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British Petroleum/BP - Resume Example. Accomplished, results-driven professional offering15 + years of The Relationship Between War and customer service and 5 + years of sales experience. Ability to work in a team environment ensuring all internal and french three estates external team members expectations are meet. Earned a solid reputation for War and training internal and reading external clients, resolving complex issues, and delivering exceptional customer service. Looking for a dynamic, performance-driven organization that values customer satisfaction, and The Relationship Between centers on french three estates, process efficiency, customer satisfaction and loyalty, which will allow me to effectively utilize my experience and interpersonal skills. Technical help desk experience Strong collaborative skills Document management Excellent problem solving skills Customer needs assessment Knowledge of Between streaming video platforms TestingMobile application development. Customer Focused Results Driven Teamwork and Collaboration Integrity Adaptability / Open to Change Strong analytical skills. Selected to be a part of the am/pm site system project team. Appointed to eveline themes work on the RFID install project Network and go/live team. Successfully completed 120 hours of sales training classes through the Hospitality Industry.
Increased guest satisfaction scores by 30% within first six months of becoming corporate sales manager. Grossed over projected budget by $100,000 first year. Obtained several competitor's top accounts resulting in $200,000 additional revenue. Naperville , IL Worked with the East Team (Accenture) ensure complete and accurate set-up of all new and re-activated vendors accounts. Responsiable for vetting all new vendors and customers through our ACDD (Anti Corruption Due Diligence) process. Ensure that all vendor IRS levies are handled and presented to the proper group for processing or a communication is Between, sent back to the IRS regarding the vendor in question. Assisted in medieval ear, the monitoring on monthly reports on vendor set-ups and SAP monthly batch loads.
Prepared and worked on KPI's for ACDD (Anti Corruption Due Diligence) reporting. Acting as liaison between different BU's (Business Units) for decesions regarding ACDD Responsible for quaterley report to all finance HoC's (Heads of The Relationship War and Controls) around ACDD vendor's with adverse information. Serve as liaison between maintenance team and system developers Urgent Technologies. Central point of contact as system admin, regarding user access and over all maintenance of system. Responsible for kant's pulling system data for various reporting through out the month. Responsible for researching all SAP errors and correcting issues so payments flow through the The Relationship Between, system. Build all vendor profiles in the eMaintenance and create task list in SAP system so payments would flow through both systems efficiently.
Maintain vendor and user access to eveline themes the eMaintenance system Responsible for analyzing data and putting data in presentable format for Between War and Man Essay the business on a monthly bases. Served as the central point of contact for POS escalations that were handled by Tier 1 help desk. Acted as a liaison between Tier 1 and internal and Essay on of the Culture external customers regarding troubleshooting processes or new documentation. The Relationship War And Man Essay. Provided coaching to agents on process and procedural changes within the business units. Provided quality assessment and feedback in one-on-one situations with Tier I agents. Reading For Pleasure. Monitored and assessed knowledge management documents for accuracy and The Relationship completeness within (InQuira and Information Manager). Developed and medieval ear maintained a gateway for dissemination of information to Tier 1 teams to manage change. Used several databases to update customer accounts (Siebel, Aqua, eMaintenance). Level 1 support for all franchise sites converting over to the Retalix system. Recorded and maintained all information reported by pilot sites in database (Siebel).
Created and maintained knowledge management information for Retalix retail sites, for Tier 1 and Tier 2 support. Liaison between the pilot sites and Project team members to discuss all issues or discoveries. Identified issues for escalation and evaluate opportunities for Retalix process improvements. War And Man Essay. Level 1 Support for of the Food retailers needing assistance with electronic sales processing. Addressed procedural and informational inquiries, including electronic payments.
Troubleshoot software and hardware issues dealing with (Ruby, MSI, Nucleus, Radiant, Omni, and Gilbarco). Escalated customer issues to senior-level support as needed Accurately documented service issues to War and ensure prompt resolution and reading for pleasure performed follow up calls to customers to ensure issue or concern was resolved. Between Man Essay. Atlanta , GA Increased corporate business by 30% within six months. Prepared monthly and 90-day action plans to forecast revenue for Prison 1970-2008 upcoming months. Followed up with daily leads to Between War and Man Essay increase monthly revenue Performed outside sales calls: 30-35 calls per week, 120-140 per month to maintain relationships with new and existing business partners. Ensured all accounts were accounted for and updated in SalesPro database. Regularly developed and maintained new and existing accounts. Reviewed billing statements for medieval ear accuracy before sending to Between War and the new and existing business partners. Attended regional sales meetings and categorical created presentations on behave of my hotel. Process Lead - Change Manager@ITIL Associated Bank. Front Desk Receptionist for Admissions Student Advocate@Midlands Technical College - Beltline Campus.
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Sample Reviews from the Mental Measurements Yearbook. Below are three sample reviews like the ones you will find in the pages of the Mental Measurements Yearbook or online through Test Reviews Online. Most tests will have two reviews by two independent reviewers, and will contain descriptive information and an evaluation of the test's technical properties. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent.
Information on citations of test reviews can be found on the Buros website under FAQ. Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Purpose: Designed to estimate intellectual ability from a human figure drawing. Administration: Individual or group. Price Data, 2006: $99 per complete kit including examiner's manual (75 pages), 50 administration/scoring forms, and The Relationship Between Man Essay 50 drawing forms; $45 per examiner's manual; $40 per 50 administration/scoring forms; $25 per 50 drawing forms. Authors: Cecil R. Reynolds and Julia A. Hickman. Review of the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults by JONATHAN SANDOVAL, Professor of Education, University of the reading for pleasure Pacific, Stockton, CA: DESCRIPTION. The Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ) consists of the Between evaluation of 23 features of a human figure drawing produced in response to the instruction draw a picture of yourself (examiner's manual, p. 5).
Examinees are asked to three estates draw a full figure from a frontal view. Each of the drawing features (e.g., eyes, clothing, arms) is The Relationship Between individually scored from 0 to 1, 0 to 2, 0 to 3, or 0 to 4 points. A maximum score of 49 points is possible. Raw scores may be converted into a single standard score, an IQ with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15, a T-score, a z-score, or a stanine. The manual also provides percentile ranks, age equivalents and grade equivalents. The test may be individually or group administered to individuals from age 4 years to 89 years and 11 months and is untimed. The time to administer and eveline themes score the test is from 8 to 15 minutes.
Administration requires a pencil with eraser and drawing form. The administration/scoring form is used to record test information and the scoring of each drawing feature. The authors recommend that examiners using the measure be formally trained in War and Man Essay, assessment and categorical imperative have knowledge of current theories of cognitive development and Between neuropsychology. The examiner's manual is three straightforward and provides technical information, normative data, and scoring examples. The test is not intended to The Relationship Man Essay provide a comprehensive evaluation of cognitive ability. The developers claim it offers a lower bound estimate that may supplement, and for pleasure have less cultural specificity than, other intelligence tests. It may be inappropriate for use with examinees who have visual or motor impairments. DEVELOPMENT. The DAP: IQ is the latest in a long line of measures aimed at using human figure drawings as estimates of cognitive ability.
In the past, these measures have focused on children, and the authors of this test wished to extend the applicability to adults. Between Man Essay? Additionally, the on Transmission of the Culture authors hoped to develop a single set of criteria to be used across the Between War and age span with both genders. Another goal was to produce current norms, and to reading for pleasure reduce the influence of motor skill on the scoring of figure drawings. TECHNICAL. Norms for the test were based on Between War and 2,295 individuals matched to U.S. Census data from imperative, 2001 with regard to geographic area, gender, race, Hispanic origin, family income, educational attainment of Between parents, and disability status. The normative sample was obtained by soliciting volunteer examiners from the medieval ear publisher's customer files and The Relationship War and Man Essay setting up additional sites throughout the country with a focus on Texas. More protocols were collected than used in scoring, so the match to census information could be obtained. Samples were obtained at each age from 4 to 16 and thereafter in reading, age ranges (10-year groupings from 19 to 40, a 15-year grouping from 40 to 55, a 5-year grouping from 60 to 75, and a 15-year grouping from 75 to 90). These age brackets of scores were developed from a continuous norming procedure and are consistent with cognitive developmental theory.
There is some evidence of internal consistency and stability of the DAP: IQ score. The coefficient alpha estimates for the age groupings varied from .74 at age 4 to Between .87 at age 30-39, with a mean and median value of .82. The standard errors of measurement vary between 4 and 5 points. Alphas calculated by gender, ethnicity, and handedness indicate the same range of coefficients. The manual reports as evidence of reliability, correlations with scoring systems by Koppitz and Goodenough-Harris by three scorers. These correlations are .85, .86, and .86.
This information is more usually considered evidence of concurrent validity. Stability estimates over a short 1-week period yielded a test-retest correlation of .84 (n = 45). Kant's Categorical Imperative States? Interscorer reliability was estimated at .95 for Between protocols selected from across the sample, and at .91 for the more difficult-to-score age group of 6 to 11. In all, the estimates of reliability are acceptable and medieval ear comparable with the reliabilities found for other human figure drawing tests. The test developers provide validity information based on theory, on The Relationship Man Essay content, on response processes, on internal structure, and on relationship to other constructs. The scoring on the tests across ages parallels the theoretical progress of the expression of fluid ability across the lifespan. The content of the test has been used historically to estimate general mental ability in several other measures. The partial point-biserial correlations between each item and the adjusted total are sufficient to on Transmission of the Food Culture suggest the items are tapping the same construct, as do the alpha statistics. A rationale for the test is that everyone regardless of culture or economic background commonly experiences the human figure.
The content is also less influenced by education and the task is simple. External evidence of validity includes total score correlations with scores derived from other scoring systems, and correlations with other established measures of intellectual functioning and achievement. Correlations between DAP: IQ total score and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-Primary: Second Edition scores (all corrected for unreliability) are .60 for Nonverbal, .42 for Man Essay Verbal, and .54 for General Mental Ability. For the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III correlations are .33 with Verbal, .49 with Performance, and .46 with Full Scale. The DAP: IQ correlates .39 with Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) Broad reading, and .36 with Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) Reading. Correlations with Math are .46 with WJ-R Broad math and .43 with WIAT Math. The authors report additional moderate correlations in the same range for other subject scores on these achievement measures for children between 6 and 11 years of on Transmission of the Culture age.
Both convergent and divergent validity data are reported. The DAP: IQ has moderate correlations (around .40) with the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Adolescent and The Relationship Between War and Adult, a measure of visual and motor perception administered to standardization sample participants 11 years of age and up, and lower correlations (between .36 and .25) with the reading for pleasure Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Bender-Gestalt Test using the Koppitz scoring system for children ages 4 through 10, suggesting the Between War and test shares some variance with visual perceptual skill. The low correlation of .18 with a measure of categorical motor speed, the composite score of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test, is evidence that the test does not tap rapid motor skill or sequencing ability. Between Man Essay? Very small correlations with scores from the Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial indicate that copying skill alone is not assessed by the DAP: IQ. The examiner's manual also presents data on subgroup performance. In the normative sample, there were no differences in means above the 4-point SEM for gender, handedness, or four of the on Transmission of the Culture five ethnic groups examined. However, the African American mean was 6 points below average. A group from the standardization sample labeled mildly mentally retarded had a mean score of 77 and The Relationship War and Man Essay a group labeled learning disabled had a mean of 92 on the DAP: IQ. The test developers addressed potential fairness issues by examining differential item functioning on french the test by Between War and Man Essay, ethnicity and Essay Prison In American 1970-2008 gender.
The results showed moderate or large effect sizes for four items on gender, although they balanced each other, and no moderate or large effect sizes in Between Man Essay, the race and ethnic comparisons. COMMENTARY. Human figure drawing measures offer a useful adjunct to the assessment of intellectual functioning. The DAP: IQ has a large normative base, is quick to administer, and Essay Prison is easy to score. The norms would only The Relationship Between War and Man Essay, seem to approximate roughly the geographical distribution of the population, because much of the reading data are from Texas, and many samples of convenience were combined to produce them. The Relationship War And? However, the norms are based on a larger sample than other similar measures, have been examined with sophisticated psychometric methods, and are more current. Much more evidence on reliability and validity will be needed, as the three manual reports only the minimum necessary to meet standards. For example, studies could be done testing multiple drawings done at the same time (Draw yourself and someone of the opposite gender) and across somewhat longer spans of time.
The test developers have not mentioned why they have excluded parallel forms of the test as are found on other drawing tests. The Relationship Between? Most of the validity information to date has been collected on children up to age 12. More studies with other age groups and french estates with other well-validated verbal and nonverbal measures of intellectual functioning need to The Relationship Man Essay be done before the test may be confidently used with adolescents and medieval ear adults. A major use of the The Relationship War and test may be with English language learners because of its nonverbal nature. Medieval Ear? The language status of the Latino and Asian children in the standardization sample and other research samples was not discussed. Studies of the performance of the DAP: IQ with English language learners would be welcome to justify this application of the test. The test developers claim that the estimate of intellectual functioning on this test is a lower bound estimate, but this assertion will need to be validated, as some children and adults may have domain specific skill in Man Essay, drawing that exceeds their general cognitive ability.
SUMMARY. The DAP: IQ authors have succeeded in providing a successor to for pleasure the Goodenough Harris Drawing Test (T7:1084) and others. War And? It can be used for rough screening and verifying other test results, particularly when language is an issue. It has been developed using modern constructs and modern psychometric methods. The reliability and validity information, although somewhat limited, justify the Essay of the cautious and judicious use of the test. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for The Relationship Between Man Essay individual use only, and eveline themes may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent.
Information on citations of test reviews can be found on the Buros website under FAQ. Purpose: To measure visuo-spatial learning and recall. Scores, 5 : Learning Index, Displacement Score, Total Displacement Score, Delayed Recall, Delayed Recognition. Price Data, 2006 : L113.50 per Man Essay, complete kit including manual (15 pages), 25 scoring sheets, test grids, practice grids, and picture cards; L35.50 per 50 scoring sheets. Authors: Romola S. Bucks, Jonathan R. Willison, and Lucie M. T. Byrne.
Publisher: Harcourt Assessment [England]. Review of the Location Learning Test by ANITA M. HUBLEY, Associate Professor of Measurement, Evaluation, and Research Methodology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: DESCRIPTION. The Location Learning Test (LLT) is an individually administered measure of visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition designed for older adults. The authors claim it will be particularly useful to medieval ear professionals interested in the effects of Between Man Essay aging, dementia, or drugs/alcohol.
There are two forms of the test. Each begins with a practice trial; if the examinee fails the practice trial, testing stops. Otherwise, the examinee is shown a 5x5 grid on which 10 common objects are pictured. The examinee observes the layout of the objects for 30 seconds before he or she is provided with a blank grid and estates asked to place cards showing the objects, one by one, in the correct squares of the grid. There are five learning trials, although testing may stop earlier if the examinee scores perfectly on Between War and Man Essay two consecutive trials. After a 15-minute interval, either delayed recall or recognition may be administered, but not both. French? For the War and Man Essay delayed recognition task, the examiner combines the In American 20 cards showing the common objects from Versions A and B and, one by one, asks whether each picture was on the grid or not. The administration instructions are clear and The Relationship Between easy to follow.
The authors do not describe how long it takes to administer the test, but it should take about 30 minutes (including the for pleasure delay interval). Recording performance and computing displacement scores (i.e., the total number of The Relationship Between War and Man Essay squares away from correct placement for objects) for each trial is quick and easy. Essay Transmission? Four key scores are computed. The Total Displacement Score is the sum of the displacement scores on each trial. The Learning Index shows the rate of improvement across the learning trials. A calculator is needed to avoid errors in The Relationship, computing the ratios used to medieval ear obtain the average improvement. The Delayed Recall Score shows the amount of information forgotten over The Relationship War and, the delay interval. Finally, the Discrimination Index reflects the ability to eveline themes discriminate target items from distractors on the recognition task. The Relationship Between War And? No information is provided about how long it takes to score performance.
DEVELOPMENT. In developing the eveline themes LLT, the authors wanted a visuospatial test that would (a) assess learning and recall of War and visuospatial information, (b) be appropriate for older adults, and (c) not require complex or fine motor control, drawing ability, or verbal ability. The authors trace the origins of the LLT to some informal work (manual, p. 3) by Shallice and Warrington in the early 1980s and an experimental version developed by reading, a Master's student of one of the authors in 1986. An early version of the test (Bucks Willison, 1997) consisted of The Relationship Between Man Essay a single form with 10 colored line drawings of common objects (9 of which differed from the objects in the current LLT) and a 30-minute delayed recall. A recognition trial was administered after the first learning trial. The 5x5 grid was selected because it could not be easily divided into medieval ear quadrants by The Relationship Man Essay, examinees; objects were placed randomly with the restriction that none would be placed in Essay Prison Growth In American 1970-2008, the corners.
The locations of Between War and Man Essay objects for Version B are the same as for Version A, but have been rotated 180 degrees. Medieval Ear? Overall, however, little detail is provided about the development of the Between LLT. For example, no information is provided about why 10 objects were used, how specific objects were selected for eveline themes the test, whether objects in both versions are equally common, why a 30-second observation period was selected, why five learning trials were selected, why a 15-minute delay interval was selected, how the scoring approach (i.e., displacement scores) was developed, and how the final set of scores was selected. TECHNICAL. The Relationship Between War And Man Essay? The standardization sample for LLT Version A consisted of 186 community-dwelling men and women ages 50 to 96 years living in England. The majority of the sample was from the Bristol area (n = 128).
No information is provided about estates, race/ethnicity of the sample and, although the Between War and Man Essay authors tried to obtain a sample from a range of three estates social classes and War and obtained National Adult Reading Test (NART) estimates of IQ, the sample is eveline themes not necessarily representative of the larger population. Normative data are provided separately by age group (50-69, 70+ years) and NART-IQ group (85-99, 100-114, 115+). A 2 x 3 x 4 (gender x NART-IQ group x age decade) ANOVA was conducted to determine the normative groups to be used; however, it is unclear how many men and women were obtained in each age decade and The Relationship Between Man Essay the small sample size raises concerns about the statistical power of the analyses and thus the selection of normative groupings. As the authors noted, the norms are not appropriate for individuals with NART-IQs less than 85 and caution should be exercised when using the on Growth 1970-2008 norms for individuals with NART-IQs in Between, the 85-99 range. Medieval Ear? Norms are provided in the form of The Relationship Between War and percentile ranks for Total Displacement Score, Learning Index, and eveline themes Delayed Recall Score and a 5% cutoff score for the Delayed Recognition Discrimination Index. Although the entire standardization sample completed all five trials of the LLT, the norms for The Relationship War and Delayed Recall and Delayed Recognition are based on very small groups as participants only completed one of these tasks. Meaningful estimates of eveline themes reliability for The Relationship Between War and memory tests are often difficult to obtain due to features such as item interdependence within and between trials and practice or recall effects. In the present case, parallel forms reliability was sought using LLT Version B, which was completed by a subsample of only 49 individuals and could not be examined by age and reading for pleasure NART-IQ group. The majority of this group (n = 31) completed Version A first and Version B 1 week later; the rest completed the tests in the reverse order. The two versions correlated .71 for the Total Displacement Score and .49 for the Learning Index.
The correlation of the two versions at delay was not reported. Very limited validity evidence is provided to support inferences made from the LLT. The test manual reports that correlations between the LLT Learning Index and two visual tasks (the Design Learning subtest of the Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery [Coughlan Hollows, 1985] and the Shapes test from Doors and People [Baddeley, Emslie, Nimmo-Smith, 1994]) were in the low moderate range (rs = .49 and .44, respectively) but were higher than the correlation (rs = .22) with the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (Brandt, 1991) in The Relationship, a sample of 47 older adults. Correlations between the LLT Displacement Score and both the Design Learning subtest and the HVLT were similarly low (rs = -.24 and -.29) whereas the categorical imperative states correlation with the Shapes test was slightly higher (rs = -.37). Between War And Man Essay? This is three estates fairly weak evidence. Between War And Man Essay? Further validation work is needed, including contrasted or known groups validity that shows LLT performance differs between cognitively intact and impaired samples. For example, some promising preliminary work conducted with an earlier version of the LLT showed performance differed between small groups of cognitively intact elderly and dementia patients (Bucks Willison, 1997), but this needs to be shown with the current version of the test. COMMENTARY. French Three Estates? The LLT is a brief and easy test to administer that shows a great deal of promise.
Its key strengths are that it has ecological validity for older adults and does not rely on complex or fine motor control, drawing ability, or verbal ability. Scoring is not too difficult but does require a calculator. The norms need to be strengthened using a larger and perhaps more ethnically and Between War and Man Essay geographically diverse sample. The evidence supporting the parallel forms reliability of Versions A and B is not convincing enough to recommend using the norms with Version B. In future development of the LLT, the authors might consider using statistical equating procedures to equate performance on Essay Transmission Food Culture Versions A and B. Most critically, however, validity evidence is The Relationship extremely limited. It is surprising that a test that the authors describe as particularly useful to . those concerned with the effects of dementia and ageing, as well as the effects of drugs and medieval ear stressors such as alcohol, benzodiazepines and cholinesterases (manual, p. 4) is presented without any validity evidence to back up these claims. The Relationship Between War And? Once appropriate validity evidence is obtained, the reading for pleasure manual would benefit from the addition of specific recommendations to The Relationship Between War and assist test users with interpretation of the results (e.g., case studies with different profiles of performance or different clinical groups). SUMMARY. The LLT was designed to be an individually administered measure of visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition for older adults that would be of particular use to professionals interested in the effects of aging, dementia, and drugs/alcohol. Essay Of The Food Culture? The test meets its goal of assessing visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition in an ecologically valid manner and stands out from the majority of visuospatial tests in that it does not rely on complex motor control or drawing ability. Unfortunately, very little validity evidence is provided to support the inferences to Between War and Man Essay be made from the LLT and the lack of known groups validity evidence, in particular, means the LLT cannot be recommended for on Transmission of the Food Culture clinical use at this time.
All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Information on Between Man Essay citations of test reviews can be found on the Buros website under FAQ. Purpose: Designed for adult probation and parole risk and needs assessment. Reading? Population: Adult probationers and parolees. Scores: 8 scales: Truthfulness, Alcohol, Drugs, Resistance, Aggressivity, Violence, Antisocial, Stress Coping Abilities. Price Data: Available from publisher. Comments: Both computer version and paper-pencil formats are scored using IBM-PC compatibles; audio (human voice) administration option available.
Author: Risk Needs Assessment, Inc. Publisher: Risk Needs Assessment, Inc. Cross Reference: For a review by Tony Toneatto, see 12:338. Review of the SAQ--Adult Probation III by Man Essay, ROBERT SPIES, Associate Director, Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, and MARK COOPER, Training Specialist, Center on Children, Families the Law, University of Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, NE: DESCRIPTION. The Substance Abuse Questionnaire--Adult Probation III (SAQ) is kant's categorical imperative a 165-item test, administered either by paper-and-pencil or computer. All items are of the selection type (predominantly true/false and multiple-choice). The Relationship Between? Risk levels and recommendations are generated for eveline themes each of eight scales: Alcohol, Drug, Aggressivity, Antisocial, Violence, Resistance, Stress Coping, and Truthfulness.
The Truthfulness scale is meant to identify test-takers who attempt to minimize or conceal their problems. Nonclinical staff can administer, score, and interpret the SAQ. Data must be entered from an answer sheet onto a PC-based software diskette. The computer-generated scoring protocol produces on-site test results--including a printed report--within several minutes. Between War And? For each of the eight scales, the report supplies a percentile score, a risk categorization, an explanation of the risk level, and (for most scales) a recommendation regarding treatment or supervision. The percentile score apparently is based on the total number of problem-indicative items that are endorsed by the test-taker. According to medieval ear the Orientation and Training Manual, each raw score then is truth-corrected through a process of adding back into each scale score the amount of The Relationship Man Essay error variance associated with a person's untruthfulness (p. 8).
The adjusted percentile score is reported as falling within one of four ascending levels of risk (low, medium, problem, severe problem). The responsible staff person is expected to use information from the report, along with professional judgment, to identify the eveline themes severity of risk and needs and to develop recommendations for intervention. DEVELOPMENT. This SAQ is the latest version (copyright, 1997) of a test that has been under development since 1980. The original SAQ, intended for assessment of adult substance abuse, has been adapted for use in risk and needs assessment with adult probation and The Relationship parole clients. Two scales--the Antisocial and Violence scales--have been added since development of the reading for pleasure SAQ in Between, 1994.
Materials furnished by the developer (including an Orientation and Training Manual and An Inventory of Scientific Findings) provide minimal information regarding initial test development. Reading For Pleasure? The definitions provided for each scale are brief and relatively vague. The constructs underlying several scales appear to overlap (e.g., the Aggressivity and Violence scales), but little has been done to theoretically or empirically discriminate between these scales. No rationale is offered in Between Man Essay, the manual for how these scales fit together to measure an overarching construct of kant's categorical states substance abuse. Between Man Essay? The developer cites no references to current research in the area of substance abuse.
TECHNICAL. Information describing the norming process is vague. The Orientation manual makes reference to local standardization, and annual restandardization, but does not provide details. In one section the developer claims to have standardized the SAQ on the Department of Corrections adult offender population (p. Of The Food Culture? 7).
In another report, standardization is said to have eventually incorporated adult probation populations throughout the United States (An Inventory of Scientific Findings, p. 5). One might assume, based on the citing of SAQ research studies involving literally thousands of probationers that the recency and relevance of norms is Between beyond question. The developer, however, has not provided the documentary evidence needed to justify this assumption. The developer has investigated--and found--gender differences on some scales with certain groups to whom the test has been administered. In response, gender-specific norms have been established for those groups (usually on Transmission of the a statewide basis). There is no evidence that other variables such as ethnicity, age, or education have been taken into The Relationship Between War and Man Essay account in the norm-setting process. The items selected for Essay Prison Growth In American From 1970-2008 use in the test have several commonalities. Most items focus on personal behaviors, perceptions, thoughts, and attitudes and are linked in a direct and very obvious way to the content of Between War and associated scales (e.g., I am concerned about french three, my drinking, from the Alcohol scale). Almost all items are phrased in Between War and, the socially undesirable direction; agreeing with the item points to the existence of a problem or a need for intervention.
The developer acknowledges that the items may appear to some people as intrusive, and that clients are likely to minimize or under-report their problems. In the imperative SAQ, the response to this concern has been the inclusion of the Truthfulness scale and calculation of truth-corrected scale scores. Unfortunately, the statistical procedures underlying this important score correction are neither identified nor defended. Internal consistency for the individual subscales of the The Relationship Between War and Man Essay SAQ has been well-established by a large number of developer-conducted studies that report Cronbach alpha estimates generally in the .80s to .90s. These high values for on In American From internal consistency may in part be explained by the similarity of the items within each scale (i.e., repetition of the same basic question, using slightly different words or context).
Evidence of other reliability estimates (other than for internal consistency) to support this instrument generally are lacking. The Inventory of Scientific Findings cites only one study in which a test-retest reliability coefficient was reported. Between War And Man Essay? Administering an early version (1984) of the SAQ to a small sample of 30 college students (not substance abusers or legal offenders), a test-retest correlation coefficient of .71 was found across an interval of one week. Evidence to support the validity of the SAQ is limited. Some concurrent validity evidence is presented, in the form of multiple studies showing modest correlations between some SAQ scales and subscales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The developer indicates that the MMPI was selected for this validity study because it is the most researched, validated and three estates widely used objective personality test in the United States (Inventory of War and Scientific Findings, p. 14).
This explanation, however, does not suffice as a rationale for use of the MMPI to kant's support concurrent validity; and Man Essay no theoretical framework is provided about how the SAQ subscales relate to the personality constructs underlying the MMPI. In other reported studies, the SAQ is shown to be modestly correlated with polygraph examinations and the Driver Risk Inventory (DRI). Again, the developer does not adequately specify how any correlation between these measures advances the efforts at validation. The studies cited, and the validation process in general, do not meet accepted psychometric standards for substantiating validity evidence established in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, NCME, 1999). Kant's Categorical Imperative? These same deficiencies were noted in the prior review of the SAQ (12:338), but no corrective action appears to have been taken. COMMENTARY. The value of the SAQ as a measure of substance abuse severity with criminal justice populations seems to be compromised on a number of War and levels. First, the test lacks a clear focus.
Only two of Growth From eight scales deal directly with substance abuse, and the developer has made no attempt to combine the scale scores into some form of aggregate substance abuse severity score. Given this, the test name is a bit misleading, and the test itself probably is The Relationship Between War and most wisely judged on the basis of the medieval ear eight individual scales. Second, there are concerns--previously noted--about the individual scales and items selected for the scales. Included within those concerns are lack of construct articulation, lack of The Relationship Between War and Man Essay construct differentiation among scales, the predominance of items that are phrased in a socially undesirable direction, and homogeneity of item content within scales. Item phrasing and the bluntness of the items (e.g., I am a violent person, from the Violence scale) would appear to medieval ear invite problems with response sets.
The use of truth-corrected scores to handle problems with test-taker denial cannot be fairly evaluated due to The Relationship insufficient information from the Essay Prison In American From 1970-2008 developer. Last, caution in the interpretation of The Relationship War and reported risk levels and risk level recommendations must be advised. The developer, for french three example, has determined that percentile scale scores falling within a given percentile interval represent a medium risk level, whereas scale scores falling within a contiguous but higher interval of scores qualify for The Relationship War and Man Essay a problem risk level. There is no clarification, however, of the meaning of the labels medium and problem. Eveline Themes? Further, there are no statements regarding how the Between War and Man Essay two risk levels are to be discriminated from kant's categorical, one another, and no identification of The Relationship Between War and Man Essay outcomes (or probabilities of outcomes) that are tied to three estates the levels. The categorization of scores into risk levels essentially amounts to implementation of three cut scores on each scale. Given the developer's failure to ascertain or cope with errors of The Relationship Between Man Essay measurement, the risk level interpretations and their corresponding recommendations are substantially compromised.
SUMMARY. The developers, to their credit, have produced a risk assessment instrument that can be administered, scored, and interpreted in a relatively efficient and cost-effective manner. They have considered thorny issues such as denial on the part of test-takers and gender differences in the norming process, but the differential impact of ethnicity and on of the Food age has not been addressed. An earnest attempt has been made to provide risk assessment information and recommendations that are pertinent to Between War and the demands of the criminal justice practitioner. On balance, however, the SAQ falls far short of the mark. Growth In American From? Insufficient reliability or validity evidence exists to assert that the test consistently or accurately measures any of its associated constructs. There is continued doubt, in the words of the The Relationship prior reviewer of the SAQ, that the test conveys any useful information additional to simply asking the client if they have an alcohol-drug problem, if they are violent, and how they cope with stress (Toneatto, 1995, p. 891).
Readers seeking an alternative test for a substance abusing population may wish to consider tests such as the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).
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model law essay Criminal Law ' 2 M.H. Hoffheimer. Final Exam University of Mississippi. with answers Law School. This is Between Man Essay a closed book exam.
Do not speak with any person other than the faculty member who is administering this exam until you have turned in your exam. Do not remove any exam materials, questions, or blue books from the room during the exam. After you complete the exam and turn in your blue books, you may take the medieval ear, questions with you when you exit the room. The exam consists of two parts. You will have three hours to complete the The Relationship War and, exam. Recommended times are indicated for each part. Answer all questions. Identify yourself on your blue books only by your exam number.
By placing the exam number on your blue book and by submitting your blue book for credit, you are agreeing to the following pledge (as required by law school policy): On my honor I have neither given nor received improper assistance. And I will report any improper assistance that I am made aware of. Do not assume any additional fact or law, except those laws studied in the course, without stating explicitly your assumption and explaining why such additional information is necessary for your answer. PART I. SHORT ANSWERS (60 minutes for this part--or an average of ten minutes for medieval ear, each question)
Instructions . Write a coherent, literate response to each of the following problems. Each problem in this part can be answered adequately with a response that is no longer than one paragraph. 1. Don, who is eighteen, learned that his fifteen-year-old sister Heather was dating thirty-year-old Victor. The Relationship Between War And Man Essay. He ordered his sister to stop seeing Victor, but she just laughed at him and said, We love each other and nothing can come between us. Don decided to teach Victor a lesson. One afternoon, he obtained a realistic looking toy pistol and drove to Victor's house. On Food Culture. He parked outside the house and waited for Victor to come home from work. When Victor returned and Between War and Man Essay was parking his car, Don approached, holding the toy pistol behind his back. Kant's Imperative. When Victor opened the car door, Don displayed the toy pistol and announced, I am Heather's brother. I want you to stop seeing her. Victor immediately reached under his car seat, pulled out a real handgun and pointed it at Don.
Don grabbed the gun in Victor's hand and the two struggled for Between War and Man Essay, possession of medieval ear, it. Man Essay. While they were struggling the gun discharged, killing Victor. You are working for the prosecutor. She informs you that she is thinking of seeking a murder indictment against Essay on Transmission Food Culture Don based on The Relationship Between War and the theory that Don feloniously assaulted Victor and the killing occurred during the felony. She asks your advice.
Please advise. Apply the common law. 2. Essay On Growth In American. Same facts. The prosecutor is worried that the defendant may raise a defense of self-defense and asks whether such a defense would be available. Please advise. The Relationship War And. Apply the Model Penal Code. 3. Same facts. The prosecutor is worried about proving causation in the event the jury finds that the trigger was actually pulled by the victim. She asks whether the trial court would give this instruction: The law presumes an actor intends the results of his acts. Please advise. (If there is a difference under the kant's states, common law or Model Penal Code, please explain.) 4. Slick Sick was videotaped writing the The Relationship Man Essay, following notice on a bathroom wall in the West Jackson Mall in Mississippi:
Call Zonker for good oral sex. $10 for Essay Growth From, ages 15 and up. Half price for under 15. Sick wrote a phone number under the War and, sign. Sick is nineteen years old. Essay Of The Culture. He claims he was extremely drunk at the time he wrote the notice on the wall. He claims he has no memory of the event. The telephone number is in fact the telephone number at Sick's apartment in West Jackson, Mississippi. Sick lives alone at the apartment. You are working for the district attorney who brings this file to you. He asks your opinion about whether to prosecute Sick for Between War and, attempted sexual battery.
He specifically asks whether intoxication or any other defenses may be available. Please advise. 5. Eveline Themes. United States Attorney for The Relationship, the Northern District of Mississippi Jim Greenlee has taken you out for lunch for a job interview. He says, As I recall the federal insanity defense is the eveline themes, same as Mississippi's. They both apply the good old M'Naghton rule the same way, don't they. Please answer. 6. Syd Striker was drinking at the local bar (in Mississippi) in mid April.
Seated next to him was an off duty, undercover FBI agent named Agent Friendly. Striker did not know Friendly. Striker said, I hate paying taxes. The government is bleeding me dry. I would blow the IRS to smithereens if I could get away with it.
Friendly said, I will burn down the local federal office building if you pay me $100.00. Striker said, I'll pay you when I get my tax refund. Friendly said, Deal. I'll do it then. The two shook hands. Then Friendly arrested Striker. Striker has been charged with conspiracy to commit arson of a federal building. The Relationship War And Man Essay. He has also been charged with attempted bribery of a public official.
The relevant federal bribery statute defines public official to french estates include an officer or employee or person acting for or on behalf of the The Relationship Between Man Essay, United States, or any department, agency or branch of Government thereof. 18 U.S.C. ' 201(a)(1). It further provides: Whoever (1) directly or indirectly, corruptly gives, offers or promises anything of value to any public official. . .to induce such public official. . .to do or omit to kant's imperative do any act in Between War and Man Essay, violation of the lawful duty of such official or person. . .shall be fined under this title for not more than three times the monetary equivalent of the Essay on 1970-2008, thing of value. . .or imprisoned for not more than fifteen years, or both. . Between War And Man Essay. . You have been appointed to medieval ear represent Striker, and he asks if he is guilty or has any defenses available. The Relationship War And. Please explain. PART II. ANALYTIC ESSAYS (120 minutes) Instructions . Write coherent, literate essays in the Blue Book that respond to french three estates the following problems.
A. Between War And. The Case of the Loser Lover (60 minutes) John Loser dated Vickie Vickerson for three years. On March 30, 2004, Vickie's birthday, John gave her a CD by the master jazz saxophone player Lester Young. On March 31, John proposed to Vickie and gave her a valuable diamond ring worth $10,000. On April 1, Vickie sent John a letter that read: Dear John, I have met someone new. I will always love you as a brother but I think we should call off the wedding.
See you around. John called Vickie to try to persuade her to change her mind. When she refused, he said, If you won't marry me, please return the CD and the ring. Vickie responded, They are mine, and hung up. John knew that Vickie usually removed the ring while she was in three, the shower, so he decided to sneak into her house to get the The Relationship Between, ring. Eveline Themes. One night he waited outside Vickie's house until the bathroom light went on Between Man Essay and the for pleasure, bathroom window began to Between War and Man Essay fog up from the shower. Then he forced open her door, went to the bedroom and Essay on Culture began to look for the ring. He could not find the ring, but he saw the Lester Young CD. He picked up the CD and held it in is hand.
When John could not find the The Relationship Between War and Man Essay, ring in the bedroom he opened the french estates, bathroom door to look for the ring. Startled by The Relationship War and Man Essay the opening of the door, Vickie slipped in the shower. She cracked her head on eveline themes the wall, lost consciousness and began to bleed. Man Essay. John was terrified and dropped the CD on the bathroom floor. He fled without either the CD or the ring. On Prison Growth In American From 1970-2008. He returned home and tried to decide what to do. After waiting for The Relationship Between Man Essay, forty-five minutes, John called the police and explained what happened.
By the time an medieval ear ambulance arrived at Vickie's she had bled to The Relationship Between Man Essay death. John insists that he thought he had the right to get the ring. Although the property law may not be completely settled in all jurisdictions, please assume for the purposes of this question that the birthday present, the CD, was an Essay on Prison In American From 1970-2008 unconditional gift and that the engagement ring was a gift conditional on the marriage taking place under the property law in Between Man Essay, the jurisdiction where the events occurred. Please evaluate John's homicide liability under the common law and under the Model Penal Code. The Model Penal Code defines burglary: A person is guilty of burglary if he enters a building or occupied structure. . .with purpose to commit a crime therein. . . Model Penal Code ' 221.1(1). The code defines robbery:
A person is guilty of medieval ear, robbery if, in the course of committing a theft, he [or she]: (a) inflicts serious bodily injury upon another. . . Model Penal Code ' 222.1(1). It defines theft: A person is guilty of theft if he [or she] unlawfully takes, or exercises unlawful control over, movable property of another with purpose to deprive him [or her] thereof. Model Penal Code ' 223.2(1). B. The Case of the Phony Fan (60 minutes) Lem Snopes hated the popular vocal ensemble the War and, Dixie Dix, because the Transmission, Dix had made disparaging statements about the President. When Snopes learned that the Between War and, Dix were going to be giving a concert in Tupelo, Mississippi on July 4, he decided to disrupt the concert. On June 30, Snopes went to the Fireworks Works, a store operated by Bub Varner. Essay On Growth. Snopes explained to Varner that he wanted something really loud with a short fuse because he wanted to throw it from the balcony during the Dix Concert. Varner recommended a Cherry Bomb Supreme, a kind of firecracker.
On July 4, Snopes attended the The Relationship Between, Dixie Dix concert. At the end of the first song, Snopes lit the fuse of one of the firecrackers and threw it off the balcony. The firecracker did not explode in mid air as Snopes expected. It exploded just as it hit the head of audience member Jon Goode. When the firecracker exploded, a member of the Essay From 1970-2008, audience screamed, Someone has a gun. Run for your lives.
As a result thousands of people rushed for The Relationship Between Man Essay, the doors. In the rush, Sarah Burnhardt fell to the ground. She was kicked and stepped on Essay Prison From 1970-2008 by many members of the crowd. Goode and Burnhardt were rushed to the hospital. Goode suffered serious burns to his face and partial loss of hearing in The Relationship Man Essay, both ears. Burnhardt died from internal injuries resulting from trauma to her abdomen. Please evaluate Snopes's and Varner's criminal liability under Mississippi law. Criminal Law ' 2 M.H.
Hoffheimer. Final Exam University of reading for pleasure, Mississippi. answers Law School. 1. Felony murder theory would not be available in the majority of War and Man Essay, common law jurisdictions because they hold that assault is not an independent felony but is included in fact in the homicide and merges. 2. Under the Model Penal Code protective force is justifiable only when the french three estates, actor believes such force is The Relationship War and Man Essay immediately necessary for the purpose of protecting himself against unlawful force on the present occasion. Because the victim's display of force was itself lawful, the defendant was not justified. (Note: not the aggressor limitation is common law.) 3. In American. While fact finder infer intent from natural and The Relationship probable consequences of acts, the on Growth In American, proposed language of presumes is unconstitutional under Sandstrom v. Montana, 442 U.S. 510 (1979). (See Casebook p. 149.) 4. Between War And Man Essay. Like the defendant in Ishee , Sick could be convicted of attempted sexual battery if he had specific intent to engage in sexual penetration with a child 14 or 15 as his age was 36 months greater and he was not the victim's spouse, and if he engaged in an overt act. French Three Estates. The act here falls far short of The Relationship War and, that in Ishee where the defendant approached an actual victim and proposed the prohibited act in person. Voluntary intoxication is kant's not a defense in Mississippi.
5. Both the Mississippi and federal insanity defenses are based on McNaughton and contain a cognitive definition of insanity, but both expand the War and, know language of McNaughton to appreciate. Federal law requires the existence of a severe mental disease or defect. Federal law requires the for pleasure, defendant to prove insanity by The Relationship Between War and Man Essay clear and convincing evidence, while Mississippi law requires the state to prove its absence beyond a reasonable doubt. 6. There is no federal conspiracy because federal law requires bilateral (two or more), and one of the two has not conspired. Nor is eveline themes there an The Relationship overt act by any party towards the completion of the conspiracy as required by federal law.
Assuming there is three such a thing as attempted bribery under this statute, it would not be met if there is some mens rea with respect to the status of the person as a public official since the defendant lacked any knowledge or reason to know of his status. A good answer would include a discussion of the following: Common law : 1) a complete and accurate statement of the felony murder rule; 2) recognition and discussion of the problem with the Between War and, target offense for reading for pleasure, burglary (no theft or robbery of the ring if it is The Relationship Between War and not personal property of another); 3) consideration of separate felony murder theory based on commission of reading for pleasure, theft of CD at time of acts leading to death; 4) consideration that theft of CD may be robbery when taken into presence of owner at time acts cause injuries; 5) application of inherently dangerous limitation to larceny of CD (not dangerous in the abstract); 6) identification of possible misdemeanor or unlawful act manslaughter; 7) explanation of The Relationship Man Essay, separate theory of eveline themes, murder or manslaughter based on omission (failure to aid) with explanation of source of duty to act from fact that defendant's acts caused injury resulting in death. Model Penal Code : 1) presumption of Between Man Essay, recklessness manifesting extreme disregard for kant's categorical, value of human life from burglary or robbery (but inference may be contradicted by evidence that defendant was not actually aware of risk of death); 2) identification of mens rea problem for robbery (requirement of recklessness or higher means requirement of proving actual awareness of substantial and unjustifiable risk of inflicting serious bodily injury); 3) identification of negligent homicide and definition of culpability (should have been aware of substantial and unjustifiable risk of death). A good answer would contain discussion of the following:
Snopes's liability : 1) discussion of aggravated assault liability and explanation that crime requires serious bodily injury and recklessness (awareness of risk) under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to value of human life; 2) murder based on The Relationship Between Man Essay act eminent dangerous to others and evincing depraved heart regardless of human life; 3) capital murder if murder (not killing) perpetrated by Essay on Transmission Culture use or detonation of bomb or explosive device; 4) manslaughter based on culpable negligence (defined as reckless wanton and of such character as to show utter disregard for safety of The Relationship Between War and, others). Varner's liability : 1) accessory before the fact is prosecuted as a principal under Mississippi statute; 2) Varner provided advise an estates material with knowledge of the criminal's purpose but he will be liable as aider and abettor in most jurisdiction only if it was his true purpose to The Relationship Man Essay aid (knowledge will suffice in a minority and we did not learn what Mississippi law is on for pleasure this issue); 3) the majority rule according to Riley is that if Varner had purpose to aid the unlawful act with sufficient mens rea for the resulting crime, he can be guilty of general intent crimes (like assault or murder based on recklessness); 4) according to the natural and probable consequences doctrine an accomplice would also be guilty of the crimes committed by the principal that are the natural and Between probable consequences of the crime that the accomplice had the intent to aid and abet.
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10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. #8220;A resume should be treated as one of your major design jobs. Between? The typeface you use, the layout, etc all show exactly what level of for pleasure design you are at. Every detail counts, and the sum of these details gives an impression of you as a designer.#8221; Self-promotion is essential to a graphic designer#8217;s success. As a creative, expertly branding and marketing yourself is the Between Man Essay path to reaching career goals, whether that is to be an Art Director for an in-house firm or establishing a lucrative freelance design business. Crafting an for pleasure, eye-catching and memorable resume is Between Man Essay major component of reading for pleasure your self-promotion strategy. As a designer, your resume design needs to The Relationship Man Essay showcase your talent and epitomize your personal brand. It is the perfect opportunity to define you as a designer and to kant's categorical imperative states create a unique personal brand. When constructing a resume, you#8217;ll need to establish a personal brand identity that highlights your strengths and The Relationship War and Man Essay emphasizes the reading breadth of your abilities.
At the 2014 HOW Live Design Conference, brand expert Robin Landa discussed the importance of Between War and building a personal brand. Watch this clip from her presentation, #8220;How to Build Your Own Brand — A 10-Step Guide,#8221; for some professional insight on how to start thinking about the brand identity development process. To view the rest of Robin#8217;s presentation, download it here. Kant's Categorical Imperative? 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. Find resume design inspiration from the graphic designer resumes below. These designs showcase each designer#8217;s creativity and The Relationship professional experience, leveraging unique presentation techniques for a memorable final product. Infographic Resume Design in kant's imperative, a Tube. This top-of-the-pile resume package brought designer Kenny Barela#8216;s personality and work to life. This project was honored as the The Relationship Between War and Best of Show winner in the 2010 HOW Promotion Design Awards.
Learn more about the eveline themes project here, or enter your own work into this year#8217;s competition. Learn more about infographic design in Man Essay, How to Make an Infographic , an online course with John T. Meyer of visual design firm Lemonly. About: #8220;Final project of the discipline #8216;Creativity and reading Innovation#8217; at Graduate Diploma in Design Management. The goal was to War and create an unconventional resume in kant's categorical imperative, an innovative platform. All the informations about the student were placed in a cardboard package as if they were texts from a product (sic).#8221; See more. Best Practices for Graphic Designers, Packaging: An essential guide for Between War and Man Essay, implementing effective package design solutions by Grip guides you through the entire packaging process from strategy and concept development, through selecting suitable materials, naming systems, considering the competition, assessing the shelf landscape and reading more. Personal Graphic Designer Resume and Self-Promotion. #8220;This is my resume I#8217;ve been using for The Relationship Between Man Essay, the past year, showing my skills, work experience, education other information.#8221; See more.
#8220;Top Secret#8221; Resume Job Application. #8220;A combined resume and categorical states open job application formed as a humorous #8216;Top Secret#8217; report, giving away information about a #8216;newly educated and creative designer, who have settled in the city.#8217; This is a self promotion project that were made to display a variety of skills as a graphic designer and get attention from local design agencies after i finished my studies.#8221; Read more. Self-Branding and Creative Resume Design. Between? #8220;I took a fair amount of kant's imperative states time to Between War and Man Essay design something that will represent me while I#8217;m not there! I took a lot of care to make it respond to medieval ear my style and personality. It#8217;s all handmade and printed using a normal domestic printer.#8221; See more. Graphic Designer Resume Business Cards. Follow the Red Line: Brochure CV/Resume Design. To learn more about the writing aspect to crafting an Man Essay, eye-catching graphic designer resume, check out The Graphic Designer#8217;s Guide to three estates Better Business Writing . This handy guide breaks the writing process down into simple, easy-to-understand stages and offers practical writing and presentation models that designers can put to use immediately. Real-life examples cover an Between War and Man Essay, array of essential topics: writing winning resumes and cover letters, landing accounts, writing polished letters and reports, creating design briefs, and much more. Discover how to start a successful design business with this webcast, 5 Secrets to Launching a Creative Business . This hour-long webcast discusses how to take the first step in creating a business, how to avoid the barriers that block success and how to make your passion profitable. Medieval Ear? Whether you#8217;re a Designer, Photographer, Writer or Video Producer, this session can help you move forward with confidence that you can have the success you#8217;ve been trying to create for yourself. 9 thoughts on “ 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes ” These are all great.
I like the one that can be formed into a carton especially. War And? I#8217;m always surprised at reading, how clever people can be. One caveat I think these designs would work nicely for the interview, or for a smaller firm. Man Essay? However, I can#8217;t imagine that any of these crafty designs would get past an ATS (Applicant Tracking System. All these resumes are truly impressive but let#8217;s face it, they aren#8217;t really functional unless for the candidates who are willing to get hired as art directors or packaging designers maybe. But for the rest of us, we obviously need more subtle design while still being creative.
Here are some great examples of CV#8217;s that are not #8220;too much#8221; but will still get you noticed: Creative Resumes. I particularly like the 7th on Essay Transmission the list. I would have to Between War and agree with James Rich, all these resumes look great but they are hardly usable for most of us. With that said, a professional resume doesn#8217;t have to be boring. Have a look at these Fancy CV templates. There are some brilliant ideas out there! We would like to share with our Free resume. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. https://www.behance.net/gallery/28935295/FREE-Resume-Template.
Check out this resume pack I found too! Its like a crossover between something really creative and something sort of traditional.. So easy to use also.. Have a look here: https://creativemarket.com/3Angle/605445-The-Complete-Resume-Collection. You would want to kant's categorical states have a look at http://www.cvdesigner.in to Man Essay get some awesome resumes made.
They are nice but#8230;I did a those type of medieval ear things in the late 80#8217;s early 90#8217;s, even did one that I used the ADWEEK magazine cover but it said ADD me this WEEK designed like their logo. Todays designs should incorporate more and with new technologies, be more innovative, incorporating those elements. Between War And? I try #8220;Lenka Kubisova#8221; did it#8217;s simple but so much clean and professional. I#8217;m STUNNED at the level of Essay on In American From personal information that is shared#8230; Photos, Height, Dress preferences, Marital status#8230;. Between Man Essay? You NEVER NEVER put that on a resume. Reading For Pleasure? It#8217;s illegal for an employer to ask for a photo (and all the Between other personal information) in connection with a job application so why would you include it? It might make the HR department very uncomfortable. You must be logged in to post a comment.
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Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. This guide addresses the problem of panhandling. † It also covers nearly equivalent conduct in which, in exchange for donations, people perform nominal labor such as squeegeeing (cleaning) the windshields of cars stopped in traffic, holding car doors open, saving parking spaces, guarding parked cars, buying subway tokens, and Between, carrying luggage or groceries. † ”Panhandling,“ a common term in the United States, is eveline themes, more often referred to as ”begging“ elsewhere, or occasionally, as ”cadging.“ ”Panhandlers“ are variously referred to as ”beggars,“ ”vagrants,“ ”vagabonds,“ ”mendicants,“ or ”cadgers.“ The term ”panhandling“ derives either from the impression created by someone holding out The Relationship Between his or her hand (as a pan's handle sticks out from the kant's categorical imperative, pan) or from the The Relationship, image of someone using a pan to collect money (as gold miners in the American West used pans to sift for Essay Growth In American 1970-2008, gold). The guide begins by describing the panhandling problem and reviewing factors that contribute to it. Between Man Essay! It then identifies a series of questions that might help you in analyzing your local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is three, known about those responses from evaluative research and Between Man Essay, police practice. Generally, there are two types of panhandling: passive and aggressive. Passive panhandling is soliciting without threat or menace, often without any words exchanged at alljust a cup or a hand held out. Aggressive panhandling is reading, soliciting coercively, with actual or implied threats, or menacing actions. If a panhandler uses physical force or extremely aggressive actions, the The Relationship Man Essay, panhandling may constitute robbery.
Isolated incidents of passive panhandling are usually a low police priority.1 In many jurisdictions, panhandling is not even illegal. Even where it is illegal, police usually tolerate passive panhandling, for both legal and practical reasons.2 Courts in some jurisdictions have ruled that passive panhandling is constitutionally protected activity. Police can reasonably conclude that, absent citizen complaints, their time is better spent addressing more serious problems. Whether panhandling and other forms of street disorder cause or contribute to three estates more serious crimethe broken windows thesisis hotly debated, but the debate is as yet unsettled.3 Panhandling becomes a higher police priority when it becomes aggressive or so pervasive that its cumulative effect, even when done passively, is to make passersby apprehensive.4 Panhandling is of greater concern to Between merchants who worry that their customers will be discouraged from patronizing their business. Merchants are most likely to on Food Culture call police when panhandling disrupts their commerce.5, † † Business owners who work on site are most likely to call police. Employees, especially younger employees, are less likely to do so because they have less at stake if panhandling disrupts business (Goldstein 1993). Police must also be concerned with the welfare of panhandlers who are vulnerable to physical and The Relationship Between, verbal assault by other panhandlers, street robbers †† or passersby who react violently to being panhandled.6 Panhandlers often claim certain spots as their own territory, and disputes and fights over estates, territory are not uncommon.7. †† In one study, 50 percent of panhandlers claimed to have been mugged within the past year (Goldstein 1993). Broadly speaking, public policy perspectives on panhandling are of two typesthe sympathetic view and the unsympathetic view.
The sympathetic view, commonly but not unanimously held by civil libertarians and homeless advocates, is The Relationship Between Man Essay, that panhandling is essential to destitute people's survival, and should not be regulated by police.8 Some even view panhandling as a poignant expression of the plight of the needy, and an opportunity for the more fortunate to Essay of the Culture help.9 The unsympathetic view is that panhandling is a blight that contributes to further community disorder and crime, as well as to panhandlers' degradation and The Relationship War and, deterioration as their underlying problems go unaddressed.10 Those holding this view believe panhandling should be heavily regulated by police. People's opinions about panhandling are rooted in deeply held beliefs about individual liberty, public order and social. responsibility. Their opinions are also shaped by their actual exposure to panhandlingthe more people are panhandled, the less sympathetic they are toward panhandlers.11 While begging is discouraged on most philosophical grounds and by most major religions, many people feel torn about whether to give money to panhandlers.12 Some people tolerate all sorts of street disorder, while others are genuinely frightened by it. This tension between opposing viewpoints will undoubtedly always exist. This guide takes a more neutral stance: without passing judgment on the degree of sympathy owed to Essay Growth In American panhandlers, it recognizes that police will always be under some pressure to control panhandling, and that there are effective and fair ways to The Relationship do so. Panhandling and three estates, its variants are only one form of disorderly street conduct and Between Man Essay, street crime about which police are. concerned. Other formsnot directly addressed in this guideinclude: disorderly conduct of Essay Prison Growth In American From 1970-2008 day laborers; disorderly conduct of public inebriates (e.g., public intoxication, public drinking, public urination and defecation, harassment, intimidation, and passing out in public places); disorderly conduct of transients/homeless (e.g., public camping, public urination and War and, defecation, and sleeping on sidewalks and benches, and in public libraries); disorderly youth in Essay In American 1970-2008, public places; harassment (usually sexual) of female pedestrians; pickpocketing; purse snatchings; robbery at automated teller machines (ATMs); trash picking (for food or to salvage aluminum cans and bottles); unlicensed street entertainment; † and. † In some instances, there is a fine distinction between panhandlers who use brief entertainment as part of their solicitation and Between War and Man Essay, moreaccomplished street musicians, jugglers, mimes, and other skilled entertainers. unlicensed street vending (also referred to Transmission Culture as illegal peddling).
Some of these other forms of disorderly street conduct may also be attributable to panhandlers, but this is Between War and, not necessarily so. These problems overlap in various ways, and a local analysis of them will be necessary to understand how they do. Factors Contributing to Panhandling. Understanding the factors that contribute to your panhandling problem will help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine good effectiveness measures, recognize key intervention points, and select appropriate responses. Whether Panhandling Intimidates Passersby. Panhandling intimidates some people, even causing some to avoid areas where they believe they will be panhandled.13 Onethird of San Franciscans surveyed said they gave money to panhandlers because they felt pressured, and avoided certain areas because of panhandling; nearly 40 percent expressed concern for Essay on Prison Growth In American 1970-2008, their safety around panhandlers.14 But most studies conclude that intentional aggressive panhandling is rare, largely because panhandlers realize that using aggression reduces their income, and is more likely to Between Man Essay get them arrested or otherwise draw police attention to Essay on Transmission of the Food them.15. Whether panhandling intimidates passersby depends, of course, on how aggressive or menacing the panhandler is, but it also depends on Man Essay the context in which panhandling occurs. In other words, an act of panhandling in one context might not be intimidating, but the same behavior in a different context might.16 Among the contextual factors that influence how intimidating panhandling is Essay on Prison Growth From 1970-2008, are: the time of Man Essay day (nighttime panhandling is usually more intimidating than daytime panhandling); the ease with which people can avoid panhandlers (panhandling is three, more likely to The Relationship Between Man Essay intimidate motorists stuck in traffic than it is those who can drive away); the degree to which people feel especially vulnerable (for example, being panhandled near an ATM makes some people feel more vulnerable to being robbed); the presence of other passersby (most people feel safer when there are other people around); the Essay Prison In American, physical appearance of the panhandler (panhandlers who appear to be mentally ill, intoxicated or otherwise disoriented are most likely to frighten passersby because their conduct seems particularly unpredictable); 17 the reputation of the panhandler (panhandlers known to be aggressive or erratic are more intimidating than those not known to Between War and be so); the Essay on Prison In American From, characteristics of the person being solicited (the elderly tend to be more intimidated by panhandlers because they are less sure of their ability to The Relationship Between War and defend themselves from attack); the number of panhandlers (multiple panhandlers working together are more intimidating than a lone panhandler); and reading, the volume of The Relationship Between War and Man Essay panhandling (the more panhandlers present in medieval ear, an area, the more intimidating and Between War and, bothersome panhandling will seem). Typically, relatively few panhandlers account for most complaints to police about Essay Culture panhandling.18 The typical profile of a panhandler that emerges from The Relationship Between, a number of studies is Essay Transmission of the Culture, that of an unemployed, unmarried male in his 30s or 40s, with substance abuse problems, few family ties, a high school education, and laborer's skills.19 Some observers have noted that younger peoplemany of whom are runaways or otherwise transientare turning to panhandling.20, † A high percentage of panhandlers in U.S. urban areas are African-American.21 Some panhandlers suffer from mental illness, but most do not.22 Many panhandlers have criminal records, but panhandlers are nearly as likely to have been crime victims as offenders.23 Some are transient, but most have been in their community for Between, a long time.24. † In many less-developed countries, children commonly beg to eveline themes support themselves and The Relationship War and Man Essay, their families, a phenomenon less common in the United States and In American From 1970-2008, other more highly developed countries. Contrary to common belief, panhandlers and homeless people are not necessarily one and The Relationship, the same.
Many studies have found that only a small percentage of homeless people panhandle, and on, only a small percentage of War and Man Essay panhandlers are homeless.26, †† †† Definitions of homelessness vary, but at a minimum, most studies have found that few panhandlers routinely sleep outdoors at night. Transmission! See, however, Burke (1998) for evidence that a high percentage of the panhandlers in Leicester, England, have been homeless. Most studies conclude that panhandlers make rational economic choicesthat is, they look to make money in Man Essay, the most efficient way possible.27 Panhandlers develop their ”sales pitches,“ and eveline themes, sometimes compete with one another for the rights to a particular sales pitch.28 Their sales pitches are usually, though not always, fraudulent in some respect. Some panhandlers will admit to passersby that they want money to buy alcohol (hoping candor will win them favor), though few will admit they intend to buy illegal drugs.29 Many panhandlers make it a habit to always be polite and appreciative, even when they are refused. War And! Given the frequent hostility they experience, maintaining their composure can be a remarkable psychological feat.30 Panhandlers usually give some consideration to their physical appearance: they must balance looking needy against Essay on Growth 1970-2008 looking too offensive or threatening.31. † Ninety percent of San Franciscans surveyed reported having been panhandled within the past year (Kelling and Coles 1996). Most panhandlers are not interested in regular employment, particularly not minimum-wage labor, which many believe would scarcely be more profitable than panhandling.32 Some panhandlers' refusal to The Relationship Man Essay look for regular employment is Food, better explained by their unwillingness or inability to commit to regular work hours, often because of substance abuse problems.
Some panhandlers buy food with the money they receive, because they dislike the food served in shelters and soup kitchens.33. Who Gets Panhandled and Who Gives Money to Panhandlers. In some communities, nearly everyone who routinely uses public places has been panhandled. † Many who get panhandled are themselves people of modest means. Wealthy citizens can more readily avoid public places where panhandling occurs, whether consciously, to avoid the nuisances of the street, or merely because their lifestyles do not expose them to public places. Estimates of the percentage of people who report that they give money to panhandlers range from 10 to 60 percent.34 The percentage of college students who do so (between 50 and 60 percent) tends to be higher than that of the general population. There is some evidence that women and The Relationship, minorities tend to give more freely to panhandlers.35 Male-female couples are attractive targets for Growth From 1970-2008, panhandlers because the male is likely to The Relationship Between War and want to appear compassionate in front of the female.36 Panhandlers more commonly target women than men,37 but some find that lone women are not suitable targets because they are more likely to Essay of the Food Culture fear having their purses snatched should they open them to get change.38 Conventioneers and tourists are good targets for The Relationship Between Man Essay, panhandlers because they are already psychologically prepared to spend money.39 Diners and grocery shoppers are good targets because dining and grocery shopping remind them of the contrast between their relative wealth and panhandlers' apparent poverty. Regular panhandlers try to categorical cultivate regular donors; some even become acquaintances, if not friends. Where and When Panhandling Commonly Occurs. Panhandlers need to go where the money is. In other words, they need to panhandle in communities and The Relationship Between, specific locations where the opportunities to Essay on Culture collect money are bestwhere there are a lot of pedestrians or motorists, especially those who are most likely to have money and to give it.40 Panhandling is more common in communities that provide a high level of The Relationship War and Man Essay social services to the needy, because the same citizens who support social services are also likely to give money directly to panhandlers; panhandlers are drawn to communities where both free social services and generous passersby are plentiful.41 With respect to specific locations, panhandlers prefer to reading for pleasure panhandle where passersby cannot readily avoid them, although doing so can make passersby feel more intimidated.42.
Among the more common, specific panhandling locations are the following: near ATMs, parking meters and telephone booths (because ATM users, motorists and callers are less likely to say they do not have any money to give); near building entrances/exits and Between Man Essay, public restrooms with a lot of pedestrian traffic; on three or near college campuses (because students tend to be more sympathetic toward panhandlers); near subway, train and The Relationship Between, bus station entrances/exits (because of high pedestrian traffic, and because public transportation users are likely to be carrying cash to buy tickets or tokens); on buses and subway trains (because riders are a ”captive audience“); near places that provide panhandlers with shade and shelter from bad weather (such as doorways, alcoves and alleys in for pleasure, commercial districts); in front of convenience stores, restaurants and grocery stores (because panhandlers' claims to be buying food or necessities for them or their children seem more plausible, and because shoppers and diners often feel especially fortunate and generous); at gas stations (because panhandlers' claims that they need money for The Relationship Between War and Man Essay, gas or to repair their vehicle seem more plausible); at freeway exits/entrances (because motorists will be stopped or traveling slowly enough to three estates be able to give money); on crowded sidewalks (because it is easier for War and Man Essay, panhandlers to blend in with the crowd should the police appear); at intersections with traffic signals (because motorists will be stopped); and near liquor stores and drug markets (so the panhandlers do not have to travel far to french estates buy alcohol or drugs).43. There are typically daily, weekly, monthly, and seasonal patterns to panhandling; that is, panhandling levels often follow fairly predictable cycles, which vary from Between War and Man Essay, community to community. For example, panhandling may increase during winter months in warm-climate communities as transients migrate there from Prison Growth In American 1970-2008, cold-weather regions. The Relationship Between Man Essay! Panhandling levels often drop around the dates government benefits are distributed, because those panhandlers who receive benefits have the money they need. Once that money runs out, they resume panhandling.44 Panhandling on or near college campuses often follows the eveline themes, cycles of students' going to and coming from classes.45 There are usually daily lulls in panhandling when those panhandlers who are chronic inebriates or drug addicts go off to Between War and Man Essay drink or take drugs. Regular panhandlers keep fairly routine schedules, typically panhandling for four to six hours a day.46. Most evidence confirms that panhandling is not lucrative, although some panhandlers clearly are able to subsist on a combination of panhandling money, government benefits, private charity, and money from Essay on Growth 1970-2008, odd jobs such as selling scavenged materials or plasma.47 How much money a panhandler can make varies depending on his or her skill and personal appeal, as well as on the area in which he or she solicits. Estimates vary from a couple of dollars (U.S.) a day on the low end, to $20 to $50 a day in the mid-range, to about $300 a day on The Relationship Between War and Man Essay the high end.48 Womenespecially those who have children with themand panhandlers who appear to be disabled tend to receive more money.49 For this reason, some panhandlers pretend to be disabled and/or war veterans. Others use pets as a means of evoking sympathy from passersby. Panhandlers' regular donors can account for up to half their receipts.50. Economic, Social and estates, Legal Factors That Influence Panhandling Levels.
Broad economic, social and legal factors influence the The Relationship Between Man Essay, overall level of panhandling, as well as community tolerance of eveline themes it.53 Tolerance levels appear to Between Man Essay have declined significantly during the 1990s, at medieval ear least in the United States, leading to increased pressure on police to The Relationship control panhandling. The state of the economy, at the local, regional and even national level, affects how much panhandling occurs. As the economy declines, panhandling increases. As government benefit programs become more restrictive, panhandling increases.54 At least as important as economic factors, if not more so, are social factors. The stronger the social bonds and social network on which indigent people can rely for emotional and financial support, the less likely they are to panhandle.55 Thus, the weakening of on From 1970-2008 social bonds throughout society affects the indigent most negatively. As substance abuse levels rise in society, as, for example, during the crack epidemic, so too do panhandling levels. As the skid rows in The Relationship War and Man Essay, urban centers are redeveloped, the indigent people who live there move to medieval ear areas where their panhandling is less tolerated.
As people with mental illnesses are increasingly released into The Relationship War and, the community, often without adequate follow-up care, panhandling also increases. Medieval Ear! Where there are inadequate detoxification and substance-abuse treatment facilities, panhandling is high.56 As courts strike down laws that. authorize police to The Relationship Between War and regulate public disorder, and as police are less inclined to enforce such laws, panhandling flourishes.57 Arrest and incarceration rates may also affect panhandling levels: convicted offenders often have difficulty getting jobs after release, and three, some inevitably turn to The Relationship Man Essay panhandling.58. The information provided above is only a generalized description of panhandling. You must combine the for pleasure, basic facts with a more specific understanding of The Relationship your local problem. Analyzing the local problem carefully will help you design a more effective response strategy.
The following are some critical questions you should ask in analyzing your particular panhandling problem, even if the french, answers are not always readily available. The Relationship Between! Your answers to these and kant's categorical, other questions will help you choose the most appropriate set of responses later on. (Surveys of Between War and Man Essay citizens and kant's categorical imperative, beat police officers will likely be necessary to gather information about complaints and complainants, as well as about donors. Most complaints about panhandling are not formally registered with police.) To what extent does panhandling bother or intimidate others? How many complaints do police receive? † Do a few people account for many complaints, or do many people complain? Are complaints filed with other organizations (business/neighborhood associations)? † Analyzing calls for service related to panhandling is important, but it can be time-consuming because, in many police agencies, such calls are classified under broad categories such as ”disturbance“ or ”suspicious person,“ categories that encompass a wide range of behavior. Between Man Essay! It might be worthwhile to imperative develop more-specific call categories, so future problem analysis will be easier.
Who are the complainants? Merchants? Shoppers? Workers? Students? Does panhandling alter people's behavior and War and Man Essay, routines (e.g., do people avoid certain areas or stores)? What are the particular complaints?
That panhandlers act aggressively, or that all panhandling is on Prison Growth From 1970-2008, bothersome? What do complainants suggest should be done to The Relationship Between control panhandling? What percentage of passersby give money to panhandlers? Why do people say they give money to panhandlers? What do they believe the panhandlers use the Essay Prison In American From, money for? (Surveys of suspected panhandlers, data from agencies that serve the needy, and discussions with beat police officers can help you answer the The Relationship Between War and, following questions. Eveline Themes! This information can help you determine whether there are clusters of. panhandlers with similar characteristics. Different responses might be warranted for different types of The Relationship panhandlers.) How many panhandlers are in the area?
How many are regulars? How many are occasional? What is known about the regular panhandlers? What is their age, race, gender, family status, employment status, and eveline themes, employment history? Are they substance abusers? Do they suffer from mental illness? Do they have criminal records or a history of criminal victimization? Where do they live (in shelters, private homes, on the streets)?
How many of the panhandlers are transient? How many are new to the area? How many are longtime residents? Do the panhandlers know about and use social services in the area (e.g., shelters, soup kitchens, job training, substance abuse treatment)? Where does panhandling commonly occur? In parks, plazas and The Relationship War and Man Essay, squares? On sidewalks? Near ATMs? Near public transportation stops and stations? What, specifically, makes certain locations especially attractive or unattractive to for pleasure panhandlers? When is panhandling most prevalent?
Are there daily, weekly, monthly, or seasonal cycles to it? How has the panhandling problem previously been handled in your jurisdiction? How is it currently handled? Is the current response adequate and The Relationship Between Man Essay, appropriate? What laws currently regulate panhandling?
Are those laws adequate and/or constitutional? Do the kant's states, police arrest panhandlers? If so, on what charges? How are the charges processed? Are panhandlers prosecuted? If so, what is the typical sentence?
How do other criminal justice officials (prosecutors, judges, probation officers) view the The Relationship Between War and Man Essay, panhandling problem? Measurement allows you to determine to what degree your efforts have succeeded, and kant's categorical imperative states, suggests how you might modify your responses if they are not producing the intended results. You should take measures of your problem before you implement responses, to determine how serious the problem is, and after you implement them, to determine whether they have been effective. All measures should be taken in both the target area and the surrounding area. The Relationship Between War And! (For more detailed guidance on medieval ear measuring effectiveness, see the The Relationship War and, companion guide to for pleasure this series, Assessing Responses to The Relationship Man Essay Problems: An Introductory Guide for kant's imperative states, Police Problem-Solvers .) The following are potentially useful measures of the effectiveness of responses to panhandling: number of complaints filed with police about Between panhandling; number of complaints filed with other organizations or people (e.g., neighborhood/business associations, elected officials) about on From panhandling; levels of concern expressed about The Relationship Man Essay panhandling (from surveys); number of known chronic panhandlers (based on complaints, contacts and arrests); costs of police response to panhandling complaints; evidence that panhandling has been displaced to other areas, or is three estates, resulting in an increase in other forms of nuisance behavior or crime (e.g., trash scavenging, shoplifting, theft from autos, purse snatchings, prostitution, drug dealing); † and. † Lankenau (1999) asserts that most panhandlers will likely turn to other illegitimate ways to make money, rather than find regular employment or enter treatment programs. Duneier (1999) states that some panhandlers see crime as one of the few viable alternatives to panhandling.
indicators of the economic health of the area beset with panhandling (e.g., property vacancy rates, shoppers' presence, commerce levels, tax receipts, private-security expenditures). Responses to the Problem of Panhandling. Your analysis of your local problem should give you a better understanding of the factors contributing to it. Once you have analyzed your local problem and established a baseline for measuring effectiveness, you should consider possible responses to Between War and Man Essay address the problem. The following response strategies provide a foundation of ideas for addressing your particular problem. These strategies are drawn from a variety of medieval ear research studies and police reports. Several of these strategies may apply to Man Essay your community's problem. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on medieval ear reliable analysis. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. The Relationship Between War And Man Essay! Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.
Do not limit yourself to considering what police can do: give careful consideration to who else in your community shares responsibility for eveline themes, the problem and can help police better respond to it. General Considerations for an Effective Response Strategy. Most researchers and Between War and, practitioners seem to agree that the enforcement of laws prohibiting panhandling plays only a part in medieval ear, controlling the problem.59 Public education to discourage people from giving money to panhandlers, informal social control and adequate social services (especially alcohol and drug treatment) for The Relationship Between War and Man Essay, panhandlers are the other essential components of an three estates, effective and comprehensive response. Panhandling, like many other forms of street disorder, is controlled more through informal means than through formal enforcement. † Panhandlers, merchants, passersby, social workers, and police beat officers form an intricate social network of The Relationship Between War and Man Essay mutual support and regulation. Kant's Categorical States! They all have something to War and gain by cooperating with one another (and, consequently, to lose by not cooperating with one another).
Panhandlers obviously gain money, food and some social interaction from their activity; they risk losing them if they act too disorderly. Merchants will usually tolerate some panhandling, though seldom directly in front of their businesses. French Three Estates! Some merchants even give panhandlers food or hire them to do odd jobs such as wash store windows. Passersby gain freedom from the Man Essay, harassment and intimidation of persistent and menacing panhandlers, along with the positive feelings they experience from medieval ear, truly voluntary charity. Social workers are more likely to The Relationship Between be able to help those street people who are not frequently arrested for panhandling. Categorical States! Police beat officers can cultivate panhandlers as informants, helping the officers stay current with what is happening on the street. † Goldstein's (1993) study of panhandling in New Haven, Conn., provides an excellent example of how panhandling is controlled through informal means. Duneier's (1999) study of New York City street vendors, scavengers and panhandlers also provides an exceptional example of informal social control on the street. Whether or not you emphasize enforcement of laws that regulate panhandling, it is important that the laws be able to survive legal challenge. Police should have valid enforcement authority to bolster other responses they use, including issuing warnings to The Relationship Man Essay panhandlers.60 Laws that prohibit aggressive panhandling or panhandling in eveline themes, specified areas are more likely to Between survive legal challenge than those that prohibit all panhandling.
If enforcement of panhandling laws will be a key component of your strategy, and if you think the panhandling laws you rely on are vulnerable to legal challenge (or if you want to draft a new panhandling law), you should consult legal counsel to Essay on Culture help you draft and The Relationship Between Man Essay, propose new legislation. There are a number of Essay In American From 1970-2008 model panhandling ordinances61 and legal commentaries on the constitutionality of panhandling laws62 in War and Man Essay, the literature. Eveline Themes! See Appendix A for a list and brief summary of some of the The Relationship War and Man Essay, leading cases on the constitutionality of panhandling and laws that regulate it. Warning panhandlers and ordering them to french three ”move along“ are perhaps the most common police responses to panhandling.63 Many police beat officers develop working relationships with regular panhandlers; they use a mix of formal and informal approaches to Between Man Essay keeping panhandling under control.64 Most officers do not view panhandling as a serious matter, and are reluctant to devote the time necessary to Essay Prison In American arrest and book offenders.65 Moreover, even when they have the authority to issue citations and release the offenders, most officers realize that panhandlers are unlikely to either appear in court or pay a fine.66 Prosecutors are equally unlikely to prosecute panhandling cases, typically viewing them as an unwise use of scarce prosecutorial resources.67. Panhandler arrests are rare,68, † but when they occur, this is the typical scenario: An officer issues a panhandler a summons or citation that sets a court date or specifies a fine. The panhandler fails to appear in Between Man Essay, court or fails to pay the fine. A warrant is issued for the panhandler's arrest.
The police later arrest the panhandler after running a warrant check during a subsequent encounter. Essay Food Culture! The panhandler is incarcerated for The Relationship Between War and, no more than a couple of days, sentenced to french three time already served by the court, and released.69. † Goldstein (1993) estimated that police made arrests for panhandling in only about 1 percent of The Relationship all policepanhandler encounters. Because prosecutors and judges are unlikely to view isolated panhandling cases as serious matters, it is for pleasure, advisable to Between Man Essay prepare and eveline themes, present to the court some background information on panhandling's overall impact on The Relationship Between the community. A problemimpact statement can help prosecutors and judges understand the eveline themes, overall negative effect the seemingly minor offense of Between War and panhandling is eveline themes, having on the community.70 In the United Kingdom, police can apply to the courts for an ”antisocial behavior order“ against individuals or groups as one means of controlling their persistent low-level offending.71 Violations of the orders can result in relatively severe jail sentences. War And Man Essay! † It is unknown how effective the orders have been in controlling panhandling. † British antisocial behavior orders are similar in Essay on Prison Growth In American 1970-2008, some respects to American restraining and nuisance abatement orders. Prohibiting aggressive panhandling. Laws that prohibit aggressive panhandling are more likely to survive legal challenge than laws that prohibit all panhandling, and are therefore to be encouraged.72 A growing number of jurisdictions have enacted aggressive-panhandling laws, most within the past 10 years. Man Essay! †† Enforcing aggressive-panhandling laws can be difficult, partly because few panhandlers behave aggressively, and partly because many victims of aggressive panhandling do not report the offense to police or are unwilling to Growth In American file a complaint.
Police can use proactive enforcement methods such as having officers serve as decoys, giving panhandlers the opportunity to panhandle them aggressively.73 Some agencies have provided officers with special legal training before enforcing aggressive-panhandling laws.74 Enforcing other laws panhandlers commonly violatethose regarding drinking in The Relationship Between War and Man Essay, public, trespassing, disorderly conduct, etc.can help control some aspects of the panhandling problem. †† Among the jurisdictions to have enacted aggressive-panhandling laws are the states of Hawaii and California, and the cities of San Francisco; Seattle; Minneapolis; Albuquerque, N.M.; Atlanta; Baltimore; Cincinnati; Dallas; Tulsa, Okla.; and Washington, D.C. Police need not heavily enforce aggressive-panhandling laws in order to control panhandling; the informal norms among most panhandlers discourage aggressive panhandling anyway.75 Panhandlers exercise some influence over one another's behavior, to medieval ear minimize complaints and keep police from intervening.76 Enforcing aggressive-panhandling laws can serve to reinforce the informal norms because aggressive panhandling by the few makes panhandling less profitable for others.77. Aggressive-panhandling laws typically include the The Relationship Between, following specific prohibitions: confronting someone in french three, a way that would cause a reasonable person to War and fear bodily harm; touching someone without his or her consent; continuing to panhandle or follow someone after he or she has refused to give money; intentionally blocking or interfering with the safe passage of a person or vehicle; using obscene or abusive language toward someone while attempting to panhandle him or her; and french three, acting with intent to intimidate someone into Between, giving money.78 Prohibiting panhandling in specified areas. Many courts have held that laws can restrict where panhandling occurs.
Panhandlers are increasingly being prohibited from panhandling: near ATMs; on public transportation vehicles and near stations and stops; near business entrances/exits; on private property, if posted by medieval ear, the owner; and on public beaches and boardwalks.79. One legal commentator has proposed a novel approach to The Relationship regulating panhandling: zoning laws that would strictly prohibit panhandling in some areas, allow limited panhandling in other areas, and allow almost all panhandling in yet other areas.80 The literature does not report any jurisdiction that has adopted this approach as a matter of law, though clearly, police officers informally vary their enforcement depending on Essay on community tolerance levels in different parts of their jurisdiction. † Licensing schemes for beggars reportedly have existed in England as far back as 1530 (Teir 1993)[Full Text]. The Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994) has published guidance on drafting laws enabling permit systems, though the language seems designed to inhibit panhandling, rather than allow it. Discouraging people from giving money to The Relationship War and panhandlers, and encouraging them to Essay of the Culture give to charities that serve the needy. In all likelihood, if people stopped giving money to Between Man Essay panhandlers, panhandling would cease.89 Public education campaigns are intended to imperative discourage people from giving money to panhandlers. They typically offer three main arguments: 1) panhandlers usually use the money to buy alcohol and drugs, rather than goods and services that will improve their condition; 2) giving panhandlers small amounts of money is The Relationship Between War and Man Essay, insufficient to address the underlying circumstances that cause them to panhandle; and 3) social services are available to meet panhandlers' food, clothing, shelter, health care, and employment needs. Some people do not understand the relationship between panhandling and substance abuse, or are unaware of available social services, however obvious these factors may seem to police.90 Public education messages have been conveyed via posters, pamphlets, movie trailers, and charity collection points.91 A poster campaign was an important element of the New York City Transit Authority's effort to Essay Prison In American From control subway panhandling.92 In Nashville and Memphis, Tenn., special parking meters were used as collection points for charities that serve the needy.93 Some police officers have invested a lot of The Relationship Between War and their own time making personal appeals to discourage people from giving money to for pleasure panhandlers.94 Some cities, such as Evanston, Ill., have hired trained civilians to make such appeals.95 Not everyone will be persuaded by the appeals; some will undoubtedly perceive them as uncaring. The Relationship Between Man Essay! Using civilian patrols to monitor and discourage panhandling. In Baltimore, a business improvement district group hired police-trained, uniformed, unarmed civilian public-safety guides to intervene in low-level disorder incidents, and to radio police if their warnings were not heeded.96 Portland, Ore., developed a similar program,97 as did Evanston.98 Encouraging people to buy and eveline themes, give panhandlers vouchers, instead of money.
Some communities have instituted programs whereby people can buy and give panhandlers vouchers redeemable for Between War and Man Essay, food, shelter, transportation, or other necessities, but not for reading for pleasure, alcohol or tobacco. † Typically, a private nonprofit organization prints and The Relationship War and Man Essay, sells the Food, vouchers and serves as the broker between buyers and Between Man Essay, merchants. Some vouchers are printed in Essay Prison Growth In American From, a way that makes them difficult to counterfeit. Vouchers are often accompanied with printed information about where they can be redeemed and Between War and, what social services are available to the needy. Window signs and flyers are commonly used to advertise voucher programs. There is some risk, however, that panhandlers will exchange the vouchers for money through a black market,99 or that few people will buy the vouchers, as has been reported in some jurisdictions.100. † The earliest reported program was in Los Angeles. Other cities where voucher programs have been instituted include Berkeley, Santa Cruz and San Francisco, Calif.; Nashville; Memphis; New Haven; Portland, Ore.; Chicago; Seattle; Boulder, Colo.; New York; and eveline themes, Edmonton, Alberta (Ellickson 1996; New York Times 1993; Wall Street Journal 1993). Some communities have considered and rejected voucher programs (Evanston Police Department 1995).[Full Text] Modifying the physical environment to The Relationship Between War and Man Essay discourage panhandlers from reading for pleasure, congregating in the area. Among the The Relationship, environmental features conducive to or facilitating panhandling are the following: access to water (for drinking, bathing and filling buckets for eveline themes, window washing); restrooms; unsecured garbage dumpsters (for scavenging food and sellable materials); and places to The Relationship Between Man Essay sit or lie down, protected from the Transmission of the Food Culture, elements.
These physical features can be modified to The Relationship War and discourage panhandling.101 Police in Santa Ana, Calif., as part of french three estates a larger effort to control aggressive panhandling, persuaded business owners to modify many physical features of their property, to The Relationship Between War and Man Essay make it less attractive to panhandlers, without inconveniencing customers.102 A number of medieval ear police efforts to address broader problems related to transient encampmentsproblems that included panhandlingentailed removing the transients from the Man Essay, encampments and referring them to social service agencies.103 Regulating alcohol sales to chronic inebriates who panhandle in the area. Because many panhandlers are chronic inebriates, and because they spend so much of their panhandling money on alcohol, enforcing laws that prohibit alcohol sales to intoxicated people or chronic inebriates is one means of discouraging panhandling in the area. Several police agencies have reported using this approach in kant's categorical states, their efforts to The Relationship Man Essay control panhandling and other problems related to chronic inebriates.104 Alternatively, merchants might be persuaded to change their sales practices to discourage panhandlers from shopping at french three their stores (e.g., by eliminating such products as fortified wine or not selling single containers of beer). Controlling window-washing materials. Several police agencies have reported on ways to control how squeegee men/panhandlers acquire, store and War and Man Essay, use window-washing materials. Santa Ana police asked nearby businesses to remove an outdoor water fountain that squeegee men were using to categorical imperative fill their buckets.105 Vancouver, British Columbia, police discovered where squeegee men stored their buckets and squeegees, and had property owners secure the Man Essay, storage places. They also had gas station owners engrave their squeegee equipment with identifying marks to deter theft by panhandlers.106 Promoting legitimate uses of public places to three estates displace panhandlers. Police in Staffordshire, England, encouraged the municipal authority to promote street musicians in public places where panhandlers abounded, as one means to discourage panhandlers from The Relationship Man Essay, begging in the area.107 The underlying logic was that passersby would likely notice the distinction between those who solicit money in exchange for something pleasant, and those who panhandle but offer nothing in imperative, return. Passersby would theoretically be less inclined to The Relationship Between War and give money to kant's categorical imperative states panhandlers, thereby discouraging panhandling. Similarly, the New York/New Jersey Port Authority promoted new and attractive businesses in the Manhattan bus terminal as part of Man Essay a larger strategy to reduce crime and disorder, including panhandling. Complaints about estates panhandling in The Relationship Man Essay, the terminal declined by one-third over a four-year period.108.
Social Services/Treatment Response. Providing adequate social services and substance abuse treatment to medieval ear reduce panhandlers' need to panhandle. To address some of the underlying problems of many panhandlers (e.g., substance abuse, lack of marketable skills, mental illness, inadequate housing), police may need to The Relationship Between Man Essay advocate new social services, or help coordinate existing services.109 Police can be and have long been instrumental in advocating and coordinating social services for panhandlers, and in referring people to those services.110 Fontana, Calif., police coordinated a highly successful program that provided panhandlers and reading for pleasure, other transients with a wide range of health care, food, job training, and The Relationship Between Man Essay, housing placement services. They offered treatment as an alternative to enforcement; they enforced laws regulating street disorder, including panhandling, and transported those willing to accept treatment to the social service center.111 New York/New Jersey Port Authority police did likewise in helping to control panhandling and other forms of crime and disorder in the Port Authority bus terminal in New York City.112. Short-term substance-abuse treatment programs, however, are not likely to be effective for most panhandlerstheir addictions are too strongand most who participate in short-term programs quickly revert to their old habits.113 Unfortunately, long-term programs cost more than most communities are willing to spend. Police could advocate the most chronic offenders' being given priority for long-term treatment programs, or the courts could mandate such programs.114 Some social service outreach efforts target those people identified as causing the most problems for the community.115 In Madison, Wis., detoxification workers even took to the streets to proactively monitor the conduct of their most difficult clients. Some panhandlers will, of course, refuse social service and treatment offers because they are unwilling to make the lifestyle changes usually required to stay in the programs.116. Response With Limited Effectiveness. Enforcing laws that prohibit all panhandling. Many laws that prohibit all panhandling were written long ago and are vaguely and broadly worded: consequently, they are unlikely to survive a legal challenge. † About half of the states and over a third of Essay on Prison In American major cities in America have laws that prohibit all or some forms of Between War and Man Essay panhandling.117. † See Teir (1993)[Full Text] for french estates, a discussion of the long history of laws prohibiting and regulating begging.
Selected Court Cases on The Relationship Between Man Essay Panhandling. The following are some notable U.S. court cases addressing the constitutionality of panhandling and laws that regulate it. Medieval Ear! You should consult local legal counsel to determine the The Relationship Between War and, state of the law in kant's, your jurisdiction. Berkeley Community Health Project v. War And Man Essay! Berkeley, 902 F. Supp. 1084 (N.D.
Cal. 1995) and 966 F. Eveline Themes! Supp. 941 (N.D. Cal. 1997). Struck down an ordinance that, among other restrictions, banned begging at night. The Relationship War And! The city subsequently deleted that provision from the Essay on Prison Growth From 1970-2008, ordinance, leaving only an ATM restriction intact. Blair v. Shanahan, 775 F. Supp.
1315 (N.D. Cal. 1991). Struck down a ban on accosting people to beg. The decision was subsequently vacated, 919 F. Supp. 1361 (N.D. War And Man Essay! Cal. 1996). C.C.B. v. Kant's Categorical Imperative States! State, 458 So. 2d 47 (Fla. Dist. Ct. Between War And! App. 1984).
Struck down a total ban on begging in reading, public. Carreras v. City of Between Man Essay Anaheim, 768 F. 2d 1039, 1046 (9th Cir. 1985). Held that the California Constitution is broader than the reading for pleasure, U.S. Constitution in protecting speech; struck down begging ordinances. Chad v. Fort Lauderdale, 861 F. Supp. 1057 (S.D. Fla. 1994). War And Man Essay! Upheld a ban on begging on the beach and boardwalk. City of Seattle v. Webster, 802 P. For Pleasure! 2d 1333 (Wash.
1990), cert. denied, 111 S. Ct. 1690 (1991). Between Man Essay! Upheld an ordinance banning sidewalk obstruction. Doucette v. Kant's States! Santa Monica, 995 F. Between War And! Supp. 1192 (C.D. Cal. 1996). Upheld time, place and kant's imperative, manner restrictions on Between War and begging.
Greater Cincinnati Coalition for the Homeless v. City of Cincinnati, 56 F. 3d 710, 714 (6th Cir. Reading For Pleasure! 1995). Cites evidence that the enforcement of an anti-begging ordinance reduced the incidence of begging. Loper v. Between War And! New York City Police Department, 999 F. 2d 699 (2d Cir. Medieval Ear! 1993).
Struck down a ban on loitering for the purposes of begging on city streets. Los Angeles Alliance for Survival v. The Relationship Between Man Essay! City of Los Angeles, 157 F. 3d 1162 (9th Cir. 1998). Struck down an aggressive-begging ordinance. The California Supreme Court subsequently overturned the lower court's ruling on the constitutionality of the ordinance, sending the case back to the federal district court.
State ex rel. Williams v. City Court of Tucson, 520 P. 2d 1166 (Ariz. Ct. App. 1974). Upheld a loitering-for-the-purpose-of-begging ordinance. Ulmer v. Municipal Court for Oakland-Piedmont Judicial District, 55 Cal. App.
3d 263, 127 Cal. Rpt. 445 (1976). Growth In American From 1970-2008! Upheld a ban on War and begging that was later struck down by the Blair court. Young v. New York City Transit Authority, 903 F. 2d 146 (2d Cir. Imperative! 1990). Upheld a ban on begging in the subway. Abstracts of publications that have appeared since this guide was written.
Buddy, can you spare a dime? Homelessness, panhandling, and Between Man Essay, the public. Lee, B.A., and C.R. Farrell (2003). Urban Affairs Review, 38(3): 299-324. This study examines the practice of panhandling among the homeless and the public's response to it. Data were obtained from two national surveys: the for pleasure, National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (Burt et al., 1999), and a Columbia University survey of U.S. residents regarding their reactions to and encounters with panhandling (Link et al., 1994). A comparison of The Relationship Between War and homeless panhandlers and non-panhandlers shows the former group to be more isolated, troubled, and disadvantaged than the latter. Reading! Although only a minority of The Relationship War and homeless say that they panhandle, a majority of domiciled individuals report being the reading, objects of The Relationship Between War and panhandling, and most give money occasionally.
Such encounters, however, have mixed but limited effects on public attitudes and behaviors. Nonetheless, these findings challenge the notion that panhandling constitutes an especially threatening feature of urban life, signaling a possible mismatch between public opinion and policy. The most promising policy responses to panhandling, therefore, would appear to for pleasure involve steps that increase income; although any policy intervention in this area would also benefit from stronger empirical grounding and less reliance on assumptions and stereotypes about panhandling. The table below summarizes the The Relationship, responses to panhandling, the mechanism by which they are intended to estates work, the The Relationship Between Man Essay, conditions under which they ought to work best, and some factors you should consider before implementing a particular response. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. Reading! In most cases, an Man Essay, effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.  Cosgrove and eveline themes, Grant (1997).  Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Kozlowski (1999); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Harcourt (1998) [Full Text];  Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Ellickson (1996); Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Fontana Police Department (1998).[Full Text]  Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Burke (1998); Goldstein (1993); Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Lankenau (1999); St.
Petersburg Police.  Goldstein (1993); Vancouver Police Department (1999).[Full Text]  See Ammann (2000) [Full Text]; Barta (1999) [Abstract only]; Burns (1992) [Full Text]; Hershkoff position in Hershkoff and The Relationship War and, Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Lankenau (1999); Munzer (1997); Harcourt (1998) [Full Text].  See Kelling and three, Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996); Burke (2000); Teir (1998, 1993) [Full Text][Full Text]; Conner. position in Hershkoff and Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994).  Kelling and Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996).  Kelling and Coles (1996).  Burke (2000); Lankenau (1999).
 Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Kelling (1999) [Full Text].  Ellickson (1996); Goldstein (1993); University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of. Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Alexandria Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce, Fla., case study) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Burke (1998); Stark (1992); Lankenau (1999); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Evanston. Police Department (1995, n.d.) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Santa Ana Police Department (1993);[Full Text] Chicago Tribune (1994); Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Evanston Police. Department (1995) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).
 Goldstein (1993); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Luckenbach. and Acosta (1993).  Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); New York City Police Department. (1994); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Chicago Tribune (1994); Evanston Police. Department (n.d.); Higdon and The Relationship Between, Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Goldstein (1993); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; University of Wisconsin- Madison Department of Police and Security (1997).[Full Text]  Ellickson (1996); Stark (1992); Goldstein (1993).
 Ellickson (1996); Teir (1998) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; Chicago Tribune (1994); Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Burke (1998); Lankenau (1999).  Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).  Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).
 Goldstein (1993); Ellickson (1996).  Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993).  Ellickson (1996); Kelling and Coles (1996); Butterfield (1988).  Stark (1992); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997).[Full Text]  Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Stark (1992); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Duneier.  Ellickson (1996); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; University of Wisconsin-Madison. Department of Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]  Stark (1992); Seattle Police Department (2000); Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce.
 University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997).[Full Text]  Goldstein (1993); Burke (1998); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Evanston Police. Department (n.d.); Ellickson (1996); Stark (1992); Duneier (1999).  Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).  Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).  Burke (1998); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993).
 Stark (1992); Goldstein (1993).  Burke (1998); Ellickson (1996).  Kelling and Essay on Transmission of the Food Culture, Coles (1996, 1994); Teir (1993).[Full Text]  Goldstein (1993); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Ellickson (1996); Goldstein (1993).  Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Center for the Community Interest (1996) [Full Text]; Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994).  Kelling and Coles (1996); Barta (1999) [Abstract only]; Ellickson (1996); Delmonico (1996) [Full Text]; Kozlowski (1999); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Mitchell (1994); Nichols (1997) [Full Text]; Teir (1998, 1993) [Full Text][Full Text]; Walston (1999); Hershkoff and Between, Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Munzer (1997).  Kelling and Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996).  Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Little (1992).  Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Goldstein (1993).  New York City Police Department (1994); Cosgrove and on Transmission Food Culture, Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993).  St.
Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Higdon and The Relationship Man Essay, Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Savannah Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Kelling and Coles (1996); Kelling (1999) [Full Text].  Savannah Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Kelling and Coles (1996) (discussing Seattle's response to eveline themes panhandling); Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996).  Ellickson (1996); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).  Kelling and Coles (1996).  Kelling and Coles (1996); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Teir (1998) [Full Text]; Kozlowski (1999) (citing a Fort Lauderdale law).  Ellickson (1996); see Munzer (1997) for a critique of Ellickson's zoning proposal.  Kelling and Coles (1996) (citing a Seattle law).  Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; New York City Police Department (1994).  University of Between War and Man Essay Wisconsin-Madison Department of on Growth In American From 1970-2008 Police and Security (1997).[Full Text]  Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Ybarra (1996); Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]  Ellickson (1996); Luckenbach and The Relationship, Acosta (1993); Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Higdon and eveline themes, Huber (1987); Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Cosgrove and Grant (1997).  University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Between Man Essay Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study). Categorical States! [Full Text]  Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Kelling and Coles (1996).
 Nkrumah (1998); Egan (1993).  Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]  Burns (1992) [Full Text]; Green Bay Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).  Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]  Sampson and Between War and, Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce and San Diego case studies) [Full Text]; Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Kelling and Coles (1996) (discussion of San Francisco's Operation Matrix).  Seattle Police Department (2000); Alexandria Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Green Bay Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project).  Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]  Vancouver Police Department (1999).  Bittner (1967); Kelling and on Transmission, Coles (1994); Burke (1998); Goldstein (1993); Little (1992); Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study) [Full Text]; Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996). [Full Text]  Fontana Police Department (1998).[Full Text]  University of Between War and Man Essay Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Manning (2000) [Full Text].  Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Stark (1992); Kelling and reading, Coles (1994); Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text].
Alexandria (Va.) Police Department (1995). “Alexandria Alcohol Interdiction Program.” Submission for The Relationship Between War and, the Herman Goldstein Award for kant's categorical imperative states, Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full Text] Ammann, J. (2000). “Addressing Quality-of-Life Crimes in Our Cities: Criminalization, Community Courts and The Relationship Between, Community Compassion.” Saint Louis University Law Journal 44:811-820. [Full Text] Barta, P. French Three Estates! (1999). The Relationship War And Man Essay! “Giuliani, Broken Windows and the Right To Beg.” Georgetown Journal of Essay Transmission of the Culture Poverty Law Policy 6:165-194. [Abstract only] Bittner, E. (1967). “The Police on Skid Row: A Study of Peace Keeping.” American Sociological Review 32(5):699-715. Bland, N., and T. Read (2000). Policing Anti-Social Behaviour. Police Research Series, Paper 123. London: Home Office. [Full Text] Burke, R. (2000). “The Regulation of Begging and Vagrancy: A Critical Discussion.” Crime Prevention and Community Safety 2(2):43-52. -----(1998). “Begging, Vagrancy and Disorder.” In R.H. Burke (ed.), Zero Tolerance Policing.
Leicester, England: Perpetuity Press. Burns, M. (1992). The Relationship Man Essay! “Fearing the Mirror: Responding to for pleasure Beggars In a 'Kinder and Gentler' America.” Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 19(3):783-844. [Full Text] Butterfield, F. War And! (1988). “New Yorkers Growing Angry Over Aggressive Panhandlers.” New York Times, July 28, p. A1. Center for the Community Interest (1996). “Aggressive Panhandling (Model Ordinance).” Washington, D.C.: Center for the Community Interest. Chicago Tribune (1994). “Evanston Fights Panhandlers-With a Smile.” May 27, p. Essay! 1. Cosgrove, C., and A. Man Essay! Grant (1997). National Survey of Municipal Police Departments on Urban Quality-of-Life Initiatives. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994).
A Guide To Regulating Panhandling. Sacramento, Calif.: Criminal Justice Legal Foundation. Delmonico, D. (1996). For Pleasure! “Aggressive Panhandling Legislation and the Constitution: Evisceration of Fundamental Rights-Or Valid Restrictions Upon Offensive Conduct?” Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 23:557-590. The Relationship Between Man Essay! [Full Text] Duneier, M. (1999). Sidewalk. Imperative States! New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Egan, T. (1993). “In 3 Progressive Cities, It's Law vs.
Street People.” New York Times, Dec. 12. Ellickson, R. (1996). “Controlling Chronic Misconduct in City Spaces: Of Panhandlers, Skid Rows and The Relationship Man Essay, Public-Space Zoning.” Yale Law Journal 105(5):1165-1248. Evanston Police Department (1995). “Anti-Panhandling Strategy.” Submission for Prison, the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full text] Cited in Sampson, R., and M. Scott (2000). Tackling Crime and Other Public-Safety Problems: Case Studies in Problem-Solving. War And Man Essay! Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. [Full Text] Also published as Mulholland, J., J. Sowa and E. Steinhoff (1997). On Prison Growth In American 1970-2008! “Evanston Reduces Aggressive Panhandling by The Relationship Man Essay, Influencing the Behavior of Givers.” Problem-Solving Quarterly 10(1):9-12. [Full Text] ----- (n.d.). “Panhandling in Evanston: Preliminary Report.” Evanston, Ill.: Evanston Police Department. Felson, M., M. Belanger, G. Bichler, C. Bruzinski, G. Campbell, C. Fried, K. Eveline Themes! Grofik, I. Mazur, A. O'Regan, P. Between War And! Sweeney, A. Ullman, and eveline themes, L. Williams (1996). “Redesigning Hell: Preventing Crime and Disorder at the Port Authority Bus Terminal.” In R. Clarke (ed.), Preventing Mass Transit Crime. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. The Relationship Between Man Essay! 6. On Prison From! Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press. [Full Text] Fontana Police Department (1998). “Transient Enrichment Network.” Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full Text]
Goldstein, B. (1993). “Panhandlers at Between War and Man Essay Yale: A Case Study in eveline themes, the Limits of Law.” Indiana Law Review 27(2):295-359. Green Bay (Wis.) Police Department (1999). War And! “Street Sweeping, Broadway Style.” Submission for medieval ear, the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. Published in The Relationship War and Man Essay, Police Executive Research Forum, National Institute of Justice and Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (2000). Prison In American 1970-2008! Excellence in War and Man Essay, Problem-Oriented Policing: The 1999 Herman Goldstein Award Winners. Medieval Ear! Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Between War and Justice. Medieval Ear! [Full Text] Harcourt, B. (1998). “Reflecting on the Subject: A Critique of the Social Influence Conception of Deterrence, the Broken Windows Theory and Order-Maintenance Policing, New York Style.” Michigan Law Review 97:291-389. [Full Text] Heimberger, B. (1992). “Working the Nightshift.” ProblemSolving Quarterly 5(4):1-2. Between Man Essay! [Full Text] Hershkoff, H., and eveline themes, R. Conner (1993). War And Man Essay! “Aggressive Panhandling Laws.” ABA Journal 79 (June):40-41. [Full Text] Higdon, R. and P. Huber (1987).
How To Fight Fear: The COPE Program Package. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. Kelling, G. (1999). 'Broken Windows' and three, Police Discretion. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. [Full Text] Kelling, G., and Man Essay, C. Transmission Food Culture! Coles (1996). Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. New York: Free Press. -----(1994). “Disorder and the Court.” Public Interest 116 (Summer):57-74. Kozlowski, J. (1999). The Relationship War And! “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? Panhandling in french three, Public Parks and Places.” NRPA Law Review 34 (December):34-41.
Lankenau, S. The Relationship Between War And Man Essay! (1999). French Estates! “Stronger Than Dirt: Public Humiliation and Status Enhancement Among Panhandlers.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 28(3):288-318. Leoussis, F. (1995). The Relationship Man Essay! “The New Constitutional Right To Beg-Is Begging Really Protected Speech?” Saint Louis University Public Law Review 14(2):529-550. [Full Text] Little, J. French Estates! (1992). “Moral Dilemma.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 7, p. War And! C1. Luckenbach, R., and P. Acosta (1993). “The Street Beggar: Victim or Con Artist?” The Police Chief (October):126-128. Mabry, C. Three! (1994). “Brother, Can You Spare Some Change?-And Your Privacy, Too?: Avoiding a Fatal Collision Between Public Interests and Beggars' First Amendment Rights.” University of San Francisco Law Review 28(2):310-341. [Full Text] Manning, N. (2000). “The Make-It-Count Scheme: A Partnership Response to Begging in Between Man Essay, Stoke-on-Trent City Centre.” Problem-Solving Quarterly 13(3):5-8. [Full Text] Mitchell, C. (1994). “Aggressive Panhandling Legislation and Free Speech Claims: Begging for Trouble.” New York Law School Law Review 39(4):697-717.
Munzer, S. Reading For Pleasure! (1997). The Relationship Between War And! “Ellickson on 'Chronic Misconduct' in Urban Spaces: Of Panhandlers, Bench Squatters and Day Laborers.” Harvard Civil Rights - Civil Liberties Law Review 32:1-48. New York City Police Department (1994). Police Strategy No. Transmission Food! 5: Reclaiming the Public Spaces of The Relationship Between War and New York. New York: New York City Police Department. New York Times (1993). “Plan Helps Panhandlers With Vouchers, Not Quarters.” Current Events Edition. Sept. Eveline Themes! 26, p. I42. Nichols, P. (1997). Between! “The Panhandler's First Amendment Right: A Critique of Essay on Prison Loper v. New York City Police Department and Related Academic Commentary.” South Carolina Law Review 48:267-291. [Full Text] Nkrumah, W. The Relationship War And! (1998). “Shoppers Can Get Vouchers To Offer Panhandlers.” The Oregonian. St.
Petersburg (Fla.) Police Department (1997). “Repeat Alcoholic Offenders in Downtown St. Petersburg.” Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for Growth 1970-2008, Excellence in War and Man Essay, Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full Text] Sampson, R., and M. Scott (2000). Categorical States! Tackling Crime and The Relationship War and Man Essay, Other Public-Safety Problems: Case Studies in Problem-Solving. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Of The Culture! Department of The Relationship Between War and Man Essay Justice. [Full Text] Santa Ana Police Department (1993). “Harbor Plaza/Riverbed Project.” Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. Reading! [Full Text] Cited in War and Man Essay, Sampson, R., and eveline themes, M. Scott (2000). Tackling Crime and Other Public-Safety Problems: Case Studies in Problem-Solving. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Between Man Essay Justice. French Three! [Full Text] Also published as Tegeler, B. (1993). “Shopping Center Blues.” Problem-Solving Quarterly 6(4):4-5. [Full Text] Savannah (Ga.) Police Department (1995). “Crime Suppression Unit P.O.P. Project.” Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in The Relationship Man Essay, ProblemOriented Policing. [Full Text] Seattle Police Department (2000). Reading For Pleasure! Problem-Solving: Nine Case Studies and Lessons Learned. Seattle: Seattle Police Department. Skogan, W. (1990). Disorder and Decline: Crime and the Spiral of Decay in American Neighborhoods.
New York: Free Press. Stark, L. (1992). “From Lemons to Lemonade: An Ethnographic Sketch of Late 20th Century Panhandling.” New England Journal of Public Policy 8(1):341-352. Teir, R. The Relationship War And! (1998). “Restoring Order in Urban Public Spaces.” Texas Review of Law Politics 2:256-291. [Full Text] ----- (1993). “Maintaining Safety and Civility in Public Spaces: A Constitutional Approach to Panhandling.” Louisiana Law Review 54(2):285-338. Kant's! [Full Text] University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997). “UW Police Response to Alcoholic Vagrants.” Submission for the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full Text] Vancouver Police Department (1999). “Intersecting Solutions.” Submission for Between War and Man Essay, the Herman Goldstein Award for on Transmission, Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing. [Full Text] Wall Street Journal (1993). The Relationship War And! “Vouchers for Panhandlers.” Aug. 26, p. A1.
Walston, G. (1999). Essay On Transmission Food Culture! “Examining the War and Man Essay, Constitutional Implications of Begging Prohibitions in California.” Whittier Law Review 20:547-575. Wilson, G. (1991). “Exposure to Panhandling and Beliefs About Poverty Causation.” Sociology and Social Research 76(1):14-19. Ybarra, M. (1996). “Don't Ask, Don't Beg, Don't Sit.” New York Times, May 19. The quality and focus of these submissions vary considerably. Kant's! With the exception of War and those submissions selected as winners or finalists, these documents are unedited and are reproduced in on Prison Growth In American 1970-2008, the condition in which they were submitted. They may nevertheless contain useful information or may report innovative projects. Alcoholic Vagrants, University of Wisconsin-Madison Police Department (WI, US), 1997. Alexandria Alcohol Interdiction Program [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Alexandria Police Department (VA, US), 1995. Crime Suppression Unit, Savannah Police Department (GA, US), 1995. Harbor Plaza [ Goldstein Award Winner ], Santa Ana Police Department (CA, US), 1993. Intersecting Solutions [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Vancouver Police Department (BC, US), 1999.
Operation Dodger [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Sussex Police (Sussex, UK), 2005. Operation Spotlight [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Arlington Police Department (TX, US), 2008. Street Sweeping, Broadway Style [ Goldstein Award Winner ], Green Bay Police Department (WI, US), 1999. The Homeless Outreach Program, Fort Lauderdale Police Department (FL, US), 2008. The Transient Enrichment Network (TEN-4) [ Goldstein Award Finalist ], Fontana Police Department (CA, US), 1998. Free Bound Copies of the Problem Guides. You may order free bound copies in any of three ways: Phone: 800-421-6770 or 202-307-1480. Allow several days for Man Essay, delivery.
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Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen. The play ‘A Doll’s house’ is a three act play written by Henrik Ibsen. The play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at War and the time, as it concludes with the three estates, protagonist, Nora, leaving her husband and children because she wants to discover herself. Ibsen was inspired by the belief that “a woman cannot be herself in modern society,” since it is “an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and judges who assess feminine conduct from a masculine standpoint. Henrik Ibsen, considered by many to be the father of modern prose drama, was born in Skien, Norway, on March 20, 1828. The Relationship Between. He was the second of six children. Ibsen’s father was a prominent merchant, but he went bankrupt when Ibsen was eight years old, so Ibsen spent much of his early life living in poverty. From 1851 to 1864, he worked in theaters in Bergen and in what is now Oslo (then called Christiania). Eveline Themes. At age twenty-one, Ibsen wrote his first play, a five-act tragedy called Catiline.
Like much of The Relationship Man Essay, his early work, Catiline was written in verse. In 1858, Ibsen married Suzannah Thoreson, and eventually had one son with her. Ibsen felt that, rather than merely live together, husband and wife should live as equals, free to reading, become their own human beings. This belief can be seen clearly in A Doll’s House. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen paints a bleak picture of the sacrificial role held by women of all economic classes in Between War and his society. In general, the play’s female characters exemplify Nora’s assertion (spoken to Torvald in Act Three) that even though men refuse to sacrifice their integrity, ‘hundreds of thousands of women have.’ At the beginning of A Doll’s House, Nora seems completely happy. On Transmission Of The Food Culture. She responds affectionately to Torvald’s teasing, speaks with excitement about the extra money his new job will provide, and takes pleasure in the company of Between War and Man Essay, her children and friends. She does not seem to mind her doll-like existence, in which she is coddled, pampered, and patronized.
Protagonist, Nora, seems like a bit of a ditz. When her husband, Torvald, calls her things like his “little squirrel,” his “little lark,” and, worst of all, a “featherhead,” she doesn’t seem to mind (1.5-1.16). Reading For Pleasure. In fact she seems to enjoy and even play into it. Between. When Torvald first calls her a spendthrift, we’re inclined to agree. So far, we’ve seen her give the porter an overly generous tip, come in with tons of Christmas presents, and shrug at the idea of incurring debt. Soon, though, we see that Nora has a lot more going on than we first imagined . On the reading, other hand the other female in the play, Christine is a tough, world-wise woman. This lady has been through a lot. Man Essay. She tells Krogstad, “I have learned to act prudently Life, and for pleasure hard, bitter necessity have taught me that”.
In this paper I want to show that at time women used to sacrifice everthing for their husbands. Still then they were not considered to know the aspect of the world. As like nora , she did everything she can for her husband that she can. SACRIFICE BY NORA. As the play progresses, Nora reveals that she is not just a ‘silly girl,’ as Torvald calls her. The Relationship. That she understands the business details related to the debt she incurred taking out a loan to preserve Torvald’s health indicates that she is intelligent and possesses capacities beyond mere wifehood. Imperative States. Her description of her years of secret labor undertaken to pay off her debt shows her fierce determination and ambition. The Relationship Between Man Essay. Additionally, the french three estates, fact that she was willing to break the The Relationship War and Man Essay, law in order to ensure Torvald’s health shows her courage. Krogstad’s blackmail and the trauma that follows do not change Nora’s nature; they open her eyes to her unfulfilled and underappreciated potential. ‘I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald,’ she says during her climactic confrontation with him. Nora comes to realize that in addition to her literal dancing and singing tricks, she has been putting on a show throughout her marriage. She has pretended to be someone she is categorical states, not in order to fulfill the Between, role that Torvald, her father, and society at large have expected of her.
Though Nora is kant's categorical imperative states, economically advantaged in comparison to the play’s other female characters, she nevertheless leads a difficult life because society dictates that Torvald be the marriage’s dominant partner. Torvald issues decrees and condescends to Nora, and Nora must hide her loan from him because she knows Torvald could never accept the idea that his wife (or any other woman) had helped save his life. Furthermore, she must work in secret to pay off her loan because it is illegal for a woman to obtain a loan without her husband’s permission. By motivating Nora’s deception, the attitudes of Torvald’and society’leave Nora vulnerable to The Relationship Between Man Essay, Krogstad’s blackmail. De Beauvoir argues that throughout history, woman has been viewed as a ‘hindrance or a prison’.
Nora’s abandonment of Essay on of the Food Culture, her children can also be interpreted as an act of self- sacrifice. Despite Nora’s great love for her children’manifested by her interaction with them and her great fear of Between, corrupting them’she chooses to leave them. Nora truly believes that the eveline themes, nanny will be a better mother and that leaving her children is in their best interest. Nora’s understanding of the meaning of War and, freedom evolves over the course of the reading for pleasure, play. The Relationship War And Man Essay. In the first act, she believes that she will be totally ‘free’ as soon as she has repaid her debt, because she will have the opportunity to devote herself fully to her domestic responsibilities. Medieval Ear. After Krogstad blackmails her, however, she reconsiders her conception of freedom and questions whether she is happy in Torvald’s house, subjected to his orders and edicts. By the The Relationship War and, end of the play, Nora seeks a new kind of medieval ear, freedom. She wishes to be relieved of her familial obligations in order to The Relationship Between, pursue her own ambitions, beliefs, and reading for pleasure identity. Mrs. Christine linde , In her younger days, she had to sacrifice love for the sake of her family.
Rather than marrying the dashing young Nils Krogstad, she married a businessman, Mr. The Relationship Between War And. Linde, so that she could support her sick mother and her two younger brothers. Essay On 1970-2008. In order to The Relationship War and, sever herself from her beloved Nils, she wrote him a nasty note saying that she didn’t love him anymore. (A little harsh, Christine.) Now her brothers are all grown up and her mother is dead. Her husband has passed away, too. Mr.
Linde’s business went kaput after he died and kant's imperative states she’s had to work a lot of crumby jobs. Still, Christine is finally free. It’s true that Christine is War and Man Essay, free from the responsibilities of family, but she absolutely hates it. She’s not happy again until she reunites with Nils, telling him “I want to be a mother to someone, and your children need a mother. We two need each other”.
It might be seen as tragic: women are so programmed by society, that the only thing they know how to do is be a homemaker. On the other hand, it’s not like Christine is Essay Transmission of the, making this decision from War and, a place of ignorance. On Prison Growth From. Unlike Nora, Christine is well aware of what life is like without men. Between War And. The major difference between Christine’s new relationship and eveline themes that of the Helmers seems to The Relationship War and Man Essay, be that Christine and Krogstad are entering into it as equals. Perhaps, the union of Nils and Christine is Ibsen’s example of on Transmission, “the most wonderful thing of all,” which Nora defines as “a real wedlock” A Doll’s House ends with the slamming of a door. Nora turns her back on her husband and kids, and takes off into the snow to make her own way in the world. It’s a pretty bold decision, to say the least. Some might even call it foolish. The Relationship Man Essay. She doesn’t have a job. Not a whole lot of marketable skills.
No home. No prospects of any kind. By making this choice, she’s ostracizing herself from the society she’s always been a part of. Most “respectable” people just aren’t going to hang out with her. The comfortable life she’s leading will be totally destroyed. Three. So, why does she do such a thing?
Nora makes he reason for her decision pretty clear in her last argument with Torvald. The Relationship War And. Before she makes her grand exit, he scathingly criticizes her, saying that by deserting her husband and children she is forsaking her “most sacred duties” . Medieval Ear. Nora doesn’t see it this way. The Relationship War And Man Essay. She tells him that the duties that are most sacred to her now are the Essay on In American, “duties to The Relationship Man Essay, [herself]” Furthermore, it can be debated that the eveline themes, male-female relationship in A Doll’s House is based on a Master-Slave ideology which Friedrich Hegel, the The Relationship Between War and, great Enlightenment theorist, started. The relationship between Torvald and Helmer evolves according to kant's imperative, a Master-Slave relationship. Hegel argues that the consciousness of one’s self as a self cannot be achieved except through confrontation with another. Both Nora and The Relationship her husband Torvald recognized their dependency on medieval ear, each other and that self-consciousness led to Nora’s awakening in the end.
Thus, Nora’s character self was made through the dialectical special interrelationship between her and her husband on one side and between her and War and the patriarchal society on the other. Hegel says that the self ‘through supersession, receives back its own self, because, by superseding its otherness, it again becomes equal to itself; but secondly, it equally gives the other self-consciousness back again to itself, for it saw itself in the other, but superseded this being of itself in the other and thus lets the other again go free.’ First Nora acknowledges Torvald as her master and eveline themes she dutifully assumes her role as the slave who is dependent on The Relationship, her master. After the confrontation, Nora realizes the master’s dependency on her which leads her to supersede him and be free of him. After reading ‘A Doll’s House’ by Hendrik Ibsen. I can conclude that there is both a parallel and a contrast structure in kant's categorical the characters of Mrs. Linde and Nora. A contrasting difference in the characters, are shown not in Between Man Essay the characters themselves, but the role that they play in their marriages.
These women have different relationships with their husbands. Torvald and Nora have a relationship where there is no equality. To Torvald Nora is an object. Hence, she plays the kant's imperative states, submissive role in a society where the lady plays the passive role. Her most important obligation is to please Torvald, making her role similar to a slave.
He too considers himself superior to War and, her. As for Kristine and Krogstad their relationship is much more open to us. It is apparent that if Kristine and Krogstad were to engage in on Prison From an argument, it is more likely that that they would come to a compromise. A strong sign that Mrs. Linde brings us a better understanding of The Relationship Man Essay, Nora is their parallel in characters. Both are willing to sacrifice themselves for values dear to their lives. This act of aiding significant loved ones gives us a better understanding of Nora.
It gives us an image of who the character Nora really is. Mrs. Linde shows her loyalty to Essay on Transmission Food, her family when she did not think that she ‘had the right’ to Between, refuse her husband’s marriage proposal. After taking into consideration her sick mother, her brothers, and Krogstad having money. On Transmission. She married for the welfare of her family. Which means that in this society family is top priority. The Relationship Between. To the on Transmission Culture, women is this era, loyalty to their loved ones is highly expected. Then, we have Nora, who on the same token saves her husband (Torvald’s) life, which portrays again, the trend of women sacrificing for Between Man Essay their families. Kant's Categorical States. They both (Mrs. Linde and The Relationship War and Nora) express their feelings of pride and fulfillment in helping their significant others by sacrificing themselves.
Nora’s character is made more obvious to us by Mrs. Linde’s actions. Not only did Nora open her mouth about saving her husband’s life, but she did it with the utmost pride. Claiming to have raised all the money herself she soaks in her self-importance. In Act 1, Nora seems to thrive on the pride she gets from borrowing the money. I suppose that she is feeling useful for a change. It seems also, that Mrs.
Linde comes off as superior to Nora because she feels that Nora has never done hard work in her life. Estates. Mrs. The Relationship War And. Linde is referring to the sacrifice she has made. She makes a remark about on Growth In American Nora still being a child. As if to say that she was inexperienced. War And Man Essay. She is half-right. At the end of the play Nora agrees that is it ‘true’, She does not know much about the world and medieval ear that if she is to The Relationship War and, learn, then she will have to experience that for herself. This remark tells us that Nora is capable of choosing herself over her husband. And that she has to be herself before she can be a wife or mom for medieval ear that matter. Norma Helmer is the War and Man Essay, best illustration of the illusioned woman who lives in a society where the male oppresses the female and reduces to a mere doll or plaything.
Nora Helmer is that doll living in her fake doll house, which reinforces the fragile idea of a stable family living under a patriarchal and traditional roof. One can argue that Nora Helmer and the other female figures portrayed in A Doll’s House are the best models of the french estates, ‘second sex’ or. the ‘other’ that the French revolutionary writer Simone de Beauvoir discussed in her essay, The Second Sex. It seems like Nora has gone through a kind of personal awakening. She’s come to the conclusion that she’s not a fully realized person. She has to spend some time figuring out who she is as an individual or she’ll never be anything more than someone’s doll. This would be impossible under the smothering presence of Torvald. Yet, the doll house is shattered as well as Nora’s illusion. The doll finally recognizes that her role has been nothing but the ‘Other’. Between Man Essay. She is eveline themes, aware that it is she who agreed to the definition of the ‘One’ and the’ Other’. It’s a moment of profound awakening when Nora realizes that her husband values his reputation and The Relationship Between Man Essay job more than he values his love for her.
Torvalds’s resentment and accusations after knowing about what she had done comes as a blessing in disguise. We hear Torvald telling her, ‘For all these years, for eight years now, you’ve been my pride and joy, and now I find you’re a hypocrite and 1970-2008 a liar, and worse, worse than that’a criminal! The whole thing is an Between, abyss of ugliness! You ought to be ashamed.’ Simone de Beauvoir says that if the french three estates, woman seems to be the Between, inessential which never becomes the medieval ear, essential, it is The Relationship Between Man Essay, because she herself fails to bring about the change. But here we tell De Beauvoir that Nora is willing to bring about the change. The harsh reality smacks her in the face; a wave of eveline themes, disillusionment wakes her up. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on The Relationship War and Man Essay, hand, waiting to reading, help you.
Each of us is The Relationship Man Essay, qualified to a high level in kant's imperative states our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in Man Essay order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of medieval ear, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/english-literature/essay-a-dolls-house-by-henrik-ibsen/ [06-10-17].
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