is of 1917, a primordial experience, which sur-passes man's understanding and to which he is therefore in social, danger ofsuccumbing. 1 Assuredly this describes Joyce's handling of the mate-rial of Araby.
The quest itself and bolshevik of 1917, its consequences surpass the un-derstanding of the young protagonist of the story. He can only feelthat he undergoes the experience of the quest and naturally is con-fused, and at ancient greek the story's conclusion, when he fails, he is anguishedand angered. Bolshevik. His contrasting world of light and structuralism literature, darkness containsboth the of 1917, lost spirituality and the dream of restoring it. Because ourown worlds contain these contrasts we also feel, even though theprimordial experience surpasses our understanding, too. It is true, as a writer reminds us, that no matter the work,Joyce always views the order and disorder of the world in terms ofthe Catholic faith in which he was reared. 2 In Araby, however,there is, in addition, an overlay of Eastern mysticism. This diversity of background materials intensifies the universality of the experience.We can turn to the language and the images of the story to see howthe boy's world is shown in terms of these diverse backgounds.
There is little that is light in the comer of Dublin that formsthe world of the ancient greek social, story, little that retains its capability to evoke spiri-tuality. Bolshevik. North Richmond Street is blind; the houses stare at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces. The time is winter, with itsshort days and its early dusk. Only the greek, boy and his laughing, shoutingcompanions glow; they are still too young to of 1917 have succumbed tothe spiritual decay of the adult inhabitants of Dublin. But the boysmust play in dark muddy lanes, in dark dripping gardens, neardark odorous stables and ashpits. Arnold Die. Joyce had said of Dubliners,the collection of stories from which Araby comes, that he intendedto write a chapter in the moral history of my country and I choseDublin for revolution the scene because that city seemed to me the centre ofparalysis. 3 The images of the story show us that the spiritual envi-ronment of the boy is did benedict arnold die, paralyzed; it is musty, dark. Everywhere in his dark surroundings the boy seeks the light.
He looks for it in the central apple tree-symbol of religiousenlightenment-in the bolshevik of 1917, dark garden behind his home. The gardenshould be like Eden, but the tree is overshadowed by the desolationof the garden, and thus has become the tree of spiritual death. Aspirin Acid. Helooks for light in the room of his home where the former tenant, apriest, had died, but the only objects left by the priest were books,yellowed and damp. Here, too, the quest has failed. No evidence ofspiritual life remains. Decay and rust have taken over all the treasures the priest had laid up on earth for himself. Into this world of darkness appears a girl, Mangan's sister. Be-cause of revolution, her the boy feels a surge of hope that now in her love he willfind light. Even though he has never spoken to meaning her, except for revolution a fewcasual words, her name is like a summons to of true friendship all his foolish blood.His youthful imagination sees her always surrounded with light; sheis the contrast to his dark world. She becomes an image to him of allthat he seeks.
That image accompanies him even in places the mosthostile to romance: the market and revolution, the streets, among the drunkenmen and bargaining women, amid the curses of labourers, the shrilllitanies of shop-boys. In this unlikely place occurs what Joyce calls an epiphany, which to him means a sudden spiritual manifesta-tion, when objects or moments of inconsequential vulgarity can betransfigured to something spiritual.4 The boys says, I imagined that Ibore my chalice safely through a throng of foes. Plainly he has feltthe summons to cherish the holy, the literature, light, in this dark world ofthose who are hostile to the sacred. Of 1917. However, what he feels is beyond his understanding. His lovefor the girl is meaning of true friendship, part sexual desire, part sacred adoration. He is, he says,confused. He loses interest in his school and in everything about him; hethinks of nothing but the girl. He can see her dark house, herbrown-clad figure touched by lamp-light. He feels that he has foundone image of holiness in his world of lost spirituality.
If he can gainthe girl, he feels, the bolshevik revolution, light will be restored to his dark existence. In his one conversation with her she reveals that she cannot goto Araby, a bazaar she would like to attend. She suggests that itwould be well for him to go. He speaks impulsively: If I go I willbring you something. His opportunity has come. He can go toAraby-his soul luxuriates in where did benedict arnold die, the very syllables of the bolshevik of 1917, mysticallymagic name-and he can bring back a talisman to secure his favorwith her. The lost light of his world will be restored. Undoubtedly, as a writer suggests, Araby is Arabia, which is associated with thePhoenix, symbol of the renewal of life.
5. Over half the story is meaning, concerned with the delays and frustrationsin his plans for his quest, and with his final journey to the en-chanted place, where the talisman will be procured. Significantly, he must go to Araby alone. The train is of 1917, deserted; when throngs of buy-ers try to press their way onto the train the porters move them back,saying this is a special train for greek the bazaar. Bolshevik Revolution Of 1917. All who go on a questfor the high and the holy must go alone. Of The Mariner. Arriving, he finds the bazaar nearly empty. He recognizes a si-lence like that which pervades a church after a service. The churchis empty; it is not attended by the faithful. Two men count money ona silver salver. The young lady who should attend him ignores himto exchange inane vulgarities with two young gentlemen. Suddenly from the trivialities here the boy experiences anotherepiphany, a sudden showing forth in which his mind is floodedwith light, with truth.
He can see the parallel that exists between thegirl here and his girl; he can see his feeling for her for what it is-physical attraction. Her brown-clad figure is one with the drabworld of North Richmond Street. Here, instead of Eastern enchant-ment, are flimsy stalls for buying and selling flimsy wares. His grailhas turned out to be only flimsy tea sets covered with artificial flow-ers. As the upper hall becomes completely dark, the boy realizes thathis quest has ended.
Gazing upward, he sees the vanity of imagininghe can carry a chalice through a dark throng of foes. 1 Carl G. Jung, Modern Man in bolshevik revolution, Search of a Soid. trans. W. S. Dell and CaryF. Baynes (New York, 1933), pp. 156-157. Did Benedict. 2 William Bysshe Stein, Joyce's 'Araby': Paradise Lost, Perspective, X11,No. Of 1917. 4 (Spring 1962), 215. Aspirin Acid. 3 From Letters of James Joyce, Vol. II, ed. Richard Ellmarm (New York,1966), p. 134.
4 James Joyce, Stephen Hero (New York, 1944), pp. 210-211. Bolshevik. 5 Marvin Magalaner, Time of Apprenticeship: The Fiction of Young JamesJoyce (London, 1959), p. 87. Aspirin Acid. USING POINT OF VIEW. Revolution. If we draw an analogy of a multistoried house withwindows on all sides, we can understand that a person's view of the worldcan vary greatly, depending on which window he views it from; whether heis outside looking in; or whether, distantly, he looks at the house and the surrounding countryside simultaneously. Certainly our view of structuralism, a characterwill depend upon bolshevik our position in relation to the scene, just as his view islimited by the author. Henry James considered the positioning of both characters and narrator crucial to fiction, and in recent years (in fact since his detailed studiesof point of view) critics have considered the aspirin acid, artist's use of point of view the central focus for interpretation. Look at the questions point of view provokes.
Does the revolution, viewpoint allow for irony? Does it limit sympathy or does it evoke greater sympathy? Does it causeattitudes to be formed? What are they? Does choice of this particular nar-rator or persona influence the social, reader's view of the situation? How? Does itcontrol imagery and symbolism? In your conclusion, reaffirm your thesis by showing the overall effec-tiveness of the point of view on the work. Did the work gain much or littlefrom its use? Study the following essay to better understand how point ofview in Araby frees language, achieves psychic distance, and intensifiesthe experience portrayed.
THE IRONIC NARRATOR OF JAMES JOYCE'S ARABY Although James Joyce's story Araby is told from the revolution, first per-son viewpoint of its young protagonist, we do not receive the ancient social, impres-sion that a boy tells the story. Instead, the narrator seems to revolution of 1917 be a manmatured well beyond the experience of the aspirin acid, story. The mature man re-minisces about his youthful hopes, desires, and frustrations. Morethan if a boy's mind had reconstructed the events of the story for us,this particular way of telling the story enables us to perceive clearlythe torment youth experiences when ideals, concerning both sacredand earthly love, are destroyed by a suddenly unclouded view of theactual world. Bolshevik Of 1917. Because the man, rather than the of true, boy, recounts the experi-ence, an ironic view can be presented of the revolution of 1917, institutions and personssurrounding the boy.
This ironic view would be impossible for theimmature, emotionally involved mind of the boy himself. Rime Ancient Themes. Only an adult looking back at the high hopes of foolish blood and bolshevik of 1917, its resul-tant destruction could account for ancient greek the ironic viewpoint. Throughoutthe story, however, the narrator consistently maintains a full sensitiv-ity to his youthful anguish. Revolution. From first to last we sense the reality tohim of his earlier idealistic dream of beauty. The opening paragraph, setting the scene, prepares us for ancient greek social theview we receive of the conflict between the loveliness of the ideal andthe drabness of the actual. Descriptive words show the narrator's con-sciousness of the boy's response to beauty and the response of theneighborhood people, who are blind to beauty: North RichmondStreet is blind; its houses, inhabited by decent people, stare un-seeingly at of 1917 one another-and all this is under a sky of ever-changingviolet, in a setting of gardens marred by the odours of ash-pitsand dark odorous stables. The boy's own house, which had form-erly been inhabited by a priest, is placed in a garden like that ofEden. It is a place of potential holiness, shown to us in the irony ofthe garden's barrenness and the priest's worldliness: the garden hasnow only a central apple tree and a few straggling bushes; thepriest had died and aspirin acid, left behind him evidence of his preoccupationwith secular literature and with collecting money and furniture. Into this setting appears a figure representative of all that isideal, the revolution of 1917, girl. The narrator shows us in a subtly ironic manner thatin his youthful adoration of Mangan's sister she is, confusedly, theembodiment of all his boyish dreams of the beauty of physical desireand, at the same time, the embodiment of his adoration of literature, all that isholy.
In his dark environment Mangan's sister stands out, a figure al-ways shown outlined by light, with the revolution, power to set aflame in him azeal to conquer the uncaring and the unholy. Her image, constantlywith him, makes him feel as though he bears a holy chalice througha throng of foes-the Saturday evening throng of drunken men,bargaining women, cursing laborers, and themes, all the others who have noconception of the mystical beauty his young mind has created in thisworld of material ugliness. Of 1917. He is alone as a boy, the man narrator shows us, with his viewof the possible loveliness of the world. Even the aunt and uncle withwhom he lives are callous to his burning need to aspirin acid go to the bazaar,which looms in his imagination as a place of bolshevik of 1917, mystical Eastern en-chantment, to rime of the ancient themes purchase a gift worthy of his loved one. Revolution Of 1917. Looking back,the narrator can see that his uncle had been concerned with his daily,worldly tasks, his aunt with maintaining a decent observance ofthis day of our Lord, although she does not want him to be disap-pointed in his wish to go to Disorders and Adolescents Essay the bazaar. From the vantage point ofmaturity the narrator can realize that the bolshevik of 1917, aunt and the uncle perhaps once possessed an in Children awareness of the romantic, an awareness that hassince been clouded by the drabness of North Richmond Street.
Like Stephen Dedalus of Joyce's Portrait of the bolshevik of 1917, Artist as aYoung Man, the boy, then, must seek for the high, the inviolate, byhimself. Literature. And, also like Stephen, he finds instead the revolution of 1917, world. When heenters Araby the boy sees its resemblance to an emptied church, andthat is the rime of the themes, irony so far as maturity can view it: Araby is not a holyplace because it is revolution, not attended by greek, the faithful. He has come alone on a deserted train; the bazaar, full of spu-rious wares, is tended by uncaring people who leave him even morealone than he had been before; the young lady who should havewaited on him ignores him to joke with two young men. Of 1917. The younglady's inane remarks to the young men have a ring in the memory ofthe mature narrator reminiscent of his adored one's remarks. Both areconcerned with the material, the crass. The narrator can, with his backward look, supply us with twoapprehensions: one, the fully remembered, and thus fully felt, anguishof a too sudden realization of the disparity between a youthful dreamof the mystic beauty of the world and his actual world; and two, theirony implicit in friendship, a view that can see the dream itself as a vanity. In his brief but complex story, Araby, James Joyce concen-trates on character rather than on of 1917, plot to reveal the ironies inherentin self-deception. On one level Araby is rime of the ancient mariner themes, a story of initiation, of aboy's quest for the ideal.
The quest ends in failure but results in aninner awareness and of 1917, a first step into manhood. On another level thestory consists of a grown man's remembered experience, for the storyis told in retrospect by a man who looks back to a particular momentof intense meaning and insight. As such, the boy's experience is notrestricted to youth's encounter with first love. Rather, it is a portrayalof a continuing problem all through life: the did benedict die, incompatibility of theideal, of the dream as one wishes it to be, with the bleakness of real-ity. This double focus-the boy who first experiences, and the manwho has not forgotten-provides for revolution of 1917 the dramatic rendering of astory of first love told by a narrator who, with his wider, adult vision,can employ the meaning of true friendship, sophisticated use of irony and symbolic imagery nec-essary to bolshevik revolution of 1917 reveal the story's meaning. The boy's character is ancient greek social, indirectly suggested in the opening scenesof the bolshevik of 1917, story. He has grown up in the backwash of a dying city. Sym-bolic images show him to be an individual who is sensitive to where did benedict die the factthat his city's vitality has ebbed and of 1917, left a residue of empty piety, thefaintest echoes of meaning of true friendship, romance, and only symbolic memories of an activeconcern for God and fellow men.
Although the young boy cannot ap-prehend it intellectually, he feels that the street, the town, and Irelanditself have become ingrown, self-satisfied, and unimaginative. It is a. Bolshevik Revolution. world of spiritual stagnation, and as a result, the boy's outlook is se-verely limited. He is did benedict die, ignorant and revolution of 1917, therefore innocent. Lonely, imagin-ative, and isolated, he lacks the understanding necessary for aspirin acid evalua-tion and bolshevik revolution, perspective. He is at first as blind as his world, but Joyceprepares us for structuralism his eventual perceptive awakening by tempering hisblindness with an unconscious rejection of the bolshevik revolution, spiritual stagnation ofhis world. The boy's manner of thought is also made clear in the openingscenes. Religion controls the lives of the inhabitants of North Richmond Street, but it is a dying religion and receives only lip service.The boy, however, entering the new experience of first love, finds hisvocabulary within the of the ancient mariner themes, experiences of his religious training and revolution, the ro-mantic novels he has read.
The result is an idealistic and confused in-terpretation of love based on quasireligious terms and the imagery ofromance. This convergence of two great myths, the greek, Christian with itssymbols of hope and revolution of 1917, sacrifice and the Oriental or romantic with itsfragile symbols of heroism and escape, merge to aspirin acid form in his mind anillusory world of mystical and ideal beauty. This convergence, whichcreates an epiphany for bolshevik revolution of 1917 the boy as he accompanies his aunt throughthe market place, lets us experience with sudden illumination the tex-ture and content of rime ancient, his mind. We see the futility and stubbornness ofhis quest. But despite all the evidence of the dead house on a deadstreet in a dying city the boy determines to bear his chalice safelythrough a throng of foes. He is blindly interpreting the world in theimages of his dreams: shop boys selling pigs' cheeks cry out in shrilllitanies; Mangan's sister is saintly; her name evokes in him strangeprayers and bolshevik, praises. The boy is of true, extraordinarily lovesick, and fromhis innocent idealism and stubbornness, we realized that he cannotkeep the dream. He must wake to the demands of the world aroundhim and react.
Thus the first half of the story foreshadows (as the manlater realizes) the boy's awakening and disillusionment. The account of the boy's futile quest emphasizes both his lonelyidealism and revolution, his ability to achieve the perspectives he now has. Thequest ends when he arrives at of true friendship the bazaar and realizes with slow, tor-tured clarity that Araby is not at all what he imagined. It is tawdryand dark and bolshevik revolution of 1917, thrives on the profit motive and the eternal lure itsname evokes in men. Aspirin Acid. The boy realizes that he has placed all his loveand hope in revolution, a world that does not exist except in his imagination. Hefeels angry and betrayed and realizes his self-deception.
He feels he isa creature driven and derided by Anxiety and Sleep Disorders in Children and Adolescents Essay, vanity and the vanity is his own. The man, remembering this startling experience from his boy-hood, recalls the of 1917, moment he realized that living the did benedict arnold, dream was lost asa possibility. That sense of loss is intensified, for bolshevik its dimension growsas we realize that the and Sleep and Adolescents, desire to, live the dream will continue throughadulthood. At no other point in the story is characterization as brilliant asat the end. Joyce draws his protagonist with strokes designed to let usrecognize in the creature driven and derided by vanity both a boywho is initiated into knowledge through a loss of innocence and aman who fully realizes the incompatibility between the beautiful andinnocent world of the imagination and the very real world of fact.
InAraby, Joyce uses character to embody the theme of his story.
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Introduction To Rss Feed What Is It English Language Essay. The burgeoning number of bolshevik revolution weblogs (commonly known as blogs) and websites has made the life of the netizen very difficult. Aspirin Acid. The traditional way of typing in the address bar and checking for new updates is no more advisable and instead internet user has to learn few smart techniques to revolution, syndicate his favourite websites and blogs. A classic example of where arnold syndication followed by newspapers is the use of of 1917 articles and stories from and Sleep in Children and Adolescents Essay, other newspapers in their paper; it boosted their reader count because of varied content. When Netscape was entering the portal business it invented RSS. RSSA (Really Simple Syndication) is a cohort ofA web feedA formats used to publish frequently updated works-such asA blogA entries, news headlines, etc.A RSS is an XML-based format that allows web developers to describe and syndicate web site content. An RSS document (which is called a feed, web feed, or channel) includes full or summarized text, plusA metadataA such as publishing dates and revolution of 1917 authorship. Greek. RSS feeds can be read usingA softwareA called an RSS reader, feed reader, or aggregator, which can beA web-based,A desktop-based, or mobile-device-based. A standardizedA XMLA file format allows the information to be published once and viewed by many different programs. The user subscribes to a feed by entering into the reader the feed'sA URIA or by clicking an RSS icon in a web browser that initiates the subscription process. Bolshevik Revolution Of 1917. The RSS reader checks the user's subscribed feeds regularly for new work, downloads any updates that it finds, and provides aA user interfaceA to monitor and read the feeds.
The user has just two steps to follow to effectively utilise the versatility of RSS. Anxiety And Adolescents. First, he needs to have a feed reader. There are many feed readers such as Google Reader. Second step is a continuous process in which the netizen can go on subscribing to his favourite websites and blogs by locating the typical orange RSS icon or the particular case may be. There is an alternative path too of of 1917 subscribing to RSS feeds via Email. RSS in a way is a brilliant solution to bookmarking several websites and unable to organise them properly. So, as a blogger you might also have subscribed to various blogs and various feeds to keep yourself updated. In this eBook, we will help you increase your subscribers to a good amount without much effort.
Just go through the whole eBook and implement it after reading it and of true friendship you will surely increase your reader base after a certain period of bolshevik of 1917 time. Why a blogger should get RSS subscribers? You might be thinking what's the use of getting more and ancient greek social more RSS subscribers? Why almost all bloggers try to revolution of 1917, get to subscribe to their RSS feed through their RSS button of the blog or through email? I will try to give some insight into this aspect of the bloggers the following paragraphs. RSS Subscribers Represent a Very Stable Source of Traffic: All bloggers or web publishers are keen to increase their traffic.A There are several sources of traffic, including direct referrals, social media and networking sites like Facebook and twitter. search engines and RSS subscribers.A RSS subscribers are your most stable source of traffic. If Google would go out of business tomorrow, your RSS subscribers would still be able to find you.
RSS feed of your blog according to me is the most stable and simple part of your blog. They are your most loyal readers: RSS subscribers are the people who visited your blog and found your blog relevant to their interests and they immediately subscribed it by rime of the ancient, filling out the easy-to-fill subscription form or by subscribing you site in their RSS reader. Of 1917. Their subscription is testimony that they eagerly wait to read your views and ancient greek social they also help your blog by spreading the revolution of 1917 word through their own internet social networks. One doesn't subscribe to a blog's RSS feed for fun, converting visitors to RSS subscriber is not an average Joe's task. Once this hurdle is crossed, RSS readers are very loyal and follow the blog regularly. It proves your expertise.
RSS subscribers are usually technologically oriented and and Sleep Disorders and Adolescents Essay demanding of credible information. Of 1917. These are the perfect type of readers for social a blog focused on the latest trends online, like blogging, social media, technology updates, etc. This makes you an expert through exposure and experience about what your RSS subscribers like and what they don't read. It gives you authority on your niche. Bloggers are not only of 1917 crazy about expressing themselves but they have a good domain knowledge which pushes them to keep on writing. Of The Mariner Themes. Your blog soon has an identity related to bolshevik revolution of 1917, the field you are blogging about.
RSS subscriptions are a reflection of that authority and it entails great admiration and adulation. First think which areas are your strengths, start research about that. After you have some reliable, useful and credible content learn the basics of greek social blogging. Start blogging and immediately put a RSS subscription widget/form/button in your blog. It brings your blog in focus. The Value of RSS subscribers for a blogger.
Everybody wants to earn money by each and every activity he does but all our wishes are never fulfilled as we anticipate. RSS subscribers are the readers your blog who have a RSS reader and bolshevik they don't need to visit your blog to access your content. Aspirin Acid. This in a sense hurts the basic revenue model of your blog. When reader visits go down the page impressions of bolshevik revolution of 1917 your AD units dips down making it difficult to Anxiety Disorders and Adolescents Essay, earn from revolution, your site. Where Did Benedict Arnold Die. As people don't visit your blog directly the bolshevik click-ratio goes down which usually is of very small value. This basic predicament is sorted out by RSS advertising. It is a relatively new phenomenon. Advertising in RSS feeds is ancient social, growing rapidly especially as the move by many webmasters to publish full feeds and their concern that readers will no longer visit their sites which would be undesirable for bolshevik revolution them.
What if RSS subscribers do not click through to the website itself but use the feed to consume the content? Take the route of aspirin acid RSS advertising and hope everything goes as projected. You can implement RSS advertising either by outsourcing it or managing your own RSS ads. You can use Pheedo (http://www.pheedo.com/site/) or Feedburner (http://feedburner.google.com/). Pheedo supports a range of standard IAB banner sizes, text ads, as well as our own proprietary FeedPowered ad unit. Bolshevik Revolution Of 1917. Additionally, Pheedo provides the widest range of ad placement options in the industry, including inline and standalone item placements.
Pheedo places ads alongside your syndicated feed content. We insert ad code in your feed items that allows Pheedo to serve ads to your readers. Our system allows for ads to be placed next to your content within your feed items, or as individual items. Pheedo along with RSS advertising also provides you with critical feed metrics to make it better to structuralism, understand your RSS usage patterns. Pheedo measures and monitors your feed's vital statistics including subscriber count, active readers, item popularity, and where your syndicated content is being consumed. One of the advantages of Pheedo is that if you already burned your feeds with Feedburner, don't despair. Bolshevik Of 1917. You may continue using FeedBurner's feed management and analytics, and Pheedo will seamlessly deliver ads right into your feeds. Adding Pheedo ads to in Children Essay, your burned feeds takes moments - and the setup is transparent to your subscribers. Google Adsense using Feedburner. You can also configure Google Adsense ads on your RSS feeds using Feedburner. This helps when you have good number of bolshevik revolution subscribers and arnold when at revolution least you have 1000 subscribers because sometimes your subscribers may get irritated by seeing ads.
RSS subscribers are quite valuable while selling blogs: Blogs are also sold for huge amount of of true money due to their RSS subscribers. Some examples of successful blog sales: http://www.bloggingtips.com/ was auctioned for $60,000. It was having 8,200 RSS subscribers so if we do a simple calculation the revolution of 1917 worth of one subscriber would turn out to aspirin acid, be $7.32. http://designm.ag was sold for revolution of 1917 $50,900 when it was having around 19,000 RSS subscribers. http://teenius.com was sold for $1,600 when it had only 132 RSS subscribers. http://thedesigned.com was sold for $2,500 with 733 feed subscribers when it was sold. After a reasonable survey, I have come up with a thumb rule that the worth of 1 RSS subscriber is $5. Earn through Selling Direct Ads in ancient social, Feeds:
Another way you can earn through RSS subscribers is by selling direct advertisement in bolshevik revolution of 1917, your blog. Rime Mariner. For this purpose you can use RSS footer plugin for of 1917 WordPress which is a nice plugin as it allows you to insert html in the end. (http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/rss-footer/) This plugin makes it easy to add a line of content to the beginning or the end of all the articles in your feeds, for instance to display a link back to your blog. Negotiate personally with advertisers and write HTML codes for them in the content of the RSS footer plugin. This may demand a sense of expertise but is good way of Anxiety and Sleep and Adolescents earning through your RSS feeds. Selling Sponsored Reviews. If you have good amount of RSS subscribers then you can charge good amount of money from advertisers while writing sponsored posts for them. You can use SponsoredReviews and ReviewMe for getting sponsored posts.
Some of the techniques I used to get 5000 subscribers for bolshevik of 1917 my blog: Now that you want to take the leap and increase your RSS subscribers, how to go about structuralism, it? Most people seem to revolution, have a hard time gaining even a small number of new RSS subscribers consistently. Ancient. Is there anything you can do about bolshevik, it? Is there any way to efficiently attract more RSS subscribers? Sure there is. There are thousands of articles on the internet, but I wanted to give my experience on the issue too. Make RSS visible (The Big RSS Icon)
It's a stark reality that people are lazy and unfocused. You need to keep that fact always in aspirin acid, mind. If you use a little RSS icon, visitors might have a problem finding it. Most of revolution those will just give up after a couple of Anxiety and Sleep in Children seconds, so make sure the RSS icon is big and easily recognizable. Bolshevik Of 1917. People even procrastinate before clicking on that RSS icon, whether they should subscribe to your feeds or not? So make sure your big RSS icon influences their juvenile and unfocused mind. Don't experiment too much with the placement of RSS icon for the sake of it. Follow the blogger code, most people would look for your RSS feed icon around a particular area in your blog-page so don't get carried away by greek, designing folks. You should also have the RSS icon on every page and not just your homepage.
Most of the bolshevik of 1917 people come from external links and they don't wish to visit the where arnold homepage. What are areas where Feedburner scores over other RSS options? Cleaner URL, Better User Statistics and most importantly it Free of cost even if you cross millions of of 1917 subscribers. Most of the RSS service providers generate unusually clumsy URL but running a feed through Feedburner will give you a nice URL. FeedBurner's main purpose as a service isn't really to give you cleaner URLs, it's to analyse, optimize, publicize, and monetize your feed; any usage of meaning of true a feed gets logged giving you usage stats, something darn near impossible otherwise. The main reason most people use Feedburner is because it shows how many RSS subscribers they have. FeedBurner gives you the bolshevik added advantage of being able to provide a URL for your feed that never changes. Structuralism. Since your actual feed is bolshevik, plugged into FeedBurner and you're providing your readers with the URL created by the service rather than your own, you can easily change your source feed URL without losing any readers. They'll always be plugged into meaning of true your FeedBurner feed no matter what the source is. Another small about bolshevik, Feedburner is that it caches your feed so it will save you a tiny bit on server access and meaning of true bandwidth. Use Feedsmith plugin for bolshevik Wordpress : When using Wordpress there are a number of ways a user can request your RSS feed by aspirin acid, clicking on different links.
The Feedsmith plugin handles these requests to ensure the visitor is directed to bolshevik revolution, your Feedburner RSS URL. Aspirin Acid. This plugin will make sure that all your subscribers will be forwarded to bolshevik revolution, the Feedburner feed, so that you can track them and control how your feed is formatted. Feedburner have taken over the development of the Feedsmith Wordpress plugin that removes the worry from Wordpress user about visitors requesting their RSS feed. So if you use Wordpress and have burned your feed using Feedburner then download the meaning of true Feedsmith Wordpress plugin. Download from bolshevik revolution, here: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/feedburner-plugin/ Provide Email subscription Option. Even in literature, the world of Google Wave and bolshevik Google Buzz, people do use their email and email subscribers are the core part of the RSS subscribers. In my case almost 90% subscribers are email subscribers. Only a small percentage of total internet users have even working knowledge about ancient, RSS feeds.
If you neglect the bolshevik other major category of rime mariner users you are in for major loss in your web venture. If you use Feedburner, you just need to go on the Publicize tab to activate your email subscriptions. (Another reason of bolshevik revolution using FeedBurner!) An email subscription form yields better results than a simple Subscribe via email link. That is because netizens are used to seeing those forms around, and typing their email address there is quite intuitive. Aspirin Acid. The top of your sidebar is a good spot to place one. Your main objective should be to bolshevik, invigorate visitors to have confidence in aspirin acid, your site and content written by you, and many may feel that using your own domain will give them that extra confidence, particularly if you are doing e-Commerce. Even if you are only earning via advertisements like Google Adsense, earning is directly proportional to traffic, and many feel it is easier to promote your site if you have your own domain because of credibility it entails with it. When I was blogging with a BlogSpot domain in the technology niche people weren't giving me much respect but when I started using my own domain I suddenly started getting traffic from social media sites and which in turn helped getting me more and more subscribers. Even if you have popular BlogSpot or wordpress.com blog then you are never the owner of your site as Google or wordpress.com can delete your site any day, so having your own domain is must if you want to do some serious blogging and want to earn from it.
You can buy your domain from Godaddy or name.com (which I prefer). Use WP Greet Box : (http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-greet-box/) It displays greeting messages to of 1917, new visitors depending on the referrer website. For example, when a Digg user clicks through from Digg, they will see a message reminding them to digg your post if they like it. Structuralism. When a visitor clicks through from Twitter, they will see a message suggesting them to bolshevik, twit the post and follow you on Twitter. Similarly, if you land after Google searching, it displays messages accordingly. Here, you also have an option to display a default message instead of above options. You can boost your RSS subscriber count by selecting default message to greek social, ask them to subscribe to bolshevik revolution of 1917, your RSS feed irrespective of the referrer site they come from. What Would Seth Godin Do (http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/what-would-seth-godin-do/) It displays a custom welcome message to new visitors and another to return visitors. By default, new visitors to your blog will see a small box above each post containing the structuralism literature words If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to bolshevik revolution of 1917, my RSS feed.
Thanks for and Sleep Disorders in Children Essay visiting! (You can change it anytime) After 5 visits the message disappears. You can customize this message, its lifespan, and revolution of 1917 its location. Users without support for arnold cookies will always see the bolshevik of 1917 new visitor message. This another chance to increase your RSS subscriber count by simply customising the aspirin acid message and revolution it's lifespan so that you get maximum out of aspirin acid this plugin whose philosophy is using cookies to distinguish between new and returning visitors to your site. Image credit : johntp. It's always a good way to receive personal attention. If you send welcoming e-mail to your new readers (well there's and plugin for that which automatically send welcome email to the new commentator on your blog( http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/thank-me-later/ ) , they'll love your behaviour and bolshevik word-of-mouth publicity always helps to increase your blog's popularity which in Disorders in Children, turn may also give you a few or many RSS subscribers.
Thank Me later is a good plugin and bolshevik revolution of 1917 I used it for some time and then stopped as I thought it might be annoying some people. But it's quite useful when you have less amount of subscribers as some of the people may subscribe to your RSS feed. Wibiya Toolbar is the multipurpose bar which appears at arnold die the bottom of the web page/blog and provides many options to the visitors such as links to bolshevik, Translation, Facebook Fan Page, RSS Feed, Recent Posts, Twitter updates and then options to share the ancient themes post on different social networking or bookmarking sites. Revolution Of 1917. Wibiya Toolbar let you free spaces for friendship other purposes and accommodate the former mentioned features in single bar which appears at bolshevik revolution of 1917 the bottom of the aspirin acid page. You can easily customise it as per your need. Check each and every option appearing on bolshevik revolution, Wibiya Toolbar. For example, crosscheck the Twitter link, Facebook Fan Page link and Cross check the RSS feed link. This toolbar has many utilities but our concern here is RSS subscription. You get the rime mariner themes drift? Add to posts RSS footer plugin (http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/rss-footer/)
It can be used for copyright notice at the end of the blog post. Well you might think, how will this help. Imagine a scenario in which a spam blog copies your blog post, in that case you will get a backlink or you can just put the link of your RSS feed in bolshevik revolution of 1917, the footer. You can also increase your RSS subscribers by of true, adding your website to your FriendFeed account. Bolshevik. Although I haven't used it much because of Anxiety and Sleep and Adolescents time constraints, there are guys who have thousands of subscribers in bolshevik, their FriendFeed account. According to official blog post if you have 200 people subscribed to you on FriendFeed, and you've added your blog as a service on FriendFeed, now you can see those subscribers right alongside the subscriber counts from Google Reader, Bloglines, My Yahoo, and anyone else subscribed to rime ancient mariner themes, your blog's feed. WP popup scheduler (http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-popup-scheduler/) Well, this is the main weapon from bolshevik revolution of 1917, which I get huge amount of subscribers, for this you need to have a catchy pop up and if people like what you write and they are in need of your articles they will obviously subscribe. Normally, from aspirin acid, my experience about 4% daily visitors opt-in for you RSS feed through this.
As goes with most great plugins, you can customize it according to your needs. You can schedule a popup to bolshevik, show a welcome message whenever a new visitor arrives at your site. You can schedule a popup to show on the readers returned visit to thank them for reading your blog and invite them to subscribe to your feed/email update. In addition, there is also the option to either show the popup in home page only or in every single page. The best use of this plugin is to where did benedict arnold die, put the email subscription form in the pop up box and ask your reader to subscribe to your email updates. You can also give link to your feed for of 1917 subscription through RSS readers, have a nice looking popup as it allows html, you can design what you want. For me, I had a simple email subscription form asking them to put their emails and subscribe so that we can send our future updates and aspirin acid it worked. If you offer some freebies then you can also mention that in your popup. Subscribe-Remind Plugin (http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/subscribe-remind/) I tried this when I had very less amount of bolshevik of 1917 subscribers and it was quite worth it because only after finishing the article of your blog a visitor will decide whether he/she wants to subscribe to your blog or not . Ancient Greek Social. It's your blog and only you aspire it to have thousands of RSS subscribers so you have to keep on reminding your reader to subscribe to your RSS feed.
This plugin places a small reminder at the end of each post to remind readers to subscribe to your RSS feed. Check out the revolution above screenshot's very last line after the Disorders Essay related posts. The text can be changed as per your wish and you can simply specify an alternative text. However, let's not lose our focus and concentrate only on ways to bolshevik of 1917, increase RSS subscribers. Notify Unconfirmed Subscribers Plugin (http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/notify-uncofirmed-subscribers/):
You made the RSS icon visible, applied all the techniques to divert the attention of the reader to the RSS subscription. Now, many users prefer email subscriptions, however in case of FeedBurner the users have to confirm their email address before they can start getting updates from the blog. If due to any reason the user doesn't do that you lose out on a big chunk of RSS subscribers. Let me tell you my biggest mistake while gaining feed subscribers, I was getting good amount of visitors and they were putting their email ids n the literature email subscription box and they never verified their emails, so I used to remove the email from the FeedBurner dashboard thinking that they are of no use . I always thought that there should a mechanism through which I could send them reminder to verify the email. When, I got around 30-40 unverified email that day I got lazy and didn't remove the unverified emails from FeedBurner and exams approached so I didn't login to FeedBurner for a while. Bolshevik Of 1917. After exams, I again started blogging and then searched for Anxiety and Sleep and Adolescents sending verification mail again in Google and bolshevik of 1917 then I found this awesome plugin and it really helped me getting lots of rime of the ancient subscribers who were unverified subscribers at first. NUS or Notify Unconfirmed Subscribers is revolution of 1917, a neat plugin that fetches all the subscribers who have not yet subscribed to literature, your feed by revolution of 1917, verifying themselves by clicking on the verification link in the sent to them in their email inbox. NUS maintains a log of where email addresses to revolution, whom a message has already been sent, so you do not have to worry about the message being sent to the same user again. Enter your Google FeedBurner username and password and NUS will fetch all your feeds and their unconfirmed subscribers. You can even customize the ancient message you send in bolshevik revolution, the e-mail body. Just fill the message you want to send across to the defaulters.
NUS do not store any username / password details you provide with for where did benedict fetching the unconfirmed users from Google Feedburner account. There are many reasons of people not confirming their e-mail addresses but in any case this is the best you can do to remind them about your RSS subscription. A FEW THINGS YOU SHOULD NEVER FORGET. Give people what they are looking for. Content is king. If your blog has no credible genuinely useful or entertaining stuff, you would I come to you blog and waste my time.
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Natural numbers, integers, rationals and reals. Highest common factor. Lowest common multiple. Bolshevik? Prime numbers, statement of prime decomposition theorem, Euclid's Algorithm. Proofs by induction. Elementary formulae. Polynomials and their manipulation. Finite and greek social, infinite APs, GPs.
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Review of basic formulae from trigonometry and algebra: polynomials, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, exponentials and logs. Integration by substitution. Integration of rational functions by partial fractions. Integration of parameter dependent functions. Interchange of differentiation and integration for parameter dependent functions.
Definite integrals as area and the fundamental theorem of calculus in practice. Particular definite integrals by ad hoc methods. Definite integrals by substitution and by parts. Volumes and structuralism, surfaces of revolution. Definition of the order of a differential equation. Notion of linear independence of solutions. Statement of theorem on number of linear independent solutions. General Solutions. CF+PI . First order linear differential equations by bolshevik of 1917, integrating factors; general solution. Second order linear equations, characteristic equations; real and complex roots, general real solutions. Simple harmonic motion.
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Kinematics: the description of particle motion in terms of vectors, velocity and bolshevik of 1917, acceleration in polar coordinates, angular velocity, relative velocity. Newton's Laws: Kepler's laws, momentum, Newton's laws of motion, Newton's law of gravitation. Newtonian Mechanics of Particles: projectiles in a resisting medium, constrained particle motion; solution of the governing differential equations for meaning, a variety of problems. Central Forces: motion under a central force. MA10031: Introduction to statistics probability 1. Aims: To provide a solid foundation in discrete probability theory that will facilitate further study in probability and revolution of 1917, statistics. Objectives: Students should be able to: apply the axioms and basic laws of probability using proper notation and rigorous arguments; solve a variety of problems with probability, including the use of aspirin acid combinations and permutations and discrete probability distributions; perform common expectation calculations; calculate marginal and conditional distributions of bivariate discrete random variables; calculate and revolution, make use of some simple probability generating functions. Sample space, events as sets, unions and intersections. Axioms and laws of probability. Equally likely events.
Combinations and permutations. Conditional probability. Partition Theorem. Bayes' Theorem. Independence of events. And Sleep Disorders In Children Essay? Bernoulli trials. Bolshevik Of 1917? Discrete random variables (RVs). Probability mass function (PMF).
Bernoulli, Geometric, Binomial and Poisson Distributions. Poisson limit of Binomial distribution. Hypergeometric Distribution. Negative binomial distribution. Joint and marginal distributions. Conditional distributions. Independence of greek RVs. Distribution of a sum of discrete RVs. Expectation of discrete RVs. Means.
Expectation of revolution a function. Moments. Properties of expectation. Expectation of independent products. Anxiety Disorders In Children Essay? Variance and its properties. Standard deviation. Covariance. Variance of a sum of RVs, including independent case. Correlation. Conditional expectations.
Probability generating functions (PGFs). MA10032: Introduction to statistics probability 2. Aims: To introduce probability theory for continuous random variables. To introduce statistical modelling and parameter estimation and to discuss the role of statistical computing. Objectives: Ability to bolshevik of 1917 solve a variety of problems and compute common quantities relating to continuous random variables. Ability to formulate, fit and assess some statistical models. To be able to use the R statistical package for simulation and data exploration. Definition of continuous random variables (RVs), cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and probability density functions (PDFs).
Some common continuous distributions including uniform, exponential and normal. Some graphical tools for describing/summarising samples from distributions. Results for continuous RVs analogous to the discrete RV case, including mean, variance, properties of expectation, joint PDFs (including dependent and independent examples), independence (including joint distribution as a product of Anxiety and Sleep Disorders Essay marginals). The distribution of bolshevik revolution a sum of independent continuous RVs, including normal and aspirin acid, exponential examples. Statement of the central limit theorem (CLT).
Transformations of RVs. Discussion of the role of simulation in revolution of 1917 statistics. Use of uniform random variables to simulate (and illustrate) some common families of discrete and continuous RVs. Sampling distributions, particularly of sample means. Point estimates and estimators. Estimators as random variables. Bias and precision of estimators.
Introduction to model fitting; exploratory data analysis (EDA) and model formulation. Parameter estimation via method of moments and (simple cases of) maximum likelihood. Graphical assessment of of true friendship goodness of revolution of 1917 fit. Implications of structuralism literature model misspecification. Aims: To teach the basic ideas of probability, data variability, hypothesis testing and revolution, of relationships between variables and friendship, the application of these ideas in management. Objectives: Students should be able to formulate and solve simple problems in probability including the use of Bayes' Theorem and Decision Trees.
They should recognise real-life situations where variability is likely to follow a binomial, Poisson or normal distribution and be able to carry out revolution, simple related calculations. They should be able to carry out a simple decomposition of Essay a time series, apply correlation and regression analysis and understand the basic idea of statistical significance. The laws of Probability, Bayes' Theorem, Decision Trees. Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions and their applications; the relationship between these distributions. Time series decomposition into trend and season al components; multiplicative and additive seasonal factors. Correlation and regression; calculation and interpretation in terms of variability explained. Idea of the sampling distribution of the sample mean; the Z test and the concept of significance level.
Core 'A' level maths. The course follows closely the essential set book: L Bostock S Chandler, Core Maths for A-Level, Stanley Thornes ISBN 0 7487 1779 X. Numbers: Integers, Rationals, Reals. Algebra: Straight lines, Quadratics, Functions, Binomial, Exponential Function. Trigonometry: Ratios for general angles, Sine and Cosine Rules, Compound angles. Bolshevik Revolution? Calculus: Differentiation: Tangents, Normals, Rates of Change, Max/Min. Core 'A' level maths. The course follows closely the essential set book: L Bostock S Chandler, Core Maths for A-Level, Stanley Thornes ISBN 0 7487 1779 X.
Integration: Areas, Volumes. Simple Standard Integrals. Statistics: Collecting data, Mean, Median, Modes, Standard Deviation. MA10126: Introduction to did benedict die computing with applications. Aims: To introduce computational tools of bolshevik revolution of 1917 relevance to scientists working in a numerate discipline. To teach programming skills in the context of applications. To introduce presentational and expositional skills and ancient greek social, group work. Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be: proficient in elementary use of UNIX and EMACS; able to program a range of mathematical and statistical applications using MATLAB; able to analyse the complexity of simple algorithms; competent with working in groups; giving presentations and creating web pages.
Introduction to UNIX and of 1917, EMACS. Brief introduction to HTML. And Sleep Disorders And Adolescents Essay? Programming in MATLAB and applications to mathematical and statistical problems: Variables, operators and control, loops, iteration, recursion. Scripts and functions. Compilers and interpreters (by example). Data structures (by example).
Visualisation. Graphical-user interfaces. Numerical and symbolic computation. The MATLAB Symbolic Math toolbox. Introduction to complexity analysis. Efficiency of bolshevik revolution algorithms. Applications. Report writing. Presentations.
Web design. Arnold Die? Group project. * Calculus: Limits, differentiation, integration. Revision of logarithmic, exponential and inverse trigonometrical functions. Revision of integration including polar and parametric co-ordinates, with applications. * Further calculus - hyperbolic functions, inverse functions, McLaurin's and Taylor's theorem, numerical methods (including solution of nonlinear equations by Newton's method and integration by Simpson's rule).
* Functions of revolution several variables: Partial differentials, small errors, total differentials. * Differential equations: Solution of first order equations using separation of variables and integrating factor, linear equations with constant coefficients using trial method for particular integration. * Linear algebra: Matrix algebra, determinants, inverse, numerical methods, solution of systems of linear algebraic equation. * Complex numbers: Argand diagram, polar coordinates, nth roots, elementary functions of a complex variable. * Linear differential equations: Second order equations, systems of first order equations. * Descriptive statistics: Diagrams, mean, mode, median and standard deviation. * Elementary probablility: Probability distributions, random variables, statistical independence, expectation and variance, law of large numbers and central limit theorem (outline). * Statistical inference: Point estimates, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, linear regression. MA20007: Analysis: Real numbers, real sequences series. Aims: To reinforce and extend the ideas and methodology (begun in the first year unit MA10004) of the structuralism analysis of the elementary theory of of 1917 sequences and series of real numbers and to extend these ideas to sequences of of true friendship functions.
Objectives: By the end of the module, students should be able to read and understand statements expressing, with the use of bolshevik quantifiers, convergence properties of sequences and series. Ancient Social? They should also be capable of investigating particular examples to which the theorems can be applied and of understanding, and constructing for themselves, rigorous proofs within this context. Suprema and Infima, Maxima and Minima. The Completeness Axiom. Sequences. Limits of sequences in epsilon-N notation. Bounded sequences and monotone sequences. Cauchy sequences. Of 1917? Algebra-of-limits theorems.
Subsequences. Limit Superior and Limit Inferior. Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem. Sequences of arnold die partial sums of series. Convergence of series. Conditional and of 1917, absolute convergence.
Tests for convergence of series; ratio, comparison, alternating and nth root tests. Power series and radius of convergence. Functions, Limits and Continuity. Ancient? Continuity in terms of convergence of sequences. Algebra of limits. Brief discussion of convergence of sequences of functions.
Aims: To teach the definitions and basic theory of abstract linear algebra and, through exercises, to show its applicability. Objectives: Students should know, by heart, the main results in linear algebra and should be capable of independent detailed calculations with matrices which are involved in applications. Students should know how to execute the Gram-Schmidt process. Real and complex vector spaces, subspaces, direct sums, linear independence, spanning sets, bases, dimension. The technical lemmas concerning linearly independent sequences. Bolshevik Of 1917? Dimension. Complementary subspaces. Anxiety Disorders Essay? Projections. Linear transformations.
Rank and nullity. The Dimension Theorem. Matrix representation, transition matrices, similar matrices. Examples. Inner products, induced norm, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, triangle inequality, parallelogram law, orthogonality, Gram-Schmidt process.
MA20009: Ordinary differential equations control. Aims: This course will provide standard results and techniques for solving systems of linear autonomous differential equations. Based on this material an accessible introduction to the ideas of mathematical control theory is given. The emphasis here will be on stability and stabilization by feedback. Foundations will be laid for more advanced studies in revolution of 1917 nonlinear differential equations and control theory.
Phase plane techniques will be introduced. Objectives: At the end of the course, students will be conversant with the basic ideas in the theory of linear autonomous differential equations and, in particular, will be able to employ Laplace transform and matrix methods for their solution. Moreover, they will be familiar with a number of elementary concepts from control theory (such as stability, stabilization by feedback, controllability) and will be able to solve simple control problems. The student will be able to carry out simple phase plane analysis. Systems of linear ODEs: Normal form; solution of homogeneous systems; fundamental matrices and matrix exponentials; repeated eigenvalues; complex eigenvalues; stability; solution of non-homogeneous systems by variation of parameters. Laplace transforms: Definition; statement of conditions for existence; properties including transforms of the first and where did benedict arnold, higher derivatives, damping, delay; inversion by partial fractions; solution of ODEs; convolution theorem; solution of integral equations. Linear control systems: Systems: state-space; impulse response and delta functions; transfer function; frequency-response.
Stability: exponential stability; input-output stability; Routh-Hurwitz criterion. Feedback: state and output feedback; servomechanisms. Introduction to controllability and observability: definitions, rank conditions (without full proof) and examples. Nonlinear ODEs: Phase plane techniques, stability of equilibria. MA20010: Vector calculus partial differential equations. Aims: The first part of the course provides an introduction to bolshevik of 1917 vector calculus, an essential toolkit in most branches of applied mathematics. The second forms an introduction to the solution of linear partial differential equations.
Objectives: At the end of this course students will be familiar with the fundamental results of vector calculus (Gauss' theorem, Stokes' theorem) and will be able to carry out line, surface and volume integrals in general curvilinear coordinates. They should be able to solve Laplace's equation, the wave equation and aspirin acid, the diffusion equation in simple domains, using separation of bolshevik of 1917 variables. Vector calculus: Work and energy; curves and surfaces in parametric form; line, surface and volume integrals. Grad, div and curl; divergence and rime, Stokes' theorems; curvilinear coordinates; scalar potential. Fourier series: Formal introduction to Fourier series, statement of Fourier convergence theorem; Fourier cosine and sine series. Partial differential equations: classification of linear second order PDEs; Laplace's equation in bolshevik revolution 2D, in rectangular and circular domains; diffusion equation and wave equation in one space dimension; solution by separation of Anxiety and Sleep Disorders variables.
MA20011: Analysis: Real-valued functions of a real variable. Aims: To give a thorough grounding, through rigorous theory and exercises, in revolution the method and theory of modern calculus. To define the definite integral of certain bounded functions, and to explain why some functions do not have integrals. Objectives: Students should be able to quote, verbatim, and prove, without recourse to and Sleep Disorders and Adolescents notes, the main theorems in the syllabus. They should also be capable, on their own initiative, of applying the analytical methodology to problems in other disciplines, as they arise. They should have a thorough understanding of the bolshevik revolution abstract notion of an integral, and a facility in the manipulation of integrals. Weierstrass's theorem on continuous functions attaining suprema and infima on compact intervals.
Intermediate Value Theorem. Functions and Derivatives. Algebra of derivatives. Did Benedict Die? Leibniz Rule and compositions. Derivatives of bolshevik inverse functions. Rolle's Theorem and Mean Value Theorem.
Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem. L'Hopital's Rule. Monotonic functions. Maxima/Minima. Uniform Convergence. Cauchy's Criterion for Uniform Convergence. Weierstrass M-test for series. Power series. Differentiation of power series. Reimann integration up to the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for the integral of a Riemann-integrable derivative of a function.
Integration of power series. Interchanging integrals and limits. Improper integrals. Aims: In linear algebra the aim is to take the structuralism literature abstract theory to a new level, different from the elementary treatment in MA20008. Groups will be introduced and the most basic consequences of the revolution axioms derived. Objectives: Students should be capable of finding eigenvalues and minimum polynomials of matrices and of deciding the correct Jordan Normal Form. Students should know how to diagonalise matrices, while supplying supporting theoretical justification of the method.
In group theory they should be able to write down the group axioms and the main theorems which are consequences of the greek social axioms. Linear Algebra: Properties of bolshevik revolution determinants. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Geometric and algebraic multiplicity. Diagonalisability. Characteristic polynomials. Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.
Minimum polynomial and primary decomposition theorem. Statement of and motivation for the Jordan Canonical Form. Examples. Orthogonal and unitary transformations. Symmetric and Hermitian linear transformations and their diagonalisability. Quadratic forms. Norm of aspirin acid a linear transformation.
Examples. Group Theory: Group axioms and of 1917, examples. Deductions from the axioms (e.g. uniqueness of identity, cancellation). Subgroups. Cyclic groups and their properties. Disorders In Children And Adolescents Essay? Homomorphisms, isomorphisms, automorphisms. Cosets and of 1917, Lagrange's Theorem. Meaning Of True? Normal subgroups and revolution, Quotient groups. Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem.
MA20013: Mathematical modelling fluids. Aims: To study, by example, how mathematical models are hypothesised, modified and elaborated. To study a classic example of mathematical modelling, that of fluid mechanics. Objectives: At the end of the course the student should be able to. * construct an initial mathematical model for a real world process and assess this model critically. * suggest alterations or elaborations of ancient social proposed model in light of discrepancies between model predictions and observed data or failures of the bolshevik of 1917 model to exhibit correct qualitative behaviour. The student will also be familiar with the equations of motion of an ideal inviscid fluid (Eulers equations, Bernoullis equation) and how to solve these in certain idealised flow situations. Modelling and the scientific method: Objectives of mathematical modelling; the iterative nature of Anxiety and Sleep Disorders in Children Essay modelling; falsifiability and predictive accuracy; Occam's razor, paradigms and model components; self-consistency and structural stability. The three stages of modelling: (1) Model formulation, including the use of empirical information, (2) model fitting, and. (3) model validation.
Possible case studies and projects include: The dynamics of measles epidemics; population growth in the USA; prey-predator and competition models; modelling water pollution; assessment of heat loss prevention by of 1917, double glazing; forest management. Fluids: Lagrangian and Eulerian specifications, material time derivative, acceleration, angular velocity. Mass conservation, incompressible flow, simple examples of potential flow. Aims: To revise and develop elementary MATLAB programming techniques. To teach those aspects of Numerical Analysis which are most relevant to a general mathematical training, and to lay the foundations for the more advanced courses in later years. Objectives: Students should have some facility with MATLAB programming. They should know simple methods for the approximation of functions and integrals, solution of initial and structuralism, boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations and bolshevik revolution, the solution of linear systems. They should also know basic methods for the analysis of the errors made by where die, these methods, and be aware of some of the relevant practical issues involved in their implementation. MATLAB Programming: handling matrices; M-files; graphics.
Concepts of Convergence and Accuracy: Order of convergence, extrapolation and error estimation. Approximation of Functions: Polynomial Interpolation, error term. Quadrature and Numerical Differentiation: Newton-Cotes formulae. Gauss quadrature. Composite formulae.
Error terms. Numerical Solution of ODEs: Euler, Backward Euler, multi-step and explicit Runge-Kutta methods. Stability. Consistency and convergence for one step methods. Error estimation and control. Linear Algebraic Equations: Gaussian elimination, LU decomposition, pivoting, Matrix norms, conditioning, backward error analysis, iterative methods. Aims: Introduce classical estimation and hypothesis-testing principles. Objectives: Ability to perform standard estimation procedures and tests on normal data. Ability to carry out goodness-of-fit tests, analyse contingency tables, and carry out non-parametric tests.
Point estimation: Maximum-likelihood estimation; further properties of estimators, including mean square error, efficiency and consistency; robust methods of revolution estimation such as the literature median and trimmed mean. Interval estimation: Revision of confidence intervals. Hypothesis testing: Size and power of tests; one-sided and two-sided tests. Examples. Neyman-Pearson lemma.
Distributions related to the normal: t, chi-square and F distributions. Inference for normal data: Tests and confidence intervals for normal means and variances, one-sample problems, paired and unpaired two-sample problems. Contingency tables and goodness-of-fit tests. Non-parametric methods: Sign test, signed rank test, Mann-Whitney U-test. MA20034: Probability random processes. Aims: To introduce some fundamental topics in probability theory including conditional expectation and the three classical limit theorems of revolution probability. To present the main properties of aspirin acid random walks on the integers, and Poisson processes. Objectives: Ability to perform computations on random walks, and Poisson processes. Ability to use generating function techniques for effective calculations. Ability to work effectively with conditional expectation. Ability to revolution apply the classical limit theorems of probability.
Revision of properties of expectation and conditional probability. Conditional expectation. Chebyshev's inequality. The Weak Law. Statement of the Strong Law of Large Numbers. Random variables on the positive integers. Probability generating functions. Random walks expected first passage times. Poisson processes: characterisations, inter-arrival times, the gamma distribution. Moment generating functions.
Outline of the die Central Limit Theorem. Aims: Introduce the principles of building and analysing linear models. Objectives: Ability to carry out analyses using linear Gaussian models, including regression and ANOVA. Understand the principles of statistical modelling. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA): One-way classification model, F-test, comparison of group means. Regression: Estimation of model parameters, tests and confidence intervals, prediction intervals, polynomial and multiple regression. Two-way ANOVA: Two-way classification model. Main effects and interaction, parameter estimation, F- and t-tests. Discussion of experimental design.
Principles of modelling: Role of the statistical model. Critical appraisal of model selection methods. Bolshevik Revolution Of 1917? Use of residuals to check model assumptions: probability plots, identification and treatment of outliers. Aspirin Acid? Multivariate distributions: Joint, marginal and conditional distributions; expectation and variance-covariance matrix of a random vector; statement of properties of the bivariate and multivariate normal distribution. The general linear model: Vector and matrix notation, examples of the design matrix for regression and ANOVA, least squares estimation, internally and bolshevik revolution, externally Studentized residuals. Aims: To present a formal description of Markov chains and Markov processes, their qualitative properties and ergodic theory. To apply results in modelling real life phenomena, such as biological processes, queuing systems, renewal problems and machine repair problems. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to. * Classify the states of a Markov chain, find hitting probabilities, expected hitting times and invariant distributions. * Calculate waiting time distributions, transition probabilities and limiting behaviour of various Markov processes.
Markov chains with discrete states in discrete time: Examples, including random walks. The Markov 'memorylessness' property, P-matrices, n-step transition probabilities, hitting probabilities, expected hitting times, classification of states, renewal theorem, invariant distributions, symmetrizability and ergodic theorems. Aspirin Acid? Markov processes with discrete states in continuous time: Examples, including Poisson processes, birth death processes and various types of Markovian queues. Q-matrices, resolvents, waiting time distributions, equilibrium distributions and ergodicity. Aims: To teach the fundamental ideas of sampling and its use in estimation and hypothesis testing. These will be related as far as possible to management applications. Objectives: Students should be able to obtain interval estimates for population means, standard deviations and proportions and be able to carry out standard one and two sample tests.
They should be able to handle real data sets using the minitab package and show appreciation of the uses and limitations of the methods learned. Different types of sample; sampling distributions of means, standard deviations and proportions. The use and meaning of confidence limits. Hypothesis testing; types of error, significance levels and P values. One and two sample tests for means and proportions including the use of Student's t. Simple non-parametric tests and chi-squared tests. The probability of a type 2 error in the Z test and the concept of power. Quality control: Acceptance sampling, Shewhart charts and the relationship to hypothesis testing.
The use of the minitab package and practical points in data analysis. Aims: To teach the methods of analysis appropriate to simple and multiple regression models and to common types of survey and experimental design. The course will concentrate on applications in revolution the management area. Objectives: Students should be able to set up and analyse regression models and Anxiety Essay, assess the resulting model critically. They should understand the principles involved in experimental design and be able to apply the methods of analysis of variance. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA): comparisons of group means. Simple and multiple regression: estimation of model parameters, tests, confidence and prediction intervals, residual and diagnostic plots. Revolution Of 1917? Two-way ANOVA: Two-way classification model, main effects and interactions. Experimental Design: Randomisation, blocking, factorial designs.
Analysis using the minitab package. Industrial placement year. Study year abroad (BSc) Aims: To understand the principles of statistics as applied to Anxiety and Sleep in Children and Adolescents Essay Biological problems. Objectives: After the course students should be able to: Give quantitative interpretation of Biological data. Topics: Random variation, frequency distributions, graphical techniques, measures of average and variability. Discrete probability models - binomial, poisson. Continuous probability model - normal distribution. Poisson and normal approximations to binomial sampling theory. Estimation, confidence intervals.
Chi-squared tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables. One sample and two sample tests. Paired comparisons. Confidence interval and tests for proportions. Least squares straight line. Prediction. Correlation. MA20146: Mathematical statistical modelling for biological sciences. This unit aims to study, by example, practical aspects of mathematical and statistical modelling, focussing on the biological sciences. Applied mathematics and bolshevik, statistics rely on constructing mathematical models which are usually simplifications and did benedict, idealisations of real-world phenomena. In this course students will consider how models are formulated, fitted, judged and bolshevik of 1917, modified in light of aspirin acid scientific evidence, so that they lead to a better understanding of the data or the phenomenon being studied. the approach will be case-study-based and will involve the use of computer packages.
Case studies will be drawn from a wide range of biological topics, which may include cell biology, genetics, ecology, evolution and epidemiology. After taking this unit, the student should be able to. * Construct an of 1917 initial mathematical model for a real-world process and assess this model critically; and. * Suggest alterations or elaborations of a proposed model in light of discrepancies between model predictions and observed data, or failures of the model to exhibit correct quantitative behaviour. * Modelling and the scientific method. Objectives of mathematical and where did benedict die, statistical modelling; the of 1917 iterative nature of modelling; falsifiability and predictive accuracy. * The three stages of modelling. (1) Model formulation, including the art of consultation and the use of ancient empirical information. (2) Model fitting. (3) Model validation. * Deterministic modelling; Asymptotic behaviour including equilibria. Dynamic behaviour. Optimum behaviour for a system.
* The interpretation of probability. Revolution? Symmetry, relative frequency, and degree of belief. * Stochastic modelling. Probalistic models for complex systems. Modelling mean response and variability. The effects of model uncertainty on statistical interference. The dangers of multiple testing and aspirin acid, data dredging. Aims: This course develops the revolution basic theory of mariner rings and fields and expounds the fundamental theory of Galois on solvability of polynomials. Objectives: At the revolution of 1917 end of the course, students will be conversant with the algebraic structures associated to rings and fields. Moreover, they will be able to where did benedict state and prove the main theorems of Galois Theory as well as compute the Galois group of simple polynomials. Rings, integral domains and fields.
Field of bolshevik revolution of 1917 quotients of an integral domain. Ideals and quotient rings. Rings of polynomials. Division algorithm and unique factorisation of polynomials over a field. Extension fields. Algebraic closure. Anxiety And Sleep Disorders In Children And Adolescents Essay? Splitting fields. Normal field extensions. Galois groups. The Galois correspondence. THIS UNIT IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN ACADEMIC YEARS STARTING IN AN EVEN YEAR.
Aims: This course provides a solid introduction to modern group theory covering both the basic tools of the bolshevik of 1917 subject and Anxiety and Sleep Disorders in Children and Adolescents Essay, more recent developments. Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be able to state and prove the main theorems of classical group theory and know how to bolshevik of 1917 apply these. In addition, they will have some appreciation of the relations between group theory and other areas of mathematics. Topics will be chosen from the following: Review of elementary group theory: homomorphisms, isomorphisms and Lagrange's theorem. Meaning Of True Friendship? Normalisers, centralisers and conjugacy classes. Of 1917? Group actions. p-groups and the Sylow theorems. Cayley graphs and geometric group theory. Of True Friendship? Free groups.
Presentations of groups. Of 1917? Von Dyck's theorem. Tietze transformations. THIS UNIT IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN ACADEMIC YEARS STARTING IN AN ODD YEAR. MA30039: Differential geometry of curves surfaces. Aims: This will be a self-contained course which uses little more than elementary vector calculus to develop the local differential geometry of curves and Anxiety and Sleep Disorders in Children Essay, surfaces in IR #179 . In this way, an accessible introduction is given to an area of mathematics which has been the subject of active research for over 200 years. Objectives: At the bolshevik revolution of 1917 end of the course, the students will be able to apply the social methods of bolshevik calculus with confidence to geometrical problems. They will be able to compute the meaning curvatures of curves and surfaces and understand the geometric significance of these quantities. Topics will be chosen from the following: Tangent spaces and tangent maps.
Curvature and torsion of curves: Frenet-Serret formulae. The Euclidean group and congruences. Bolshevik Revolution Of 1917? Curvature and torsion determine a curve up to congruence. Global geometry of curves: isoperimetric inequality; four-vertex theorem. Local geometry of surfaces: parametrisations of surfaces; normals, shape operator, mean and Gauss curvature.
Geodesics, integration and the local Gauss-Bonnet theorem. Aims: This core course is intended to be an elementary and accessible introduction to the theory of metric spaces and the topology of IRn for students with both pure and applied interests. Objectives: While the foundations will be laid for further studies in Analysis and Topology, topics useful in applied areas such as the aspirin acid Contraction Mapping Principle will also be covered. Students will know the fundamental results listed in bolshevik the syllabus and have an instinct for their utility in analysis and numerical analysis. Definition and examples of of true metric spaces. Convergence of sequences. Continuous maps and isometries. Sequential definition of continuity. Subspaces and product spaces. Revolution? Complete metric spaces and the Contraction Mapping Principle.
Sequential compactness, Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem and applications. Open and closed sets (with emphasis on IRn). Closure and interior of sets. Topological approach to continuity and compactness (with statement of Heine-Borel theorem). Where Did Benedict? Connectedness and path-connectedness. Metric spaces of functions: C[0,1] is a complete metric space. Aims: To furnish the student with a range of analytic techniques for the solution of ODEs and PDEs. Objectives: Students should be able to obtain the solution of certain ODEs and PDEs. They should also be aware of certain analytic properties associated with the revolution solution e.g. Where Did Benedict Arnold Die? uniqueness. Sturm-Liouville theory: Reality of eigenvalues.
Orthogonality of eigenfunctions. Expansion in eigenfunctions. Approximation in mean square. Bolshevik? Statement of aspirin acid completeness. Fourier Transform: As a limit of Fourier series. Properties and applications to solution of differential equations. Frequency response of linear systems. Characteristic functions.
Linear and quasi-linear first-order PDEs in two and three independent variables: Characteristics. Integral surfaces. Uniqueness (without proof). Bolshevik Revolution Of 1917? Linear and quasi-linear second-order PDEs in two independent variables: Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem (without proof). Characteristic data. Lack of continuous dependence on initial data for Cauchy problem. Classification as elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic. Different standard forms. Constant and nonconstant coefficients. Of The Ancient Mariner Themes? One-dimensional wave equation: d'Alembert's solution. Uniqueness theorem for corresponding Cauchy problem (with data on a spacelike curve).
Aims: The course is intended to provide an elementary and assessible introduction to of 1917 the state-space theory of linear control systems. Main emphasis is on continuous-time autonomous systems, although discrete-time systems will receive some attention through sampling of continuous-time systems. Contact with classical (Laplace-transform based) control theory is made in the context of realization theory. Objectives: To instill basic concepts and results from control theory in literature a rigorous manner making use of elementary linear algebra and linear ordinary differential equations. Revolution Of 1917? Conversance with controllability, observability, stabilizabilty and realization theory in a linear, finite-dimensional context.
Topics will be chosen from the following: Controlled and observed dynamical systems: definitions and classifications. Controllability and observability: Gramians, rank conditions, Hautus criteria, controllable and rime of the ancient mariner themes, unobservable subspaces. Input-output maps. Bolshevik Of 1917? Transfer functions and state-space realizations. State feedback: stabilizability and pole placement. Ancient Greek? Observers and bolshevik revolution, output feedback: detectability, asymptotic state estimation, stabilization by dynamic feedback.
Discrete-time systems: z-transform, deadbeat control and observation. Sampling of continuous-time systems: controllability and observability under sampling. Aims: The purpose of this course is to introduce students to problems which arise in Anxiety and Sleep Disorders and Adolescents biology which can be tackled using applied mathematics. Emphasis will be laid upon deriving the equations describing the bolshevik revolution of 1917 biological problem and at all times the interplay between the mathematics and the underlying biology will be brought to the fore. Objectives: Students should be able to derive a mathematical model of a given problem in biology using ODEs and give a qualitative account of the type of solution expected. They should be able to interpret the results in terms of the greek social original biological problem. Topics will be chosen from the following: Difference equations: Steady states and fixed points. Stability. Period doubling bifurcations. Chaos. Bolshevik Of 1917? Application to population growth.
Systems of difference equations: Host-parasitoid systems. Systems of ODEs: Stability of solutions. Critical points. Phase plane analysis. Poincare-Bendixson theorem.
Bendixson and Dulac negative criteria. Conservative systems. Structural stability and instability. Of True? Lyapunov functions. Prey-predator models Epidemic models Travelling wave fronts: Waves of advance of an advantageous gene. Waves of excitation in nerves. Waves of advance of an epidemic. Aims: To provide an introduction to the mathematical modelling of the behaviour of solid elastic materials. Objectives: Students should be able to derive the governing equations of the theory of linear elasticity and bolshevik of 1917, be able to solve simple problems.
Topics will be chosen from the following: Revision: Kinematics of deformation, stress analysis, global balance laws, boundary conditions. Constitutive law: Properties of real materials; constitutive law for linear isotropic elasticity, Lame moduli; field equations of linear elasticity; Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio. Some simple problems of elastostatics: Expansion of a spherical shell, bulk modulus; deformation of a block under gravity; elementary bending solution. Linear elastostatics: Strain energy function; uniqueness theorem; Betti's reciprocal theorem, mean value theorems; variational principles, application to composite materials; torsion of cylinders, Prandtl's stress function. Linear elastodynamics: Basic equations and ancient mariner themes, general solutions; plane waves in bolshevik unbounded media, simple reflection problems; surface waves. Aims: To teach an understanding of structuralism iterative methods for standard problems of linear algebra. Objectives: Students should know a range of modern iterative methods for solving linear systems and for solving the algebraic eigenvalue problem. They should be able to bolshevik analyse their algorithms and where did benedict die, should have an understanding of relevant practical issues. Topics will be chosen from the following: The algebraic eigenvalue problem: Gerschgorin's theorems.
The power method and its extensions. Backward Error Analysis (Bauer-Fike). The (Givens) QR factorization and the QR method for symmetric tridiagonal matrices. (Statement of convergence only). The Lanczos Procedure for reduction of a real symmetric matrix to tridiagonal form. Orthogonality properties of Lanczos iterates. Bolshevik Revolution? Iterative Methods for literature, Linear Systems: Convergence of stationary iteration methods. Special cases of symmetric positive definite and diagonally dominant matrices. Variational principles for linear systems with real symmetric matrices. The conjugate gradient method. Krylov subspaces. Convergence.
Connection with the Lanczos method. Iterative Methods for Nonlinear Systems: Newton's Method. Convergence in 1D. Statement of algorithm for systems. MA30054: Representation theory of finite groups. Aims: The course explains some fundamental applications of linear algebra to the study of finite groups. In so doing, it will show by example how one area of mathematics can enhance and enrich the study of another. Objectives: At the end of the course, the students will be able to state and prove the main theorems of Maschke and Schur and be conversant with their many applications in revolution of 1917 representation theory and character theory.
Moreover, they will be able to apply these results to problems in group theory. Topics will be chosen from the following: Group algebras, their modules and associated representations. Of True? Maschke's theorem and bolshevik revolution, complete reducibility. Irreducible representations and Schur's lemma. Decomposition of the regular representation. Character theory and orthogonality theorems. Burnside's p #097 q #098 theorem.
THIS UNIT IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN ACADEMIC YEARS STARTING IN AN ODD YEAR. Aims: To provide an introduction to Essay the ideas of point-set topology culminating with a sketch of the classification of bolshevik revolution compact surfaces. As such it provides a self-contained account of one of the triumphs of 20th century mathematics as well as providing the necessary background for the Year 4 unit in Algebraic Topology. Objectives: To acquaint students with the important notion of a topology and to ancient greek familiarise them with the basic theorems of analysis in bolshevik their most general setting. Students will be able to distinguish between metric and topological space theory and to understand refinements, such as Hausdorff or compact spaces, and ancient greek social, their applications. Topics will be chosen from the following: Topologies and topological spaces.
Subspaces. Of 1917? Bases and aspirin acid, sub-bases: product spaces; compact-open topology. Continuous maps and homeomorphisms. Separation axioms. Connectedness. Compactness and its equivalent characterisations in a metric space. Axiom of revolution Choice and Zorn's Lemma.
Tychonoff's theorem. Quotient spaces. Compact surfaces and their representation as quotient spaces. Sketch of the classification of compact surfaces. Aims: The aim of this course is to friendship cover the standard introductory material in the theory of functions of a complex variable and to cover complex function theory up to Cauchy's Residue Theorem and its applications. Objectives: Students should end up familiar with the theory of functions of a complex variable and be capable of calculating and justifying power series, Laurent series, contour integrals and applying them. Topics will be chosen from the following: Functions of a complex variable. Continuity.
Complex series and power series. Circle of convergence. The complex plane. Regions, paths, simple and of 1917, closed paths. Path-connectedness. Analyticity and the Cauchy-Riemann equations. Harmonic functions. Cauchy's theorem. Cauchy's Integral Formulae and its application to ancient social power series. Isolated zeros.
Differentiability of an bolshevik revolution analytic function. Liouville's Theorem. Zeros, poles and essential singularities. Laurent expansions. Cauchy's Residue Theorem and contour integration. Applications to real definite integrals.
Aims: To introduce students to the applications of structuralism advanced analysis to bolshevik revolution the solution of PDEs. Objectives: Students should be able to obtain solutions to certain important PDEs using a variety of techniques e.g. Green's functions, separation of variables. They should also be familiar with important analytic properties of the solution. Topics will be chosen from the where did benedict arnold die following: Elliptic equations in two independent variables: Harmonic functions. Mean value property. Maximum principle (several proofs). Dirichlet and bolshevik, Neumann problems. Representation of solutions in terms of Green's functions.
Continuous dependence of data for and Adolescents Essay, Dirichlet problem. Uniqueness. Parabolic equations in two independent variables: Representation theorems. Green's functions. Revolution? Self-adjoint second-order operators: Eigenvalue problems (mainly by example). Separation of variables for inhomogeneous systems.
Green's function methods in general: Method of images. Use of integral transforms. Conformal mapping. Calculus of variations: Maxima and minima. Lagrange multipliers. Extrema for integral functions. Euler's equation and its special first integrals. Integral and Anxiety Disorders in Children, non-integral constraints. Aims: The course is intended to be an elementary and accessible introduction to dynamical systems with examples of bolshevik revolution of 1917 applications. Main emphasis will be on discrete-time systems which permits the concepts and results to be presented in a rigorous manner, within the framework of the second year core material.
Discrete-time systems will be followed by an introductory treatment of continuous-time systems and differential equations. Numerical approximation of differential equations will link with the earlier material on discrete-time systems. Objectives: An appreciation of the behaviour, and its potential complexity, of general dynamical systems through a study of discrete-time systems (which require relatively modest analytical prerequisites) and computer experimentation. Topics will be chosen from the following: Discrete-time systems. Maps from IRn to IRn . Fixed points. Periodic orbits. #097 and #119 limit sets. Local bifurcations and stability. The logistic map and chaos. Global properties. Continuous-time systems. Periodic orbits and Poincareacute maps.
Numerical approximation of differential equations. Newton iteration as a dynamical system. Aims: The aim of the course is to aspirin acid introduce students to bolshevik revolution of 1917 applications of partial differential equations to and Sleep model problems arising in biology. The course will complement Mathematical Biology I where the emphasis was on ODEs and Difference Equations. Objectives: Students should be able to derive and interpret mathematical models of problems arising in biology using PDEs. They should be able to bolshevik revolution perform a linearised stability analysis of a reaction-diffusion system and determine criteria for diffusion-driven instability.
They should be able to interpret the results in terms of the original biological problem. Topics will be chosen from the following: Partial Differential Equation Models: Simple random walk derivation of the diffusion equation. Solutions of the and Sleep in Children diffusion equation. Density-dependent diffusion. Conservation equation.
Reaction-diffusion equations. Chemotaxis. Examples for insect dispersal and cell aggregation. Spatial Pattern Formation: Turing mechanisms. Linear stability analysis. Conditions for diffusion-driven instability. Bolshevik Revolution Of 1917? Dispersion relation and Turing space. Scale and geometry effects.
Mode selection and dispersion relation. Applications: Animal coat markings. How the leopard got its spots. Butterfly wing patterns. Aims: To introduce the general theory of continuum mechanics and, through this, the study of viscous fluid flow.
Objectives: Students should be able to explain the basic concepts of continuum mechanics such as stress, deformation and constitutive relations, be able to formulate balance laws and be able to apply these to structuralism literature the solution of revolution simple problems involving the flow of aspirin acid a viscous fluid. Topics will be chosen from the following: Vectors: Linear transformation of bolshevik of 1917 vectors. Proper orthogonal transformations. Rotation of axes. Transformation of components under rotation. Cartesian Tensors: Transformations of components, symmetry and skew symmetry. Isotropic tensors. Kinematics: Transformation of line elements, deformation gradient, Green strain.
Linear strain measure. Displacement, velocity, strain-rate. Stress: Cauchy stress; relation between traction vector and stress tensor. Global Balance Laws: Equations of rime of the ancient mariner motion, boundary conditions. Newtonian Fluids: The constitutive law, uniform flow, Poiseuille flow, flow between rotating cylinders. Aims: To present the theory and bolshevik of 1917, application of normal linear models and generalised linear models, including estimation, hypothesis testing and confidence intervals. To describe methods of model choice and the use of residuals in diagnostic checking. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to (a) choose an appropriate generalised linear model for a given set of data; (b) fit this model using the GLIM program, select terms for inclusion in the model and greek social, assess the adequacy of a selected model; (c) make inferences on bolshevik revolution of 1917 the basis of a fitted model and recognise the assumptions underlying these inferences and greek, possible limitations to their accuracy.
Normal linear model: Vector and matrix representation, constraints on parameters, least squares estimation, distributions of parameter and of 1917, variance estimates, t-tests and confidence intervals, the Analysis of Variance, F-tests for unbalanced designs. Model building: Subset selection and stepwise regression methods with applications in polynomial regression and multiple regression. Effects of collinearity in regression variables. Uses of residuals: Probability plots, plots for additional variables, plotting residuals against ancient, fitted values to detect a mean-variance relationship, standardised residuals for bolshevik, outlier detection, masking. Ancient Greek? Generalised linear models: Exponential families, standard form, statement of bolshevik revolution of 1917 asymptotic theory for Anxiety Disorders and Adolescents, i.i.d. samples, Fisher information. Linear predictors and link functions, statement of asymptotic theory for the generalised linear model, applications to z-tests and confidence intervals, #099 #178 -tests and the analysis of bolshevik of 1917 deviance. Residuals from generalised linear models and their uses. Applications to did benedict die dose response relationships, and bolshevik revolution of 1917, logistic regression.
Aims: To introduce a variety of rime ancient mariner statistical models for time series and cover the main methods for analysing these models. Objectives: At the end of the course, the student should be able to. * Compute and bolshevik revolution, interpret a correlogram and a sample spectrum. * derive the properties of aspirin acid ARIMA and state-space models. * choose an appropriate ARIMA model for a given set of data and bolshevik, fit the model using an appropriate package. * compute forecasts for a variety of linear methods and models. Introduction: Examples, simple descriptive techniques, trend, seasonality, the correlogram. Probability models for time series: Stationarity; moving average (MA), autoregressive (AR), ARMA and ARIMA models. Estimating the autocorrelation function and fitting ARIMA models. Forecasting: Exponential smoothing, Forecasting from ARIMA models.
Stationary processes in the frequency domain: The spectral density function, the periodogram, spectral analysis. State-space models: Dynamic linear models and the Kalman filter. Aims: To introduce students to the use of statistical methods in medical research, the pharmaceutical industry and the National Health Service. Objectives: Students should be able to. (a) recognize the key statistical features of a medical research problem, and, where appropriate, suggest an appropriate study design, (b) understand the ethical considerations and practical problems that govern medical experimentation, (c) summarize medical data and aspirin acid, spot possible sources of bolshevik revolution bias, (d) analyse data collected from some types of clinical trial, as well as simple survival data and longitudinal data.
Ethical considerations in clinical trials and where, other types of epidemiological study design. Phases I to IV of drug development and testing. Design of clinical trials: Defining the patient population, the trial protocol, possible sources of bias, randomisation, blinding, use of revolution of 1917 placebo treatment, sample size calculations. Analysis of clinical trials: patient withdrawals, intent to treat criterion for inclusion of patients in analysis. Survival data: Life tables, censoring.
Kaplan-Meier estimate. Selected topics from: Crossover trials; Case-control and cohort studies; Binary data; Measurement of clinical agreement; Mendelian inheritance; More on survival data: Parametric models for censored survival data, Greenwood's formula, The proportional hazards model, logrank test, Cox's proportional hazards model. Throughout the course, there will be emphasis on drawing sound conclusions and on the ability to explain and interpret numerical data to non-statistical clients. MA30087: Optimisation methods of literature operational research. Aims: To present methods of optimisation commonly used in OR, to explain their theoretical basis and give an appreciation of the revolution variety of areas in rime of the ancient mariner which they are applicable. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to. * Recognise practical problems where optimisation methods can be used effectively.
* Implement appropriate algorithms, and understand their procedures. * Understand the underlying theory of bolshevik revolution linear programming problems, especially duality. The Nature of OR: Brief introduction. Linear Programming: Basic solutions and where die, the fundamental theorem. The simplex algorithm, two phase method for an initial solution. Interpretation of the optimal tableau. Applications of LP. Duality. Topics selected from: Sensitivity analysis and the dual simplex algorithm. Brief discussion of Karmarkar's method.
The transportation problem and its applications, solution by Dantzig's method. Network flow problems, the Ford-Fulkerson theorem. Non-linear Programming: Revision of classical Lagrangian methods. Kuhn-Tucker conditions, necessity and revolution of 1917, sufficiency. Illustration by application to quadratic programming. MA30089: Applied probability finance.
Aims: To develop and apply the theory of ancient social probability and bolshevik revolution, stochastic processes to examples from finance and economics. Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be able to. * formulate mathematically, and then solve, dynamic programming problems. * price an option on meaning a stock modelled by a log of a random walk. * perform simple calculations involving properties of Brownian motion. Dynamic programming: Markov decision processes, Bellman equation; examples including consumption/investment, bid acceptance, optimal stopping. Infinite horizon problems; discounted programming, the Howard Improvement Lemma, negative and positive programming, simple examples and counter-examples. Option pricing for of 1917, random walks: Arbitrage pricing theory, prices and discounted prices as Martingales, hedging.
Brownian motion: Introduction to Brownian motion, definition and greek social, simple properties. Exponential Brownian motion as the model for a stock price, the Black-Scholes formula. Aims: To develop skills in of 1917 the analysis of multivariate data and study the related theory. Objectives: Be able to carry out a preliminary analysis of literature multivariate data and select and apply an appropriate technique to look for structure in such data or achieve dimensionality reduction. Be able to carry out bolshevik, classical multivariate inferential techniques based on the multivariate normal distribution. Introduction, Preliminary analysis of multivariate data. Structuralism? Revision of relevant matrix algebra. Principal components analysis: Derivation and interpretation; approximate reduction of dimensionality; scaling problems. Multidimensional distributions: The multivariate normal distribution - properties and parameter estimation. One and two-sample tests on means, Hotelling's T-squared.
Canonical correlations and canonical variables; discriminant analysis. Topics selected from: Factor analysis. The multivariate linear model. Metrics and similarity coefficients; multidimensional scaling. Cluster analysis. Correspondence analysis.
Classification and regression trees. Aims: To give students experience in tackling a variety of real-life statistical problems. Objectives: During the course, students should become proficient in. * formulating a problem and carrying out an revolution of 1917 exploratory data analysis. * tackling non-standard, messy data. * presenting the results of an analysis in a clear report. Formulating statistical problems: Objectives, the importance of the initial examination of data. Analysis: Model-building. Choosing an appropriate method of analysis, verification of assumptions. Presentation of results: Report writing, communication with non-statisticians. Using resources: The computer, the library.
Project topics may include: Exploratory data analysis. Practical aspects of sample surveys. Fitting general and generalised linear models. Of True? The analysis of standard and non-standard data arising from theoretical work in other blocks. MA30092: Classical statistical inference. Aims: To develop a formal basis for methods of revolution of 1917 statistical inference including criteria for the comparison of procedures. Greek? To give an in revolution of 1917 depth description of the asymptotic theory of maximum likelihood methods and hypothesis testing. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to: * calculate properties of estimates and hypothesis tests. * derive efficient estimates and tests for ancient, a broad range of problems, including applications to a variety of standard distributions.
Revision of standard distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, Poisson, exponential, gamma and normal, and their interrelationships. Sufficiency and Exponential families. Point estimation: Bias and variance considerations, mean squared error. Bolshevik Of 1917? Rao-Blackwell theorem. Where Die? Cramer-Rao lower bound and efficiency. Unbiased minimum variance estimators and a direct appreciation of efficiency through some examples. Bias reduction. Asymptotic theory for revolution, maximum likelihood estimators.
Hypothesis testing: Hypothesis testing, review of the Neyman-Pearson lemma and maximisation of power. Maximum likelihood ratio tests, asymptotic theory. Compound alternative hypotheses, uniformly most powerful tests. Compound null hypotheses, monotone likelihood ratio property, uniformly most powerful unbiased tests. Nuisance parameters, generalised likelihood ratio tests. MMath study year abroad. This unit is designed primarily for DBA Final Year students who have taken the First and Second Year management statistics units but is also available for Final Year Statistics students from the Department of Mathematical Sciences. Well qualified students from the IMML course would also be considered.
It introduces three statistical topics which are particularly relevant to Management Science, namely quality control, forecasting and decision theory. Aims: To introduce some statistical topics which are particularly relevant to Management Science. Objectives: On completing the unit, students should be able to implement some quality control procedures, and some univariate forecasting procedures. They should also understand the ideas of decision theory. Quality Control: Acceptance sampling, single and aspirin acid, double schemes, SPRT applied to sequential scheme. Process control, Shewhart charts for mean and range, operating characteristics, ideas of cusum charts.
Practical forecasting. Time plot. Trend-and-seasonal models. Exponential smoothing. Holt's linear trend model and Holt-Winters seasonal forecasting. Autoregressive models.
Box-Jenkins ARIMA forecasting. Introduction to decision analysis for discrete events: Revision of Bayes' Theorem, admissability, Bayes' decisions, minimax. Decision trees, expected value of perfect information. Utility, subjective probability and its measurement. MA30125: Markov processes applications. Aims: To study further Markov processes in both discrete and continuous time. To apply results in areas such genetics, biological processes, networks of queues, telecommunication networks, electrical networks, resource management, random walks and elsewhere. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to. * Formulate appropriate Markovian models for a variety of real life problems and apply suitable theoretical results to obtain solutions.
* Classify a variety of birth-death processes as explosive or non-explosive. * Find the Q-matrix of a time-reversed chain and bolshevik revolution, make effective use of time reversal. Topics covering both discrete and continuous time Markov chains will be chosen from: Genetics, the where did benedict Wright-Fisher and Moran models. Epidemics. Telecommunication models, blocking probabilities of Erlang and Engset. Models of interference in communication networks, the ALOHA model. Series of M/M/s queues. Open and closed migration processes. Explosions.
Birth-death processes. Branching processes. Resource management. Revolution Of 1917? Electrical networks. Random walks, reflecting random walks as queuing models in one or more dimensions. Friendship? The strong Markov property. Of 1917? The Poisson process in time and space. Other applications. Aims: To satisfy as many of the objectives as possible as set out in the individual project proposal.
Objectives: To produce the deliverables identified in structuralism literature the individual project proposal. Defined in the individual project proposal. MA30170: Numerical solution of PDEs I. Aims: To teach numerical methods for elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations via the finite element method based on bolshevik of 1917 variational principles. Objectives: At the end of the course students should be able to aspirin acid derive and implement the bolshevik finite element method for a range of standard elliptic and ancient mariner, parabolic partial differential equations in one and several space dimensions. They should also be able to derive and bolshevik, use elementary error estimates for structuralism, these methods.
* Variational and weak form of elliptic PDEs. Natural, essential and bolshevik revolution, mixed boundary conditions. Linear and quadratic finite element approximation in one and several space dimensions. An introduction to convergence theory. * System assembly and solution, isoparametric mapping, quadrature, adaptivity.
* Applications to PDEs arising in applications. * Brief introduction to structuralism time dependent problems. Aims: The aim is to explore pure mathematics from a problem-solving point of view. Bolshevik? In addition to conventional lectures, we aim to encourage students to work on solving problems in small groups, and to give presentations of solutions in workshops. Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be proficient in formulating and testing conjectures, and will have a wide experience of different proof techniques. The topics will be drawn from cardinality, combinatorial questions, the foundations of measure, proof techniques in algebra, analysis, geometry and of the ancient mariner themes, topology. Aims: This is an bolshevik revolution of 1917 advanced pure mathematics course providing an introduction to classical algebraic geometry via plane curves. It will show some of the links with other branches of mathematics. Objectives: At the end of the Disorders in Children and Adolescents Essay course students should be able to use homogeneous coordinates in revolution projective space and to distinguish singular points of plane curves.
They should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the difference between rational and nonrational curves, know examples of and Adolescents both, and bolshevik, be able to describe some special features of plane cubic curves. To be chosen from: Affine and projective space. Polynomial rings and homogeneous polynomials. Ideals in the context of Essay polynomial rings,the Nullstellensatz. Plane curves; degree; Bezout's theorem. Singular points of plane curves. Bolshevik Revolution? Rational maps and morphisms; isomorphism and birationality. Curves of low degree (up to aspirin acid 3). Genus. Elliptic curves; the group law, nonrationality, the j invariant. Weierstrass p function.
Quadric surfaces; curves of quadrics. Duals. THIS UNIT IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN ACADEMIC YEARS STARTING IN AN EVEN YEAR. Aims: The course will provide a solid introduction to one of the revolution of 1917 Big Machines of modern mathematics which is also a major topic of current research. In particular, this course provides the necessary prerequisites for post-graduate study of and Sleep Disorders in Children Essay Algebraic Topology.
Objectives: At the end of the course, the students will be conversant with the basic ideas of homotopy theory and, in particular, will be able to compute the fundamental group of several topological spaces. Topics will be chosen from the following: Paths, homotopy and the fundamental group. Homotopy of maps; homotopy equivalence and deformation retracts. Computation of the bolshevik fundamental group and applications: Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem. Covering spaces. Path-lifting and homotopy lifting properties. Deck translations and the fundamental group. Universal covers. Loop spaces and their topology. Inductive definition of higher homotopy groups.
Long exact sequence in homotopy for fibrations. MA40042: Measure theory integration. Aims: The purpose of this course is to lay the basic technical foundations and establish the main principles which underpin the social classical notions of area, volume and the related idea of an integral. Objectives: The objective is to familiarise students with measure as a tool in of 1917 analysis, functional analysis and aspirin acid, probability theory. Students will be able to quote and apply the main inequalities in the subject, and to understand their significance in a wide range of contexts. Students will obtain a full understanding of the revolution of 1917 Lebesgue Integral. Topics will be chosen from the following: Measurability for sets: algebras, #115 -algebras, #112 -systems, d-systems; Dynkin's Lemma; Borel #115 -algebras. Greek Social? Measure in the abstract: additive and #115 -additive set functions; monotone-convergence properties; Uniqueness Lemma; statement of Caratheodory's Theorem and discussion of the #108 -set concept used in its proof; full proof on handout. Lebesgue measure on IRn: existence; inner and outer regularity. Measurable functions.
Sums, products, composition, lim sups, etc; The Monotone-Class Theorem. Probability. Sample space, events, random variables. Independence; rigorous statement of the Strong Law for coin tossing. Integration.
Integral of a non-negative functions as sup of the integrals of simple non-negative functions dominated by it. Of 1917? Monotone-Convergence Theorem; 'Additivity'; Fatou's Lemma; integral of 'signed' function; definition of Lp and of L p; linearity; Dominated-Convergence Theorem - with mention that it is not the `right' result. Product measures: definition; uniqueness; existence; Fubini's Theorem. Absolutely continuous measures: the idea; effect on integrals. Statement of the Radon-Nikodm Theorem. Inequalities: Jensen, Holder, Minkowski.
Completeness of Lp. Aims: To introduce and study abstract spaces and general ideas in analysis, to apply them to examples, to lay the foundations for the Year 4 unit in meaning Functional analysis and to motivate the Lebesgue integral. Objectives: By the end of the unit, students should be able to state and bolshevik of 1917, prove the ancient greek social principal theorems relating to uniform continuity and uniform convergence for real functions on metric spaces, compactness in spaces of continuous functions, and elementary Hilbert space theory, and to apply these notions and bolshevik, the theorems to simple examples. Topics will be chosen from:Uniform continuity and uniform limits of literature continuous functions on [0,1]. Abstract Stone-Weierstrass Theorem. Uniform approximation of continuous functions. Polynomial and trigonometric polynomial approximation, separability of bolshevik revolution C[0,1]. Total Boundedness. Diagonalisation. Ascoli-Arzelagrave Theorem.
Complete metric spaces. Baire Category Theorem. Nowhere differentiable function. Ancient Mariner? Picard's theorem for x = f(x,t). Revolution? Metric completion M of a metric space M. Real inner product spaces. Hilbert spaces.
Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, parallelogram identity. Examples: l #178 , L #178 [0,1] := C[0,1]. Separability of L #178 . Orthogonality, Gram-Schmidt process. Bessel's inequality, Pythagoras' Theorem. Projections and subspaces. Orthogonal complements. Riesz Representation Theorem. Rime Themes? Complete orthonormal sets in separable Hilbert spaces. Completeness of trigonometric polynomials in L #178 [0,1].
Fourier Series. Aims: A treatment of the qualitative/geometric theory of dynamical systems to a level that will make accessible an bolshevik revolution of 1917 area of mathematics (and allied disciplines) that is Anxiety, highly active and rapidly expanding. Objectives: Conversance with concepts, results and techniques fundamental to the study of qualitative behaviour of dynamical systems. An ability to investigate stability of equilibria and periodic orbits. A basic understanding and bolshevik of 1917, appreciation of bifurcation and chaotic behaviour.
Topics will be chosen from the following: Stability of equilibria. Anxiety? Lyapunov functions. Invariance principle. Periodic orbits. Poincareacute maps. Hyperbolic equilibria and orbits. Stable and unstable manifolds. Bolshevik? Nonhyperbolic equilibria and orbits. Centre manifolds. Bifurcation from a simple eigenvalue. Introductory treatment of chaotic behaviour.
Horseshoe maps. Symbolic dynamics. MA40048: Analytical geometric theory of social differential equations. Aims: To give a unified presention of systems of bolshevik revolution of 1917 ordinary differential equations that have a Hamiltonian or Lagrangian structure. Ancient Mariner Themes? Geomtrical and bolshevik, analytical insights will be used to prove qualitative properties of where did benedict arnold die solutions. These ideas have generated many developments in modern pure mathematics, such as sympletic geometry and ergodic theory, besides being applicable to the equations of classical mechanics, and motivating much of modern physics. Objectives: Students will be able to of 1917 state and prove general theorems for Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems.
Based on these theoretical results and key motivating examples they will identify general qualitative properties of solutions of these systems. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems, phase space, phase flow, variational principles and Euler-Lagrange equations, Hamilton's Principle of least action, Legendre transform, Liouville's Theorem, Poincare recurrence theorem, Noether's Theorem. MA40050: Nonlinear equations bifurcations. Aims: To extend the real analysis of Anxiety and Adolescents implicitly defined functions into revolution of 1917 the numerical analysis of iterative methods for computing such functions and to teach an greek social awareness of practical issues involved in applying such methods. Objectives: The students should be able to solve a variety of nonlinear equations in many variables and should be able to revolution assess the performance of their solution methods using appropriate mathematical analysis. Topics will be chosen from the following: Solution methods for nonlinear equations: Newtons method for systems. Quasi-Newton Methods.
Eigenvalue problems. Theoretical Tools: Local Convergence of Newton's Method. Implicit Function Theorem. Bifcurcation from the trivial solution. Applications: Exothermic reaction and buckling problems. Continuous and did benedict die, discrete models. Analysis of parameter-dependent two-point boundary value problems using the of 1917 shooting method.
Practical use of the shooting method. The Lyapunov-Schmidt Reduction. Application to analysis of discretised boundary value problems. Ancient Greek? Computation of bolshevik revolution of 1917 solution paths for systems of nonlinear algebraic equations. Pseudo-arclength continuation. Homotopy methods. Computation of turning points. Bordered systems and their solution.
Exploitation of symmetry. Hopf bifurcation. Numerical Methods for Optimization: Newton's method for unconstrained minimisation, Quasi-Newton methods. Aims: To introduce the theory of infinite-dimensional normed vector spaces, the linear mappings between them, and spectral theory. Objectives: By the end of the unit, the students should be able to greek social state and prove the principal theorems relating to Banach spaces, bounded linear operators, compact linear operators, and spectral theory of compact self-adjoint linear operators, and apply these notions and theorems to simple examples.
Topics will be chosen from the following: Normed vector spaces and their metric structure. Banach spaces. Young, Minkowski and Holder inequalities. Examples - IRn, C[0,1], l p, Hilbert spaces. Riesz Lemma and finite-dimensional subspaces. The space B(X,Y) of bounded linear operators is a Banach space when Y is bolshevik, complete. Dual spaces and second duals.
Uniform Boundedness Theorem. Open Mapping Theorem. Of True? Closed Graph Theorem. Projections onto closed subspaces. Invertible operators form an open set. Power series expansion for (I-T)- #185 . Compact operators on Banach spaces. Revolution Of 1917? Spectrum of an operator - compactness of rime ancient spectrum. Operators on Hilbert space and their adjoints. Spectral theory of self-adjoint compact operators.
Zorn's Lemma. Hahn-Banach Theorem. Canonical embedding of X in X* * is isometric, reflexivity. Simple applications to weak topologies. Aims: To stimulate through theory and especially examples, an interest and appreciation of the power of this elegant method in analysis and probability. Applications of the bolshevik revolution theory are at the heart of this course. Objectives: By the end of the course, students should be familiar with the main results and techniques of discrete time martingale theory. They will have seen applications of martingales in proving some important results from classical probability theory, and they should be able to recognise and apply martingales in solving a variety of more elementary problems. Topics will be chosen from the ancient greek social following: Review of fundamental concepts. Conditional expectation. Revolution Of 1917? Martingales, stopping times, Optional-Stopping Theorem.
The Convergence Theorem. L #178 -bounded martingales, the of true random-signs problem. Angle-brackets process, Leacutevy's Borel-Cantelli Lemma. Uniform integrability. UI martingales, the Downward Theorem, the Strong Law, the Submartingale Inequality. Likelihood ratio, Kakutani's theorem. MA40061: Nonlinear optimal control theory. Aims: Four concepts underpin control theory: controllability, observability, stabilizability and optimality. Of these, the first two essentially form the focus of the bolshevik of 1917 Year 3/4 course on linear control theory. In this course, the latter notions of aspirin acid stabilizability and optimality are developed. Together, the courses on linear control theory and bolshevik of 1917, nonlinear optimal control provide a firm foundation for participating in theoretical and practical developments in an active and expanding discipline.
Objectives: To present concepts and results pertaining to robustness, stabilization and optimization of (nonlinear) finite-dimensional control systems in aspirin acid a rigorous manner. Emphasis is placed on bolshevik of 1917 optimization, leading to conversance with both the Bellman-Hamilton-Jacobi approach and the maximum principle of did benedict arnold Pontryagin, together with their application. Topics will be chosen from the following: Controlled dynamical systems: nonlinear systems and linearization. Stability and robustness. Stabilization by feedback. Lyapunov-based design methods. Stability radii. Small-gain theorem. Optimal control.
Value function. The Bellman-Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Verification theorem. Quadratic-cost control problem for linear systems. Riccati equations. The Pontryagin maximum principle and transversality conditions (a dynamic programming derivation of revolution of 1917 a restricted version and statement of the general result with applications). Proof of the maximum principle for the linear time-optimal control problem.
MA40062: Ordinary differential equations. Aims: To provide an aspirin acid accessible but rigorous treatment of initial-value problems for nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations. Foundations will be laid for advanced studies in dynamical systems and revolution, control. The material is also useful in mathematical biology and where did benedict die, numerical analysis. Objectives: Conversance with existence theory for the initial-value problem, locally Lipschitz righthand sides and uniqueness, flow, continuous dependence on initial conditions and parameters, limit sets. Topics will be chosen from the following: Motivating examples from diverse areas. Existence of solutions for the initial-value problem. Uniqueness.
Maximal intervals of existence. Dependence on initial conditions and parameters. Flow. Global existence and dynamical systems. Limit sets and attractors. Aims: To satisfy as many of the objectives as possible as set out in the individual project proposal.
Objectives: To produce the of 1917 deliverables identified in the individual project proposal. Defined in the individual project proposal. MA40171: Numerical solution of PDEs II. Aims: To teach an understanding of linear stability theory and its application to ODEs and evolutionary PDEs. Objectives: The students should be able to analyse the stability and convergence of a range of numerical methods and assess the practical performance of these methods through computer experiments. Solution of initial value problems for ODEs by and Sleep in Children and Adolescents Essay, Linear Multistep methods: local accuracy, order conditions; formulation as a one-step method; stability and revolution, convergence. Introduction to physically relevant PDEs. Well-posed problems.
Truncation error; consistency, stability, convergence and the Lax Equivalence Theorem; techniques for finding the stability properties of particular numerical methods. Numerical methods for structuralism, parabolic and bolshevik, hyperbolic PDEs. MA40189: Topics in Bayesian statistics. Aims: To introduce students to the ideas and techniques that underpin the theory and practice of the Bayesian approach to statistics. Objectives: Students should be able to of the formulate the Bayesian treatment and analysis of many familiar statistical problems. Bayesian methods provide an alternative approach to data analysis, which has the ability to incorporate prior knowledge about a parameter of interest into the statistical model. The prior knowledge takes the form of a prior (to sampling) distribution on the parameter space, which is updated to a posterior distribution via Bayes' Theorem, using the data. Summaries about the parameter are described using the posterior distribution.
The Bayesian Paradigm; decision theory; utility theory; exchangeability; Representation Theorem; prior, posterior and predictive distributions; conjugate priors. Tools to undertake a Bayesian statistical analysis will also be introduced. Simulation based methods such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo and importance sampling for use when analytical methods fail. Aims: The course is bolshevik revolution of 1917, intended to provide an elementary and assessible introduction to the state-space theory of linear control systems. Aspirin Acid? Main emphasis is on bolshevik revolution of 1917 continuous-time autonomous systems, although discrete-time systems will receive some attention through sampling of meaning of true continuous-time systems. Contact with classical (Laplace-transform based) control theory is made in the context of realization theory.
Objectives: To instill basic concepts and results from control theory in a rigorous manner making use of elementary linear algebra and linear ordinary differential equations. Conversance with controllability, observability, stabilizabilty and realization theory in a linear, finite-dimensional context. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Controlled and observed dynamical systems: definitions and classifications. Controllability and observability: Gramians, rank conditions, Hautus criteria, controllable and bolshevik of 1917, unobservable subspaces. Input-output maps. Transfer functions and state-space realizations. State feedback: stabilizability and pole placement. Observers and output feedback: detectability, asymptotic state estimation, stabilization by dynamic feedback.
Discrete-time systems: z-transform, deadbeat control and friendship, observation. Revolution Of 1917? Sampling of continuous-time systems: controllability and observability under sampling. Aims: To introduce students to the applications of advanced analysis to the solution of PDEs. Objectives: Students should be able to obtain solutions to certain important PDEs using a variety of techniques e.g. Green's functions, separation of variables. They should also be familiar with important analytic properties of the solution.
Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Elliptic equations in two independent variables: Harmonic functions. Mean value property. Rime Mariner? Maximum principle (several proofs). Dirichlet and bolshevik of 1917, Neumann problems. Representation of solutions in ancient greek terms of bolshevik revolution Green's functions. Continuous dependence of data for Dirichlet problem. Uniqueness. Parabolic equations in two independent variables: Representation theorems. Green's functions. Self-adjoint second-order operators: Eigenvalue problems (mainly by example).
Separation of variables for inhomogeneous systems. Green's function methods in general: Method of images. Use of integral transforms. Conformal mapping. Calculus of structuralism literature variations: Maxima and minima. Lagrange multipliers. Bolshevik Revolution? Extrema for integral functions. Euler's equation and its special first integrals. Integral and ancient social, non-integral constraints.
Aims: The aim of the course is to introduce students to applications of bolshevik revolution partial differential equations to model problems arising in biology. The course will complement Mathematical Biology I where the emphasis was on ODEs and Difference Equations. Objectives: Students should be able to derive and interpret mathematical models of problems arising in meaning of true biology using PDEs. They should be able to perform a linearised stability analysis of a reaction-diffusion system and determine criteria for diffusion-driven instability. They should be able to interpret the results in bolshevik revolution terms of the original biological problem. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Partial Differential Equation Models: Simple random walk derivation of the diffusion equation. Solutions of the diffusion equation.
Density-dependent diffusion. Conservation equation. Reaction-diffusion equations. Chemotaxis. Examples for insect dispersal and cell aggregation. Spatial Pattern Formation: Turing mechanisms. Linear stability analysis.
Conditions for diffusion-driven instability. Dispersion relation and Turing space. Scale and geometry effects. Ancient Social? Mode selection and revolution of 1917, dispersion relation. Applications: Animal coat markings.
How the structuralism literature leopard got its spots. Butterfly wing patterns. Aims: To introduce the general theory of continuum mechanics and, through this, the study of viscous fluid flow. Objectives: Students should be able to explain the basic concepts of continuum mechanics such as stress, deformation and constitutive relations, be able to bolshevik revolution of 1917 formulate balance laws and be able to apply these to the solution of simple problems involving the flow of a viscous fluid. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Vectors: Linear transformation of and Sleep in Children and Adolescents Essay vectors. Proper orthogonal transformations. Rotation of axes. Transformation of components under rotation. Cartesian Tensors: Transformations of components, symmetry and skew symmetry.
Isotropic tensors. Kinematics: Transformation of line elements, deformation gradient, Green strain. Linear strain measure. Displacement, velocity, strain-rate. Stress: Cauchy stress; relation between traction vector and stress tensor. Global Balance Laws: Equations of motion, boundary conditions. Newtonian Fluids: The constitutive law, uniform flow, Poiseuille flow, flow between rotating cylinders. Aims: To present the theory and bolshevik revolution of 1917, application of and Sleep Disorders in Children Essay normal linear models and generalised linear models, including estimation, hypothesis testing and confidence intervals.
To describe methods of model choice and the use of residuals in diagnostic checking. To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the bolshevik of 1917 topic. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to. (a) choose an appropriate generalised linear model for a given set of data; (b) fit this model using the GLIM program, select terms for inclusion in the model and assess the adequacy of a selected model; (c) make inferences on rime of the ancient mariner themes the basis of a fitted model and recognise the assumptions underlying these inferences and possible limitations to revolution of 1917 their accuracy; (d) demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Normal linear model: Vector and matrix representation, constraints on parameters, least squares estimation, distributions of parameter and variance estimates, t-tests and confidence intervals, the Analysis of Variance, F-tests for unbalanced designs.
Model building: Subset selection and stepwise regression methods with applications in polynomial regression and multiple regression. Anxiety And Sleep? Effects of collinearity in regression variables. Uses of revolution residuals: Probability plots, plots for additional variables, plotting residuals against fitted values to detect a mean-variance relationship, standardised residuals for outlier detection, masking. Generalised linear models: Exponential families, standard form, statement of asymptotic theory for i.i.d. samples, Fisher information. Linear predictors and link functions, statement of asymptotic theory for the generalised linear model, applications to z-tests and confidence intervals, #099 #178 -tests and the analysis of deviance. Residuals from generalised linear models and their uses. Applications to ancient social dose response relationships, and logistic regression. Aims: To introduce a variety of statistical models for time series and cover the main methods for analysing these models.
To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: At the end of the course, the student should be able to: * Compute and interpret a correlogram and a sample spectrum; * derive the properties of ARIMA and state-space models; * choose an appropriate ARIMA model for a given set of data and fit the model using an appropriate package; * compute forecasts for a variety of linear methods and models; * demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Introduction: Examples, simple descriptive techniques, trend, seasonality, the correlogram. Probability models for time series: Stationarity; moving average (MA), autoregressive (AR), ARMA and ARIMA models. Estimating the autocorrelation function and fitting ARIMA models. Forecasting: Exponential smoothing, Forecasting from ARIMA models. Stationary processes in the frequency domain: The spectral density function, the periodogram, spectral analysis. State-space models: Dynamic linear models and the Kalman filter. MA50089: Applied probability finance. Aims: To develop and apply the theory of probability and stochastic processes to examples from finance and economics.
To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be able to: * formulate mathematically, and then solve, dynamic programming problems; * price an option on a stock modelled by a log of bolshevik revolution a random walk; * perform simple calculations involving properties of Brownian motion; * demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Dynamic programming: Markov decision processes, Bellman equation; examples including consumption/investment, bid acceptance, optimal stopping. Infinite horizon problems; discounted programming, the Howard Improvement Lemma, negative and positive programming, simple examples and counter-examples. Option pricing for random walks: Arbitrage pricing theory, prices and discounted prices as Martingales, hedging. Brownian motion: Introduction to Brownian motion, definition and simple properties.Exponential Brownian motion as the model for a stock price, the Black-Scholes formula. Aims: To develop skills in the analysis of multivariate data and study the related theory.
To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the aspirin acid topic. Objectives: Be able to carry out a preliminary analysis of multivariate data and select and apply an appropriate technique to look for structure in such data or achieve dimensionality reduction. Be able to carry out classical multivariate inferential techniques based on the multivariate normal distribution. Be able to bolshevik revolution demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Introduction, Preliminary analysis of of the mariner multivariate data. Revision of bolshevik revolution of 1917 relevant matrix algebra. Principal components analysis: Derivation and meaning, interpretation; approximate reduction of dimensionality; scaling problems. Multidimensional distributions: The multivariate normal distribution - properties and parameter estimation.
One and two-sample tests on means, Hotelling's T-squared. Canonical correlations and canonical variables; discriminant analysis. Topics selected from: Factor analysis. The multivariate linear model. Metrics and similarity coefficients; multidimensional scaling. Cluster analysis. Revolution Of 1917? Correspondence analysis. Classification and regression trees.
MA50092: Classical statistical inference. Aims: To develop a formal basis for methods of statistical inference including criteria for the comparison of procedures. To give an in depth description of the asymptotic theory of maximum likelihood methods. To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to: * calculate properties of estimates and hypothesis tests; * derive efficient estimates and tests for a broad range of problems, including applications to a variety of standard distributions; * demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Revision of standard distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, Poisson, exponential, gamma and normal, and ancient social, their interrelationships. Sufficiency and Exponential families. Point estimation: Bias and variance considerations, mean squared error. Rao-Blackwell theorem. Cramer-Rao lower bound and efficiency.
Unbiased minimum variance estimators and a direct appreciation of efficiency through some examples. Bias reduction. Asymptotic theory for maximum likelihood estimators. Hypothesis testing: Hypothesis testing, review of the Neyman-Pearson lemma and revolution, maximisation of power. Maximum likelihood ratio tests, asymptotic theory. Compound alternative hypotheses, uniformly most powerful tests. Compound null hypotheses, monotone likelihood ratio property, uniformly most powerful unbiased tests. Nuisance parameters, generalised likelihood ratio tests. MA50125: Markov processes applications. Aims: To study further Markov processes in structuralism both discrete and revolution, continuous time.
To apply results in areas such genetics, biological processes, networks of queues, telecommunication networks, electrical networks, resource management, random walks and elsewhere. Aspirin Acid? To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to: * Formulate appropriate Markovian models for a variety of real life problems and apply suitable theoretical results to obtain solutions; * Classify a variety of birth-death processes as explosive or non-explosive; * Find the revolution of 1917 Q-matrix of a time-reversed chain and make effective use of time reversal; * Demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Topics covering both discrete and of true friendship, continuous time Markov chains will be chosen from: Genetics, the bolshevik of 1917 Wright-Fisher and Moran models. Epidemics.
Telecommunication models, blocking probabilities of Erlang and Engset. Models of interference in communication networks, the ALOHA model. Series of M/M/s queues. Open and closed migration processes. Aspirin Acid? Explosions. Birth-death processes. Branching processes.
Resource management. Electrical networks. Random walks, reflecting random walks as queuing models in one or more dimensions. The strong Markov property. The Poisson process in time and space. Other applications. MA50170: Numerical solution of PDEs I.
Aims: To teach numerical methods for elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations via the finite element method based on variational principles. Objectives: At the end of the course students should be able to derive and implement the bolshevik revolution of 1917 finite element method for where did benedict arnold die, a range of standard elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations in one and several space dimensions. Bolshevik Revolution Of 1917? They should also be able to derive and use elementary error estimates for these methods. Variational and friendship, weak form of elliptic PDEs. Natural, essential and mixed boundary conditions. Linear and quadratic finite element approximation in one and several space dimensions. An introduction to convergence theory. System assembly and bolshevik revolution, solution, isoparametric mapping, quadrature, adaptivity. Applications to PDEs arising in applications. Parabolic problems: methods of lines, and simple timestepping procedures. Stability and convergence.
MA50174: Theory methods 1b-differential equations: computation and ancient greek social, applications. Content: Introduction to Maple and Matlab and their facilities: basic matrix manipulation, eigenvalue calculation, FFT analysis, special functions, solution of bolshevik revolution simultaneous linear and nonlinear equations, simple optimization. Basic graphics, data handling, use of toolboxes. Problem formulation and solution using Matlab. Numerical methods for solving ordinary differential equations: Matlab codes and student written codes.
Convergence and Stability. Aspirin Acid? Shooting methods, finite difference methods and spectral methods (using FFT). Sample case studies chosen from: the two body problem, the three body problem, combustion, nonlinear control theory, the Lorenz equations, power electronics, Sturm-Liouville theory, eigenvalues, and orthogonal basis expansions. Finite Difference Methods for classical PDEs: the wave equation, the heat equation, Laplace's equation. MA50175: Theory methods 2 - topics in differential equations. Aims: To describe the of 1917 theory and phenomena associated with hyperbolic conservation laws, typical examples from applications areas, and their numerical approximation; and to introduce students to and Sleep Essay the literature on the subject.
Objectives: At the bolshevik revolution end of the course, students should be able to recognise the and Adolescents Essay importance of conservation principles and revolution, be familiar with phenomena such as shocks and rarefaction waves; and they should be able to choose appropriate numerical methods for their approximation, analyse their behaviour, and implement them through Matlab programs. Content: Scalar conservation laws in 1D: examples, characteristics, shock formation, viscosity solutions, weak solutions, need for an entropy condition, total variation, existence and uniqueness of solutions.Design of conservative numerical methods for rime of the mariner themes, hyperbolic systems: interface fluxes, Roe's first order scheme, Lax-Wendroff methods, finite volume methods, TVD schemes and the Harten theorem, Engquist-Osher method. The Riemann problem: shocks and the Hugoniot locus, isothermal flow and revolution of 1917, the shallow water equations, the Godunov method, Euler equations of compressible fluid flow. Structuralism? System wave equation in 2D. R.J. LeVeque, Numerical Methods for Conservation Laws (2nd Edition), Birkhuser, 1992. K.W. Morton D.F. Mayers, Numerical Solution of bolshevik of 1917 Partial Differential Equations, CUP, 1994.R.J. LeVeque, Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems, CUP, 2002. MA50176: Methods applications 1: case studies in and Sleep Disorders in Children mathematical modelling and industrial mathematics.
Content: Applications of the revolution of 1917 theory and techniques learnt in the prerequisites to solve real problems drawn from social, from the industrial collaborators and/or from the industrially related research work of the key staff involved. Instruction and bolshevik of 1917, practical experience of a set of rime of the themes problem solving methods and techniques, such as methods for simplifying a problem, scalings, perturbation methods, asymptotic methods, construction of bolshevik of 1917 similarity solutions. Comparison of where arnold mathematical models with experimental data. Development and refinement of mathematical models. Case studies will be taken from bolshevik revolution of 1917, micro-wave cooking, Stefan problems, moulding glass, contamination in pipe networks, electrostatic filtering, DC-DC conversion, tests for elasticity. Students will work in teams under the aspirin acid pressure of project deadlines. They will attend lectures given by external industrialists describing the application of mathematics in an industrial context.
They will write reports and give presentations on the case studies making appropriate use of computer methods, graphics and communication skills. MA50177: Methods and applications 2: scientific computing. Content: Units, complexity, analysis of algorithms, benchmarks. Floating point arithmetic. Programming in bolshevik revolution of 1917 Fortran90: Makefiles, compiling, timing, profiling. Data structures, full and sparse matrices. Libraries: BLAS, LAPACK, NAG Library. Visualisation. Handling modules in other languages such as C, C++. Software on the Web: Netlib, GAMS.
Parallel Computation: Vectorisation, SIMD, MIMD, MPI. Performance indicators. Case studies illustrating the lectures will be chosen from the topics:Finite element implementation, iterative methods, preconditioning; Adaptive refinement; The algebraic eigenvalue problem (ARPACK); Stiff systems and the NAG library; Nonlinear 2-point boundary value problems and bifurcation (AUTO); Optimisation; Wavelets and data compression. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: The algebraic eigenvalue problem: Gerschgorin's theorems. The power method and its extensions. Anxiety And Sleep Disorders In Children Essay? Backward Error Analysis (Bauer-Fike). Bolshevik Of 1917? The (Givens) QR factorization and the QR method for symmetric tridiagonal matrices. (Statement of convergence only). The Lanczos Procedure for reduction of a real symmetric matrix to tridiagonal form.
Orthogonality properties of Lanczos iterates. Iterative Methods for Linear Systems: Convergence of stationary iteration methods. Special cases of aspirin acid symmetric positive definite and diagonally dominant matrices. Variational principles for linear systems with real symmetric matrices. The conjugate gradient method. Krylov subspaces. Revolution? Convergence. Connection with the Lanczos method. Iterative Methods for Nonlinear Systems: Newton's Method. Convergence in 1D. Statement of algorithm for systems.
Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Difference equations: Steady states and fixed points. Stability. Period doubling bifurcations. Chaos. Application to literature population growth. Systems of difference equations: Host-parasitoid systems.Systems of ODEs: Stability of bolshevik revolution of 1917 solutions. Critical points. Phase plane analysis. Poincari-Bendixson theorem. Bendixson and Dulac negative criteria. Conservative systems.
Structural stability and instability. Lyapunov functions. Travelling wave fronts: Waves of advance of an advantageous gene. Literature? Waves of excitation in nerves. Waves of advance of an epidemic. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Revision: Kinematics of deformation, stress analysis, global balance laws, boundary conditions. Constitutive law: Properties of real materials; constitutive law for linear isotropic elasticity, Lami moduli; field equations of linear elasticity; Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio. Some simple problems of elastostatics: Expansion of a spherical shell, bulk modulus; deformation of a block under gravity; elementary bending solution. Linear elastostatics: Strain energy function; uniqueness theorem; Betti's reciprocal theorem, mean value theorems; variational principles, application to composite materials; torsion of cylinders, Prandtl's stress function. Linear elastodynamics: Basic equations and general solutions; plane waves in unbounded media, simple reflection problems; surface waves.
MA50181: Theory methods 1a - differential equations: theory methods. Content: Sturm-Liouville theory: Reality of eigenvalues. Orthogonality of bolshevik of 1917 eigenfunctions. Expansion in eigenfunctions. Approximation in mean square. Statement of completeness. Fourier Transform: As a limit of Fourier series.
Properties and applications to solution of differential equations. Frequency response of linear systems. Characteristic functions. Linear and Anxiety and Sleep in Children Essay, quasi-linear first-order PDEs in bolshevik two and three independent variables: Characteristics. Integral surfaces. Uniqueness (without proof).
Linear and quasi-linear second-order PDEs in two independent variables: Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem (without proof). Characteristic data. Lack of continuous dependence on initial data for greek, Cauchy problem. Classification as elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic. Different standard forms. Constant and revolution, nonconstant coefficients. One-dimensional wave equation: d'Alembert's solution. Uniqueness theorem for corresponding Cauchy problem (with data on a spacelike curve). Content: Definition and examples of metric spaces.
Convergence of sequences. Continuous maps and isometries. Of True Friendship? Sequential definition of continuity. Subspaces and product spaces. Complete metric spaces and the Contraction Mapping Principle. Sequential compactness, Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem and applications. Open and closed sets. Closure and interior of sets. Topological approach to continuity and compactness (with statement of bolshevik revolution of 1917 Heine-Borel theorem). Equivalence of Compactness and sequential compactness in metric spaces.
Connectedness and path-connectedness. Metric spaces of functions: C[0,1] is ancient mariner themes, a complete metric space. MA50183: Specialist reading course. * advanced knowledge in the chosen field. * evidence of independent learning. * an bolshevik revolution of 1917 ability to read critically and master an advanced topic in mathematics/ statistics/probability. Content: Defined in the individual course specification. MA50183: Specialist reading course.
advanced knowledge in the chosen field. evidence of independent learning. an ability to read critically and master an advanced topic in mathematics/statistics/probability. Content: Defined in the individual course specification. MA50185: Representation theory of where did benedict arnold finite groups.
Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Group algebras, their modules and associated representations. Maschke's theorem and complete reducibility. Irreducible representations and Schur's lemma. Revolution Of 1917? Decomposition of the regular representation. Character theory and Anxiety Disorders Essay, orthogonality theorems. Burnside's p #097 q #098 theorem. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Functions of a complex variable. Continuity.
Complex series and power series. Circle of convergence. The complex plane. Regions, paths, simple and of 1917, closed paths. Path-connectedness. Analyticity and the Cauchy-Riemann equations. Harmonic functions. Cauchy's theorem. Cauchy's Integral Formula and its application to power series. Isolated zeros. Differentiability of an analytic function.
Liouville's Theorem. Zeros, poles and essential singularities. Laurent expansions. Cauchy's Residue Theorem and rime of the, contour integration. Revolution? Applications to real definite integrals. On completion of the course, the student should be able to demonstrate:- * Advanced knowledge in the chosen field.
* Evidence of independent learning. * An ability to initiate mathematical/statistical research. * An ability to read critically and master an meaning of true friendship advanced topic in mathematics/ statistics/probability to the extent of being able to expound it in a coherent, well-argued dissertation. * Competence in a document preparation language to the extent of being able to typeset a dissertation with substantial mathematical/statistical content. Content: Defined in the individual project specification. MA50190: Advanced mathematical methods. Objectives: Students should learn a set of bolshevik revolution of 1917 mathematical techniques in and Sleep in Children and Adolescents Essay a variety of areas and be able to apply them to either solve a problem or to construct an accurate approximation to the solution. They should demonstrate an bolshevik revolution of 1917 understanding of mariner themes both the theory and the range of applications (including the limitations) of all the techniques studied.
Content: Transforms and Distributions: Fourier Transforms, Convolutions (6 lectures, plus directed reading on bolshevik complex analysis and ancient, calculus of revolution residues). Asymptotic expansions: Laplace's method, method of arnold steepest descent, matched asymptotic expansions, singular perturbations, multiple scales and averaging, WKB. (12 lectures, plus directed reading on applications in continuum mechanics). Dimensional analysis: scaling laws, reduction of PDEs and ODEs, similarity solutions. (6 lectures, plus directed reading on symmetry group methods). References: L. Dresner, Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear PDEs , Pitman, 1983; JP Keener, Principles of Applied Mathematics, Addison Wesley, 1988; P. Olver, Symmetry Methods for PDEs, Springer; E.J. Hinch, Perturbation Methods, CUP. Objectives: At the end of the course students should be able to use homogeneous coordinates in projective space and to distinguish singular points of bolshevik plane curves.
They should be able to aspirin acid demonstrate an understanding of the difference between rational and nonrational curves, know examples of both, and be able to revolution describe some special features of plane cubic curves. Content: To be chosen from: Affine and projective space. Polynomial rings andhomogeneous polynomials. Ideals in the context of polynomial rings,the Nullstellensatz. Of True? Plane curves; degree; Bezout's theorem. Singular points of plane curves. Rational maps and morphisms; isomorphism and revolution, birationality. Curves of low degree (up to 3). Genus. Elliptic curves; the group law, nonrationality, the j invariant. Weierstrass p function.
Quadric surfaces; curves of quadrics. Duals. MA50194: Advanced statistics for use in health contexts 2. * To equip students with the skills to use and interpret advanced multivariate statistics; * To provide an appreciation of the applications of advanced multivariate analysis in health and medicine. Learning Outcomes: On completion of this unit, students will: * Learn and understand how and why selected advanced multivariate analyses are computed; * Practice conducting, interpreting and reporting analyses. * To learn independently; * To critically evaluate and assess research and evidence as well as a variety of other information; * To utilise problem solving skills.
* Advanced information technology and computing technology (e.g. SPSS); * Independent working skills; * Advanced numeracy skills. Content: Introduction to STATA, power and sample size, multidimensional scaling, logistic regression, meta-analysis, structural equation modelling. Student Records Examinations Office, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY. Tel: +44 (0) 1225 384352 Fax: +44 (0) 1225 386366.
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