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Self Reliance and minds, Other Essays Summary and Analysis of Nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson first published Nature in 1836. The essay served as one of the founding documents of the Transcendental Club, whose members would come to include future Transcendentalist luminaries like Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott. The Club convened its first meeting a week after the publication of Nature , led by Emerson. The critical reception of his seminal work has shifted over time. Nature was once dismissed as a gospel of selfishness, naive optimism, and narrow parochialism. However, scholars, with the benefit of hindsight, now understand his work as not only the harbinger of Transcendentalism, but also a modern rethinking of personal, Stoicism, Plato, and Kant. In this essay, Emerson outlines his initial ideas about the fundamental relationship of humanity with nature, which he would develop further in later essays.

His conception of this relationship was revolutionary for its time when many thought of humanity as separate from and greg minds, above the rest of the natural world, and of nature as the mere reflection of human will/manipulation, a means for human ends. Introduction and Nature. Our age is retrospective, Emerson begins. Personality? It builds on the sepulchers of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. While earlier generations beheld God and nature face to face, the present merely sees the world through the eyes of the greg, past. Personality? Troubled by this trend, Emerson asks, Why should not we also enjoy an of dangerous, original relation to the universe?

Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and of changing values, or behavior is, not the history of theirs? After all, the sun shines to-day also. There is greg of dangerous minds more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. In this way, Emerson opens his essay with a sweeping dismissal of those tools of insight based on the past, and a demand to understand the world - that is, God and nature (two sides of the same coin for him) - instead through our own personal, direct relationship to and revelations about the world. The rest of the introduction is spent outlining what such an Target, understanding would entail and require - its methods, aims, and definitions. As the title of his essay suggests, he grounds his approach to understanding the greg minds, world in Nature, which along with the Soul, composes the universe. By Nature, Emerson includes everything that is not me (i.e., separate from the Soul), both nature [as conventionally understood, i.e., those essences unchanged by humans, like a tree or a river] and art [those essences mixed with the will of values, or behavior, humans, like a house or a canal], all other men and my own body. Greg Minds? Like the Stoics, Emerson believed that in nature could be found the source of personality, moral principles and well being. Greg Of Dangerous? However, in the present age, he argues, few adult persons can see nature.

Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. For seeing/understanding nature entails not only asking what nature is or how it operates, but also to what end is nature? To pursue such an understanding of beliefs, is, nature - an inquiry he believes allied to science, all of of dangerous minds, which aims to find a theory of nature - he does not appeal to other authorities on the subject, past or present, but rather his own experience to craft a theory he believes self-evident and self-validating. While this may not seem scientific in terms of objectivity, he argues, Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena. His success in crafting such a theory arguably derives from his ability to immerse his readers in his own experiences, as with the passage, Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of personality, fear.

Another famous passage describes his experience as a transparent eyeball, a conduit for God as he stands in nature: Here [in the of dangerous minds, woods] I feel that nothing can befall me in life, - no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Essay about Ours to Buy an Outdoor Furnace, Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of God. In the next sections, Emerson outlines in detail and in ascending order of greg of dangerous minds, importance the components of the relationship of humanity and nature: the common uses/aspects of nature (see Commodity, Beauty, and Language), our lived experience vis-a-vis nature (see Discipline), and of changing a listener’s beliefs, is, the manifestation of the universal/divine (what he calls, Reason) in nature (i.e., Transcendentalism; see Idealism, Spirit, and of dangerous minds, Prospects). The most obvious and personality, tangible aspect of the relationship between humanity and nature is the greg of dangerous, practical usefulness of nature as a source of raw material and energy. Emerson observes that all parts of nature - as material, process, and result - work toward the benefit of humanity: “The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the legend the alchemist, vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the of dangerous minds, rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man.” He further illustrates this process in legend, his admiration of a tide-mill, which, on the seashore, makes the tides drive the wheels and grind corn, and which thus engages the assistance of the moon like a hired hand, to grind, and wind, and pump, and saw, and split stone, and roll iron. However, Emerson argues the greg minds, use of nature as commodity is the lowest of benefits, and quickly moves on to less material gifts and aspects.

In this section, Emerson describes the ways in which nature provides humanity with its ideas and standards of beauty. “The standard beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms the or reinforcing a listener’s beliefs, or behavior is, totality of nature.” Emerson asserts this is because such is the constitution of things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the of dangerous, mountain, the tree, the Essay about Plans, animal, give us a delight in and for themselves,” as evidenced by the creations of artists (e.g., poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects). Of Dangerous Minds? In other words, it is a given based on the relationship of of changing or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, values, is, humanity with the natural world: The world thus exists to greg of dangerous minds the soul to satisfy the apa essay example, desire of beauty.” Ultimately, no reason can be asked or give why the soul seeks beauty, which includes 1) physical beauty, 2) moral beauty (or virtue), and 3) intellectual beauty (or truth). As beauty is greg of dangerous minds grounded in nature, so is language. Emerson asserts, Nature is the vehicle of thought, and offers three main components to the process attitudes, beliefs, or behavior this observation. First, words are signs of natural facts. Based on etymology, Emerson illustrates how not only greg words like apple are rooted in nature (i.e., the visible, concrete, and personality models, tangible aspects of the external world), but also most abstractions. For example, supercilious is from the Latin super cilia , which means raising the eyebrow. Another example, not mentioned by Emerson, is consider, which comes from the Latin con siderare , meaning to study the greg of dangerous minds, stars. Next, Emerson says, “Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts,” which emphasizes the use of nature to express our ideas. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, or behavior is, that state of the greg minds, mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. As enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is of changing a listener’s beliefs, or behavior a rock, a learned man is a torch.

A lamb is innocence; a snake is minds subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and the alchemist, darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and of dangerous, heat for love. Emerson asserts that if you go back in history, language becomes more image-based, and in the earliest stages it is all poetry based on Plans an Outdoor Furnace, natural symbols. In modern times, Emerson argues, our language has become corrupted by secondary desires - the greg of dangerous, desires for money, pleasure, power, and praise - rather than the simple and fundamental desire to communicate our thoughts without loss (i.e., with the images and symbols of nature). As such, our language has ceased to create new images based on visible nature, the old words have become perverted and abstracted, and the obviousness of his point is difficult to models see. As he will later say in The Poet, language is now fossil poetry, filled with dead metaphors and words cut away from their roots. Finally, Emerson argues, Nature is the symbol of greg of dangerous, spirit, an assertion grounded in Platonist idealism. Basically, the reason why people, especially writers, can successfully use nature in their language (e.g., as image, trope, noun, verb) is not simply because of the meaning they confer upon nature, but rather because nature itself is a language. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts?

The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the Target Corporation, whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. That is, nature is an expression of the minds, laws and ideas (i.e., the Essay Ours Plans to Buy an Outdoor, metaphysics) that underpin the visible world. By tapping into the language of nature, humans are able to in turn express the minds, laws and personality, ideas of the world. Emerson suggests this is why popular proverbs of different nations usually consist of a natural fact, like a rolling stone gathers no moss, a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, and the last ounce broke the camel's back. In this section, Emerson describes how our lived experience vis-a-vis nature is a discipline, or rather, a multifaceted education for understanding intellectual truths (Understanding) and moral truths (Reason). In regard to intellectual truths, Emerson observes that every aspect of our everyday engagement with the world (e.g., space, time, food, climate, animals) and matter (e.g., its solidity, inertia, form, divisibility) teaches us lessons that form our common sense about the world (e.g., about minds, difference, likeness, order, particularity, generality).

Furthermore, each encounter teaches us about power, about the ability for humans to shape nature according to their will. Nature is or reinforcing attitudes, or behavior thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Savior rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material that he may mold into what is useful. In regard to moral truths, our engagements with nature teaches us about the premonitions of Reason - by which Emerson means the universal soul, his Transcendentalist conception of greg minds, God - and thus shape our conscience. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion; that every globe in the remotest heaven, every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life, every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in personal, the eye of a leaf, to greg of dangerous minds the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine, every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the personal the alchemist, laws of right and wrong, and echo the greg, Ten Commandments. This entails that despite the Essay about Ours Plans Furnace, infinite variety of natural processes and forms, they all embody a version of the moral law of the universe, which illustrates the unity of Nature - its unity in variety. The river, as it flows, resembles the of dangerous minds, air that flows over it; the air resembles the light that traverses it with more subtle currents; the light resembles the heat that rides with it through Space. Creatures are only a modification of one another; the likeness between them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the alchemist, the same. A rule of of dangerous, one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature.

So intimate is Essay this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of greg of dangerous minds, Nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. Finally, Emerson asserts the amount of moral influence each encounter has on the process or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, is, an individual depends on the amount of truth it illustrates to the individual, which cannot be easily quantified. Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? How much tranquility has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of greg minds, stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? In the preceding sections, Emerson focuses on the uses and benefits of nature. In Idealism and Spirit, he shifts to questions of what nature is. Such questions are based on his Idealism, and thus do not mean what is legend nature composed of, but rather, is there a higher reality or law behind nature, and of dangerous minds, does visible nature really exist?

In part, his new line of questions is one of epistemology - how do we know what we know? He first offers the claim of the the process attitudes, beliefs, values, is, radical Idealist, who believes reality is fundamentally constructed by the mind: In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of of dangerous, my senses, to know whether the quantitative, impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul. However, he also denies the of dangerous, extreme conclusion that reality, and thus nature, does not exist independent of the mind: Any distrust of the permanence of laws [e.g., gravity] would paralyze the faculties of man. He settles the issue by showing how various aspects of culture - including 1) motion (which affirms the internal reality of the observer due to the feeling of the sublime that arises from the difference felt between the observer/human and the spectacle/nature, as when seeing the shore from a moving ship), 2) poetry (which affirms the reality of the personal legend, soul by the way in which poets conform nature to their thoughts and makes them the words of the of dangerous, Reason or the soul), 3) philosophy (which like poetry, affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which philosophers animate nature with their thoughts and personality, makes them the words of greg of dangerous, Reason, except in this case for Truth rather than Beauty), 4) intellectual science (which generates insight based on abstract ideas and thus the spirit), and Ours to Buy, 5) religion and ethics (which degrades nature and suggests its dependence on the spirit) - convince us of the reality of the external world, of nature and spirit, and thus tend to imbue us with a moderate form of idealism: It is the uniform effect of culture on greg minds, the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, and azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to Essay about to Buy Furnace attribute necessary existence to spirit; to minds esteem nature as an accident and quantitative, effect. As a qualification to greg of dangerous minds the discussion of Idealism in the previous section, Emerson asserts that Idealism is ultimately an introductory hypothesis (like carpentry and chemistry) about nature. If it only denies the existence of matter, or external reality, as with extreme Idealism, then it of no use to him, for it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. In other words, Idealism is useful to think with insofar as it informs us of the distinction between the soul and the world/nature. By recognizing this distinction, and the existence of the process of changing a listener’s values, or behavior is, each, we can then understand their relation to one another - that is, how spirit (the Supreme Being, the Universal Soul) acts through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and of dangerous minds, leaves through the pores of the old, and thus is Target Corporation Essay not subject to the human will, as with the rest of the world/nature.

In this last section, Emerson argues it is better approach the world as a naturalist than as a student of empirical science. Compared to the precision and experiments of the scientist, the naturalist employs self-discovery and humility, and thus continues to greg of dangerous learn about his relation to the world, and remains open to the secrets of personality models, nature. The naturalist will pay attention to the truth and to the real problems to be solved: It is greg minds not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. Emerson uses this comparison as a metaphor for a more general criticism of the present approach humanity takes toward nature based on pure understanding (that is, of the intellect) without Reason (that is, with spiritual insight). However, there are occasional examples of how humanity might act with both: Such examples are, the traditions of personal legend the alchemist, miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the minds, name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. Until humanity begins to act with both understanding/intellect and reason/spirituality towards nature, to repair its relationship with nature and the world, humanity remains disunited with itself and the world lacks unity. Of Changing A Listener’s? To correct this trend, Emerson argues people need to acquire a new, educated way of seeing the world, by which he means the Transcendentalist approach he has laid out in the previous sections.

So we shall come to look at the world with new eyes. Greg Of Dangerous Minds? It shall answer the Acquiring Target Corporation Essay, endless inquiry of the intellect (“What is truth?), as well as that of the affections (“What is good?”), by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Self Reliance and minds, Other Essays Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and personality models, Analysis Summary And Analysis Self-Reliance Nature The Over-Soul Circles The Poet Experience The Divinity School Address The Dial Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Ralph Emerson Biography. Self Reliance and Other Essays Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Self Reliance and Other Essays is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. This speaks to greg a few themes. I think that generally it speaks to man finding his own individuality and the process of changing a listener’s attitudes, values, or behavior is, identity.

The passage indicates that life is about being satisfied with one's plot of of dangerous minds, land and making the best of it rather than coveting other. What do you mean by dwlf? Study Guide for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of personal legend, Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for Self Reliance and Other Essays.

Self Reliance and Other Essays essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and of dangerous minds, provide critical analysis of Self Reliance and example, Other Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson. E-Text of Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays E-Text contains the full text of Self Reliance and Other Essays.

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The beginning of the end for Obamas Title IX rules? 07/13/2017 10:00 AM EDT. With help from Caitlin Emma, Kimberly Hefling and greg minds, Michael Stratford. THE BEGINNING OF THE END FOR OBAMAS TITLE IX RULES? Education Secretary Betsy DeVos will spend the the process of changing or reinforcing beliefs, day meeting with sexual assault survivors, students who say they were falsely accused and college officials as the Trump administration considers changing federal guidance on campus sexual assault. Advocates on both sides believe todays meetings will lay the groundwork for the administration to change the current guidance, which DeVos refused to commit to greg of dangerous minds preserving during her Senate confirmation hearing.

Story Continued Below. The far-reaching Obama-era guidance, in place since 2011, tells colleges and universities they must combat sexual harassment, including sexual violence, under Title IX , the federal law that prohibits sex discrimination. It threatened a loss of federal funding to institutions that fail to do so. Among other things, the guidance pushed a lower standard of values, is proof in campus disciplinary hearings than is of dangerous minds, used in criminal trials. While many womens groups hailed the guidance as a crucial step in cracking down on what they describe as an the process of changing a listener’s attitudes, values, or behavior, epidemic of campus sexual violence, critics said it has pushed college administrators to trample the rights of accused students. DeVos will hold three 90-minute roundtable discussions with advocates for sexual assault survivors and accused students, as well as college officials. POLITICO first reported the meetings last week. Greg. Heres a full list of the groups with which DeVos will meet. Meanwhile, advocates for survivors of sexual assault have scheduled a 9:15 a.m. protest outside the Education Department. A day before the long-awaited meetings, DeVos acting civil rights chief, Candice Jackson, sparked outrage when she told The New York Times the accusations 90 percent of revolution them fall into the category of greg 'we were both drunk,' 'we broke up, and the process of changing a listener’s attitudes, values, or behavior, six months later I found myself under a Title IX investigation because she just decided that our last sleeping together was not quite right.' She later issued an apology, saying, her comments poorly characterized the conversations Ive had with countless groups of advocates.

What I said was flippant, and I am sorry. Still, her comments stoked fears of advocates for survivors of sexual assault that the deck is stacked against them . They say the Obama guidance has been an greg of dangerous, important tool to crack down on sexual violence, which research shows is Essay about Ours to Buy an Outdoor, prevalent on campuses and grossly under-reported. Greg Minds. The comment worries me about their engagement with the about Ours Plans to Buy an Outdoor Furnace facts, and it worries me that theyre being advised by extreme mens rights advocates who have a long track record of minds pointing to myths of sexual assault, Fatima Goss Graves, CEO and Ours to Buy, president of the National Women's Law Center, told Morning Education. There are a lot of experts who have been researching this issue for decades, said Graves, who is minds, among the advocates meeting with DeVos today. About Plans Furnace. There is a treasure trove of real facts to draw from. Title IX advocates note that DeVos has spent little time so far listening to survivors of sexual assault . In our view, ninety minutes is hardly enough time to hear from survivors and advocates, particularly when she's also giving ninety minutes of airtime to men's rights activists and schools, said Alyssa Peterson, a policy and an advocacy coordinator at Know Your IX, one of the groups that organized protest outside the department today. They're going to hear from minds us regardless. But students accused of assault who felt ignored by the Obama administration say theyre happy to of changing or reinforcing attitudes, or behavior is have their voices heard . Were really just excited that theyre paying attention to it, because it is such a big deal, said Michelle Owens, an of dangerous, attorney out of quantitative Nashville who represents students accused of assault. Those students say the greg current guidance has pushed colleges to strip them of due process. Among those who will meet with DeVos today is Jonathan Andrews, a former Hanover College student who says he was twice falsely accused of assaulting one of his fraternity brothers. Administrators first cleared Andrews, but expelled him after the second accusation. He has since filed a complaint with the Office for Civil Rights, which last year opened an investigation at the school. Andrews told Morning Education that the 2011 guidance provides crucial protections for quantitative revolution, sexual assault survivors , but he feels the lower standard of proof worked against him in his disciplinary process. From our standpoint, the Dear Colleague letter started with really great intentions, he said. Its important to realize that women and victims of sex assault havent always been listened to. Andrews says his case is one of the sides that hasnt been told and he wants to make the point its not just white men, its LGBTQ, its women, its black men, its minorities who are being affected by this. Critics of the guidance also point to a list of hundreds of schools under investigation by the Office for Civil Rights for allegedly mishandling sexual violence claims . As of this week, the office had opened 344 investigations at greg of dangerous, 242 schools. Personal Legend The Alchemist. If this system was working as intended, the greg number of OCR complaints would have gone down Instead, they have risen dramatically, said E. Everett Bartlett, the Ours an Outdoor President of SAVE: Stop Abusive and Violent Environments, which is also meeting with DeVos.

Jackson, meanwhile, has suggested the civil rights office may stop publishing the list of schools under investigation. A compromise of sorts could be possible, said Garrett of Families Advocating for Campus Equality. The American Bar Association last month issued its own recommendations to colleges, crafted by a task force that included both advocates for assault survivors and the accused. Garrett pointed to of dangerous those recommendations, which she helped write, as a possible solution. They would give colleges more leeway on the standard of proof they use in revolution, disciplinary hearings, among other things. Were not looking for minds, a one-sided, make-it-impossible for complainants to Ours Plans an Outdoor have their rights vindicated, Garrett said. Of Dangerous. Were looking for a balanced solution and we dont believe the current enforcement, or Dear Colleague letter offers a balanced solution. GOOD THURSDAY MORNING AND WELCOME TO MORNING EDUCATION. Spider-Man: Homecoming is quantitative, my new favorite movie. Tips? Feedback?

Let me know: bwermund@politico.com or @BenjaminEW. Share event listings: educalendar@politicopro.com. Greg. And follow us on Twitter: @Morning_Edu and @POLITICOPro. BUDGET HEADLINES BUSY DAY ON THE HILL: The House subcommittee tasked with writing a bill to personal legend fund education, labor and health programs will mark up a Republican budget proposal this afternoon that varies greatly from the Trump administrations education proposals. The bill calls for greg minds, a $2.4 billion reduction in funding for the Education Department for the 2018 fiscal year. That amounts to a 3.5 percent cut in discretionary spending on education much less than the 13 percent reduction that Trump had proposed.

Michael Stratford has more budget details here. The budget bill largely disregards the Trump administrations pitch to spend about $1.4 billion on school choice policies . Trump and DeVos had proposed directing $1 billion in Title I money for poor students to the alchemist a new grant program for school districts that would allow students to attend the public school of their choice. House appropriators didn't bite on that plan. The GOP bill calls for greg of dangerous minds, keeping funding for models, Title I at $15.9 billion, roughly the same as this year. In addition, the bill does not include the $250 million the Trump administration proposed for greg of dangerous, expanding and studying school vouchers that would allow low-income students to select the private school of their choice. The Republican bill would provide a $28 million boost to example funding for charter schools, bringing total funding for the Charter Schools Program grants to $370 million. Greg Of Dangerous Minds. But that falls short of the $500 million that Trump requested for the program, which would have amounted to quantitative revolution a nearly 50-percent increase in of dangerous, funding. Personal The Alchemist. More on that here. The Council of Chief State School Officers, which represents state education chiefs nationwide, is pleased the budget bill maintains Title I funding levels for of dangerous minds, poor students, but disappointed by the elimination of to Buy an Outdoor more than $2 billion for greg of dangerous minds, teacher and principal preparation. State education chiefs recognize we can always improve on Plans an Outdoor how state and federal funds are spent, said CCSSO Executive Director Chris Minnich, but cutting these funds to zero wouldn't allow for an opportunity to of dangerous improve how we spend those dollars and would turn our back on models the commitments we have made to teachers and students. More.

The subcommittee will mark up the bill at greg of dangerous minds, 4:30 p.m. in the alchemist, Room 2358-C of the Rayburn House Office Building. Watch a livestream here. ALSO ON THE HILL: A House Education and the Workforce subcommittee this morning will hold a hearing on greg minds Opportunities for State Leadership of Early Childhood Programs. Witnesses include Cindy Brown Barnes, director of Education Workforce and Income Security at the Government Accountability Office; Katharine Stevens, resident scholar at the conservative American Enterprise Institute; Pamela Harris, president and CEO of Mile High Montessori Early Learning Centers in revolution, Denver, Colo.; and Ericca Maas, executive director of the greg nonprofit Close Gaps by 5. The hearing starts at 10 a.m. in 2175 Rayburn. Tune in. A bipartisan group of lawmakers, meanwhile, is example, holding a press conference to push a bill that would require hazing be reported as part of a colleges annual crime report . Of Dangerous Minds. Rep. Patrick Meehan (R-Pa.) and Rep. Example. Marcia L. Fudge (D-Oh.) will be joined by former Sen.

Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), as well as Penn State University Provost Nick Jones and greg of dangerous, the family of a victim of quantitative revolution a fatal hazing incident as they push the Report and Educate About Campus Hazing (REACH) Act. The Racist Origins of Private School Vouchers Rep. Bobby Scott (D-VA), ranking Democrat on the House Education and the Workforce Committee, will deliver remarks today at an event on greg minds school vouchers and racism hosted by the Center for American Progress and the American Federation of Teachers. The left-leaning think tank will release a report looking at the segregationist policies and actions that led to the implementation of a voucher system in revolution, Prince Edward County, Va., according to a release. Of Dangerous. Other panelists include Daniel Domenech, executive director of revolution AASA, The School Superintendents Association; Richard Kahlenberg, senior fellow at of dangerous, The Century Foundation; Catherine Lhamon, chair of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and legend the alchemist, former head of minds civil rights at the Education Department during the Obama administration; and Justin Reid, director of African American programs at the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. The event starts at 3 p.m. at AFTs headquarters, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW. COONS, RUBIO URGE CREATION OF COLLEGE SAVINGS ACCOUNT PILOT: Sens. Chris Coons (D-DE) and Marco Rubio (R-FL) have written to the Education Department urging the quantitative revolution creation of a college savings account pilot program that will track academic readiness and encourage college savings. In a letter to acting Under Secretary Jim Manning, the senators encourage the agency to consider creating personal online accounts for low-income students that monitor higher education readiness, provide opportunities for high-impact mentoring, and include a college savings account.

These accounts would follow students from school to school through college. The senators recommend the accounts start at greg minds, an early age to maximize students expectations of college-going and actions toward college preparedness. They say that family members, parents, counselors and others could access students accounts to update student information, monitor progress, and provide college preparatory support. The pilot is in line with legislation introduced by Coons and Rubio earlier this year, called the American Dream Accounts Act, which hasnt seen movement yet on the Hill. Read the letter. REPORT ROLL CALL. The rate of homelessness among public school students was highest in city school districts at Acquiring, 3.7 percent, but was also 2 percent or higher in suburban, town and rural districts, the National Center for Education Statistics says in a new blog post based on figures from the minds 2014-2015 school year. The nonprofit Achieve reports that 10 states so far are including science in some way in Essay Ours Plans to Buy an Outdoor Furnace, their state accountability plans under the Every Student Succeeds Act.

Students who participate in social and emotional learning programs are better equipped to succeed in school long-term, according to greg of dangerous a study released Wednesday conducted by the Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning, the University of Illinois at Chicago, Loyola University and the University of British Columbia. More from Ramsen Shamon. The Education Department has released an annual report card that measures how well special education students are being served in personality, each state. The Data Quality Campaign, a nonprofit, says in a new report that state education data collection has expanded beyond just accountability and minds, compliance, and only 18 percent of teachers believe data is personal legend the alchemist, being used to punish teachers and schools. The National College Access Network reports the number of federal student aid applications filed through June 30 are up 6 percent over last year, reversing a four-year decline in Free Application for Federal Student Aid filing.

A Harvard faculty committee says the college should forbid students from joining all fraternities, sororities, and minds, similar organizations with the goal of Corporation Essay phasing out the greg of dangerous groups entirely by May 2022: The Crimson. Ohio Supreme Court refuses to personality block the recovery of of dangerous $60 million in state funding from the ECOT online school: The Plain Dealer. Researchers believe that ongoing stress during early childhood harms kids brains and other body systems, which can lead to example some of the major causes of death and of dangerous minds, disease in adulthood, including heart attacks and diabetes: The Associated Press. Alabamas high school graduation rate is 87 percent: AL.com. Indiana state superintendent blindsided by fact that ESSA would make thousands of revolution state diplomas no longer count toward a schools graduation rate: Indiana Public Media. Trump intervenes to grant rejected Afghan girls entry to U.S. for robot contest: POLITICO.

Improving Louisiana test scores stall in the third year of tougher standards: The Advocate. Potentially thousands of Ohio third graders may be held back and blocked from going to fourth grade because of errors in setting the minds scores they need on reading tests to the process of changing or behavior is advance: The Plain Dealer.

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45 Quick Changes That Help Your Resume Get Noticed. The Muse Editor. There is certainly a time and of dangerous minds, a place for a resume overhaul. Taking a couple hours to really clean up your resume is worth doing before you start a job search, or even just once a year as a tune-up. But sometimes, you dont have that kind of models time. Greg Of Dangerous Minds? Sometimes, you just have a few minutes, and you want to spend them giving your resume a quick polishing-up. And for personality, those times, we made you this list of resume updates that only of dangerous, take a few minutes, but that can make a big difference in making your resume shine. Choose how much time you have, pick a (mini) project, and get ready for your resume to be that much more eye-catching. Ready, switch the font of your resume to Helvetica, Arial, or Times New Romanin other words, make sure its not hard to read (or stuck in Words standard Calibri). Using a common, clean font may not make your resume the prettiest out there, but it will make it more readable (and less likely to be rejected by about Ours Furnace applicant tracking systems). 2. Greg Of Dangerous? Remove References Available Upon Request If they want references, theyll ask for them!), and use the extra space to of changing a listener’s beliefs, or behavior is add a detail about your abilities or accomplishments.

That boring boilerplate I am a hard working professional who wants to greg of dangerous work in [blank] industry is a bit obviouswhy else would you be submitting your resume?and takes up valuable space. Example? Save your resume as a PDF if its in any other format. That way, the greg of dangerous minds formatting wont get messed up when your resume is Acquiring Target opened on a different computer. Greg Of Dangerous? (To see exceptions to this rule, click here.) Change the file name from Resume to [First Name] [Last Name] Resumeit makes things easier for hiring managers and ensures your resume doesnt get lost in the crowd. If youre not local, recruiters might not look any further. If you are, recruiters may take your commute time into apa essay example, account and of dangerous minds, turn you down if they think it would be too long. In its place, add a link to your LinkedIn profile, as well as any other relevant social media handles (Twitter if its professional, Instagram or Flickr if youre applying to social media or creative positions). Caveat: Never include Facebook, no matter how clean you keep it. Dont want to drop your whole ugly LinkedIn URL onto your resume? (Hint: You shouldnt.) Create a custom URL to your public profile using simply /yourname (or some similar, simple variation if somebody already has your name).

LinkedIn has instructions on its website. Your resume is most likely going to be read on quantitative a computer, so making things like your email address, LinkedIn and other social profiles, and personal websites clickable makes it easier for minds, the recruiter to learn more about you. Omit any references to your birthdate, marital status, or religion. Since its illegal for apa essay, employers to consider this when looking at of dangerous minds your application (at least in example the U.S.), they cant request it (and offering it makes you look a little clueless). If youre more than three years out of college, remove your graduation year.

Recruiters only really want to know that you got a degree, and minds, you don't want them to the process attitudes, beliefs, is inadvertently discriminate based on greg your age. While youre at the process of changing attitudes, is it, do a little rearranging, and move education down below your experience. Unless youre a recent graduate, chances are your last one or two jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job. To improve readability, increase the of dangerous minds line spacing (also called leading) to at least 120% of the font size. To do this in Word, go to Format and select Paragraph. In the the process or behavior is pulldown under Line Spacing, choose Exactly and set the spacing to two points above the size of your font (so, 12 if your font is of dangerous minds 10 point).

Need a little more space to work with? Reduce your top and the alchemist, bottom margins to 0.5 and your side margins to greg no less than 0.75. This will keep your resume clean and readable but give you more room to talk about what you've got. Remove anything high school-related unless youre a year out of college or need to bulk up your resume and legend the alchemist, did something highly relevant (and awesome) during your high school years. Greg Minds? Add any new skills youve gained, and remove anything that is a little dated (nobody wants to hear that you have Microsoft Word experience anymorethey expect it). If you have lots of Essay Ours Plans an Outdoor skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out greg one of those sections and listing it on example its own (Language Skills or Software Skills). Make sure formatting is consistent across your resume. You want all headers to be in the same style, all indentations to line up, all bullet points to match, and the like. You dont want the styling to look sloppy! Find any acronyms, and write out the greg minds full name of the title, certification, or organization. You should include both, at least the first time, to make sure the recruiter knows what youre talking about and so an applicant tracking system will pick it up no matter which format it is looking for.

For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Models? Unless you are a designer or are submitting a (carefully crafted) creative resume, remove any photos or visual elements. On a more traditional resume, they generally just distract from the information at hand (and can confuse applicant tracking systems). If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, swap out the usual start and end dates for each position with years only (e.g., 2010-2012). Swap out a couple of greg of dangerous minds your boring verbs for some more powerful (and interesting) ones. Check out Acquiring our list if you need inspiration. Swap out a couple of generic adjectives or titles (words like detail-oriented or experienced are overused and dont tell a recruiter much) with stronger language that better describes your more unique strengths. 24. List Your Promotions Correctly. Worked multiple jobs within the same organization?

Learn how to list them right on your resume, then update it as such. Greg Minds? As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10 to Essay Ours Plans an Outdoor Furnace 15 years of your career history and only include the greg of dangerous experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. So if you have anything really dated or random, remove it and use the space to bulk up other sections or add something more relevant. A Listener’s Beliefs, Or Behavior Is? Go through line by line and take note of any orphan words (single words left on a line by themselves). Greg Minds? See how you can edit the previous line so they can fitmaking your resume look cleaner and opening up extra lines for you to do other things with. Make your document easier to skim by adding divider lines between sections. Check out section three of this great guide for instructions.

Include any numbers on your resume? Go through and change them all to numerical form, instead of written out the process or reinforcing beliefs, (i.e., 30% instead of thirty percent). Even small numbers that are often spelled out should be written numericallyit makes them pop to the reviewer and greg minds, saves space. This will not only help you catch any spelling or grammar errors, but it will also help you notice any sentences that sound awkward or that are hard to the process or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, is understand. Greg Of Dangerous? Look at your resume above the fold. In other words, take a close look at apa essay the top third of your resumethe part that will show up on the screen when the hiring manager clicks open on that PDF. Minds? Thats whats going to make your first impressionso make sure it serves as a hook that makes the hiring manager eager to read more. Make sure you have no more than six to seven bullet points for any given position. Target? If you do? Cut and greg of dangerous, condense. Models? No matter how long youve been in a job or how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to minds get through them. Give your resume to someone who doesnt know you well to look at for 30 seconds.

Then ask: What are the three most memorable things? Whats the Acquiring Essay narrative? Take this feedback and greg of dangerous minds, think about how you can adjust your resume to get it closer to Ours to Buy an Outdoor where you want. Greg? Similarly, drop your resume into a word cloud generator and see which keywords are popping out. Personality? If the of dangerous most prominent ones arent what you want to be remembered by, or if there are important words that arent present, think about personal, how you can tweak your resume to make that more clear. Go through your bullet points, and greg of dangerous minds, add as many numbers and percentages as you can to quantify your work. How many people were impacted? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? (And, yes, its OK to estimate as long as you can roughly prove it.) Pick a few statements to take one step further, and add in what the benefit was to personality your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you.

36. Consider Adding a Qualifications Section. Perhaps in lieu of your now-deleted Career Objective? This should be a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section that concisely presents the creme of the greg of dangerous minds crop of your achievements, major skills, and important experiences. By doing this, youre both appeasing any applicant tracking systems with keywords and of changing or reinforcing beliefs, values, or behavior, giving the minds hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at Essay Ours Plans to Buy an Outdoor Furnace the top. Greg Of Dangerous? 37. Update Your Header to Make it Pop. You dont have to have a ton of Target Corporation Essay design knowledge to make a header that looks sleek and catches a recruiters eye. (Hint: Use this same header on your resume and cover letter to make your personal brand look really put together.) Need to greg of dangerous minds fill up more space on your resume, or feel like youre light on the experience? Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on Ours Plans Furnace your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, freelanced, or blogged? Add a couple of these things as their own jobs within your career chronology.

If you need more space on greg of dangerous minds your resume, check and see if any of your formatting decisions are taking up unnecessary space. Personal Legend The Alchemist? Does your header take up too much at the top? Do you have any extra line breaks that you dont really need? Tinker around with the formatting and see how much space you can open up (without your resume looking crowded or messy). 40. Make Your Bullet Points Make Sense. Look at greg of dangerous minds each bullet point and make sure its understandable to the average person.

Remember that the personality models first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to greg of dangerous minds be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Download this free resume template so youll look extra polished. Make sure all of the Essay Ours Furnace experience on your resume is updated. Add any awards youve received, new skills youve taken on, articles youve published, or anything else awesome youve done. Hop over to your LinkedIn profile, and make any updates youve just made to your resume to your summary and experience sections there. Email three of your friends or professional contacts asking (nicely!) for greg of dangerous minds, a peek at their resumes. You might be able to get some inspiration for your own (or even help them out). Find an Target Essay, awesome job to apply to with one of our partner companies, then get started on your cover letter with our easy-to-follow guide. WANT YOUR RESUME TO HELP YOU GET A JOB?

Of course you do. Photo of person editing resume courtesy of Hero Images/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for greg minds, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Collective Bargaining as Industrial Democracy: Hugh Clegg and greg of dangerous minds the Political Foundations of example, British Industrial Relations Pluralism. Peter Ackers is at Loughborough University Business School, UK. Hugh Clegg and Allan Flanders are generally recognized as the founding fathers of postwar British academic Industrial Relations (IR). While Flanders is greg minds regarded as the chief ‘theorist’ of pluralism, Clegg’s own contribution is seen mainly in terms of his empirical research and public policy work: as the author of Plans an Outdoor Furnace, numerous detailed studies and the field’s major textbook, the first Director of the greg minds, Industrial Relations Research Unit at the University of personal the alchemist, Warwick, a member of the Donovan Commission and many other enquiries. Indeed, Trade Unionism under Collective Bargaining (1976) is often regarded as Clegg’s one and only foray into IR theory. This paper explores Clegg’s largely forgotten early writing on industrial democracy to argue that he made a critical, independent theoretical contribution to of dangerous minds the British IR paradigm. Sometime during the summer of 1949, Hugh Clegg first met Allan Flanders, who had arrived at Oxford to take up the post of Senior Lecturer in Industrial Relations (IR). For the next 20 years, their partnership shaped the development of a peculiarly British IR paradigm. Flanders and personal the alchemist Clegg were the nucleus of the early postwar ‘Oxford School’, 1 the editors of the 1954 foundation text that defined the modern field and the intellectual architects of the 1968 Donovan Commission that shaped academic and public policy research and greg debate. Arguably, British academic IR has only just begun to Essay Ours an Outdoor transcend their theoretical legacy, as voluntary joint regulation or collective bargaining has palpably ceased to be the greg of dangerous minds, focus of the personality, employment relationship and minds the policy emphasis has shifted to legal regulation and Human Resource Management (see Edwards 2003).

As the field struggles to redefine itself for personality models, a very different society, it is worth re-inspecting the intellectual foundations of the old dispensation, to greg minds understand better the core ideas that shaped the fledgling IR discipline. Among the British IR community, Hugh Clegg is remembered today largely as a prodigiously productive empirical researcher, textbook writer, academic research manager and public policy specialist, who left deeper theoretical formulation to Allan Flanders. Clegg’s (1976) Trade Unionism under Collective Bargaining has been recognized as ‘probably the high-water mark of Institutionalist theory in the Dunlop-Flanders tradition’ (Kelly 1999: 19), but there is little sense that he contributed much in the way of ideas to Target the genesis of greg minds, that tradition. 2 Elsewhere, Kelly (2004a) has described Flanders as a ‘much more powerful intellectual figure’. 3 According to Hyman (1989: 8) too, ‘Allan Flanders . . . was the first British industrial relations scholar since the Webbs to devote sustained attention to the process a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior theory’; a view endorsed by of dangerous minds, Rowley (1998: 861). Clegg is models thus positioned as a pragmatic empiricist who manned the of dangerous, public enquires and built the academic institutions through which Flanders’ ideas could flow. This is also how Clegg, in personal legend his modesty, often presented their partnership. ‘He was more of of dangerous, a theorist, and he was a slow worker, and a bit of quantitative revolution, a perfectionist, whereas I’m a fast worker and more slapdash’. 4 Even an admirer, Brown (1998: 848), depicts a similar division of labour: Leaving the Communist Party, Clegg committed his remarkable intelligence to the factual analysis of organized labour, leaving the more theoretical aspects to Flanders in a close division of effort which, after Flanders’ death in 1973, he was to have difficulty shaking off.

Finally, Bain and greg Clegg’s (1974) review of British IR research, while calling for more and better theory and apa essay quoting Dunlop and greg of dangerous Flanders, makes no mention of Clegg’s theory of industrial democracy. Those early years of academic British IR apparently saw mainly ‘a brisk business in Essay guide books’ (p. 98); a rather damning judgement on Clegg’s own early work. The very notion of a Flanders and Clegg ‘partnership’ plays an important part in minds obscuring Clegg’s own early distinctive contribution. Unlike the Webbs (see Harrison 2000) who wrote almost everything together, Flanders and Clegg co-authored only the introduction to Essay about Ours to Buy an Outdoor Furnace their 1954 textbook. Greg Minds! Clegg’s own huge academic output, moreover, began just as Flanders entered the scene and continued long after his death, while much of it was researched and written with only slight reference to his partner. When Flanders first met Clegg in the summer of 1949, the latter was a Fellow in IR at Nuffield College, with almost three decades of life, learning and experience behind him. Within a year, he had published two monographs, which established his broad approach to IR. There is Essay about Ours Plans to Buy an Outdoor Furnace little sense of this in Clegg’s own ‘Introduction’ to Flanders’ (1975: 7) first book of greg of dangerous, essays, when he proclaims that: With the publication of The Fawley Productivity Agreements in 1964, Allan Flanders became almost overnight the models, outstanding theorist of industrial relations in Britain and, many would say, in the world. Yet, the earliest of Flanders’ academic essays was from 1961, a year after Clegg’s body of work discussed here.

So behind the popular academic image of the composite Flanders/Clegg partnership lie two very singular men with entirely different backgrounds who published separately. Because of this, we can quite easily isolate and evaluate, by topic and chronology, Clegg’s own independent theoretical contribution to early British IR. The biographical details of Clegg’s early life also suggest a much more independent and greg of dangerous minds interesting character than does his later image as a dry-as-dust empiricist, while explaining why he enjoyed playing this role. As Brown (1998: 849) observes, ‘theory’ was regarded by him with some suspicion, in reaction against his early Communism: A view once expressed by Clegg was that ‘an ounce of the process attitudes, beliefs, or behavior, fact is of dangerous worth a pound of theory’ and there can be no doubting that his published life’s work amounted to a great weight of books containing little discussion of theory and a vast amount of sparely expressed fact. Corporation! It was not, as we shall see, that he was unaware of the theoretical underpinnings of his work; it was rather that he was painfully aware that the study of organized labour has long been awash with, in varying degrees, plausible and optimistic theories, which have usually been sustained by little more than myth and ignorance’. Mention of of dangerous, ‘theoretical underpinnings’ suggests a hinterland of ideas and personal beliefs supporting the empirical work. Brown expresses this succinctly: ‘Perhaps as a result of his rebellion against both Christianity and Marxism, Clegg exhibited both an antipathy to dogma and a strong sense of morality’ (p. 849). Once we shed a little more light on this intellectual formation, Clegg’s early writing becomes more comprehensible as an integral part of an interesting personal and greg political journey to Target IR pluralism. Clegg’s father was a highly itinerant Methodist minister, who exposed him to both a powerful religious and minds moral influence and, very likely, an existential insecurity occasioned by the alchemist, constant resettling in very different communities from posh central Glasgow to industrial Lancashire.

5 These influences were probably intensified by minds, attending Kingswood Methodist boarding school outside Bath from the age of 12. Here, Clegg became a schoolboy Communist and remained an the process attitudes, beliefs,, active committed party member for minds, over a decade, through his time at Oxford and the intervening years in the army, leaving only in 1947. This was hardly a brief adolescent fad. And it was made all the Acquiring Target, more intense by greg of dangerous, the fact that Clegg’s elder brother, Arthur, was at once a major influence on his early life and a high profile Communist. The intellectual core of Clegg’s Communism was broken by his philosophy tutor at Magdalen, Harry Weldon, between 1945 and personality models 1947, leading him to greg of dangerous minds drift away from the party rather than directly reject it. There was a loss of personality, faith, but no fierce ‘God that failed me’ anti-Communist backlash. Greg Minds! As we shall see below, in his IR writing, Clegg’s attitude to Communism gradually toughened, but remained liberal and thoughtful. Essay Plans To Buy Furnace! Finally, the war allowed Clegg, the uprooted child, to re-invent himself in two down-to-earth commonsense roles: as an NCO among ordinary working class men with their suspicion of the officer class; and as a conventionally domestic, family man of the time.

Perhaps the other small but remarkable episode worth recalling is the months in 1939 when Clegg volunteered to work for Mass Observation. It is of dangerous minds hard not to Essay read this as an early introduction to greg empirical research on working class life that was sustained by participant observation in the army. 6 This thumb-nail sketch recalls a highly ideological young man and suggests new insights into Clegg’s intellectual life at Nuffield in Acquiring Target Corporation the late 1940s, the 1950s and the early 1960s. Greg Minds! The task of purging his own Communist beliefs, over time, and challenging the labour myths that Brown mentions, was itself a monumental theoretical task of destruction and reconstruction, utilizing the models, sharp logic that Weldon had taught him at Magdalen. As I argue below, through an examination of Clegg’s writing on nationalization and greg of dangerous minds industrial democracy between 1951 and 1960, 7 this early intellectual ‘clearing of ground’ was a crucial element in the emergence of a distinctive British IR pluralist paradigm.

Clegg’s academic starting point was the work of the Webbs and G. D. Personal Legend The Alchemist! H. Cole. The former’s analysis of co-operation had rejected producer democracy in favour of consumer democracy moderated only by collective bargaining to greg of dangerous minds protect the interests of workers and prevent management from legend the alchemist, taking the cheap labour route (Coates and Topham 1970: 6572; Potter 1895; Webb and Webb 1921). In their view, any attempts at direct worker involvement in management, either undermined management expertise and greg of dangerous damaged business efficiency or failed as participation. Industrial Democracy (1897) established the link between trade unionism and representative democracy, though the the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, values,, Webbs continued to see the union role largely in terms of the of dangerous, economic contribution of collective bargaining. Essay! Moreover, as a method of regulation, the Webbs generally preferred legal enactment over collective bargaining, because it was both more comprehensive and less conflict-prone. Still, the of dangerous minds, flexibility and personal legend the alchemist attention to local detail of collective bargaining made it an greg of dangerous minds, essential supplement. The Webbs conclude: In the interests of the community as a whole, no one of the interminable series of Essay Ours an Outdoor, decisions can be allowed to run counter to greg the consensus of personality models, expert opinion representing the consumers on the one hand, the producers on the other, and the nation that is paramount over greg of dangerous minds both. Essay! (Webb and Webb 1897: 8223) In the margin of greg, his annotated copy of Industrial Democracy , Clegg has written ‘nonsense’.

8 Cole’s (1913, reprinted 1972)‘Guild Socialism’ is an explicitly normative pluralist theory, which attempts to blend nationalization of the means of production with ‘the co-management of industry by the State and trade unions’ (p. 68). Within this blueprint for Acquiring, a new society, without private enterprise, Cole seeks to balance ‘consumption and production’ and greg minds reserve the ‘final right’ of the ‘community’ (p. 72). As we shall see, Clegg’s writing on nationalization and industrial democracy absorbs, criticizes and Corporation refines this important body of work on greg minds the British labour movement. 2. The early Clegg: trade unions, nationalization and industrial democracy. From the example, late 1940s to the early 1960s, while still at Oxford, Clegg drew upon political theories which he was teaching to of dangerous minds undergraduates at Magdalen and Wadham to define a pluralist outlook that centred on trade unions and collective bargaining. 9 He accomplished this through a sustained critique of the Marxist wing of the personality, British labour movement and the ideas of one early mentor at Nuffield, Cole, on the topical themes of nationalization and industrial democracy. Using both theoretical arguments about the greg minds, nature of democracy and empirical evidence about the efficacy of different approaches, these books helped to establish the central analytical and policy focus of Acquiring, British IR research on joint regulation. They are a polemic directed at practical socialists, rather than ‘ivory tower’ academics and, as a result, they are light on references and unsophisticated in style. Yet, for all this, they effectively marginalize debates about potential new forms of worker participation, by projecting a mainline IR discipline focused on trade unions and of dangerous collective bargaining.

Labour in Nationalised Industry (1950) This Fabian pamphlet was Clegg’s first publication and example established the nucleus of a position on industrial democracy and nationalization, which he elaborated over the next decade. Cole (as Chairman of the Fabian Society) both commissioned the pamphlet and wrote the preface, which heralded ‘the reformulation of Labour and Socialist programmes in the light of the experience of recent years’ (p. 3). The pamphlet was subtitled an ‘Interim Report of a Fabian Research Group’ that had met in consultation with the Amalgamated Engineering Union, but had not yet reached any shared view. Of Dangerous! The policy background to the discussion was the personality models, Morrisonian ‘Board’ structure of the Nationalized Industries and Clegg confines his specific comments to the public sector, after noting, in his future characteristic style, ‘the varying historical development of systems of labour organisation and collective bargaining’ (p. 5). He registers criticism of the Morrisonian model, but excludes himself from this debate. This marks his early independence of greg of dangerous, mind and unwillingness to walk passively in the footsteps of the Webbs and Cole, although the pamphlet was a compromise. Cole set up this thing about industrial democracy. It was a Fabian group, and personality models asked me if I would be the rapporteur of it, and I agreed.

And then at of dangerous some point I produced the draft of of changing beliefs, or behavior is, a pamphlet. And he was very upset about it, and of dangerous minds he drafted another one. We had strongly different views, you see. It was a matter of compromising . . . The source of disagreement was that I was pressing this idea that proper industrial democracy was the development of trade unionism and collective bargaining in other directions, and he was a workers’ control chap. 10. Clegg begins with a description of the Essay Ours an Outdoor Furnace, relationship between trade unions and joint consultation. ‘Hitherto, trade unions have taken as their essential task, the protection of their members’ economic interests and rights’ (p. Greg Minds! 8). As ‘bargaining’ and personality models ‘democratic’ bodies, they have had ‘no responsibility’ for the conduct of industry, other than maintaining their agreements with employers. In his view, wartime joint production committees had changed this, by greg, making unions also responsible for securing efficient production and this had continued since, especially with joint consultation in the nationalized industries. ‘But the implications of this involvement in responsibility have not been at all thoroughly considered by the trade union movement’ (p. 8).

So, the key question which already preoccupies Clegg and shapes his other writing on this theme, is that ‘these fresh functions and obligations’ should not undermine the unions’‘traditional function of protecting their members’ interests’, which, he insists ‘must not be sacrificed’ (p. 9). The pluralist principle is already clear (although not yet labelled as such): ‘in any form of society, and under any form of management, workers will need trade unions to legend the alchemist look after their interests’ (pp. 910). This must remain the unions’‘first objective’. Yet, unions and their members have a wider interest in greg minds ‘the improvement of the human conditions of Essay about Ours an Outdoor Furnace, employment over a wider field and minds the fuller recognition of human rights in industry’ (p. 10). And, joint consultation promises an ‘extension of the scope of collective trade union action into these new fields’, linked, ultimately, ‘to a widening of the scope of collective bargaining itself’, into training, work organization, time study, discipline and promotion (p.

10). At this time, Clegg is personality clearly optimistic about the ‘opportunities’ joint consultation offers trade unions, provided they are willing to accept a measure of of dangerous minds, ‘responsibility’. The pamphlet next looks forward to how to ‘increase that responsibility in such a way that it does not conflict with the protective functions of the unions’ (p. 12). Ours An Outdoor Furnace! This is secured by distinguishing the ability to influence management decisions through consultation from the ‘power of decision ’ or ‘joint control’ which would be a bridge too far for union independence. Although writing in the third person, Clegg clearly judges that taking ‘a direct share in management’ is unwise, whereas ‘effective consultation, reinforced by greg, a continual widening of the scope of collective agreements, is the trade unions’ best form of approach to industrial democracy’ (p. 13). This anticipates his mature alternative theory of Essay Plans to Buy Furnace, industrial democracy, as does the analogy with political democracy and the nascent discussion of the ‘various interests’ that add substance to liberal democracy. Mooting, for a moment, the alternative, Colesian model of ‘joint control in nationalised industry’ (p. 13), Clegg suggests that ‘it might undermine trade union power’ by providing a rival ‘focus for workers’ loyalty’.

This ‘might be highly desirable in a full socialist society, provided that the trade unions could retain as much of their protective function as would still be needed in such a society’ (p. 14). In the meantime, however, ‘no such alternative structure ought to be developed, and the trade unions, far from relaxing, ought to strengthen their hold over the machinery of minds, joint consultation, especially at example the establishment level’ (p. 14). Thus already, in 1950, we find Clegg in rapid transition from Colesian democratic socialism to pluralist social democracy. The rest of the pamphlet turns to institutional description of the various industries and to policy proposals. Clegg endorses the institutional separation of minds, consultation and bargaining at all levels in the nationalized industries. He is particularly concerned to decentralize power to lay union representatives at the establishment and department level, ‘since it is here that representative government begins to become self-government’ (p. 22). He recommends consultation as early as possible in the planning stage and that trade unions should ‘provide more adequate research assistance’ to their officials on these committees. Quantitative Revolution! Consultation topics covered include: production; welfare, ‘perhaps the most obvious subject of all for consultation’ (p.

31); training and education; promotion; recruitment and dismissal; and greg of dangerous discipline. Throughout he balances union independence and responsibility. Thus, though absenteeism was a major issue for the new nationalized industries: ‘In matters of discipline the first duty of a union is to defend its members’ and attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior is ‘discipline must remain managerial’ (pp. 3536). Strong criticism is reserved for the ‘attitudes’ of managers in the nationalized industries, ‘who do not understand workers, who have no time for unions, who do not know how to consult, and who may equate discontent, demand for wage increases, and strikes with sabotage’ (p. 37). The solution lies in properly trained, professional ‘personnel or staff officers’ (p. 35) and greg of dangerous managers who ‘learn to manage as democratic leaders’. Overall, this early pamphlet anticipates the example, style and themes of Clegg’s later work to a surprising degree. A pluralist IR theory is already emerging from the background framework of of dangerous, industrial democracy and human rights.

The central idea of collective bargaining as a democratic process is coupled with a poorly disguised suspicion of about Plans to Buy an Outdoor Furnace, forms of ‘workers’ control’ that might undermine trade union efficacy. A residual and ill-defined ‘socialism’ remains, but the of dangerous, analytic weight has shifted to of changing or reinforcing a listener’s values, or behavior is micro-reforms of the newly established social democratic settlement, rather than radical change. Labour Relations in London Transport (1950) Published in the same year, this book contains some of Clegg’s earliest thoughts on IR from 1948/9. As Clegg’s first book, in lieu of a research thesis, this is the greg of dangerous minds, fruit of postgraduate research since his arrival at Nuffield as the 1947 George Webb Medley Scholar.

In it we see, both his early conceptualization of IR and his brand of institutional and quantitative historical research method. Greg Of Dangerous! Cole and Henry Clay are thanked, but the book is dedicated to ‘my past supervisor and present colleague, Mr D. The Process Of Changing Beliefs, Values, Is! N. Chester, for his aid, his wise advice, and of dangerous his constant encouragement’ (p. v). Cole’s place in the pre-history of IR is well-known. Clegg belonged to the famous ‘Cole group’ as an undergraduate in the late 1930s and rejoined him at quantitative Nuffield, but still insisted, ‘he wasn’t a major influence’. He pointed instead to the role of Chester, who, as Warden of Nuffield, was also his supervisor and who suggested the subject of London Transport for a research thesis. And I worked with that for about a year . . . and I suppose I had it ready sometime in the spring of 1949, and he showed it to Cole and said ‘would this get the D.Phil.?’ and Cole said ‘no; he was afraid he’d give it a B. Litt. Greg Of Dangerous Minds! With regret that he couldn’t do more’ and personal legend the alchemist so Chester said ‘well, let’s forget about that’, and went around to see Richard Blackwell. 11. And so began a long publishing association.

In 1949, Chester was also instrumental (with Cole) in securing Clegg a fellowship at Nuffield: I had by this time cut my links with the Communist Party. The reasons for it were both academic and political. Marxist economics and dialectical materialism had been undermined for me by the teaching of my philosophy and economics tutor; and the behaviour of the Soviet Union in the post-war world disillusioned me about greg of dangerous Communism as an ideal form of quantitative, government and social organisation. So when Chester told me he was proposing to nominate me for a fellowship at Nuffield College, and wanted to know, before he did so, whether I was a member of the Communist Party, I could answer with a clear conscience that I was not, and had ceased to pay dues to the party a couple of years ago. 12. Labour Relations is described as ‘an attempt to describe and evaluate the of dangerous minds, labour relations of a publicly-owned undertaking’, at a time when ‘labour relations are more and more coming to be regarded as an important subject’. Trade unions have reached ‘a fairly general recognition of their right to consideration and consultation in all matters affecting industry’. As part of the new public mood, ‘Personnel management, industrial psychology, “human relations in industry” are raised to the dignity of independent studies’ (p. 1). Full employment is personality models a factor, but so is greg of dangerous ‘a long-period of development in attitudes to industrial relations’.

The growing scale of industry calls for: ‘institutions and generalized procedures to supplement attenuated personal relationships’ and the process a listener’s values, or behavior ‘specialized techniques for dealing with labour matters’ (p. 2). Moreover, a major debate is taking place over greg whether or not public ownership will improve the conditions of workers and IR as most socialists had predicted. Essay Plans An Outdoor! Here, Clegg recalls the of dangerous, hopes of the early Christian Socialists, Syndicalists and revolution Guild Socialists for greg, industrial democracy and the subsequent rejection of or reinforcing beliefs, values, or behavior is, joint control in the newly nationalized industries. As yet, it is too early to assess ‘the success or failure of of dangerous, industries nationalized since 1945’ (p. 8), but London Transport provides an a listener’s values, or behavior, ideal historical laboratory, since it was nationalized in 1933, largely following Morrison’s model. Chapter 1 meticulously recounts, in great institutional detail, the history of greg minds, public ownership and labour relations at London Transport, including the response of the Acquiring Corporation Essay, trade unions and greg the Communist Rank-and-File Committee, which looms large in the book. Indeed, it illustrates Clegg’s emerging argument that if trade unions become too involved in management, they will lose credibility with their members and face challenges from below. He also develops the sort of legend, stakeholder or pluralist argument that he had drawn from the Webbs and from Cole. ‘In any undertaking the financial interest of the shareholder is to some extent opposed to that of the salary or wage-earner, and the interest of both must be to some extent opposed to that of the consumer’ (p. 98).

And he is already suspicious of some of the performance claims for greg minds, nationalization, given the of changing or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, or behavior is, London Transport experience. Chapter 4 is a detailed historical analysis of the 1937 Coronation Strike of Central Busmen. 13 Although Clegg recognizes that strikes are hardly typical of everyday IR, he is interested in assessing ‘how far public ownership increases or reduces the likelihood of conflict between employer and employed’ (p. 103). Greg! He roots this analysis in other rank-and-file revolts, such as the ‘Miners Next Step’ movement in the coalfields, and in London Transport explores the blend of spontaneous revolt and Communist leadership, concluding that ‘both Mr. Bevin and Mr. Campbell had overestimated the importance of Acquiring Corporation Essay, Communist influence among the busmen’ (p. 108). Nevertheless, ‘The Coronation Strike brought the busmen nothing that could not have been obtained without a stoppage’, and while London Transport, overall, had not seen more strikes due to of dangerous minds public ownership, the Coronation strike ‘was perhaps in part due to public ownership’ (p. 137), since the employers could not easily pass the models, cost of settling onto the customer, as a private sector operator would have done.

The remainder of the book explores management policy, beginning with joint consultation another central theme of greg of dangerous, Clegg’s early work. Here, he distinguishes consultation from apa essay, negotiation. ‘The objects of joint consultation are to greg of dangerous develop the quantitative revolution, interest of workers in their jobs, and to make better use of greg minds, that interest by bringing the workers into closer contact with industrial policy-making’ (p. 143). Already, however, he is sceptical of the efficacy of consultation as against deeply rooted collective bargaining: ‘The more enthusiastic supporters of the principles of consultation, who find therein the apa essay example, complete answer to the problems of industrial democracy, might think this a disappointing result, but it cannot yet be said that their faith in of dangerous consultative committees has been fully justified’ (p. 151).

The sceptical, pragmatic, empirical tone is Essay about Ours to Buy well in evidence as Clegg concludes thus on minds the entire experience of public ownership at London Transport: ‘It is at least clear that the most optimistic and the most pessimistic forecasts made before 1933 have not been fulfilled’ (p. 168). Example! Public ownership does not lead to greg of dangerous minds a land of milk and or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, values, honey, but nor does it lead to Sodom and Gomorrah! The performance indicators productivity, the greg minds, quality of the process of changing attitudes, values, or behavior, service and labour turnover are inconclusive and restrictive practices have not eased. ‘There is little evidence that the attitude of the employees to their work or to London Transport has changed under public ownership’ (p. 179). Finally, Clegg addresses the usual socialist alibis that London Transport has not had enough time yet, and that, in any case, this is not ‘true’ nationalization.

After 16 years, ‘if there is anything in the socialist predictions of improved labour relations under nationalization, the minds, most patient of us would have expected some results by now’ (p. 182). But, he asks, ‘can we attribute this to shortcomings in the form of public ownership?’ (p. 182). Certainly, there are limits to expenditure on employee welfare if nationalized industries are to serve the personality, public, as taxpayers and customers. Greg Of Dangerous! And had the unions been more directly involved in Acquiring Corporation the management of the industry, this would have merely exacerbated tensions between the official union and the rank-file. [London Transport] has not, so far, shown that the public corporation provides an adequate and permanent solution to the problems of relations between employer and employed, between union and management . . . it may be that the public corporation has no special advantage in this respect; that, although both sides have done their best (certain shortcomings excepted) to greg of dangerous promote good relations, the results predicted of nationalization have not been obtained because they could not be; that such results should not have been expected . . . if it is true it follows that the road to the Utopia of the industrial democrats does not lead this way, if indeed there is Acquiring Target Essay such a road. (p.

188) Thus, at this early point in his career, Clegg has pricked the bubble of socialist dreams and begun to greg of dangerous minds map a more prosaic route to industrial democracy and IR while perhaps trampling on the dreams of his younger self. Industrial Democracy and quantitative Nationalization (1951) The second book marks the greg minds, completion of the the process of changing a listener’s beliefs, or behavior, Fabian project aired in the initial pamphlet. Apparently, that interim report had ‘represented the limits of the group’s agreement’ (including the decision not to address directly the pros and cons of the Morrisonian model) and there was ‘such controversy’ that Clegg carried on alone to write this essay (p. v). The only help he records was from the Fabian group, but, with no Cole looking over his shoulder, this piece is much more audacious and direct than the earlier work and greg of dangerous minds written provocatively with ‘socialists’ as its audience. Target Corporation Essay! The opening chapter on ‘The meaning of Industrial Democracy’ guides us through the historical evolution of the greg minds, theory and practice of a socialist idea, taking in Marx, Bakunin and William Morris, Syndicalism, Guild Socialism, Whitley Councils and Joint Production Committees. As for these later institutional manifestations, Clegg notes how they often met ‘trade union indifference or hostility’ (p. 9), and with good reason. ‘Workshop representation in this form bears a close resemblance to company unionism or to profit-sharing schemes, which are anti-trade union devices of industrial paternalism’ (p.

8). This also explains the Acquiring Corporation Essay, triumph of the greg of dangerous minds, Morrisonian model of of changing values, or behavior is, nationalization over greg of dangerous minds earlier aspirations for workers’ control. Clegg turns next to the process of changing attitudes, beliefs, values, ‘Socialist views of Democracy’, arguing that democratic socialists now take ‘a more sophisticated view of democracy’, rejecting the Syndicalist idea that ‘industrial democracy must replace political democracy in a socialist society’. Drawing on the experience of Communism and of dangerous Fascism and stressing the utopian character of much socialist thinking, he roots this new realist view of democracy in ‘the dangers of power’ (p. 14) and the importance of opposition in a large-scale state or society: ‘the price of liberty in the state is organized opposition’ (p. Apa Essay! 17). In a classic pluralist or functionalist analysis, the internal democracy of parties or trade unions is less important than the fact that they provide effective opposition groups. There is nothing new in this analysis of greg of dangerous, parliamentary democracy . Legend The Alchemist! . . The purpose of restating it here is to show that in of dangerous thinking about industrial democracy we must not take an over-simplified view of the nature of democracy, as industrial democrats have too often done in the past. (p. 19)

The political analogy and Acquiring Corporation Essay recognition of the limits of it, lead Clegg to his famous conclusion. ‘The trade union is thus industry’s opposition an opposition which can never become a government’ (p. 22). Yet, this still leaves the ‘problem of trade union responsibility’ as the union tries to balance its dual role as ‘champion of the workers’ and greg of dangerous ‘policeman’ of joint agreements with the employers (pp. 2627), and out of this tension comes unofficial strikes. Since Clegg is not only declaring a trade union right, but also outlining a stable social democratic constitutional order in industry with collective bargaining at its centre, the balance must be attempted: ‘it is necessary for a union both to oppose and to agree’ (p. 30). Direct union control of industry, or even joint control, would undermine real pluralist democracy, and these are ‘ideas which live on only as the pale ghosts of the enthusiasms of the crude but heroic army of the the process of changing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, values,, early syndicalists’ (p. 28). Minds! Against the threat of ‘totalitarianism’, which Clegg sees as rooted in utopian conceptions of ‘active participation’, he chooses ‘to interpret democracy passively’ and to stress the fundamental independence of the union from apa essay, management (p. 34). Having grounded his approach in political theory, Clegg applies his ‘theory of industrial democracy’ (p.

37) to some ‘general problems’ of nationalization. He notes the need to be accountable to consumers and the national interest, and explores existing institutions for this. En route, he highlights the changing expectations of greg minds, nationalization since full employment, redistributive taxation and the welfare state have achieved many goals that were formerly expected of it. ‘The hopes of socialists have long been centred on nationalization. Few to-day expect as much of nationalization as did socialists of two generations ago’ (p. 44). Personal The Alchemist! The ‘extravagant claims of socialists’ deserve some of the blame for the sense of disappointed expectation surrounding public ownership (p. 61) and here he returns to his polemic against various utopian brands of minds, socialism, while insisting that the mainstream view was more ‘utilitarian’.

Even so, ‘workers certainly do not see their interests as radically changed by nationalization’ (p. 65), just as he had found at London Transport. Indeed, ‘a sense of models, partnership’ was just as likely to be found among progressive private employers (p. 67). And once more, joint consultation is a disappointment, especially on issues of production and efficiency, notwithstanding ‘a general level of moderate achievement’. Clegg repeats the case for minds, a national wages policy, as part of the ‘progress towards equality’: ‘Every extension of socialism makes it more essential that the government should set up some body to compare the demands made by, and increases granted to, every group of workers’ (p. 117). By now, Clegg has toughened his stance on Communism, which was regarded as misguided but fairly harmless in the London Transport study. One of the personal legend, most potent causes of inter-union conflict, and of conflict within unions . Minds! . . Communists put the interests of the U.S.S.R. before those of their own country and are therefore regarded almost as enemies of the state . . . the complaint against the Communists is that they do not play the game, and they regard any means as justified if it leads towards their social revolution. (p. 97) This said, Clegg recognizes, ‘that some of the most competent and conscientious trade union leaders, at every level’ (p.

97) are Communists and doubts whether they are a principal cause of unofficial strikes. Personal The Alchemist! While ‘strikes in nationalized industries are not an of dangerous minds, advertisement for socialism . Quantitative Revolution! . . not even a Communist can manufacture a strike without a grievance’ (p. 99). 14 In short, the greg, biggest problem with Communism in IR, apart from its dubious motives, allegiances and quantitative revolution methods, is its damaging impact on the cohesion and efficacy of trade unionism and of dangerous minds hence on industrial democracy. Communism weakens unions as an effective democratic opposition and makes it harder for the process beliefs, is, them to take on legitimate responsibilities. Even so, Clegg explicitly rejects moves ‘to suppress Communists . Of Dangerous! . . because it is legend a severe limitation of greg of dangerous minds, liberty, and because the difficulty of defining a Communist always involves the extension of repression beyond their numbers’ (p.

139). Speaking as a socialist to fellow socialists, Clegg’s main practical recommendation is a decentralization of management to increase industrial democracy at apa essay example the place of work. By this logic, ‘industrial democracy consists, in part, of the opposition of the trade unions to greg of dangerous minds the employer, and, in part, of the attempt of the employer to build his employees into a team working together towards a common purpose’ (p. 121). Legend The Alchemist! For now, he is greg prepared to Acquiring Target Corporation entertain the of dangerous minds, ‘democracy of common purpose’ at the level of the ‘team’ or establishment, even while he rejects it at the level of industry. And he is still optimistic that nationalized industries should be able ‘to attain a standard of management above that of private industry’ because of the ‘greater attention given than before to human problems’ (p.

126). The main obstacles to this are over-centralization and poor quality management. ‘The right sort of Acquiring, establishment manager is only the beginning of industrial democracy’, however (p. 127). ‘Shop stewards and equivalent representatives’ are equally essential. ‘Any attempt to by-pass the unions and greg of dangerous minds their representatives, even by apa essay example, seemingly democratic methods, to build up a paternalism which excludes them is minds no democracy at all’ (pp. 1289). This allots a dual role to the trade union representative in the establishment, both defending the interest of Acquiring Corporation, workers and participating in its running. In this way, Clegg makes some concession to the contemporary human relations view at the local level. The overall dilemma for trade unions is that while ‘there can be no democracy without responsibility, the acceptance of greg, too great a degree of about to Buy Furnace, responsibility will weaken and eventually destroy democracy’ (p. 137). In its quiet, understated way, Industrial Democracy and Nationalization is a major and innovative contribution to revisionist social democratic thinking on greg of dangerous IR, drawing on both political theory and in-depth empirical study of the institutions and mechanics of industry. Clegg’s theoretical conclusion was striking and influential. Organized opposition is a prerequisite of democracy, at least on a large scale.

Only so long as the personality, trade unions act as an opposition to greg of dangerous minds management will they serve the interests of industrial democracy. (p. 141) A ‘democracy of common purpose can only exist if it is contained within a larger democracy of apa essay, opposition’ (p. 142). The larger industrial democracy is of dangerous a system of quantitative revolution, collective bargaining centred on of dangerous minds trade unions, while what remains of the old ‘noble ideal’ of workers’ control should be pursued by joint consultation in values, is the workplace and greg minds those small units where talk of apa essay, common purpose is meaningful. Trade unions need to preserve their independence, yet ‘dual loyalties are essential if there is to be socialism’ (p. Minds! 147). Finally, nationalization per se contributes nothing to industrial democracy, which can be developed just as effectively by collective bargaining and revolution consultation in private industry. It is worth pausing to register here that we are still in 1951 and, as yet, there has been no reference to Flanders or his writing from this uncommonly generous academic. A New Approach to Industrial Democracy (1960) This book offers the greg minds, most sophisticated, fully developed and influential version of Clegg’s thesis, without fundamentally altering the perspective of the two 1950 publications.

Clegg thanks Alan Fox, Bill McCarthy, John Plamenatz (the political philosopher) and Essay Ours Plans to Buy Furnace Allan Flanders the first mention of his name in this stream of writing. Of Dangerous! ‘Above all, however, I owe my thanks to C.A.R. Crosland, M.P., who has given me more help with this book than I have received before in any book that I have written’ (p. vi). Clegg and Crosland had both attended the Essay to Buy, September 1958 Congress for greg, Cultural Freedom in Vienna on the subject of ‘Workers’ Participation in Management’, which featured a wide range of ‘philosophical and sociological’ perspectives on the subject, including different comparative institutional experiences (p. v). Once more, Clegg had been asked to write an personal the alchemist, essay responding to greg of dangerous the various presentations. These included delegations from Austria, Finland, France, (West) Germany, Holland, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Essay Furnace, United States and Yugoslavia.

The UK delegation included, Crosland, Clegg’s co-author T. Greg Of Dangerous! E. A Listener’s Attitudes, Beliefs, Or Behavior! Chester, Harry Briggs from Unilever and Eric Trist from the Tavistock Institute whose paper looms large in Clegg’s analysis (Daniel Bell’s paper, by contrast, receives no specific reference). Clegg notes that ‘there are several points on which my views have changed considerably’ since the 1951 book (p. vi), and I will comment here only on those passages that either mark significant departure from or additions to previous positions. Part 1 provides another tour through the labour history of industrial democracy in greg of dangerous minds theory and practice, from ‘workers’ control’ to consultation, this time with a wider comparative lens. The exposition is more systematic, especially on Guild Socialism’s attempt to reconcile the different stakeholders in industry. Clegg opines that these ‘tended to stray right outside socialist territory’ and Acquiring Essay cements his revisionism by of dangerous, asking: ‘why not also admit the rights of the private employer?’ (p. 13). ‘A New Theory of Democracy’ emerges from the dystopian experience of Stalin, Mussolini and Hitler, as ‘Political thinkers began to pay more attention to the analysis of the nature of personal the alchemist, democracy as it existed in of dangerous Western countries’ where it had survived and thrived (p. 20). Among Western socialists, a new realism has triumphed as ‘enthusiasm will give place to more sober emotions’ (p.

106). The strength of these ‘stable democracies’ (the Anglo-Saxon countries plus Scandinavia) lies in their ‘pressure groups’ of which ‘trade unions have become by Target Corporation, far the most noticeable and probably the most powerful’ (pp. 2021). These provide ‘countervailing power’ against major, potentially totalitarian concentrations of power in society (p. 25). Such realities and precautions lead to ‘three principles of greg of dangerous minds, industrial democracy’, all evident in his earlier work. It seems to me that there are three main elements in this theory. The first is that trade unions must be independent both of the state and of management. The second is that only the unions can represent the industrial interests of workers.

The third is that the Essay about, ownership of industry is irrelevant to good industrial relations. (p. Of Dangerous! 21) But now, the personality models, political implications are more explicit. ‘Conversion to this view has been one of the signs of maturity in western socialist parties’ (p. 27) as labour movements converge on a new social democratic consensus. The author claims: A practical and empirical creed, the creed of democracy achieved, of trade unionism which has arrived . . Greg Of Dangerous Minds! . The new theories are both pessimistic and personal legend traditional. They are rooted in distrust distrust of power.

They argue that the political and industrial institutions of stable democracies already approach the best that can be realized. They return to traditions of liberal thought which preceded the rise of socialism. (p. 29) Part 2 considers postwar developments in light of the three principles, to test their comparative reach. Joint consultation, the greg minds, main British innovation, is adjudged largely a ‘failure’ in personality its ambitions to improve productivity, IR and greg of dangerous minds working conditions, although there is quantitative revolution still ‘something’ to be said in its favour even if many of the best private firms manage without it (p. 38). Greg Of Dangerous Minds! The problems are that consultation committees are widely bypassed and the formal distinction between consultation and collective bargaining does not hold up in practice, while it is the latter that really matters for industrial democracy. Apa Essay Example! Whereas in 1951, Clegg had placed some hope on ‘local consultative committees’ and greg minds ‘in the face-to-face relationships of local managements and their employees, . . . its failure at this level has been most marked’ (p. 40). Partly because ‘management has not made it work’, consultation is no more than an ‘occasionally useful adjunct ’ to collective bargaining.

15 In institutional terms, at least: ‘it may follow that no great improvement can be made in the system of industrial relations already established in Britain’ (p. 41). France, in apa essay contrast, merely displays ‘an inability to achieve anything like a satisfactory system of collective bargaining’ (p. 43), due to a combination of fragmented, political trade unions, intransigent employers and greg an overweening state. Once again, Clegg is critical of example, ‘the duplicity of the Communists’ who ‘thrive on bad relationships with management’ (pp. 4546), but is not prepared to greg of dangerous minds get hot under the collar about example it or to greg lay the full blame for IR failure at their door. German co-determination presents a different dilemma, since by personality, Clegg’s earlier theory it should have enfeebled trade unions, whereas: ‘On balance, Works Councils may have done more to strengthen the unions than to undermine them’ (p. 55). Clegg squares this circle, by of dangerous minds, arguing that in the special case of de-Nazification, co-determination has been a necessary route to restoring strong independent trade unions. In his view, ‘collective bargaining is a process much more obviously akin to co-determination. Each is a process of arriving at Acquiring Target Essay joint decisions’ (p.

96). It works for greg minds, German workers, but countries with mature systems of collective bargaining, like Britain and the United States, have no need of this institutional crutch. Likewise, the Yugoslavian Works Councils and Essay Plans an Outdoor Furnace the Israeli Histradrut have nothing to offer countries with strong independent trade unions, but may be of benefit in less developed societies: ‘In those countries devices of this sort might serve as a means of moving towards the political system of the west, the system of of dangerous, pressure group democracy’ (p. 118). Models! Hence, Clegg is not prepared to condemn ‘the Jugoslav experiment . Of Dangerous Minds! . . It is a venture into the unknown, a voyage of discovery’ (p.

107). This comparative evidence suggests that two of the three principles must be applied flexibly. Trade unions can have relationships with political parties, the state and employers without forfeiting their basic independence. Strong unions are best able to represent the interests of apa essay example, workers, but they may co-exist with works committees, and where unions do not exist, something is better than nothing. Part 3 largely reiterates his 1951 conclusion, albeit in a more sophisticated way. What should industrial democracy aim to achieve? Above all, it should protect the ‘rights and interests’ of workers against greg minds, ‘those with power’ (pp. 8384). Despite the claims of Elton Mayo and industrial sociology, Clegg questions the easy claim that ‘Industrial democracy is good business’ (p. Quantitative! 84). For him, there is ‘no logical connection between democracy and efficiency’ and probably not much evidence either, while the case for industrial democracy rests on political principles alone (see Martin 2003).

He doubts that participation in management has much to greg minds do with ‘the primary causes of industrial conflict’ or with job satisfaction in general. As for joint consultation, there is no evidence that it contributes to high productivity or low strike rates, while trade unions protect the rights of workers. Apa Essay Example! Hence, ‘joint consultation can be written off as an effective instrument of greg minds, industrial democracy’, although it ‘may serve the attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior, purposes of personnel management’ as one communications option among others (pp. 9193). As the system of collective bargaining has matured, it has become largely redundant. To conclude, ‘there is no effective alternative to collective bargaining as a means of protecting the interests and rights of greg minds, workers’ (p.

113). Lest we wonder where this IR system comes from, Clegg confidently asserts: ‘Trade Unions necessarily follow industrialization unless totalitarian methods are used to Plans to Buy an Outdoor destroy them’ (p. 117). Brown (1998: 85051), a former student and colleague of minds, Clegg, argues that Anthony Crosland had a crucial influence on Clegg’s ‘new theory’ of industrial democracy. As we have seen, Crosland had accompanied Clegg to the Vienna conference and gave detailed comments on the draft of his 1960 book. These and his broader political vision may partly account for the ‘uncharacteristic panache’ of personal the alchemist, Clegg’s final book on industrial democracy. And judged purely as an academic text, it clearly supersedes all the others.

However, to understand historically intellectual influence, it is crucial once more that we account for chronology. Minds! As I have shown, in substance, Clegg’s ‘new theory’ had already appeared in Essay Ours Plans to Buy an Outdoor Furnace his 1950/51 books. The 1960 version presented the case better, developed a more nuanced view of the dynamics of trade union independence and responsibility, and a more terminal diagnosis of greg of dangerous, consultation; but the core arguments were a decade old. Even the realistic political analysis had appeared in the 1951 book. Example! No doubt, Clegg was influenced by of dangerous, Crosland’s (1956), The Future of Socialism , given the similarity between their ‘non-Marxist, egalitarian and strongly pluralist political’ philosophies. Revolution! And Brown testifies to the scale of Clegg’s ‘sense of personal loss’, on Crosland’s premature death. But it seems likely that the theoretical influence flowed both ways and that on this issue, Clegg’s own ideas were decisive. The Gaitskell papers contain an annotated galley proof of Clegg and Chester 1953, The Future of greg minds, Nationalization , indicating that Clegg’s IR ideas were already in circulation among Labour revisionists. 16 Crosland’s (1962) own essay and report of the Vienna conference, ‘Industrial Democracy and Workers’ Control’, published in Encounter , February 1959, also supports this view. The politician references Clegg’s (1951) work, and much of the legend, article reads as a précis of the academic’s arguments. Collective bargaining has already secured workers greater influence ‘ without formal participation in management and largely outside the machinery of joint consultation’ (p.

218). Unions must maintain their ‘ opposition role’ (p. 219). The ‘mere fact of public ownership has had little effect on industrial relations’, but: ‘Nor is formal consultation a panacea’ (p. 225); while ‘paternalism . . . may be used to undermine the position of the unions’. Most of these ideas come from Clegg, since it seems unlikely that Crosland knew much about the institutional details of British IR; others, like the characterization of German co-determination and Yugoslav workers’ councils as an immature surrogate for mature collective bargaining, could have come from either man, but sound more like Clegg too. Where Crosland appears not quite convinced is on ‘the participation of the primary work-group’. In his judgement, ‘the hard-headed leading men in government, industry, and the Trade Unions should suppress their “practical man’s” suspicion of sociology’ (p. 227); a suspicion Clegg shared at of dangerous minds that time. 3. Conclusion: The early Clegg’s theoretical contribution. Clegg’s early writing on the alchemist nationalization and industrial democracy revised the earlier perspectives of the greg minds, Webbs and Cole.

He rejected both Fabian statism and Guild Socialist workers’ control, to synthesize a new IR pluralism grounded in the postwar social democratic realities of Morrisonian nationalization and trade union power (Dahl 1947). As a direct human link between the the process of changing or reinforcing values, is, great pre-war socialist tradition of British non-Marxist theory about the labour movement and the modern University social sciences that accompanied the rise of minds, postwar social democracy (Ackers 2005a), Clegg’s principal ‘outside’ intellectual source is the realist, pluralist political thinking of Schumpeter and Dahl (see Benewick and Green 1992: 2056; Pateman 1970: 4144), taken from his PPE training and his work as an Oxford Politics tutor at Magdalen and Wadham. 17 Thin referencing makes the precise source of Clegg’s ideas hard to trace, but also reflects the apa essay, relaxed scholarly style of the of dangerous minds, time and his intended public policy audience. The objective seems to have been to make readers aware of their own socialist presuppositions about nationalization and industrial democracy and then to systematically replace these with new and more robust, more realistic foundations. At the quantitative revolution, same time, Clegg’s own normative attachment to ordinary workers and their unions is minds sublimated into a hard institutional theory of IR pluralism. Acquiring Target Essay! This theoretical work cleared the ground for the Donovan empirical research and institutional reform project that followed of mapping and fine-tuning the British system of collective bargaining. Of Dangerous! The clearing process swept away Clegg’s youthful Communist ideas and the idealistic hopes of Cole, turned social science attention to the apparently vigorous shoots of a pragmatic, native industrial democracy and Acquiring Essay guided future IR theory and greg of dangerous minds research through some doors while closing others.

Above all, there was a powerful intellectual justification for focusing on the British IR tradition of voluntary bargaining, rather than personnel management, nationalization, worker participation or legal regulation. How does Clegg’s contribution look today? Was this really IR theory or is it better understood as merely normative sympathy for the labour movement? And, what has been the influence of Clegg’s early writing on mature IR theory since the 1970s. Clegg described his 1960 book as ‘a contribution to social theory’ (p. 131). IR, as an interdisciplinary field, has struggled long with the legend the alchemist, inter-related core social science concepts of ‘discipline’ and ‘theory’. As Ackers and Wilkinson (2003, 2005) have argued, IR is neither a closed academic discipline, nor an entirely open field, while the of dangerous, ‘Oxford School’ of Clegg and Flanders perhaps contributed something in revolution between the two: a more cohesive paradigm, with ‘greater intellectual coherence’ (Hyman 1989: 7) than the pre-war problem solving IR tradition. Clegg played a central and independent part in the design of this new paradigm, in an era before modern social science conceptions of theory had hardened, in a style that would appear amateur in later decades (see Bain and Clegg 1974). With these caveats, what type of theory did he develop?

Clearly, Clegg’s writing was not a theory in the modern positivist Popperian sense of constructing a narrow hypothesis that could be tested directly against evidence preferably using quantitative methods. According to the psychologist, Brotherton (2003: 123), ‘whilst the of dangerous minds, Flanders/Clegg approach to industrial relations provides an orderly description it does not assist theory development and still less, the testing of hypotheses’. In this respect, Clegg finds himself in IR good company with not only Flanders, but also Fox, Hyman and many others. Even Bain and Clegg (1974: 109) in their belated quest for a ‘tested body of theory’ acknowledge that: ‘A subject does not become significant simply because it is easy to handle quantitatively’. At the opposite extreme, ‘social theory’ conjures up grand theory in the Marxist or post-Modernist sense, something that was anathema to Clegg after 1947. Yet, IR pluralism remains part and parcel of the grand theory of liberal democracy, notwithstanding Clegg’s determination to Plans to Buy ground it as deeply as possible in specific evidence from of dangerous minds, industrial life.

Like Marxism, IR pluralism combined normative assumptions with explanatory propositions. But while Cole’s Socialist pluralism (see Benewick and Green 1992: 3839; Cole 1972) tended towards untested claims about human nature, with a brand new institutional blueprint to match, Clegg’s pluralism was grounded on the latest realist political science understanding of how democracy worked in Essay Plans to Buy Furnace practice and his own detailed analysis of ‘actually existing’ economic institutions. In my judgement, Clegg’s early writing tended to blend two types of greg of dangerous, theorizing. Personality! One was a nascent version of of dangerous, socio-historical institutional theory (see Ackers 2005b), whereby arguments about the dynamics of apa essay, employment such as the tendency of workers to unofficial action if their union became too close to greg minds management were tested against case study evidence in naturalistic settings. A second type could be characterized today as a form of meta-theory , whereby normative judgements in of changing is favour of liberal democracy and trade unions were combined with the greg of dangerous, Webb/Cole legacy and realist political theory and used to construct a research paradigm with strong ontological steers on personality models what topics were worth researching and how. In this same fashion, some ‘grand theory’ or Kuhnian paradigm stands behind the narrow, testable hypotheses of even the most ostensibly positivist academic field or discipline.

18. The most obvious influence of of dangerous minds, Clegg’s writing on industrial democracy is found in the Participation literature where his work is widely referenced as embodying the IR perspective. Quantitative Revolution! For Pateman (1970: 7172), Clegg was the man who ‘claimed that industrial democracy already exists in most industrialised Western countries’ (p. 71). Minds! Following Ostergaard, she argues that the analogy between democracy in personal politics and industry is invalid, since management is permanently in office and minds formally unaccountable to anyone except shareholders and the state. She also attacks Clegg’s claim that it is impossible for workers to share directly in management, pointing out that they already do so at quantitative lower levels while collective bargaining itself is greg a form of participation. Quantitative Revolution! The second criticism is of dangerous minds confused, since this is precisely Clegg’s point. The first, however, illustrates a blind spot in Clegg’s (and IR’s) institutional understanding of industrial democracy. He was well aware of Trist’s human relations work, comments extensively on apa essay it and on occasion uses the term ‘direct participation’, but simply cannot accommodate this within his institutional framework. At the end of his 1960 book, Clegg caricatures direct participation, as a particularist return to craft values of ‘self-government’ of very limited application. Anything less is merely a management communications device.

19 Clegg’s industrial democracy is greg a representative democracy, a passive democracy as far as ordinary workers are concerned: about committees, procedures and agreements. As Poole (1986: 1323) argues, Clegg is developing the Webbs’ original exposition of industrial democracy through trade unions and collective bargaining, while enriching it with the new realist theories of the process of changing or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, or behavior is, political democracy and of dangerous adding the warning that ‘workers’ participation in management was not only irrelevant to Acquiring Essay the question of industrial democracy but could actually be harmful to workers’ interests and to of dangerous minds the extension of “democratic” social relationships in industry’ as anything that weakened trade unions would be. But Clegg also reversed the weight the Webbs gave to legal regulation over joint regulation and to citizens and customers over producers, a fateful manoeuvre for the future of British IR in theory and practice (see Ackers 2004; Heery 1993; Kaufman 2005). Personality! Poole (1986) suggests that as a ‘ strategy of increasing workers’ organisational power’, Clegg’s emphasis on trade unions and collective bargaining has much to say for it. Two decades later, this seems far less convincing. With hindsight, union workplace power that alienated customers and citizens provoked a political backlash. Moreover, the lack of formal participation structures underpinned by law, led to greg minds an uneven patchwork of joint regulation that was quickly and easily swept away by economic and political change after 1979. To this extent, the Webb’s (1897) final chapter seems very prescient today.

Arguably too, the lack of direct participation or ‘team-working’ and emphasis on an arm’s-length adversarial bargaining relationship may have damaged the cohesion and productivity of British industry compared to economies like Sweden or West Germany (see Jacoby 1997 for the United States). A number of Clegg’s industrial democracy arguments have hardened into of changing beliefs, values, is parts of the greg, defensive armour of example, contemporary IR: the blanket dismissal of minds, consultation as a mere ‘adjunct’; the constant spectre of managerial unitarism; and a rather manichean fear of union ‘by-passing’ and models ‘incorporation’. 20 In this regard, scholars in the current debate about Partnership might fruitfully revisit Clegg’s nuanced institutional theory of the dual role unions play in organizations and of the tensions between union leaders and their rank-and-file members (see Ackers and Payne 1998; Kelly 2004b; Stuart and Martinez 2004). For, as Clegg’s (1960) discussion of minds, German co-determination made clear, while the tensions between workplace union independence and participation in management are real, there is no single, clearly demarcated frontier of control. Quantitative! Instead, there is plenty of room for overlap and ambiguity, blurring the borders of conflict and co-operation, without sacrificing union independence. The fragility of trade union independence can be exaggerated . Greg Of Dangerous Minds! . . The truth is that trade unions are condemned to be the apa essay example, battleground of of dangerous minds, warring tendencies . . . in accepting responsibility in order to legend the alchemist share power they have to of dangerous realize that there is no easy formula by which power and independence may be balanced. Acquiring Target Corporation! (pp. 99101) By implication, the 1951 phrase, ‘the trade union is an opposition which can never become a government’, is misleading and simplistic. Unfortunately, it stuck and the continuing polarization of collective bargaining and worker participation merely legitimated institutional conservatism when reform was necessary and possible. Ironically, this may have painted British trade unions into a corner from which they can no longer escape. Given the uniquely central role that Clegg and of dangerous minds his colleagues played in the construction of postwar IR policy on the Donovan Commission, at the National Board of Prices and Incomes and on so many enquiries this is not an example, excessively idealist claim (see Martin 1998; McCarthy 1994).

As meta-theory , Clegg’s writing on industrial democracy helped to provide a rationale and a research programme that carried IR forward from being a loose, ad hoc semi-academic area of problem solving to becoming a fully fledged social science field. He learned the lessons of Totalitarianism and greg minds made the case for free trade unions and liberal social democracy. Therefore, he must have observed, with some irritation, the re-emergence of a utopian New Left Marxism in the 1970s, centred on ‘workers’ control’, which addressed few of the concerns he had raised. 21 At the same time, his criticism of Communism never became a Cold War obsession, obscuring other deeper social dynamics that affected the employment relationship. Acquiring Corporation! Moreover, he identified very early on the limitations of nationalization as a panacea for better IR. These were strong and lasting contributions to pluralist IR theory.

Crucially, the conception of collective bargaining and trade unionism as a social democratic moral project, extending democracy and rights, was there from the start (Martin 2003). On the debit side, the ‘practical and empirical creed, the greg, creed of democracy achieved, of trade unionism which has arrived’ (Clegg 1960: 29) now appears too devoted to merely defending what already existed c. 1950. This left British IR pluralism with no forward-looking project other than institutional fine-tuning, in contrast to continental visions of improving worker participation or the quality of working life. Furthermore, it was not helpful to entirely divorce industrial democracy from economic performance in our then declining economy. And while Clegg’s original argument is more subtle than he is often given credit for, the effect was to close some other research doors to human relations, to team-working, to personality consultation and greg minds employee involvement and to non-union organizations that should have been an integral part of the study of the apa essay example, employment relationship. Thus while these issues eventually did become central to the research conducted by many IR academics from the 1980s onwards, they still struggled to enter the IR canon (see Bain 1983; Edwards 1995, 2003); and of dangerous minds it took the new agenda of HRM to grant them central place (Sisson 1989; Storey 1989). Clegg’s normative and institutional preference cast a long shadow.

It was this politics tutor, in recoil from Communism, who established, for better or for worse, the view that the only viable brand of industrial democracy in the United Kingdom was to be collective bargaining with trade unions. I would like to thank The British Academy for funding my project, ‘Academic Industrial Relations Theory and the British Trade Unions “Problem”, 194584’ (SG: 37333). Bugler’s (1968) contemporary portrait also includes McCarthy, Fox, Marsh, Robinson and Hughes. Outside Oxford, the legal theorist, Kahn-Freund was also an important figure in IR pluralism. There was a shared general focus on institutional rule-making in a voluntarist IR system centred on trade unions and collective bargaining and on public policy problem solving grounded in empirical research (see Ackers and Wilkinson 2003: 58). By concentrating here on the distinctive, early contribution of Clegg, I do not wish to diminish the Corporation, role of others or to discount the extent to which various individuals reached similar conclusions by different intellectual routes. One exception is Jackson (1991: 2) who argues even-handedly: ‘the Oxford Group made important contributions to industrial relations theory. For example, Clegg produced work on industrial democracy of major importance and Flanders was one of the main exponents of the greg of dangerous, application of systems theory’. From the mid-1970s, the challenge of New Left Marxism and personality models the Social Science Research Council seems to have propelled Clegg back to ‘theory’ after 15 years dominated by empirical research and public policy work while increasing the academic sophistication of his approach to it (see Bain and Clegg 1974). This essay assesses only his early work on nationalization and greg of dangerous industrial democracy.

Kelly (1999) sees Flanders’ politics as the key to a Cold War, anti-Communist picture of IR pluralism. Whatever the merits of this view of Flanders, Clegg’s post-Communist beliefs do not support this reading. ‘Hugh Clegg; Confidential Discussion with Brian Harrison on 29 Sept 1987 at 7, Nash Square, Regency Drive, Kenilworth, Warwicks CV8 IJE [incorporating his subsequent corrections]’: henceforth, Harrison interview (abbreviation removed), p. 5. Herbert H. Clegg’s stations were: 1902 Matlock; 1905 Brigg; and 1908 Gainsborough (both Lincolnshire); 1911 Birmingham, Belmont Row; 1913 N. Cornwall Mission; 1917 Truro; 1920 London, Ealing; 1924 London, Finsbury Park; 1927 Glasgow, St. John’s; 1930 Cardiff, Roath Road, 1937 Tunbridge Wells, 1943 retirement.

Hills Arrangements , The Methodist Church. Main source: Clegg (undated) although I have checked against other sources. These are just some glimpses of Clegg’s early intellectual development, which I plan to fill out in a biography for Ashgate. Clegg’s prodigious individual output in his Oxford phase included two books with T. E. Chester (of Manchester University) and three with Rex Adams, a Nuffield research assistant, but I discuss only personality, his sole authored, theoretical books here. In my view, the interest in trade union history was central and formative to Clegg’s version of institutional theory. As one referee pointed out, he also completed General Union (1954) during this period and greg of dangerous work within the quantitative, GMWU no doubt shaped his realist attitude to industrial democracy and Communism (Clegg 1954). My thanks to Richard Hyman for loan of this book. He was appointed at Magdalen in 1947, straight after gaining a first in his PPE finals, and later transferred to Wadham where, among others, he taught Willy Brown.

See Clegg (undated). Harrison interview, pp. 34. Harrison interview, p. 3. Of Dangerous Minds! There is a similar account in Clegg (undated). Clegg (undated: 35). Attitudes,! Apparently, Cole and Chester vied for sponsorship, ‘but there was no question in mind as to which of them I owed my allegiance’.

See ‘Chester, Sir (Daniel) Norman (19071986)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , pp. 33940. Chester’s own intellectual field was public administration. He edited the journal of greg, that name, for which Clegg later wrote, and founded the Oxford Management Centre. He may have been even more important as a role model for the academic entrepreneur and about Ours to Buy institution/discipline builder Clegg became at Warwick. Halsey (1978: 12) portrays Chester as a man of humble provincial origins who ‘emerges as a striving individual out of the solidarity of the of dangerous, “working class movement” ’ seeking a place for ‘the academy in the practical world . . Example! . of industry and public affairs’. It is easy to see Clegg’s affinity. Flanders wrote a 1930 paper on this famous dispute, but there is minds no reference to this in Clegg’s version (see Kelly 1999). He maintained a live interest in British Communist history through his research students, Walter Kendall and Rod Martin, with their very different perspectives.

My italics: another memorable phrase and theory of apa essay, participation in its own right. The Gaitskell Papers, London (UCL) Manuscripts Room, London: ref Gaitskell/C71. At this stage, it was Chester and greg of dangerous Clegg. Dahl (1947) seems likely to have been a very direct influence: appearing in about Ours to Buy the right place at minds the right time. See extract in Coates and Topham (1972: 3025). The Collins Dictionary of Sociology (1995) defines as metatheory ‘all or any second-order accounts of theories or second order theories of theories’. In positivist disciplines this second-order theorizing is often done by historians of the field while mainstream researchers stick to testing first-order theories of the Popperian type. The same source defines a ‘scientific paradigm’‘[as] a universally recognized scientific achievement that for a time provides model problems and apa essay example solutions to a community of practictioners (Kuhn 1962)’. The Oxford Dictionary of Sociology (1998) defines ‘three different conceptions of theory’ which are similar to those used here. See also the explicit dismissal of of dangerous, ‘human relations in industry’ in Target Flanders and Clegg (1954: vvi). Clegg seems to move from seeing human relations as complementary to IR to regarding it as a unitarist threat.

The success of McCarthy’s (1972) popular Penguin IR student primer may be partly responsible for this. This couples extracts from Cole and Clegg (1951) and of dangerous the back cover of my copy declares: ‘G. Quantitative Revolution! D. H. Cole’s syndicalist case for greg minds, trade-union involvement in the joint management of industry is opposed in Part Two by Hugh Clegg’s view that a trade union role should be that of an independent opposition that does not seek to govern’. Coates and Topham (1972: 4046) treat Clegg (and Crosland) as their principal adversary and Coates and Topham (1970: 34971) extracts and responds to Clegg (1960). According to personality models one contributor, Royden Harrison ( ibid. : 3589): ‘As a result of a visit to a conference organized under the greg minds, auspices of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, and long talks with Mr Crosland, Clegg has come to the conclusions that this whole Socialist tradition is fundamentally unsound and wrong-headed. He had discovered that ownership is absolutely irrelevant to industrial democracy’. This ignores Clegg’s earlier writing. Issue online: 19 February 2007 Version of record online: 19 February 2007 Final version accepted on 7 November 2006. Ackers, P. ( 2004 ). ‘ Haunted by history: industrial relations faces the personal, future . Greg! Organization Studies , 25 ( 9 ): 1623 29 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Ackers, P. ( 2005a ). ‘ Between the devil and the deep blue sea: global history, the British tradition, and the European Renaissance . Comparative Labor Law Policy Journal , 27 ( 1 ): 93 104 . PubMed Ackers, P. ( 2005b ). ‘ Theorizing the employment relationship: materialists and institutionalists . British Journal of Industrial Relations , 43 ( 3 ): 537 43 . Wiley Online Library Ackers, P. and Payne, J. ( 1998 ). ‘ British trade unions and social partnership . International Journal of Human Resource Management , 9 ( 3 ): 529 50 . CrossRef Ackers, P. and models Wilkinson, A. ( 2003 ). ‘ Introduction: the British industrial relations tradition Formation, breakdown, and salvage ’.

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