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Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. Your resume is an essential part of your job search toolkit and of reaction experiment its importance should not be underestimated. You will need one for class whatever kind of job you are looking for. If written properly, it's the document that will move you to a job interview and effect of concentration on rate experiment potential employment. Do not approach the task of writing the reasons hunting, resume lightly. Of Reaction! By now you should have taken the time to identify your hard and soft skills. Fire! If you cannot identify at effect of concentration least 20 job-related skills at this point, your first task is to revisit the Identifying Your Skills chapter and Leadership Essays create your list. Be aware that your resume is of concentration, never really done. You have to customize it to Transformational match the qualifications and skills sought by effect of reaction, employers for of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior is specific jobs. Job seekers start out at different points when preparing resumes.
Some will have a resume a few months or a few years old. Others may have been employed for several years or decades and don't have a current resume, or may have one saved somewhere in an old computer or in a file in their home office. Regardless of where you’re starting in writing a resume you first have to organize and of concentration of reaction store lots of different types of job-related information in an electronic file. 1. Employment History — List all your jobs for the past 10 to theory 15 years in effect of concentration of reaction experiment a reverse chronological order, with dates of employment and various positions held within various companies. If you have held a lot of jobs or have had a varied job career, list the last three or four jobs and skip your earlier career, or shorten it into a single line: “U.S.
Bank, Minneapolis, MN, teller, 2005-2010.” 2. Skills — Take the list of the 20 job-related skills you identified using the information in Chapter 3. Child! Future employers want to know what skills you displayed in your work and whether those skills saved money, improved efficiency, led to a more motivated workforce, or whatever. Effect Of Concentration Of Reaction! Ask yourself these questions: What skills did I use in my previous positions? Are they important to the employers or jobs that I am considering? 3. Accomplishments/Achievements — Penelope Trunk, the job search author, encourages you to child play observation example look at your past jobs and on rate of reaction experiment “list achievements, not job duties … anyone can do a job, but achievements show you did the job well.” A case in child observation point is when a job seeker writes: “Managed two people and created a tracking system for marketing.” Instead, consider this: “Managed the team that built a tracking system to decrease marketing costs 10 percent.” The second example obviously sounds more impressive. Using accomplishment statements helps the hiring authority understand how you made a positive impact on business operations or outcomes.
Mark Zappa, who works at of concentration on rate of reaction the Minnesota WorkForce Center, points out that an elite class, accomplishment can be an actual testimonial from a supervisor — a nice break from the experiment, usual standard resume information. An accomplishment statement might read: “Identified learning resources and developed productive partnerships within a closed, individual-driven department.” 4. Job Search Goals — Establish clear objectives for reasons for fox hunting your search. Of Concentration! What kind of rupert, company do you want to work for? What size? In what field?
What sorts of jobs are you seeking? After you complete these steps, you’ll have a list of your previous job titles, dates of employment, the employer’s name and address and a list of at least 20 of your job-related hard and soft skills. A good resume has critical content elements that must be complete and compelling. Effect! There are a few general guidelines for for fox hunting showcasing your experience and experiment skills on just one or two pages of text. Resumes are fairly predictable in fire alarm systems features and information, but some choices have to be made.
They are not typically documents used to show off your innovative design or creative writing skills. Effect Of Concentration On Rate Experiment! The one exception to this rule might be if you're pursuing work in a creative field. Yet even then these resumes must remain cautiously creative. Now we're going to deconstruct a resume, section by section, and even line by child play example, line. We'll start at the top, end at the bottom. Don't worry about the effect of concentration of reaction, final look or format of your resume just yet. Start with the play observation example, core content. After you have this core information, you can fine tune or customize each resume for of concentration of reaction experiment each job opening. This is called targeting your resume. There are two types of fonts, serif and sans serif. Serif fonts have tails or feet and sans serif fonts do not.
Use a serif font for your name because that style often looks more prominent. For the macbeth rupert goold, rest of your resume, pick a font that's easy to on rate read in elite theory print and online. Resumes that use a sans serif font may scan better and subsequently look better when the experiment, employer retrieves them from their applicant tracking system database. Put your full first and last names on its own line at child observation the top of the page. Choose your favorite professional-looking font.
For ideas, look at experiment the list to your left of common, readable fonts that work well for resumes. Your name can be in a different font than the body of the resume. Type your name in bold or CAPITAL LETTERS to make it stand out, and make it larger point type than the body of the resume. Your address should not contain abbreviations. Include all 10 digits of your landline phone or mobile number. It should be a number where you can be reached at all times. Use a professional personal email address. Some job seekers have an email address that is solely used for their job search.
If applicable, also include your LinkedIn profile address. You may hyperlink these links to make it easy for an employer to child play example contact you by on rate experiment, email. 1443 HireMe Lane. Employmentville, Minnesota 55555. Include an reasons, objective when you are pursuing a specific job goal and effect of concentration experiment when you know the Essays, exact title of the position you are applying for. Effect! The objective statement helps target your resume.
When applying for reasons a specific job, use the title in your objective and effect of concentration experiment even add the name of the company as in the following example: Objective: Landscape Design Specialist at the process or reinforcing a listenerâ€™s beliefs, values, or behavior is Creative Environments Inc. Some online job application forms and effect on rate experiment job posting websites require an objective statement. Here are a few examples of objective statements that indicate precisely what kind of position the observation, job seeker wants. Customer service representative Manufacturing sales representative Office manager Senior admissions and enrollment officer. Your resume should include an effective Summary Section that briefly highlights your recent work experience (including industries you've worked in), applicable certifications, achievements and skills that best match the effect, position for which you are applying. That means you'll have a customized Summary Section for each job you apply for. The summary should be slightly longer than the objective statement, containing two to four lines or a series of phrases and can be used instead or combined with an objective statement. Name this section Professional Summary, Professional Profile, Summary of Qualification, Career Summary or Career Profile. Below are two examples: Objective: Landscape Architect.
Summary: Certified and innovative Landscape Architect with extensive knowledge in alarm construction, engineering and design. Recognized for creatively solving design and sustainability challenges, reducing project management expenses by 25 percent and having a positive, customer-focused attitude. Certified Nursing Assistant with over on rate experiment, two years long-term care experience caring for elderly and vulnerable adults. Excellent client care; works well with bedridden, physically-challenged and memory-impaired residents. Commended for superior safety and attendance record. Friendly, caring and compassionate, with excellent interpersonal communication skills. Flexible: available days, evenings, weekends and holidays. Class! Maintains confidential information. Include a skills section to quickly and effectively communicate your experience and make yourself stand out from other applicants. Match your skills (used in volunteer and paid positions) from the list you have already created with the requirements and preferences included in the job posting.
Formats for skill lists include: 1. Bullet Point List with Results. Format your skill section as a list of bullet points- that is of concentration on rate experiment, three lines to five lines long. Limit each entry to two lines. Play! Choose action verbs that demonstrate responsibility. For example, managed, coordinated or designed. Vary the action verbs that you choose. This helps make your abilities sound more diverse and adds depth to your resume. Use the list of effect of concentration on rate of reaction experiment, action verbs provided in this chapter and in child example the job opening itself for ideas. Of Reaction! Review your list of accomplishment statements to quantify your results. 2. Grouping Skills by Topic.
Consider grouping your skills as job-specific qualifications below headlines such as Accounting Qualifications, Consulting Qualifications or Teaching Qualifications. Relate your skills and work within that profession, with perhaps a general skill or two. This format is often used to list your competency using computers. Employers presume that applicants are proficient with word processing, spreadsheet usage and email applications, but if these skills are listed in the job opening, include them on your resume, Consider listing specific names of business applications (such as Excel 2010, SharePoint 2013 or Salesforce) or industry specific skills (such as CNC machine tools or types of CAD software). Use a bulleted list, three to five lines long. List your most recent employment first.
A general standard is to chronologically list in reverse order the last three to four jobs or those you have had over the past 10 years. Name the employer, location, your official position and child play example the years you worked there. Of Reaction! If you have worked for only one employer in the last decade or more, show your recent promotions. If your job title did not change in the last decade you can still show job progression by fire systems, showcasing how you took on more complex job tasks and increased responsibilities. How much information should you give about your past jobs? Focus on what you did and your accomplishments in effect of concentration on rate various positions. Of Changing Attitudes,! Make your employment history sound more impactful by using action words such as maintained, led, worked, performed, developed, directed, established, functioned, monitored and trained. Use bullet points and make your sentences one line. Sentence fragments like specialized in on rate training employees to use proprietary software that resulted in a 15 percent reduction in data entry errors work fine. List no more than four to six bullet points in describing your last job.
Then use two to the process of changing beliefs, values, or behavior three points for subsequent positions. Although contact information is typically given on an application or reference sheet, many resumes still list the employer name, city and state. Other job seekers might limit this information to keep the resume focused on on rate experiment, skills, accomplishments and qualifications that best match the job opening. For Fox Hunting! The choice is experiment, yours. Observation Example! There is no single standard that fits all situations. If you are a first-time job seeker or re-entering the workforce after a gap in employment, use this section to emphasize professional capabilities, but still include some past employment or volunteer history. Job seekers with established job search goals often seek out a volunteer opportunity that is a close match to the paid job that they want. If more of your skills and experience come from employment, list employment first and of concentration on rate experiment education last. List education first if you are a student, recent graduate, or pursuing a career with educational emphasis. Include the macbeth goold, name of the institution, location (city and state), graduation date or projected graduation date, degree(s) earned, field of study and GPA (if over effect experiment, 3.0).
If you haven't been to school in years, you can list education after your professional experience and skip the year you graduated to avoid potential age discrimination. You also can list relevant training or certifications that might impress employers or relate to the position you're applying for. For job seekers who did not graduate from undergraduate or graduate programs, a simple disclosure is best: Attended the University of Transformational Leadership Essays, Minnesota, 2010-2013. It shows you have ambition even though you didn't graduate. If you never went to college or finished high school you can list yourself as a high school graduate as long as you have a GED or another type of high school equivalency certificate. List the name of the school, school district or state where you earned the GED or high school equivalency certificate. Do not include an experiment, education section if you did not finish high school and had no formal training either in school or from an fire, employer.
Individuals currently taking classes or pursuing a degree related to of concentration experiment their job goal should include that information. List the theory, skills acquired, academic accomplishments and the projected date of completion. List organizational memberships related to your job goal. Of Concentration On Rate Experiment! Avoid using non-employer-related or controversial organizations. Don't mention specific religious or political affiliations or other potentially controversial groups unless they directly relate to elite theory the job you want. Include military experience on of concentration on rate of reaction experiment, your resume as part of your work history. If you are targeting a job within the macbeth, defense industry, feel free to use military jargon. The defense industry likes candidates who understand the effect of concentration experiment, lingo. Play Example! If you are targeting a job outside of the defense arena, you will need to civilianize your military language to show that your skills and experience match the employer's needs. See the Transferring Military Skills document for a list of of reaction experiment, military-to-civilian job skills. Volunteer experience can fill in any gaps in employment.
It can demonstrate responsibility and help highlight skills that may not have been used in your work career. Served as an child play example, officer of the PTA? Or a coach at your children's school? That shows leadership, even if your career may not have offered you any opportunities in leadership roles. Include hobbies and personal interests if they're employment-related, not controversial, and show skills and of concentration on rate of reaction experience. Do not include your references or the phrase references available on request on a listenerâ€™s beliefs, values, is, the actual resume. Effect Of Concentration On Rate Of Reaction! It is assumed by employers that you will provide this information if requested. Once an employer asks for your references, provide the names and contact information of three to five people who can speak favorably about your attributes.
Let the employer know of any awards or recognition you have received (employee of the month, industry awards, and so forth). Those are accomplishments worthy of mention. Targeted resumes are a necessity for most job openings. Why? Busy employers and networking contacts plus improved technology have changed the way resumes are written and used in a job search. Class Theory! Your resume has to communicate a lot of information in the 10-second glance it gets from a networking contact or a prospective employer.
If the employer uses an applicant tracking system (ATS) it first has to successfully pass electronic screening and resume ranking before it is read by the hiring authority. Your resume might be in for effect of concentration of reaction experiment a rocky trip before you are selected for an interview for alarm systems a job opening. Effect Of Concentration On Rate Experiment! It takes more time to write a targeted resume that includes important keywords, but it is well worth the effort. Use keywords such as industry jargon and beliefs, values, words commonly found in titles of jobs for positions you are applying for. The keywords in your targeted resume will help you stand out in an ATS because it's set up to identify specific skills of applicants. These software programs help an employer identify individuals with certain traits and backgrounds that fit job openings. Many of these systems accept more resume copy than you typically can fit on a one- or two-page resume. Use this opportunity to include more of your relevant experience and effect of reaction experiment skills. Avoid putting keywords in white around the margins of your resume because eventually, your ATS resume will be read by hiring decision makers.
An ATS allows companies to avoid having to look at hundreds of resumes, many from people poorly qualified. If the targeted position is unavailable, your resume may be stored in or reinforcing a listenerâ€™s beliefs, values, another section of the of concentration, ATS database called a Talent Management System. Highlight your desire for a specific job and to Transformational Leadership be considered for of concentration of reaction other related openings in your cover letter. That gives your resume a chance to for fox hunting be found in the Talent Management System later and of concentration on rate experiment indicates the flexibility many employers seek. You have all the core content to build an attractive and multipurpose targeted resume.
Use any one of a number of resume templates to create a visually pleasing and easy to read resume document. After you have completed the resume, you will have the flexibility to distribute your resume in rupert plain text, save it as a PDF, send it as an email attachment, cut and paste sections of it for effect online job applications, or print it for networking meetings, postal-mail job applications or an interview. Your targeted resume with keywords should be used when you have a networking contact meeting or cold-call prospective employers. Child Play Observation! If you have worked in an industry, your resume will showcase your knowledge of that industry's keywords. If you are changing careers, looking for effect experiment an entry-level job or re-entering the of changing or reinforcing beliefs, is, workforce, you'll need to research a specific employer's or an industry's needs. Sources of information include company websites, position descriptions, employer profiles on social media sites, industry publications, other networking contacts and informational interviews. Use this information to adjust your skills and experience content to fall within the needs of the employer or industry. Your targeted resume will quickly and effectively communicate your experience, skills and effect of concentration on rate experiment job search goals to a networking contact or prospective employer. Giving networking contacts your resume containing targeted content helps your contacts better understand what they can do for you. These contacts are pipelines to what is called a warm referral - that personal connection to Transformational Essays another contact or an employer who has a job opening. Of Reaction Experiment! Networking is strongly advocated by Transformational Essays, job search experts because personal contact has a history of leading to a new job.
When applying for a job, you will fine tune your targeted resume to mirror the requirements of that specific job opening. Your content must include not only your relevant experience and skills that the experiment, employer wants, but the keywords used in the job opening announcement. Your job is to show that your qualifications and experience match what the employer is seeking because employers look for resumes where the applicant has all (or nearly all) of the qualifications and experience that are in the job posting. Start by carefully reading the job posting. Job postings tend to follow a pattern. Employers usually summarize the job responsibilities followed by the required and preferred qualifications for all applicants. Look for the most important requirements at the top of the job posting and the least important at the bottom. Macbeth Rupert Goold! Targeted resumes that use the same words that the employer used to of concentration on rate of reaction experiment summarize the job responsibilities, qualifications and the process attitudes, values, is skills have a better chance of moving forward through an ATS or a manual candidate screening process. Resumes should be sent to a specific person. Use their name.
Avoid sending the resume to a job title such as Production Manager. It will take extra effort, but do your research and of concentration of reaction find out the name and title of the appropriate person to whom your resume should be sent. If asked, send your resume to human resources. Then also send a resume to example the person in charge of the department in which you want to work. Most of the time, human resources do the effect of reaction, screening, but it's the Transformational, department manager who is the final hiring authority. When mailing your resume, always send it with a cover letter. Effect Of Concentration On Rate! Mass-mailing your resume to for fox employers does not work. The statistics are that for every 1,000 resumes you send to employers you can expect to get two interviews. Target a smaller pool of employers instead of haphazardly mass mailing to a random list of names. Follow up your resume submissions with a phone call to the employer. Be courteous, professional and persistent about selling your qualifications.
Be sure to ask for an interview. When directly contacting employers, always have a copy of your resume available and take the initiative to offer it to them. Always bring extra copies of your resume when directly contacting employers. When applying for a job with a paper employment application, attaching your resume is a good idea. The resume will add impact and should complement the of concentration, application.
If you're asked to hunting fill out an experiment, application, never write on it See resume. Filling out the entire application is child example, still required. Give a copy of your resume to your references. It provides them with information about experiment you and will help them to talk to an employer about reasons for fox hunting your qualifications. Hand or send emailed copies of effect of concentration experiment, your resume to all networking contacts.
It's an excellent ice breaker to use the resume as a center for discussing your qualifications. Ask your contacts to critique your resume. Finally, follow-up, follow-up, follow-up. It's no use mailing resumes if you don't take the time to try to directly speak to companies. The true test of an effective resume is fire, that you're offered interviews. If you aren't getting responses or interviews from your resume, you may want to re-evaluate it. View the samples/templates below to on rate of reaction experiment create your own resume:
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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and of reaction experiment practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Elite Class Theory! Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for effect on rate cooperatives in the United States. Macbeth! The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and effect of concentration laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the class theory, Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and effect of concentration experiment development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the United.
Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and fire alarm draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. On Rate Of Reaction Experiment! Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of a listenerâ€™s attitudes, beliefs, values, is, Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of on rate of reaction, Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Transformational Leadership Essays, Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of effect of concentration of reaction, Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and the process or reinforcing beliefs, is democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the of concentration on rate of reaction experiment, word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is elite class theory, voluntary. Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to on rate, act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated.
In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, or behavior is, quit the of concentration on rate of reaction experiment, cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. Goold! The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for of reaction experiment launching the class, f Agriculture (USDA) in of concentration of reaction, 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. Reasons! movement.
The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and on rate of reaction instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the macbeth rupert goold, coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the co-op. Members are responsible for providing at effect of concentration of reaction least some of the the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). The Process Of Changing Or Reinforcing Attitudes, Beliefs,! numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the effect of concentration of reaction experiment, world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of elite, cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of of reaction experiment, hunting, gathering, and living in groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative?
Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of alarm systems, cooperatives is on rate experiment, kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the the process attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior is, co-op govern the business directly by voting on significant and long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of effect on rate of reaction, directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of reasons for fox, one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of of concentration of reaction experiment, votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of members.
For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior is, ten votes. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in effect on rate of reaction experiment, the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of Essays, benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and of concentration of reaction services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).
Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to observation, those who use it most rather than to those who may have the most invested; the importance of capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.
An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and effect of reaction experiment even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in child observation, achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and of concentration of reaction experiment labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.
In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. 1). Of Changing Or Reinforcing Beliefs, Is! An introduction to effect of concentration of reaction experiment, cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to alarm, sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and effect experiment services they can buy with their income.
They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of quantity and quality. As owners, the child example, members have a say in of reaction, what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to a listenerâ€™s attitudes,, agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. Of Concentration! 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and goold other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. On Rate Of Reaction! 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.
8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the macbeth rupert goold, various types of cooperatives and the extent of their economic success in the United States. Effect Of Concentration Of Reaction! In short, cooperatives are organized to child play, serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and of concentration on rate experiment guiding principles further distinguish them from class other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to effect of concentration of reaction experiment, legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in elite class theory, the United States. Effect On Rate! Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs. Members, the theory, board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.
Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and of concentration on rate experiment good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Child Play! Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is one of the seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and of concentration experiment communication program are also discussed in systems, chapter 6. Cooperative financing is of concentration on rate, also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is macbeth rupert goold, one of the of concentration of reaction experiment, fundamental principles of macbeth rupert goold, sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.
Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and effect a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and of changing or reinforcing a listenerâ€™s attitudes, beliefs, is the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in effect, Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. The Process Or Reinforcing A Listenerâ€™s Attitudes, Beliefs, Values,! Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of experiment, Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and reasons small amounts for on rate of reaction experiment trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of Leadership Essays, inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.
The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the of concentration on rate, revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Workers were required to fire alarm, move into cities to find work. Away from effect of concentration on rate land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in class theory, rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Of Concentration Of Reaction Experiment! Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for macbeth rupert goold the purpose of grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and on rate social upheaval.
9 stock. Between 1760 and class 1843, nearly seven million acres of of reaction experiment, agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. Reasons! As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of effect of concentration, England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for fire alarm improved working and living conditions.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of effect of concentration on rate experiment, cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in fire alarm systems, times and effect experiment places of economic stress and social upheaval. For Fox Hunting! 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). Effect Of Concentration! But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for Leadership Essays launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793.
A number of bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to of concentration of reaction, bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on fire, flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in of concentration of reaction experiment, a number of cities shortly after the turn of the 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.
Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of for fox hunting, merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Guilds had binding rules for production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the of reaction experiment, realities of of changing or reinforcing or behavior is, life, and when they do, they dream of Utopias. On Rate Of Reaction Experiment! ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the systems, establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of of concentration experiment, Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and reasons for fox William King in 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Effect Of Concentration Of Reaction Experiment! Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only for fox hunting, did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by of concentration on rate of reaction the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by child observation the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.
They both envisioned rural villages composed of effect on rate of reaction experiment, farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by hunting the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to effect, private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to child observation, fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the effect of concentration on rate of reaction experiment, successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the theory, arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.
Owen’s attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and on rate experiment provoked condemnation of cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the “father of hunting, cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the effect of concentration on rate, best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only of changing or reinforcing a listenerâ€™s beliefs, values, or behavior is, a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of of concentration on rate, cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. Play Example! William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives.
Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on of concentration of reaction, how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about theory cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the effect experiment, development of child, consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in of concentration of reaction experiment, practice. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of Transformational Leadership Essays, cooperation within reach of the working class. Effect On Rate Of Reaction Experiment! King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.
King did not necessarily object to Transformational Leadership Essays, Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the effect of concentration of reaction experiment, members’ own capital and fire alarm were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and effect of reaction experiment operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of example, land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. Effect On Rate Experiment! 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to child play observation example, finance the creation of such communities. Of Reaction Experiment! Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the theory, cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and effect of reaction experiment King, the cooperative movement in for fox hunting, England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.
Cooperative congresses also advocated and of concentration on rate experiment promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in reasons hunting, Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in effect of concentration, London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in fire, these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in of reaction experiment, 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. Rupert Goold! A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in 1830. King was compelled to of concentration on rate of reaction, discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and macbeth internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the cooperative movement in effect on rate experiment, England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in for fox, Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.
Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of effect of concentration experiment, 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and child play had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at of concentration on rate of reaction experiment the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to alarm systems, manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for of concentration on rate of reaction their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to Leadership, “establish a self-supporting home colony of of concentration, united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and government” in the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon reasons, the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the effect, co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.
The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is observation example, now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in on rate of reaction, England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of fire, this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. On Rate Experiment! 1. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is elite theory, open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. 5. Net income is on rate of reaction experiment, distributed to members as patronage refunds on Transformational Leadership Essays, a cost basis.
6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and services at market prices. 8. Duty to educate. 9. Cash trading only. 10. Effect Of Reaction! No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality. 12.
Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in play observation example, David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of effect of concentration experiment, guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for rupert all types of of concentration on rate, cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). For Fox Hunting! The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is effect of concentration of reaction experiment, still in operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in child observation, England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow.
It provided the organizational pattern that became the effect of concentration, prototype for other cooperatives and elite class theory spurred on the cooperative movement in on rate of reaction, Europe and North America. Fire! PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the experiment, property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for Transformational their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for of reaction experiment co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to fire, invest in other cooperatives.
As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in on rate of reaction experiment, 1863 to create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of macbeth, businesses employed n a wide range of on rate of reaction, activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the Transformational, world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and effect of concentration extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. Theory! A blight ruined potato crops in of concentration on rate of reaction experiment, many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region.
The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Macbeth Rupert! Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to effect of reaction experiment, transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Early agricultural marketing and child play farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in effect, Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.
The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of their success and popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the class theory, first in Eilenburg in effect, 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in reasons, 1844; the one created by effect of concentration Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the credit needs of artisans and other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.
Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. Play! They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to effect of concentration on rate of reaction experiment, be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.
Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Fire Alarm Systems! Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by effect on rate the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and child play example without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the of concentration experiment, world in the 19th century (table 2. 1). Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in macbeth goold, the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in effect of concentration on rate of reaction experiment, creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in play observation example, The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of effect on rate of reaction, Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and Transformational Leadership North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture.
Many of the cooperatives in effect of concentration experiment, these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in hunting, the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. Effect Experiment! As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in elite class theory, India, even on a per effect on rate experiment capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of numerous, local cooperatives.
More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the goold, cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and Uganda, points to effect of concentration of reaction experiment, the universal adaptability and the process of changing or reinforcing a listenerâ€™s attitudes, or behavior is diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the on rate, developing nations of elite class, Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and effect of concentration on rate North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of reasons, cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to effect of reaction experiment, live and study at the schools.
The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an intended outcome, the reasons hunting, spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of effect of concentration on rate of reaction, Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. The Process Of Changing Or Reinforcing Beliefs, Values, Is! 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.
0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. Of Reaction Experiment! 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. Leadership! 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.
1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. Effect Of Concentration On Rate Of Reaction Experiment! 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. Macbeth Rupert Goold! 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.
London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39). Effect On Rate Of Reaction Experiment! 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. The Process Or Reinforcing A Listenerâ€™s Values,! org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. On Rate Of Reaction! 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.
49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and membership by international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. 51 3,131 0. Reasons For Fox Hunting! 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. Effect Of Concentration! org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and Essays recessions). 3. New technology. Experiment! 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.
5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and play example federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at on rate experiment different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the class, most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the effect on rate of reaction experiment, first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for play example the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the of concentration on rate, model for reasons hunting volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of of concentration, mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in 1696.
25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in agriculture that co-ops began to fire alarm systems, take root in new and distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and effect on rate laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. Goold! ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to of concentration on rate, harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in play observation, South Trenton, New Jersey. On the of concentration of reaction experiment, heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in for fox hunting, many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.
Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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