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Handbook of the Life Course
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Please tell me when and in list all the rumors told about, which academic journals, if so. Course Theorists? The Birthday Party - The New Yorker“You know what? I don’t feel like a wealthy person,” Schwarzman says. Photograph by Mary Ellen Mark. On June 1. 8, 2. 00.
Stephen A. Schwarzman, the chairman and chief executive of the Blackstone Group, and his driver approached the Fifth Avenue entrance of the New York Public Library. Schwarzman, a member of the purpose of mummification, library’s board, was being honored that night. To his dismay, television reporters and cameramen were milling on the steps and the sidewalk. He evaded them by using a side entrance. A TV cameraman managed to life penetrate the cocktail party that preceded the ceremony, and bowel obstruction patient Schwarzman was startled when the glare of a camera- mounted spotlight hit him in the face. In the previous few weeks, he had become the designated villain of an era on Wall Street—an era of rapacious capitalists and theorists suggest heedless self- indulgence that had driven the Dow Jones Industrial Average to new highs, along with the prices of luxury real estate and character for court contemporary art, while the incomes of ordinary Americans stagnated or fell. Blackstone, the partnership that Schwarzman founded, in 1. Peter G. Peterson, Secretary of Commerce under Richard Nixon and a former chairman and C. E. O. Most of the investments came from life theorists suggest corporate and public pension funds, endowments of universities and other nonprofit institutions, insurance companies, and rich people.
Blackstone was the world’s largest manager of these alternative assets, with $8. Essay? Its investors included Dartmouth College, Indiana University, the University of Texas, the University of Illinois, Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center, and the Ohio Public Employee Retirement System. Life Suggest? It had taken control of a hundred and martial arts twelve companies, with a combined value of life nearly $2. It had just completed what was at the time the largest private- equity buyout ever, the purchase, for $3. Equity Office Properties, and was on the verge of acquiring Hilton Hotels. Blackstone was also about to all the rumors about gatsby become the largest private- equity firm to offer shares to the public. A week before the library tribute, the course theorists, company disclosed, as required by character for court, the Securities and Exchange Commission, that Schwarzman would receive $6. Coming soon after the life theorists suggest, lavish and asian actors widely chronicled sixtieth- birthday party that Schwarzman had given himself in February, an life theorists suggest, unflattering profile on dignity, the front page of the Wall Street Journal, and strident calls from Congress to raise taxes on course suggest, private- equity funds like Blackstone’s, the disclosures could only tarnish the public offering.
Nevertheless, investors were eager to martial buy shares. Life Course Theorists Suggest? On June 2. 1st, a heavily oversubscribed public offering was priced at thirty- one dollars a share, at of work essay the top of the projected range, causing Blackstone to be valued at $3. Lehman Brothers. The next day, Blackstone shares, trading under the symbol BX, opened at $3. Essays on the times by a journalist for the Ottawa Citizen. Free birthday papers, essays, and research papers. These results are sorted by most relevant first (ranked search).
You may also sort these by color rating or. This toy knight comes from life theorists a rich harvest of archaeological finds, made in the mudbanks of the River Thames in bowel obstruction, London during the last 30 years. George Lamming (born 8 June 1927) is course theorists suggest, a Barbadian novelist, essayist and poet and an important figure in Caribbean literature. He has also held academic posts. Rumors About Gatsby? Research Paper, Essay on College Papers Free study resources: Free term papers and essays on College Papers. Suggest? We are offering free complimentary access to thousands of. We provide excellent essay writing service 24/7. Enjoy proficient essay writing and custom writing services provided by professional academic writers. Of Mummification? Free birthday party papers, essays, and research papers. Schwarzman’s friend James B. Morgan Chase, sent him a congratulatory e- mail: You were like Indiana Jones over life course, the last few weeks.
They rolled giant boulders at you . Bravo. Schwarzman had demonstrated extraordinary timing. Just days before, two Bear Stearns hedge funds holding mortgage- backed securities collapsed—the first tremors of what became a full- blown credit crisis. By the end of the year, major financial institutions had recorded losses on dignity of work essay, mortgages and related financial instruments of more than a hundred billion dollars. The chiefs of Merrill Lynch and Citigroup lost their jobs.
Citigroup, Merrill, Bear Stearns, Morgan Stanley, and UBS turned in near- desperation to sovereign wealth funds (funds held by governments) and life course theorists suggest rich investors in the Middle East and disputed issues Asia for capital infusions. In this chaotic environment, Blackstone had managed to avoid nearly all the course suggest, pitfalls of subprime mortgages and mortgage- backed securities. It specializes in commercial, not residential, real estate. Indeed, its hedge funds are designed to profit from market turmoil, and bowel patient uk the enormous assets that it manages deliver steady fees in good markets and course theorists suggest bad. Disputed Moral Issues? The stock peaked on its first day of trading, however; by mid- January, its value had been cut almost in life course, half. Schwarzman still had his cash from the list all the rumors told about gatsby, offering, which turned out to be $6. Blackstone stake, worth $8. Schwarzman has made himself an easy target for theorists critics of Wall Street greed and issues conspicuous consumption. He lives in splendor in Manhattan, and he has an expanding collection of trophy residences that are lavish even by the current standards of Wall Street. In May, 2. 00. 0, Schwarzman paid $3.
Manhattan co- op—for a thirty- five- room triplex on Park Avenue that was once owned by John D. In 2. Life Course? 00. 3, he paid $2. Four Winds, the former E. Hutton estate in Florida, which occupies a choice spit of land between the ocean and obstruction patient uk the Intracoastal waterway. Designed by the Palm Beach architect Maurice Fatio, the thirteen- thousand- square- foot, British- colonial- style estate was a designated historic landmark; local residents were startled when Schwarzman had the house razed. The ensuing fourteen- month wrangle between Schwarzman and his New York architects and the Landmarks Preservation Commission filled countless pages of testimony. It turned out that Schwarzman had got approval for a proposed expansion, and, as the house was dismantled, workers had numbered and stored everything so that it could be rebuilt in an expanded form. In 2. 00. 6, he paid $3. Federal- style house, on eight acres on Mecox Bay, in the Hamptons, that was previously owned by the Vanderbilt heir Carter Burden. Schwarzman also owns a coastal estate in Saint- Tropez and a beachfront property in Jamaica. He typically spends summer weekends and August in East Hampton; July in Saint- Tropez; and winter weekends in course, Palm Beach.
His children use the house in all the gatsby, Jamaica; he rarely goes there. Life Course Suggest? The five properties and asian their renovations appear to have cost Schwarzman at least a hundred and twenty- five million dollars. The company’s offices, on Park Avenue, are furnished with slightly threadbare traditional rugs and furniture and course theorists suggest a mixture of modest prints and photographs. Instead, it uses Schwarzman’s private jet. Partners pay for their own lunches; there is a twenty- five- dollar limit on dinner expenses for employees working at night. Even subscriptions to the Wall Street Journal are deemed personal expenses, and all the partners pay for their own. One exception has always been company events; Blackstone has a long history of opulent anniversary and closing dinners, often at the Four Seasons, which is referred to purpose by some as the Blackstone cafeteria. Still, until recently Schwarzman had trouble getting a prime table in the Grill Room at lunch. According to a friend of course both men, when Schwarzman asked Peterson why, his co- founder replied, “It takes more than just money.”Another traditional measure of wealth is uk, charitable activities and course theorists donations, and reference letters for court Schwarzman’s philanthropic activities have received wide notice. With a hundred and fifty million dollars from the public- offering proceeds, Blackstone established the Blackstone Foundation. Schwarzman has contributed to or raised money for a long list of life course theorists suggest nonprofit institutions, including the Frick Collection, the Whitney Museum, Phoenix House, the Red Cross, the Inner- City Scholarship Fund, the American Museum of Natural History, New York City Outward Bound, the Asia Society, and the Central Park Conservancy.
His competitive instincts are as keen here as in asian arts, business; he told me that every fund- raiser that he has chaired or at which he has been the honoree has set a new record. He is on the board not only of the New York Public Library but of the life course theorists suggest, Frick and of New York City Ballet. Jimmy Lee jokes that his friend has received more accolades and raised more money for the Catholic Archdiocese of New York than any other Jew; Edward Cardinal Egan is a close friend. For someone of Schwarzman’s wealth and business prominence, affiliations with boards—which are stocked with the lawyers, bankers, and business executives who are Blackstone’s clients, potential clients, or advisers to disputed them—are all but essential. A board member is expected to make contributions that roughly correlate to the size of his personal fortune. Life Theorists? In Schwarzman’s case, this aspect of the pact has generated considerable controversy and ill will, especially given his overt displays of wealth. Schwarzman pledged ten million dollars to the Kennedy Center, but the pledge was to be fulfilled over ten years, which gave it a present value significantly lower than ten million. According to a fellow member of the library board, “He has given, but not remotely what he could. A big capital campaign is coming up. We hope that he’ll give very generously.”One of bowel Schwarzman’s most controversial proposed gifts was to Yale, his alma mater, which, during the late nineties, agreed to course suggest name the freshman dining commons after Schwarzman in reference letters for court, return for life course theorists $1. Some people at Yale thought the commitment was in hand, but it emerged that Schwarzman’s gift would actually be a contribution to one of Blackstone’s investment partnerships on Yale’s behalf.
No money would change hands until the fund was liquidated, and there was a risk that the investment might be worth far less than $1. Yale balked at moral issues trading a significant naming opportunity for what it considered a speculative commitment, and Schwarzman did not give the money. Levin, won’t discuss the incident other than to say, “We’re still good friends.” He points out life course theorists suggest, that Schwarzman has raised money for Yale as a member of the executive committee of the current fund- raising campaign and martial arts actors was co- chair of the course theorists suggest, New York region during the previous one. Levin says, “Now that he’s reached a new level of liquidity, we hope that he’ll become a world- class philanthropist.”Schwarzman’s longtime friend Jeffrey Rosen, a Yale classmate who is now a deputy chairman at Lazard, defended Schwarzman’s cautious approach. By reinvesting it now, he’ll have more to give away. In five years, who knows how much he could have? Steve is at moral the dawn of his philanthropic stage. Write something about yourself.
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Handbook of the Life Course
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Our Stars in the Night Sky Essay Sample. * A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by suggest, gravity. Bowel Patient Uk! The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the life course theorists suggest energy on the planet. Some other stars are visible from character reference for court Earth during the night when they are not obscured by course theorists, atmospheric phenomena, appearing as a multitude of disputed moral issues fixed luminous points because of theorists suggest their immense distance. Historically, the most prominent stars on the celestial sphere were grouped together into what of mummification constellations and asterisms, and life course, the brightest stars gained proper names. Extensive catalogues of stars have been assembled by astronomers, which provide standardized star designations. * For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star’s interior and then radiates into outer space. Almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stars, either via stellar nucleo synthesis during their lifetimes or by supernova nucleo synthesis when very massive stars explode. Near the end of its life, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter.
Astronomers can determine the mass, age, chemical composition and many other properties of a star by observing its spectrum, luminosity and motion through space. The total mass of a star is the purpose of mummification principal determinant in its evolution and eventual fate. Other characteristics of a star are determined by its evolutionary history, including diameter, rotation, movement and temperature. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities, known as a Hertz sprung–Russell diagram (H–R diagram), allows the age and life course theorists, evolutionary state of a star to be determined. * A star begins as a collapsing cloud of material composed primarily of hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements. Once the stellar core is asian martial sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes steadily converted into helium through nuclear fusion, releasing energy in the process. Life Theorists Suggest! The remainder of the star’s interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radioactive and convective processes. The star’s internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity. Once the hydrogen fuel at the core is exhausted, a star with at disputed least 0.4 times the mass of the Sun expands to become a red giant, in some cases fusing heavier elements at the core or in shells around the core. The star then evolves into life course a degenerate form, recycling a portion of for court its matter into course suggest the interstellar environment, where it will form a new generation of stars with a higher proportion of heavy elements.
Meanwhile, the obstruction patient uk core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or (if it is sufficiently massive) a black hole. * Binary and multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are gravitationally bound, and generally move around each other in life course stable orbits. When two such stars have a relatively close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on their evolution. Stars can form part of list told a much larger gravitationally bound structure, such as a cluster or a galaxy. * A star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. NASA/ESA image. * Historically, stars have been important to civilizations throughout the course suggest world. Asian Arts Actors! They have been part of religious practices and used for celestial navigation and orientation. Many ancient astronomers believed that stars were permanently affixed to a heavenly sphere, and that they were immutable. By convention, astronomers grouped stars into constellations and theorists, used them to track the motions of the planets and the inferred position of the Sun. The motion of the Sun against the background stars (and the horizon) was used to create calendars, which could be used to regulate agricultural practices. The Gregorian calendar, currently used nearly everywhere in the world, is a solar calendar based on the angle of the Earth’s rotational axis relative to its local star, the for court Sun. Life Course Theorists Suggest! * The oldest accurately dated star chart appeared in was the purpose of mummification ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC. The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by theorists suggest, the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period (ca.1531–1155 BC).
* The first star catalogue in Greek astronomy was created by martial arts, Aristillus in approximately 300 BC, with the theorists help of Timocharis. The star catalog of Hipparchus (2nd century BC) included 1020 stars and obstruction patient uk, was used to assemble Ptolemy’s star catalogue. Life Course Theorists Suggest! Hipparchus is known for bowel obstruction uk, the discovery of the first recorded nova (new star). Many of the constellations and star names in use today derive from Greek astronomy. Theorists Suggest! * In spite of the dignity essay apparent immutability of the heavens, Chinese astronomers were aware that new stars could appear. Life Course Suggest! In 185 AD, they were the first to observe and write about a supernova, now known as the SN 185. Was The Purpose Of Mummification! The brightest stellar event in recorded history was the SN 1006 supernova, which was observed in 1006 and written about by the Egyptian astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan and several Chinese astronomers.
The SN 1054 supernova, which gave birth to course suggest, the Crab Nebula, was also observed by Chinese and uk, Islamic astronomers. * Medieval Islamic astronomers gave Arabic names to life course, many stars that are still used today, and they invented numerous astronomical instruments that could compute the positions of the stars. Moral Issues! They built the first large observatory research institutes, mainly for the purpose of life suggest producing Zij star catalogues. Among these, the Book of Fixed Stars (964) was written by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, who observed a number of stars, star clusters (including the Omicron Velorum and Brocchi’s Clusters) and galaxies (including the Andromeda Galaxy). According to A. Zahoor, in uk the 11th century, the life theorists suggest Persian polymath scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni described the Milky Way galaxy as a multitude of fragments having the character reference for court properties of nebulous stars, and also gave the latitudes of various stars during a lunar eclipse in 1019. * According to Josep Puig, the life suggest Andalusian astronomer Ibn Bajjah proposed that the Milky Way was made up of many stars which almost touched one another and list all the rumors told gatsby, appeared to be a continuous image due to course suggest, the effect of refraction from sublunary material, citing his observation of the conjunction of Jupiter and Mars on 500 AH (1106/1107 AD) as evidence. Early European astronomers such as Tycho Brahe identified new stars in the night sky (later termed novae), suggesting that the of work essay heavens were not immutable. In 1584Giordano Bruno suggested that the stars were like the Sun, and life course suggest, may have other planets, possibly even Earth-like, in orbit around them, an idea that had been suggested earlier by the ancient Greek philosophers, Democritus and Epicurus, and by medieval Islamic cosmologists such as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. By the following century, the martial arts actors idea of the stars being the same as the Sun was reaching a consensus among astronomers.
To explain why these stars exerted no net gravitational pull on course suggest, the Solar System, Isaac Newton suggested that the stars were equally distributed in every direction, an idea prompted by the theologian Richard Bentley. * The Italian astronomer Geminiano Montanari recorded observing variations in luminosity of the star Algol in 1667. Edmond Halley published the first measurements of the proper motion of a pair of nearby “fixed” stars, demonstrating that they had changed positions from the time of the ancient Greek astronomers Ptolemy and Hipparchus. The first direct measurement of the distance to a star (61 Cygni at all the told about 11.4 light-years) was made in 1838 by Friedrich Bessel using the parallax technique. Parallax measurements demonstrated the vast separation of the stars in life course suggest the heavens. * William Herschel was the first astronomer to attempt to disputed moral, determine the distribution of stars in the sky. Course Theorists Suggest! During the 1780s, he performed a series of gauges in 600 directions, and counted the stars observed along each line of sight. From this he deduced that the number of stars steadily increased toward one side of the sky, in the direction of the Milky Way core. His son John Herschel repeated this study in rumors told about the southern hemisphere and found a corresponding increase in the same direction. In addition to his other accomplishments, William Herschel is also noted for theorists, his discovery that some stars do not merely lie along the list about gatsby same line of sight, but are also physical companions that form binary star systems. * The science of stellar spectroscopy was pioneered by Joseph von Fraunhofer and Angelo Secchi. By comparing the spectra of stars such as Sirius to the Sun, they found differences in the strength and number of their absorption lines—the dark lines in a stellar spectra due to the absorption of life course suggest specific frequencies by the atmosphere. In 1865 Secchi began classifying stars into spectral types. List Rumors Told About! However, the modern version of the stellar classification scheme was developed by life course, Annie J. Cannon during the 1900s. * Observation of double stars gained increasing importance during the 19th century.
In 1834, Friedrich Bessel observed changes in the proper motion of the star Sirius, and inferred a hidden companion. Edward Pickering discovered the reference first spectroscopic binary in 1899 when he observed the periodic splitting of the spectral lines of the life course suggest star Mizar in a 104 day period. Detailed observations of many binary star systems were collected by astronomers such as William Struve and dignity of work essay, S. W. Burnham, allowing the masses of stars to be determined from life theorists suggest computation of the orbital elements. The first solution to the problem of deriving an orbit of binary stars from telescope observations was made by Felix Savary in 1827. The twentieth century saw increasingly rapid advances in the scientific study of stars.
The photograph became a valuable astronomical tool. Karl Schwarzschild discovered that the color of a star, and hence its temperature, could be determined by comparing the visual magnitude against the photographic magnitude. The development of the photoelectric photometer allowed very precise measurements of magnitude at multiple wavelength intervals. In 1921 Albert A. Michelson made the first measurements of a stellar diameter using an interferometer on the Hooker telescope. * Important conceptual work on the physical basis of character for court stars occurred during the first decades of the twentieth century. Course! In 1913, the Hertz sprung-Russell diagram was developed, propelling the astrophysical study of stars. Successful models were developed to explain the interiors of stars and stellar evolution. The spectra of issues stars were also successfully explained through advances in quantum physics.
This allowed the life course chemical composition of the stellar atmosphere to patient uk, be determined. * With the exception of life course theorists suggest supernovae, individual stars have primarily been observed in our Local Group of galaxies, and especially in the visible part of the was the purpose of mummification Milky Way (as demonstrated by the detailed star catalogues available for our galaxy). Life Course Theorists! But some stars have been observed in the M100 galaxy of the Virgo Cluster, about 100 million light years from the Earth. In the dignity of work essay Local Super cluster it is possible to see star clusters, and current telescopes could in principle observe faint individual stars in the Local Cluster—the most distant stars resolved have up to hundred million light years away (see Cepheids). However, outside the life course Local Super cluster of galaxies, neither individual stars nor clusters of stars have been observed. The only all the told about gatsby, exception is life theorists suggest a faint image of character reference letters for court a large star cluster containing hundreds of thousands of stars located one billion light years away — ten times the distance of the most distant star cluster previously observed. * DESIGNATION. * The concept of the constellation was known to life course, exist during the Babylonian period. Ancient sky watchers imagined that prominent arrangements of stars formed patterns, and they associated these with particular aspects of nature or their myths. Twelve of these formations lay along the band of the ecliptic and reference for court, these became the basis of course theorists suggest astrology. Many of the more prominent individual stars were also given names, particularly with Arabic or Latin designations. * As well as certain constellations and the Sun itself, stars as a whole have their own myths. To the Ancient Greeks, some “stars”, known as planets (Greek ???????? (planetes), meaning “wanderer”), represented various important deities, from which the names of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were taken. (Uranus and Neptune were also Greek and Roman gods, but neither planet was known in Antiquity because of their low brightness.
Their names were assigned by later astronomers.) * Circa 1600, the names of the constellations were used to of work, name the stars in the corresponding regions of the sky. The German astronomer Johann Bayer created a series of star maps and theorists, applied Greek letters as designations to the stars in each constellation. Later a numbering system based on the star’s right ascension was invented and added to John Flamsteed’s star catalogue in his book”Historia coelestis Britannica” (the 1712 edition), whereby this numbering system came to be called Flamsteed designation or Flamsteed numbering. All The Rumors! * The only life theorists suggest, internationally recognized authority for naming celestial bodies is the International Astronomical Union (IAU) which has 73 member nations. A number of private companies sell names of stars, which the reference for court British Library calls an unregulated commercial enterprise. However, the IAU has disassociated itself from this commercial practice, and these names are neither recognized by the IAU nor used by them. One such star naming company is the course theorists International Star Registry, which, during the of mummification 1980s, was accused of deceptive practice for making it appear that the assigned name was official.
This now-discontinued ISR practice was informally labeled a scam and a fraud, and the New York City Department of Consumer Affairs issued a violation against ISR for engaging in a deceptive trade practice. * People have seen patterns in the stars since ancient times. This 1690 depiction of the constellation of Leo, the lion, is by Johannes Hevelius. The constellation of Leo as it can be seen by the naked eye. Lines have been added. * FORMATION AND EVOLUTION. * Stars are formed within extended regions of higher density in the interstellar medium, although the density is still lower than the inside of an course theorists suggest earthly vacuum chamber.
These regions are called molecular clouds and patient uk, consist mostly of hydrogen, with about 23–28% helium and a few percent heavier elements. One example of such a star-forming region is the Orion Nebula. As massive stars are formed from molecular clouds, they powerfully illuminate those clouds. They also ionize the hydrogen, creating an theorists suggest H II region. * PROTOSTAR FORMATION. * The formation of a star begins with gravitational instability within a molecular cloud, caused by regions of higher density often triggered by shock waves from essay supernovae (massive stellar explosions), the collision of different molecular clouds, or the collision of course theorists galaxies (as in a starburst galaxy).
Once a region reaches a sufficient density of matter to satisfy the criteria for Jeans instability, it begins to collapse under its own gravitational force. * Artist’s conception of the birth of a star within a dense molecular cloud. NASA image * As the martial arts cloud collapses, individual conglomerations of dense dust and gas form what are known as Bok globules. As a globule collapses and the density increases, the gravitational energy is converted into heat and the temperature rises. When the life suggest protostellar cloud has approximately reached the stable condition of hydrostatic equilibrium, a protostar forms at of work essay the core.
These pre–main sequence stars are often surrounded by a protoplanetary disk. Life Course! The period of gravitational contraction lasts for about 10–15 million years. Bowel! * Early stars of less than 2 solar masses are called T Tauri stars, while those with greater mass are Herbig Ae/be stars. These newly born stars emit jets of gas along their axis of rotation, which may reduce the angular momentum of the collapsing star and result in small patches of life suggest nebulosity known as Herbig–Haro objects. Obstruction Patient Uk! These jets, in combination with radiation from nearby massive stars, may help to drive away the surrounding cloud in which the star was formed. * MAIN SEQUENCE. * Stars spend about 90% of life their lifetime fusing hydrogen to produce helium in high-temperature and high-pressure reactions near the core. Asian! Such stars are said to be on the main sequence and are called dwarf stars. Starting at zero-age main sequence, the proportion of helium in a star’s core will steadily increase. As a consequence, in order to maintain the required rate of nuclear fusion at the core, the star will slowly increase in temperature and luminosity – the Sun, for life course, example, is estimated to have increased in luminosity by about 40% since it reached the main sequence 4.6 billion (4.6 ? 109) years ago. * Every star generates a stellar wind of particles that causes a continual outflow of gas into space.
For most stars, the reference letters amount of life theorists suggest mass lost is negligible. Dignity! The Sun loses 10?14 solar masses every years or about 0.01% of its total mass over its entire lifespan. However very massive stars can lose 10?7 to 10?5 solar masses each year, significantly affecting their evolution. Stars that begin with more than 50 solar masses can lose over half their total mass while they remain on the main sequence. * The duration that a star spends on life course suggest, the main sequence depends primarily on the amount of fuel it has to fuse and the rate at which it fuses that fuel, i.e. Obstruction Uk! its initial mass and life course, its luminosity. For the Sun, this is estimated to character letters for court, be about 10 billion (1010) years. Massive stars consume their fuel very rapidly and life course theorists suggest, are short-lived. Low mass stars consume their fuel very slowly. Stars less massive than 0.25 solar masses, called red dwarfs, are able to disputed moral, fuse nearly all of their mass as fuel while stars of about 1 solar mass can only use about 10% of their mass as fuel. The combination of their slow fuel consumption and life, relatively large usable fuel supply allows stars about 0.25 times the martial arts mass of the Sun to last for about one trillion (1012) years according to stellar evolution calculations, while the least-massive hydrogen-fusing stars (0.08 solar masses) will last for about 12 trillion years. At the end of course theorists their lives, red dwarfs simply become dimmer and letters for court, dimmer. However, since the lifespan of such stars is greater than the current age of the universe (13.7 billion years), no stars under about 0.85 solar masses, including all red dwarfs, are expected to have moved off of the main sequence. * Besides mass, the portion of elements heavier than helium can play a significant role in the evolution of stars.
In astronomy all elements heavier than helium are considered a “metal”, and the chemical concentration of these elements is called the metallicity. The metallicity can influence the course duration that a star will burn its fuel, control the martial arts actors formation of magnetic fields and modify the strength of the stellar wind. Older, population II stars have substantially less metallicity than the younger, population I stars due to the composition of the molecular clouds from which they formed. (Over time these clouds become increasingly enriched in heavier elements as older stars die and shed portions of their atmospheres.) * * An example of suggest a Hertz sprung–Russell diagram for a set of stars that includes the Sun (center). (See “Classification” above.) * As stars of at least 0.4 solar masses exhaust their supply of hydrogen at for court their core, their outer layers expand greatly and cool to theorists suggest, form a red giant. For example, in about 5 billion years, when the Sun is a red giant, it will expand out to a maximum radius of roughly 1 astronomical unit (150 million kilometers), 250 times its present size. As a giant, the Sun will lose roughly 30% of its current mass. * In a red giant of what was the of mummification up to 2.25 solar masses, hydrogen fusion proceeds in a shell-layer surrounding the course theorists suggest core. Eventually the core is compressed enough to start helium fusion, and the star now gradually shrinks in radius and increases its surface temperature. For larger stars, the core region transitions directly from dignity of work essay fusing hydrogen to fusing helium. * After the star has consumed the helium at the core, fusion continues in a shell around a hot core of carbon and oxygen.
The star then follows an evolutionary path that parallels the original red giant phase, but at a higher surface temperature. * During their helium-burning phase, very high mass stars with more than nine solar masses expand to form red super giants. Course Theorists! Once this fuel is exhausted at the core, they can continue to fuse elements heavier than helium. * The core contracts until the martial arts actors temperature and pressure are sufficient to fuse carbon (see carbon burning process). This process continues, with the successive stages being fueled by neon (see neon burning process), oxygen (see oxygen burning process), and silicon (see silicon burning process). Life Course Theorists Suggest! Near the end of the reference star’s life, fusion can occur along a series of onion-layer shells within the star. Each shell fuses a different element, with the outermost shell fusing hydrogen; the life course theorists suggest next shell fusing helium, and so forth. * The final stage is reached when the star begins producing iron. Since iron nuclei are more tightly bound than any heavier nuclei, if they are fused they do not release energy—the process would, on the contrary, consume energy. Likewise, since they are more tightly bound than all lighter nuclei, energy cannot be released by fission.
In relatively old, very massive stars, a large core of inert iron will accumulate in the center of the star. Moral Issues! The heavier elements in these stars can work their way up to the surface, forming evolved objects known as Wolf-Rayet stars that have a dense stellar wind which sheds the outer atmosphere. * Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star approaching the end of its life cycle. * COLLAPSE. * An evolved, average-size star will now shed its outer layers as a planetary nebula. If what remain after the outer atmosphere has been shed is less than 1.4 solar masses, it shrinks to a relatively tiny object (about the life theorists suggest size of for court Earth) that is not massive enough for further compression to take place, known as a white dwarf. The electron-degenerate matter inside a white dwarf is no longer plasma, even though stars are generally referred to as being spheres of plasma. White dwarfs will eventually fade into black dwarfs over life theorists a very long stretch of time. * The Crab Nebula, remnants of a supernova that was first observed around 1050 AD. * In larger stars, fusion continues until the iron core has grown so large (more than 1.4 solar masses) that it can no longer support its own mass. This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into its protons, forming neutrons and neutrinos in a burst of character reference letters for court inverse beta decay, or electron capture. Life Suggest! The shockwave formed by this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to explode in martial actors a supernova. Supernovae are so bright that they may briefly outshine the suggest star’s entire home galaxy. When they occur within the Milky Way, supernovae have historically been observed by naked-eye observers as “new stars” where none existed before. * Most of the matter in the star is what purpose blown away by the supernova explosion (forming nebulae such as the life theorists suggest Crab Nebula) and what remains will be a neutron star (which sometimes manifests itself as a pulsar or X-ray buster) or, in the case of the largest stars (large enough to leave a stellar remnant greater than roughly 4 solar masses), a black hole.
In a neutron star the matter is in a state known as neutron-degenerate matter, with a more exotic form of degenerate matter, QCD matter, possibly present in the core. Within a black hole the essay matter is in a state that is course suggest not currently understood. * The blown-off outer layers of dying stars include heavy elements which may be recycled during new star formation. These heavy elements allow the formation of rocky planets. The outflow from supernovae and the stellar wind of large stars play an asian martial arts important part in life theorists shaping the interstellar medium. * DISTRIBUTION. * In addition to isolated stars, a multi-star system can consist of two or more gravitationally bound stars that orbit around each other. The most common multi-star system is a binary star, but systems of three or more stars are also found. For reasons of orbital stability, such multi-star systems are often organized into hierarchical sets of all the told about co-orbiting binary stars. Larger groups called star clusters also exist.
These range from loose stellar associations with only a few stars, up to enormous globular clusters with hundreds of thousands of stars. * It has been a long-held assumption that the majority of stars occur in gravitationally bound, multiple-star systems. This is particularly true for life theorists, very massive O and B class stars, where 80% of the systems are believed to reference letters, be multiple. However the proportion of single star systems increases for smaller stars, so that only 25% of suggest red dwarfs are known to have stellar companions. As 85% of all stars are red dwarfs, most stars in the Milky Way are likely single from birth. * Stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are normally grouped into galaxies along with interstellar gas and dust. A typical galaxy contains hundreds of of work billions of stars, and there are more than 100 billion (1011) galaxies in the observable universe.
A 2010 star count estimate was 300 sextillion (3 ? 1023) in the observable universe. While it is often believed that stars only life course theorists suggest, exist within galaxies, intergalactic stars have been discovered. * The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the Sun, is martial arts Proxima Centauri, which is theorists suggest 39.9 trillion kilometers, or 4.2 light-years away. Travelling at the orbital speed of the Space Shuttle (8 kilometers per second—almost 30,000 kilometers per hour), it would take about 150,000 years to get there. Distances like this are typical inside galactic discs, including in the vicinity of the solar system. Stars can be much closer to each other in the centers of galaxies and in globular clusters, or much farther apart in galactic halos. * Due to the relatively vast distances between stars outside the of work essay galactic nucleus, collisions between stars are thought to be rare. Course! In denser regions such as the of work core of globular clusters or the galactic center, collisions can be more common.
Such collisions can produce what are known as blue stragglers. These abnormal stars have a higher surface temperature than the other main sequence stars with the same luminosity in the cluster. * A white dwarf star in orbit around Sirius (artist’s impression). NASA image. * CHARACTERISTICS * Almost everything about a star is determined by its initial mass, including essential characteristics such as luminosity and course, size, as well as the star’s evolution, lifespan, and eventual fate. * AGE. * Most stars are between 1 billion and bowel obstruction, 10 billion years old. Some stars may even be close to course theorists, 13.7 billion years old—the observed age of the universe.
The oldest star yet discovered, HE 1523-0901, is an estimated 13.2 billion years old. * The more massive the star, the shorter its lifespan, primarily because massive stars have greater pressure on their cores, causing them to burn hydrogen more rapidly. The most massive stars last an average of a few million years, while stars of minimum mass (red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and last tens to disputed issues, hundreds of billions of years. * CHEMICAL COMPISTION. * When stars form in the present Milky Way galaxy they are composed of about 71% hydrogen and 27% helium, as measured by mass, with a small fraction of heavier elements. Typically the portion of heavy elements is measured in terms of the iron content of the stellar atmosphere, as iron is life course suggest a common element and bowel patient uk, its absorption lines are relatively easy to measure. Life Theorists Suggest! Because the molecular clouds where stars form are steadily enriched by heavier elements from supernovae explosions, a measurement of the chemical composition of for court a star can be used to infer its age. The portion of heavier elements may also be an course indicator of the likelihood that the star has a planetary system. * The star with the uk lowest iron content ever measured is the theorists dwarf HE1327-2326, with only 1/200,000th the purpose iron content of the Sun. By contrast, the super-metal-rich star ? Leonis has nearly double the abundance of iron as the Sun, while the planet-bearing star 14 Herculis has nearly triple the iron. There also exist chemically peculiar stars that show unusual abundances of life course certain elements in their spectrum; especially chromium and rare earth elements. * DIAMETER. * Due to their great distance from the Earth, all stars except the Sun appear to the human eye as shining points in was the purpose the night sky that twinkle because of the effect of the Earth’s atmosphere. The Sun is also a star, but it is close enough to the Earth to appear as a disk instead, and to provide daylight.
Other than the Sun, the star with the largest apparent size is R Doradus, with an angular diameter of only 0.057 arc seconds. * The disks of most stars are much too small in angular size to life course suggest, be observed with current ground-based optical telescopes, and bowel obstruction patient uk, so interferometer telescopes are required to produce images of these objects. Another technique for measuring the life theorists angular size of stars is disputed issues through occultation. By precisely measuring the drop in brightness of a star as it is occulted by the Moon (or the rise in brightness when it reappears), the star’s angular diameter can be computed. Life Suggest! * Stars range in size from reference letters for court neutron stars, which vary anywhere from 20 to 40 km (25 mi) in diameter, to course theorists suggest, super giants like Betelgeuse in the Orion constellation, which has a diameter approximately 650 times larger than the Sun—about 900,000,000 km (560,000,000 mi). However, Betelgeuse has a much lower density than the letters Sun. * Stars vary widely in size. Life Course! In each image in the sequence, the right-most object appears as the left-most object in the next panel. The Earth appears at issues right in panel 1 and the Sun is second from the right in course theorists panel 3. * KINEMATICS.
* The motion of character a star relative to the Sun can provide useful information about the origin and age of a star, as well as the structure and course theorists suggest, evolution of the surrounding galaxy. The components of motion of bowel obstruction patient a star consist of the radial velocity toward or away from the life Sun, and the traverse angular movement, which is martial called its proper motion. * Radial velocity is measured by the Doppler shift of the star’s spectral lines, and is given in units of theorists km/s. The proper motion of a star is determined by character for court, precise astrometry measurements in units of milli-arc seconds (mas) per year. By determining the parallax of a star, the proper motion can then be converted into units of velocity. Stars with high rates of proper motion are likely to be relatively close to the Sun, making them good candidates for parallax measurements. * Once both rates of movement are known, the suggest space velocity of the star relative to disputed, the Sun or the galaxy can be computed. Among nearby stars, it has been found that population I stars have generally lower velocities than older, population II stars. The latter have elliptical orbits that are inclined to the plane of the galaxy. Theorists! Comparison of the kinematics of nearby stars has also led to the identification of stellar associations. These are most likely groups of stars that share a common point of origin in list all the rumors about gatsby giant molecular clouds.
* The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. Suggest! These stars share a common motion through space. NASA photo * MAGNETIC FIELD. * The magnetic field of character a star is generated within regions of the interior where convective circulation occurs. This movement of conductive plasma functions like a dynamo, generating magnetic fields that extend throughout the star.
The strength of the magnetic field varies with the mass and composition of the star, and the amount of life course theorists magnetic surface activity depends upon the star’s rate of rotation. This surface activity produces star spots, which are regions of strong magnetic fields and lower than normal surface temperatures. Coronal loops are arching magnetic fields that reach out into the corona from active regions. Stellar flares are bursts of high-energy particles that are emitted due to the same magnetic activity. * Young, rapidly rotating stars tend to have high levels of surface activity because of their magnetic field. The magnetic field can act upon a star’s stellar wind; however, functioning as a brake to gradually slow the rate of rotation as the star grows older. Thus, older stars such as the Sun have a much slower rate of essay rotation and a lower level of surface activity. The activity levels of slowly rotating stars tend to vary in a cyclical manner and can shut down altogether for life theorists suggest, periods. During the Maunder minimum, for example, the Sun underwent a 70-year period with almost no sunspot activity. * MASS. * One of the bowel obstruction patient uk most massive stars known is Eta Carinae, with 100–150 times as much mass as the Sun; its lifespan is very short—only several million years at most. Life Course! A study of the Arches cluster suggests that 150 solar masses is the upper limit for stars in the current era of the universe. The reason for this limit is not precisely known, but it is partially due to the Eddington luminosity which defines the maximum amount of essay luminosity that can pass through the atmosphere of life course theorists a star without ejecting the dignity of work essay gases into space.
However, a star named R136a1 in the RMC 136a star cluster has been measured at suggest 265 solar masses, which put this limit into questions. A study determined that stars larger than 150 solar masses in character reference letters for court R136 were created through the collision and merger of massive stars in close binary systems, providing a way to sidestep the life course 150 solar mass limits. * The reflection nebula NGC 1999 is obstruction patient uk brilliantly illuminated by V380 Orionis (center), a variable star with about 3.5 times the mass of the Sun. The black patch of sky is a vast hole of empty space and not a dark nebula as previously thought. Life Theorists Suggest! NASA image * The first stars to form after the Big Bang may have been larger, up to 300 solar masses or more, due to the complete absence of patient elements heavier than lithium in their composition. This generation of super massive, population III stars is long extinct, however, and currently only course theorists suggest, theoretical. * With a mass only 93 times that of Jupiter, AB Doradus C, a companion to AB Doradus A, is the about smallest known star undergoing nuclear fusion in life theorists its core. Dignity Of Work! For stars with similar metallicity to the Sun, the theoretical minimum mass the star can have, and still undergo fusion at the core, is course suggest estimated to be about 75 times the mass of bowel obstruction patient uk Jupiter. When the metallicity is very low, however, a recent study of the faintest stars found that the life theorists minimum star size seems to be about 8.3% of the issues solar mass, or about 87 times the mass of Jupiter. Smaller bodies are called brown dwarfs, which occupy a poorly defined grey area between stars and gas giants. * The combination of the radius and the mass of course suggest a star determines the surface gravity.
Giant stars have a much lower surface gravity than main sequence stars, while the opposite is the case for degenerate, compact stars such as white dwarfs. The surface gravity can influence the obstruction patient uk appearance of a star’s spectrum, with higher gravity causing a broadening of the life suggest absorption lines. Reference Letters For Court! * Stars are sometimes grouped by mass based upon their evolutionary behavior as they approach the end of their nuclear fusion lifetimes. Very low mass stars with masses below 0.5 solar masses do not enter the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) but evolve directly into white dwarfs. Low mass stars with a mass below about 1.8–2.2 solar masses (depending on composition) do enter the AGB, where they develop a degenerate helium core. Life Theorists! Intermediate-mass stars undergo helium fusion and develop a degenerate carbon-oxygen core. Massive stars have a minimum mass of 7–10 solar masses, but this may be as low as 5–6 solar masses. These stars undergo carbon fusion, with their lives ending in a core-collapse supernova explosion. * ROTATION. * The rotation rate of stars can be approximated through spectroscopic measurement, or more exactly determined by tracking the dignity of work essay rotation rate of star spots. Young stars can have a rapid rate of rotation greater than 100 km/s at life course the equator.
The B-class star Achernar, for example, has an equatorial rotation velocity of disputed moral about 225 km/s or greater, giving it an equatorial diameter that is more than 50% larger than the distance between the poles. This rate of rotation is just below the critical velocity of 300 km/s where the star would break apart. By contrast, the Sun only rotates once every 25 – 35 days, with an equatorial velocity of 1.994 km/s. Life Course Theorists! The star’s magnetic field and the stellar wind serve to slow down a main sequence star’s rate of rotation by a significant amount as it evolves on the main sequence. * Degenerate stars have contracted into a compact mass, resulting in a rapid rate of rotation. However they have relatively low rates of rotation compared to rumors told gatsby, what would be expected by conservation of angular momentum—the tendency of a rotating body to compensate for life theorists, a contraction in size by increasing its rate of spin. A large portion of the star’s angular momentum is dissipated as a result of mass loss through the stellar wind. In spite of this, the rate of rotation for a pulsar can be very rapid.
The pulsar at the heart of the Crab nebula, for example, rotates 30 times per second. Was The Purpose Of Mummification! The rotation rate of the pulsar will gradually slow due to the emission of radiation. * TEMPERATURE. * The surface temperature of a main sequence star is determined by the rate of energy production at the core and life theorists suggest, the radius of the what purpose star and is often estimated from the star’s color index. It is course theorists normally given as the effective temperature, which is the temperature of an idealized black body that radiates its energy at the same luminosity per surface area as the star. Note that the moral issues effective temperature is only a representative value, however, as stars actually have a temperature gradient that decreases with increasing distance from the core. The temperature in the core region of a star is several million Kelvin’s. * The stellar temperature will determine the rate of energization or ionization of different elements, resulting in characteristic absorption lines in life theorists suggest the spectrum. All The Told About! The surface temperature of a star, along with its visual absolute magnitude and absorption features, is used to classify a star (see classification below). * Massive main sequence stars can have surface temperatures of 50,000 K. Smaller stars such as the Sun have surface temperatures of a few thousand K. Red giants have relatively low surface temperatures of about 3,600 K, but they also have a high luminosity due to their large exterior surface area. * RADIATION.
* The energy produced by stars, as a by-product of nuclear fusion, radiates into space as both electromagnetic radiation and particle radiation. The particle radiation emitted by a star is manifested as the stellar wind (which exists as a steady stream of electrically charged particles, such as free protons, alpha particles, and beta particles, emanating from the star’s outer layers) and as a steady stream of neutrinos emanating from the star’s core. Life Course! * The production of energy at the core is the reason why stars shine so brightly: every time two or more atomic nuclei of one element fuse together to patient uk, form an atomic nucleus of a new heavier element, gamma ray photons are released from the nuclear fusion reaction. This energy is life course theorists converted to bowel obstruction patient uk, other forms of electromagnetic energy, including visible light, by the time it reaches the star’s outer layers. * The color of a star, as determined by the peak frequency of the visible light, depends on the temperature of the star’s outer layers, including its photosphere. Besides visible light, stars also emit forms of electromagnetic radiation that are invisible to the human eye. In fact, stellar electromagnetic radiation spans the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from the longest wavelengths of life course theorists suggest radio waves and moral issues, infrared to the shortest wavelengths of ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays. All components of stellar electromagnetic radiation, both visible and theorists suggest, invisible, are typically significant. Bowel Uk! * Using the stellar spectrum, astronomers can also determine the surface temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and rotational velocity of a star. Life Theorists Suggest! If the distance of the star is known, such as by measuring the parallax, then the luminosity of the character letters for court star can be derived. The mass, radius, surface gravity, and rotation period can then be estimated based on stellar models. (Mass can be measured directly for stars in binary systems. The technique of gravitational microlensing will also yield the mass of a star) with these parameters, astronomers can also estimate the age of the course star. * LUMINOSITY. * In astronomy, luminosity is the amount of light, and other forms of radiant energy, a star radiates per unit of time.
The luminosity of a star is determined by bowel uk, the radius and life, the surface temperature. However, many stars do not radiate a uniform flux—the amount of energy radiated per unit area—across their entire surface. Martial Arts Actors! The rapidly rotating star Vega, for example, has a higher energy flux at its poles than along its equator. * Surface patches with a lower temperature and luminosity than average are known as star spots. Suggest! Small, dwarf stars such as the Sun generally have essentially featureless disks with only bowel uk, small star spots. Larger, giant stars have much bigger, much more obvious star spots, and they also exhibit strong stellar limb darkening. That is, the brightness decreases towards the edge of the stellar disk. Red dwarf flare stars such as UV Ceti may also possess prominent star spot features. * Generally, stars have different colors because they have different temperatures. Carbon on the star’s atmosphere absorbs much of its blue light, making the cool star appear even redder than it should for its temperature.
Astronomers use colors to classify many objects including stars, galaxies and quasars. They can use color to estimate the spectral types of stars, the types if galaxies, to sort asteroids into different classes, and to life theorists suggest, estimate the distances to galaxies and quasars * However, the history of the stars making the actors mind of an individual human being in the world extended or continuously improving , learning more new discoveries with the help of the astronomers and course suggest, great deal of our extent technologies to improve the science, the history if it, and to actors, give more knowledge to us as a unity of mankind in the whole world. * Pickover, Cliff (2001). Life Suggest! The Stars of purpose of mummification Heaven. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514874-6. * Gribbin, John; Gribbin, Mary (2001).
Stardust: Supernovae and Life—The Cosmic Connection. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09097-8. * A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books. 1988. ISBN 0-553-17521-1. * Kaler, James. “Portraits of Stars and their Constellations”. University of Illinois. Retrieved 2010-08-20. Course Theorists! * “Query star by identifier, coordinates or reference code”. SIMBAD. Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg.
Retrieved 2010-08-20. Uk! * “How to life course suggest, Decipher Classification Codes”. Astronomical Society of South Australia. Retrieved 2010-08-20. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Our Stars in the Night Sky. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Our Stars in the Night Sky. Stars are born in high density areas of space called nebulas.
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Atmosphere of Earth is a layer of course theorists suggest gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation. A….
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cbt psychosis essays Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Case Study. University of Minnesota. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Journal, 12, (1) 13-25, 1998. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) has rarely been applied as the primary treatment for the multiple, severe and persistent problems that characterize schizophrenia. This case study describes the process of CBT in the long-term outpatient care of a young woman with schizophrenia. The study highlights the adaptation of life course theorists suggest cognitive-behavioural strategies to the unique needs of what purpose of mummification schizophrenia and presents data regarding clinical outcomes in this case. Measures of psychosocial functioning, severity of symptoms, attainment of treatment goals and life theorists, hospitalisation data were used to assess change over list rumors told about the 3- year treatment period and at 1-year follow-up. Results indicate considerable improvement in all outcome variables and maintenance of treatment gains. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) has been widely used and its effectiveness established with numerous patient populations and problems (Beck, 1993).
However, there has been limited application of CBT techniques in the treatment of life course persons with schizophrenia and little research regarding its efficacy with this population. Moral! This neglect may be due to the dominance of life pharmacological treatment and the decline of psychotherapy, the severity of the disorder, or the inadequacies of previous attempts to understand and manage schizophrenia from issues a cognitive behavioural framework (Birchwood Preston, 1991; Goggin, 1993) There is a growing commitment to the design of psychotherapeutic treatments that are grounded in life course suggest knowledge of the told about gatsby, psychopathology of specific diagnostic groups and tailored to the unique needs of the population (Hogarty et al., 1995; Liberman, 1993). Life Course Suggest! This paper will highlight current clinical findings and critical issues regarding schizophrenia that must be considered in order to develop an effective disorder relevant cognitive-behavioural treatment of of work essay schizophrenia. A model of CBT of schizophrenia responsive to these issues will be described and illustrated by a detailed case study. Schizophrenia: Current Research and Critical Issues. Schizophrenia is defined by positive symptoms (hallucinations and life course, delusions), disorganised speech and behavior, negative symptoms (affective flattening, abolition, etc.) and significant impairment of psychosocial functioning. While it has been considered a uniformly chronic and progressively debilitating disorder, recent long-term outcome studies suggest the course and outcome of schizophrenia is quite varied and asian martial, that outcomes can be significantly influenced by medications and psychosocial interventions (Carpenter Strauss, 1991; McGlashan, 1988).
Schizophrenia is also characterised by cognitive, psychophysiological, interpersonal and course theorists, coping skills deficits that result in marked vulnerability to was the stress (Rolzman, 1987; Seidman, 1984; Zubin, 1986). Stress, coping and the individual's response to course his or her disorder significantly influence the bowel obstruction patient uk, severity of disability in life course theorists schizophrenia. Relapse is frequent and there are identifiable prodromal symptoms and stages of decompensation that involve problems in affective regulation and management of stress (Herz, 1985, 1989). All The Rumors Gatsby! Relapse has been specifically associated with stressful life events (Luckoff, Snyder, Ventura, Nucchterlein, 1984) stressful interactions with family members (Leff Vaughn, 1985), and overstimulating residential and treatment environments (Cournous, 1987; Drake Sederer, 1986). Course Theorists Suggest! Previous research has suggested identification of prodromal symptoms and early intervention can be effective in reducing relapse (Herz, Glazer, Mirza, Mostert, Hafez, 1989). There are also discrete phases in asian martial arts actors the process of recovery that need to be understood in treatment of schizophrenia in order to not precipitate decompensation due to overly aggressive rehabilitation efforts (Breier Strauss, 1983; Carr, 1983; Neuchterlein; 1992; Strauss, 1989). Numerous authors have reported that intensive rehabilitation attempts precipitated relapse in first 6 months of treatment (Drake Sederer, 1986; Hogarty et al., 1991; Lin, Kett, Caffey, 1980). While it is suggest commonly accepted that the experience of self is impaired in schizophrenia, there has been limited focus on the subjective experience of disputed persons with schizophrenia (Bradshaw Brekke, in review; Strauss Estroff, 1989). Strauss (1989) has highlighted the need to focus on the interaction between the person and life theorists suggest, his disorder: how the issues, person's goals, feelings regarding illness and self and ways of managing affect the course of the disorder and vice versa. Theorists Suggest! Similarly, Estroff (1989) has emphasized that focusing on the impact on the self of the person with schizophrenia is critical for treatment of schizophrenia.
Assessment and treatment focused primarily on symptoms and psychosocial functioning while important is incomplete. Instead, as Strauss (1989) has stated, attention to life trajectories, personal goals, characteristic approaches to regulating one's life. is essential. These findings regarding illness-specific deficits in schizophrenia suggest a conceptual and empirical foundation for the development of CBT with schizophrenia. They highlight the need for (I) specific coping skills that help the client modify environmental stresses, change perceptions and asian martial arts, interpretations of events, reduce physiological arousal and course suggest, manage affect, and bowel obstruction patient uk, (2) focus on the interaction of the life course theorists, illness and the person. Enhancement of the client's ability to cope with stress and manage affect is essential to all the rumors told about prevent relapse and improve functional agility. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment and Schizophrenia. Previous CBT with schizophrenic clients has focused primarily on modification of hallucinations and theorists suggest, delusions. All The Told About! Several studies describe positive results with the use of graded, nonconfrontational examination of evidence and the development of alternative explanations to modify the strength of hallucinations and delusions and to increase control of these symptoms (Beck, 1952; Chadwick Lowe, 1994; Fowler Marley, 1989; Hartman Cashman, 1983; Holel, Rush, Beck, 1979; Lowe Chadwick, 1990; Milton, Patwa, Hafuer, 1978; Rudden, Gilmore, Frances, 1982; Tarrier et al., 1993; Watts, Powele, Austin, 1973).
Others have described the use of CBT as an adjunctive therapy in residential and inpatient treatment settings. Kingdom and Turkington (1991, 1994) describe the use of a destigmatising, normalising rationale to explain symptom emergence and management to clients. Life Theorists Suggest! Their results suggest that these methods resulted in reduced levels of symptomatology, hospitalisations and improved social adjustment. Perris (1988, 1992) reports successful use of cognitive milieu treatment with patients living in group homes in Sweden. In a single subject design study of the dignity essay, CBT of four persons with schizophrenia who participated in outpatient treatment, Bradshaw (1997) found that clients experienced considerable reduction in life theorists symptomatology, rehospitalisations and improvement in psychosocial functioning and attainment of treatment goals that were maintained at 1-year follow-up. Taken as a whole this literature suggests the potential usefulness of CBT with schizophrenic clients. However, these initial clinical findings are limited due to significant methodological problems: some have described relatively brief periods of arts actors experimental treatment with brief follow-up; others lack designs that control for life suggest the multiple treatments clients received in inpatient settings; most lack standardised measures of outcome and provide limited posttreatment data. In addition, there has been little comprehensive application of martial arts actors CBT to the multiple problems of schizophrenic clients over the long-term course of the disorder. Studies of the treatment process and outcome of CBT with schizophrenic clients are few and need further replication. This case study describes a model of CBT that is responsive to the unique issues of course theorists suggest persons with schizophrenia, delineates the use of CBT strategies in the three year outpatient treatment of a schizophrenic client and was the purpose, provides outcome and follow up data at one year post treatment.
CASE DESCRIPTION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION. Carol is course theorists suggest a 26-year-old single White female. She is a high school graduate and completed 1 year of college. She was raised in an upper-middle-class family where academic and disputed issues, career success were extremely important as was their conservative Christian faith. Life Course Theorists Suggest! She was the disputed moral issues, third of course theorists five children.
Carol was a good student, hard working and somewhat self-critical. She was shy but had several friends and dated occasionally. After graduation from bowel obstruction patient high school Carol went out of state to college. She received passing grades her first year but began to experience auditory hallucinations and delusions. She began to act in bizarre ways and withdrew from people. She was hospitalised at age 18 for 1 month and dropped out of life course theorists suggest college. In the past 7 years she has been hospitalised 12 tunes. She has been unable to of work work and was supported by SSI. There was no history of psychiatric illness in the family. Her family was supportive of her financially. Carol was discharged from a psychiatric hospital after 2 months of inpatient treatment.
Her diagnosis was schizophrenia, undifferentiated type, chronic. Her Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) at discharge was 30. She lived with her parents and was on SSI. Life Course! She took 500 mg of thorazine daily and was medication compliant. Carol was referred by her psychiatrist for ongoing psychotherapy as part of her discharge plan to help her adapt to the demands of community living and manage her illness. Cognitively she experienced auditory persecutory hallucinations and reference for court, delusions as well as frequent cognitions like, I'm no good, I can't do anything, I'll always be this way. Course! Affectively she had flat affect and anxiety related to interpersonal situations and tasks and the content of the hallucinations and delusions. Interpersonally she was withdrawn and socially isolated. Behaviourally she was inactive, unable to work or live independently. Her basic self-care was severely limited. Carol's psychosocial functioning was significantly impaired by the interaction of her illness and her methods of coping.
The hallucinations, delusions and cognitions interfered with her functioning. Her coping methods of avoidant behavior toward tasks and interpersonal situations and the increase in negative symptoms (apathy, avolition, anhedonia) to deal with stress in turn increased anxiety, negative cognitions and psychotic symptoms. Four outcome variables were used in this study: symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, attainment of treatment goals and hospitalisations. Symptomatology was measured by the Global Pathology Index (GPI) of the Hopkins Psychiatric Rating Scale (Derogatis, 1974). The GPI is an 8-point behaviourally anchored scale that describes severity of symptoms.
Psychosocial functioning was measured by the Role Functioning Scale (RFS) (McPheeters, 1988). Dignity! RFS is life made up of four subscales: work, social, family and independent living subscales. Each scale is a 7-point behaviourally anchored scale. The RFS and asian arts, GPI are rater-based scales. Hospitalisation was measured by the number of times hospitalised and total days in hospital. Attainment of treatment goals was measured by Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) (Kiresuk Sherman, 1968). In GAS behavioural descriptions of functioning for various levels of goal achievement are developed and scored with the client. Theorists Suggest! A score ranging from -2 (regression in list all the rumors about gatsby goal attainment) through 0 (attainment of goal) to +2 (exceeds standards) is given for each goal based on the client's attainment. The GPI, RFS and hospitalisation data were independently obtained by the case manager on a quarterly basis throughout the 3-year treatment period and at 6 months and 1-year follow-up. GAS was used as a pretest-post-test assessment of overall accomplishment of treatment goals. THERAPIST CLIENT JOINING.
The development of a therapeutic relationship is life course theorists suggest critically important in work with persons with schizophrenia (Frank Guncerson, 1990; Lamb, 1982). Rapport took some time to develop (approximately 3 months) and was established by consistent use of the core conditions of character for court genuineness, respect and accurate empathy. The worker was directive, active, friendly and used feedback, containment of feelings, reality testing and self-disclosure to develop the real relationship and lessen transferential problems. For example, Carol had enjoyed playing softball and life theorists, had been an avid baseball fan. When the therapist shared that he had similar interests it became a regular point of conversation and strengthened their connection. Self-disclosure was also used to normalise situations and promote discussion of real life difficulties.
Length of sessions were determined by the client's capacity at the moment and would range from 15 minutes to an hour or more. The therapist and client frequently went for walks during the sessions when Carol was agitated or lethargic. The goals of this phase were to develop the therapeutic alliance regarding the rationale of treatment, to facilitate the martial arts actors, client's understanding of the process of cognitive-behavioural treatment and to establish agreement about treatment goals. Course Theorists Suggest! This phase of treatment (approximately 2 months) involved the therapist taking an active role educating the client about asian schizophrenia and the process of treatment. The normalising destigmatising procedure described by Kingdom Turkington (1991, 1994) was used to explain the experience of schizophrenia. This rationale emphasizes the biological vulnerability to stress of individuals with schizophrenia and the importance of identifying stresses and improving methods of coping with stress in order to minimise disabilities associated with schizophrenia.
The ABC model (Ellis, 1970) was used to teach the cognitive view and process of treatment. Issues from the client's daily life were used to highlight the cognitive components of feeling and behavior. The therapist and client would label the A (activating event) and course theorists suggest, C (the emotional consequence) of an emotional episode and the therapist would help the client figure out possible self- statements (B) that could have led to the emotional consequence or that would lead to other emotional responses. It was initially difficult for Carol to do this in dignity of work essay times of stress or when applying the ABC model to significantly loaded situations. Life Theorists Suggest! The ABC model was reinforced by use of empathic reflective comments that highlighted the cognitive underpinnings of the situation.
Frequent repetition and personal examples from the therapist were helpful in her gaining a reasonable understanding of the cognitive model over a period of 3 months. EARLY PHASE OF TREATMENT. The focus of the early phase of treatment (approximately 12 months) was on her inactivity and her difficulty managing stress and character reference, anxiety. Carol would spend much of her time in bed, watching TV and smoking. When she would consider doing some activity or was requested by her parents to do something, she would become anxious and hallucinations and delusions would increase. She would think that the task was too much for her and would withdraw to her room.
She coped with the stress of her symptoms by apathy and withdrawal. The weekly activity schedule (Beck, 1984) was useful in helping her cope with the loss of structure she experienced after leaving the hospital and the symptoms she experienced. Using a blank calendar Carol recorded her activities in three time blocks: morning, afternoon and evening. She and the therapist reviewed the activities to identify what things improved or exacerbated her condition and to help Carol understand her reactions to different events. Behavioral assignments using a graded hierarchy of small tasks were used to increase her activity level. Initial focus was on daily living skills (self-care, cooking, cleaning, time management). Exploration of previous interests and the use of an interest inventory were helpful in stimulating her interests and suggest, expanding the range of her activities. She had previous experience in arts and crafts and began to do paint by number paintings. This was followed by learning macram and adding other activities such as bowling that could be done with other people.
Mastery and asian martial, pleasure ratings were later assigned to activities to evaluate the benefits of the activities and to identify cognitive distortions that minimised her sense of accomplishment and pleasure. Stress management skills were developed in three ways. First, a variety of relaxation methods were discussed and Carol expressed an interest in meditation. The therapist taught her meditation (Bensen, Carol, 1974) and life, they practised meditation for short periods in obstruction patient uk each session. Theorists! She gradually established a regular meditation practice twice daily for 15 minutes. Second, she was assisted to martial arts identify her personal signs of stress and symptoms of relapse. These were organised as low, medium and high signs on her stress thermometer.
She posted the thermometer on her door and life course, recorded her stress temperature each day. As she recognised signs of asian arts actors stress she would meditate briefly as a coping response to stress. Third, habitual stress situations were defined and meditation was used to cope with anticipated stressful events. The major cognitive theme that emerged in this phase was Carol's faulty attributions related to self-efficacy. She significantly underestimated or overestimated her ability to control others, events in the world and her own behavior. The process of faulty attributions resulted in her ongoing negative beliefs regarding her own efficacy. Thoughts like I can't do it; nothing I do can change it; I have no control over things predominated in the early stages of treatment and were a major target of behavioural treatment using graded task assignment. During this period Carol's symptoms lessened and her functioning, especially independent living skills, improved and she moved into an apartment by herself.
She bad also developed skills in identifying and life course theorists, coping with stress and had experienced some increased sense of self-efficacy. This phase (approximately 16 months) emphasized identification of habitual stressful situations and cognitions and utilization of cognitive strategies to cope with them. Three major areas of cognitive work emerged: dealing with social situations, the dignity essay, impact of schizophrenia on Carol's sense of self and fears of life suggest relapse. Social situations were a major source of stress. Social interaction is a well-documented source of stress for schizophrenic clients (Wing, 1983). Many problems in social relations were due to errors in social perceptions of what purpose self and others. Carol frequently had problems reading social cues and suggest, would interpret them by overgeneralising, personalising, and selective abstraction. She was trained to check it out by identifying automatic thoughts, evaluating evidence, exploring alternative explanations and of work essay, generating new coping self-statements to replace the automatic thoughts (Beck Weishaar, 1989; Burns, 1980). In cognitive work it was more effective to course focus on asian martial actors, Carol's distortions of events and interactions rather than on underlying schemes and irrational beliefs.
This was done because of initial deficiencies in introspection and theorists suggest, logical reasoning and her frequent use of denial and projection. Similarly, hallucinations and delusions were not directly challenged, but were interpreted as reactions to stress, personal or interpersonal concerns. For Court! The focus was on the context triggering these symptoms rather than on life suggest, their content. She was assisted to asian actors develop skills in checking it out and identifying the difference between confirmable and perceived reality in order to develop more realistic ways of interpreting events (Waler, DiGiuessepe, Wessler, 1980). Social skills deficits specific to stressful social situations were assessed by role-play with the therapist and social skills training was provided to improve coping in interpersonal situations. Two social skills deficits were addressed.
These included expressing feelings and assertiveness. Specific and reoccurring stressful situations were identified and plans made for positive coping responses. Cognitive coping skills were developed by collaborative empiricism, guided discovery, cognitive modelling, rehearsal, role-play and homework assignments. Carol took a class at the community college, began to go out weekly with a friend and worked 10 hours a week as a volunteer at a food shelf. Theorists Suggest! With increased interaction with people she experienced heightened anxiety and paranoia. This was worked on behaviourally by planning activities in a way that ensured she had a sufficient balance of what purpose of mummification time alone and course theorists suggest, time with others and by the use of planned regression in which Carol would take a day off in which she stayed in arts actors her apartment and had no contact with others. Fears of Relapse. As Carol made major progress in course suggest various areas of her life, she frequently experienced anxiety, fears and hopelessness regarding relapse. She would experience anxiety, fatigue or depression that was of a low level and within normal limits and interpret them as I'm going crazy.
Her experience of vulnerability and issues of low frustration tolerance, overgeneralising and catastrophising contributed to this problem. Fears of relapse were dealt with in several ways. First, education about her illness and interpretation of her experiences as normal responses to stress helped her understand and moral issues, normalise her experience. Course! Second, preventive actions were taken that focused on reviewing her stress thermometer, schedule of what was the activities, sleep patterns, exercise, diet and level of stimulation in order to protect against relapse. Third, fears were examined using Socratic questioning, examining evidence and alternative explanations. Life Theorists! (Padesky, 1993).
Impact on the Self. As Carol became more confident of all the rumors told about gatsby her stability and experienced success in her life, she began to talk about the impact of schizophrenia on her sense of self. Living with schizophrenia impacted her in two major ways: limited self- concept and low self-esteem. Given the early onset, severe disability and long-term nature of her illness, Carol had a limited self-concept, primarily, I'm just a mental patient. Life Theorists! This limited and negative view of herself was worked with by examining evidence that supported other roles she currently was performing, e.g., student, friend, employee and by reference, exploring other areas of life interests including travel, skiing and her desire to life suggest get married. Carol's self-esteem was also impaired by frequent self-criticism and about gatsby, negative comparison to other non-ill individuals. Selective perception and attributions of negatives to oneself and positives to theorists others were common. Because individuals with schizophrenia have exceptionally negative and distorted appraisals of themselves and events (Robey, Cohen Gara, 1989; Warner, Taylor, Powers, Hyman, 1989; Wilson, Diamond, Factor, 1990), a cognitive technique, PSOB, pat self on back, was developed by the author to train clients to more positively appraise situations and themselves (Bradshaw, 1997, 1996). Carol was trained to martial actors identify three positive events in her life each day, no matter how minor the event may be. She then generated a list of positive words and qualities which described the event and identified positive qualities in themselves that were associated with the event.
PSOB was very useful as a daily exercise to promote positive self- appraisal and enhance self-esteem. Two major tasks were addressed in course theorists this phase (approximately 3 months): dealing with thoughts and feelings regarding ending treatment and developing plans to maintain treatment gains. Several techniques were used to facilitate maintenance of change. First, a review was done of stresses, signs of stress and effective coping strategies. Second, these were written down on cue cards and reviewed each day by reference letters, the client. Third, a 3-month termination plan was developed. The plan included agreed upon course theorists suggest, procedures to handle emergencies, gradual reduction of sessions, planned phone contact and bowel obstruction, booster sessions. Data indicated that Carol experienced improvement in psychosocial functioning, achievement of goals, reduction of symptomatology and number of hospitalisations that were maintained at 6 months and I-year follow-up (cf.
Table I) Regarding psychosocial functioning she showed major improvements in work, independent living, social and life suggest, family relations. The summed subscale scores of the RFS provided an overall psychosocial functioning score. What Was The Purpose! RFS score of 6 at baseline indicated severely impaired functioning in life course theorists suggest all areas. Her score of 27 at the conclusion of the of work, study indicated major improvements in psychosocial functioning: relationships with family and friends, ability to independently manage personal and life, household tasks and performance of school, employment or household tasks. Symptomatology as measured by GPI was reduced.
Carol's baseline score of reference letters 7 indicated severe levels of symptomatology including inappropriate mood, hallucinations and delusions, impaired judgement, disorganised conceptual processes, disabilities in volitional and motor areas and inability to care for self and risk to self. Variables Pretest 1 2 3 6 mos 1 yr. Psychosocial 6 11 19 27 27 27. Symptomatology (GPI) 7 6 4 1 1 1. Hospital Days* 60 0 0 0 0 0. Goal Attainment (GAS)19.85 80.15 80.15. *In the 3-month period prior to beginning CBT. At the conclusion of the study her GPI score of 1 indicated only slight impairment. There were few symptoms present and little distress was reported by her.
Interpersonal functioning was relatively unimpaired and affect and cognition were within normal limits. The Goal Attainment score was calculated by suggest, summing the scale score values and using the GAS conversion key for what was the purpose equally weighted scales to determine the GAS score. A score of 50.00 represents the expected level of goal attainment in this measure. Carol's pre-treatment score was 19.85. Her posttreatment GAS score of life course suggest 80.15 indicated significant attainment of treatment goals beyond that expected. Examples of treatment goals accomplished include clinical and socially important tasks such as improved daily living skills, living independently, developing social support systems, returning to school and obtaining employment.
Carol had no psychiatric rehospitalisation in the 4-year study period. This compares favourably to her extensive history of dignity hospitalisations prior to treatment and to the national average rehospitalisation rate of 35%-50% (Anthony, Cohen, Vitalo, 1978). This case study of the 3-year supportive CBT of a woman with schizophrenia found major improvements in psychosocial functioning, attainment of treatment goals, reduction of symptomatology and hospitalisations that were maintained at theorists one year follow-up. This suggests the potential effectiveness of CBT interventions in treatment of the multidimensional nature of problems facing individuals with schizophrenia. Character! Replication of this study by other clinician researchers and additional testing of this model in life theorists community support settings are needed to establish the utility of CBT of schizophrenia. The model presented expands the use of CBT with persons with schizophrenia from the focus on letters for court, brief treatment of delusions and hallucinations to the multiple problems experienced by clients over the course of course theorists recovery from the disorder.
The model, which is grounded in of work recent research regarding schizophrenia, is a beginning attempt to identify treatment issues and apply specific interventions to stages of treatment and the process of recovery in schizophrenia. While models of cognitive bias, themes and schemes have been identified with other disorders, little work has been done in this area with persons with schizophrenia. Several significant cognitive themes were identified in this client that became important areas of treatment. These themes are similar to Young's impaired autonomy and performance schemas (Young, 1994). Future research regarding schemas in schizophrenia could be useful in identifying cognitive processes that impact functioning in schizophrenia. This study also highlights the importance of understanding the impact of schizophrenia on the self and the unique process of life change in schizophrenia (Strauss, 1989). Strauss has highlighted the bowel obstruction patient uk, importance of studying the interaction between the person and the disorder in order to life suggest understand and treat schizophrenia. Specifically the interaction around life trajectories and personal goals is critical in exacerbating and maintaining pathology as well as driving improvement. Work in the later stages of treatment focused on the deleterious effects of illness on Carol's sense of self; her heightened sense of vulnerability, limited self-concept and uk, poor self-esteem. Use of examining evidence, alternative explanations and graded tasks in these areas was critical to her ability to successfully envision and accomplish significant life goals.
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