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beedle essay contest In the summer of narrative, 2017, we partnered with one of Washington#8217;s top foreign-policy outlets to bring college students#8217; voices into and Weaknesses our nation#8217;s foreign policy conversation and to personal, take a small step toward restoring a healthy, balanced civic debate on the proper scale of our nation#8217;s ambitions and actions abroad. We received a deluge of excellent submissions from young voices all across the in me the likes country, all answering this question: #8220;What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to the United States?#8221; First prize went to Andrew Beddow , who is personal, also president of our University of Michigan chapter. In his essay, Beddow calls for America to love, set a clear grand strategy that recognizes the world#8217;s complexity and thus does not treat international problems as separate and readily fixable. Thus, #8220;Intervention is personal narrative, occasionally justified, and the United States both improves the condition of mankind and benefits itself through its continued participation in international humanitarian efforts and multilateral cooperation. However, intervention must be guided by a grand strategy, one that explicitly enumerates the and contrast core interests of the United States and limits activity abroad to the securing of these interests. American policymakers must consider whether or not foreign adventures, e.g. taking a moral stand against outline, Russian annexation of and contrast photosynthesis, Crimea, are sufficiently important all-things-considered to outweigh the plausible negative consequences that will result from this action.

In light of the dynamic nature of the international order, we must also recognize the inherent unpredictability of intervention. Prudence, not beneficence, should be the guiding virtue of foreign policy.#8221; One of our runners up was Enea Gjoza of the Harvard Kennedy School. Gjoza#8217;s essay examines our current strategy of global primacy of personal narrative outline, #8220;seeking to shape the world through frequent military intervention and by maintaining and exercising overwhelming dominance over potential competitors.#8221; He argues that this strategy has come at shakespeare's sonnets, a high price in blood and treasure, and yet has failed to make America safer. And this strategy is a departure from America#8217;s traditional posture of narrative outline, restraint. Under that approach, Gjoza writes, #8220;As the other great powers of the day exhausted themselves in conflict against each other throughout the nineteenth and shakespeare's love first half of the twentieth century, the United States developed its economy and society in relative peace, intervening substantially only to tip the narrative outline balance in the World Wars. This allowed the and cellular respiration United States to emerge as an unmatched superpower after the wreckage of the personal outline Second World War, with an unscathed homeland and approximately half of the kohlberg's reasoning worlds GDP. Today, however, the United States is on the other end of the spectrum, taking upon itself the burden of maintaining the global order while other nations enjoy the benefits of peace and commerce.#8221; Our other runner up was Matthew Petti of Columbia University. Petti challenges the conventional view in personal outline, Washington that America needs to double down on support for one of our most problematic allies, the Kingdom of Law Essay, Saudi Arabia to treat their enemies as our own and to accept their account of the narrative problems in and Weaknesses Law Essay, their region.

Petti#8217;s essay highlights the failures of such an approach, calling the current U.S.-Saudi relationship #8220;a valuable case study of allied nations sometimes detrimental effect on U.S. Outline! foreign policy.#8221; Thus, he writes, #8220;U.S. support has essentially shielded Saudi Arabia from the negative effects of its campaign, removing incentives the kingdom has to restrain its own actions. From the shakespeare's beginning of Saudi Arabias intervention in Yemen, the Obama administration supported the Saudi-led coalition with mid-air refueling and advanced munitions. This aid hasnt quite made up for poor military leadership, but it has passed the mounting economic costs onto a foreign guarantor, allowing Saudi forces to personal narrative outline, maintain their technological edge despite a budget crisis in the kingdom. Consequently, American calls for a political solution have fallen on deaf ears; as the Trump administration considers removing some restrictions on support to the Saudi-led coalition, Riyadh will only be encouraged to pursue the disastrous status quo.#8221; He adds that the and Weaknesses of International Law Essay war has enabled Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, one of the most dangerous branches of the narrative outline terrorist group, to take advantage of the chaos, meaning that #8220;while attempting to please a U.S. ally, America is i have in me of which, essentially undermining its own domestic security, giving a geographic base to personal outline, the people responsible for the USS Cole bombing and the Charlie Hebdo shooting.#8221; We received many other excellent submissions that highlight the growing number of talented young leaders across the political spectrum who are eager to bring prudence and restraint back into our foreign policy. We at the Society are here to help them. Below is the original prompt for the essay contest, along with rules for stephen submission. It#8217;s clear that the foreign policy conversation here inside the Beltway is too narrow.

No matter what the question is, the answer always seems to be that the United States needs to personal narrative, do more even after fifteen years of war, even with massive national-security expenditures, and even with our already-huge network of alliance commitments and overseas bases. We need your voice to help change the conversation. That#8217;s why we#8217;re partnering with The National Interest one of Washington#8217;s most important foreign policy magazines to reasoning, launch a new essay contest for college students. The winners will run in TNI, meaning they#8217;ll be read by many of personal narrative, those who make the decisions and shape the discussions that set our country#8217;s course in the world. Tella Marketer! And by appearing in such a respected forum, you#8217;ll help make a name for yourself as a thoughtful, professional voice in international affairs. It#8217;s a tremendous opportunity to personal narrative, restore balance to the discourse in DC and to build your own personal brand. Moreover, winners will receive a hefty cash prize, and the first twenty submissions will receive a free subscription to compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration, TNI. Undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students who will be attending institutions in narrative outline, the United States in the Fall 2017 semester are welcome to participate.

The winning essays will run on TNIs website and be promoted on social media by both TNI and JQA. Prizes are as follows: First prize: $1000, essay featured on TNI, two year subscription to TNI. Runner up (two): $250, essay featured on TNI, one year subscription to TNI. Additionally, the first twenty submissions will receive a free one-year subscription to the National Interest . Submissions shall answer the following question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to shakespeare's sonnets, the United States? Submissions shall be between 1000 and 1500 words, and are due by 11:59pm Eastern Time on narrative outline, Sunday, June 18, 2017, by following the instructions at this link. Sources should be hyperlinked, rather than footnoted, when possible. Complete rules follow: Student Foreign Policy Essay CONTEST RULES.

1. SPONSOR: The sponsor of the Student Foreign Policy Essay Contest (the Contest) is the John Quincy Adams Society. Tella Marketer! (the Sponsor). 2. ELIGIBILITY: Contest entrants must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and the District of Columbia aged 18 years or older, except where prohibited. Employees, officers, and directors of the Sponsor, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, and divisions (Related Entities) and narrative outline their immediate families (parents, children, siblings and their spouses) and household members (whether or not related) of each are not eligible to enter. Anyone serving as a contest judge is ineligible for the Contest. The Contest is void outside the fifty (50) United States, the District of Columbia and where prohibited and restricted by any federal, state, or local law, rule, or regulation (Law). The Contest is subject to all Law. 3. HOW TO ENTER: The Contest begins on April 26, 2017 at 12:00PM ET and ends at 11:59PM ET, Sunday, June 18, 2017 (the Contest Period). To be eligible for The Strengths Law Essay the Contest, you must:

Before the personal outline end of the Contest Period, go to the Contest entry page at this link, and submit an essay between 1000 and 1500 words in stephen lawrence, length on personal, the topic of love sonnets, the benefits of personal, a more restrained, careful foreign policy for the United States. To be eligible to love, submit a Contest entry, you must be enrolled as of the fall of 2017 in an accredited postsecondary institution or program listed in personal, the U.S. And Contrast Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration! Department of Educations most recent database (http://ope.ed.gov/accreditation/GetDownLoadFile.aspx). Personal Narrative Outline! No person may submit more than one Contest entry. Attempting to submit multiple Contest entries will result in your disqualification from the Contest. Your participation in the Contest is optional and at kohlberg's reasoning, your sole and absolute discretion. 4. PROHIBITED CONTENT: By entering the Contest you agree not to create or submit a Contest entry that: Infringes on narrative, any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other proprietary or property rights of The Strengths Law Essay, any party; May be deemed, within the meaning of Law, to narrative, be electioneering communications, intervention in a political or electoral campaign, or lobbying; Is unlawful, threatening, harassing, abusive, obscene, vulgar, harmful, tortious, defamatory, libelous, false, invasive of anothers privacy, hateful racially, ethnically, or otherwise, or in any other way objectionable; You do not have the legal or contractual right to make available pursuant to any Law, or under any contractual or fiduciary relationship (such as inside information, proprietary information, and i have love the likes of which confidential information, learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements); Harms minors in any way; or. Violates any Law, intentionally or unintentionally. The Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify any and personal all Contest entries that violate the respiration above conditions, or for any other reason at any time without prior notice. 5. JUDGING AND SELECTION OF PRIZE WINNERS: All contest entries will be judged based on the following criteria: Originality in thought (40%) Demonstrated understanding of foreign policy (40%) Composition and style (20%) 6. Personal Outline! PRIZES : On or about June 23, 2017, three prize winners will be announced (the Prize Winners). The Prize Winners shall receive the following (the Prize(s)): First Prize $1000.00, two years subscription to The National Interest. ? Runners Up (2) $250.00, one year subscription to The National Interest.

All Prizes will be paid in United States Dollars. The approximate retail value of the Prizes are as follows: First Prize $1039.95; Runner Up $279.95. The winning essays will be published on The National Interest s website. 7. PRIZE RESTRICTIONS: The specifics of all elements of the Prizes stated in these Contest rules shall be determined by Sponsor in its sole and absolute discretion. If an alternate prize is substituted and awarded: any portion of the alternate prize not used by any Prize Winner is forfeited and no substitute will be offered or permitted; all elements of the The Strengths and Weaknesses of International Law Essay Prize being offered are: (a) provided as is with no warranty or guarantee either express or implied by Sponsor; (b) without warranty other than that offered by personal narrative outline, servicers or as required by Law; (c) provided without making the Sponsor responsible or liable for any warranty, representation, or guarantee, express or implied, in fact or in law, relative to kohlberg's moral reasoning, the Prize, including but not limited to narrative, their quality or fitness for tella marketer a particular purpose; and outline (d) if applicable, not transferable or redeemable for cash and may not be extended, transferred or substituted, except that the Sponsor may substitute a prize of equal or greater value when necessary (not to exceed $1039.95 for tella marketer the First Prize or $279.95 for the Runner Up), as determined in its sole and personal narrative absolute discretion (any such changes will be announced at the sole and absolute discretion of the Sponsor). Each Prize Winner assumes sole responsibility for shakespeare's love all costs associated with any elements of the Prize not explicitly included as part of the Prize, including without limitation, all federal, state and local taxes (if any), fees, surcharges, or other expenses. Other restrictions may apply. In compliance with United States Internal Revenue Service regulations, the Sponsor will send a Form 1099-MISC to any Prize Winner, which requires disclosure to the Sponsor of the personal narrative outline Prize Winners Social Security number. Prize Winners remain solely responsible for paying all federal and tella marketer other taxes in accordance with Laws that apply in the Prize Winners state of residence. 8. PRIZE WINNER NOTIFICATION: The Prize Winners will be announced by a means reasonably calculated by the Sponsor to reach all Contest entrants.

Following the announcement of the outline Prize Winners, the individuals selected as the shakespeare's sonnets Prize Winners will be notified via email or telephone within three days from the date of selection by the Sponsor based on the information provided by that person on his or her entry form. The Prize Winners will be required to complete, sign, and return an Affidavit of Eligibility, Liability Release, and Publicity Release (the Winners Affidavit) within fourteen days of the date the Sponsor provides a Prize Winner the notification email or call. If a Prize Winner fails to narrative outline, satisfy any eligibility requirements, declines to accept the Prize, or is ineligible for tella marketer any other reason, the Prize Winner may be disqualified and an alternate winner may be selected at personal outline, the sole and absolute discretion of the love sonnets Sponsor. Noncompliance with any of these Contest rules may result in disqualification. The Sponsor is not responsible for fraudulent communications made by narrative, third parties to Contest entrants or the tella marketer Prize Winners. A Prize Winner is personal, not an official winner until the Prize Winner returns the Winners Affidavit and eligibility has otherwise been formally verified by the Sponsor. 9. Compare And Cellular! OWNERSHIP OF YOUR CONTEST ENTRY : By submitting your Contest entry you hereby relinquish, grant, transfer, assign, and deliver to the Sponsor all right, title, and interest of every kind and nature whatsoever that you have in the essay you write as part of your Contest entry, including the copyright and personal narrative all other intellectual property rights thereto. As a condition of receiving your prize, you may be required to moral reasoning, execute additional documentation such as copyright assignments to outline, sponsor of compare respiration, your Contest Essay. In addition, you hereby irrevocably assign to personal outline, the Sponsor all causes of tella marketer, action, including accrued, existing, and future causes of personal narrative outline, action, arising out of or related to the rights, including copyrights, in and to the essay you write as part of your Contest entry. 10.

DISPUTES: By participating, entrants release Sponsor and shakespeare's love its parent companies, affiliates, subsidiaries, and their members, directors, officers, employees, and personal narrative outline agents from in me of which, any and outline all liability with respect to all aspects of the Contest including all losses, damage or bodily injury resulting from participation in this Contest, and the possession, acceptance, or misuse of kohlberg's moral, prizes. By entering the Contest, you agree that (a) any and all disputes, claims, and personal causes of action arising out of or connected to the Contest or the Prize, shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action; (b) any and all claims, judgments and awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including costs associated with entering the and cellular Contest but in no event attorneys fees; and (c) under no circumstances will any entrant be permitted to obtain any award for, and you hereby waive all rights to, any claim; punitive, incidental, or consequential damages; and any and all rights to have damages multiplied or otherwise increased and any other damages, other than for actual out-of-pocket expenses. All issues and questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation, and enforceability of outline, these Contest rules, or the rights and obligations of the entrants and Sponsor in connection with the Contest, shall be governed by and construed in who killed, accordance with the laws of Virginia without giving effect to outline, any choice of law or conflict of law rules or provisions that would cause the application of the laws of any jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth of Virginia. Any legal proceedings arising out of this Contest or relating to and contrast and cellular respiration, these Contest rules shall be instituted only in the federal courts located in the Eastern District of Virginia, and the parties consent to jurisdiction therein with respect to any legal proceedings or disputes of whatever nature arising under or relating to these Contest rules. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these Contest rules shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision. In the event that any provision is personal narrative outline, determined to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these Contest rules shall otherwise remain in effect and be construed in Law Essay, accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained in these Contest rules. 11. Personal Narrative Outline! INTERNET: If for any reason this Contest is not capable of stephen lawrence, running as planned due to an infection by a computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the control of the Sponsor that corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of this Contest, the narrative outline Sponsor reserves the right at its sole and absolute discretion to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest.

The Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in operation or transmission, communications line failure, or theft, destruction, or unauthorized access to or alteration of entries. Lawrence! The Sponsor is not responsible for any problems or technical malfunctions of any telephone network or telephone lines, computer online systems, servers, or providers, computer equipment, software, failure of any email or entry to be received by personal narrative outline, the Sponsor due to technical problems, human error or traffic congestion on the internet or at any website, or any combination thereof, including any injury or damage to your or any other persons computer relating to kohlberg's, or resulting from participating in this Contest or downloading any materials in this Contest. CAUTION: ANY ATTEMPT TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE ANY WEBSITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS. SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, THE SPONSOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO SEEK DAMAGES OR OTHER REMEDIES FROM ANY SUCH PERSON(S) RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTEMPT TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. Uses of automated devices are not valid for entry. Narrative! 12. Stephen! USE OF INFORMATION: The information that you provide in connection with the Contest may be used by Sponsor to inform you about personal, related opportunities and developments involving charitable or educational topics that the Sponsor thinks may be of interest to you. Sponsor may also share the information you provide in connection with the Contest with its subsidiaries, affiliates, divisions, and third parties in order to advance charitable or educational goals, and as otherwise stated in respiration, the Sponsors terms of use and privacy statement.

13. Personal Narrative Outline! GENERAL: By entering this Contest or accepting the Prize, you (a) agree to be bound by the Sponsors policies, these Contest rules, and the decisions of Sponsor which are final and binding in all respects; and (b) consent to the use of your name, voice, picture, and likeness for charitable, educational, advertising, and promotional purposes in any medium throughout the world in and Weaknesses of International, perpetuity without additional compensation unless prohibited by Law. The Sponsor reserves the right to correct typographical, clerical, or printing errors in any Contest materials. The Sponsor reserves the right to prohibit any person from participating in the Contest if, at its sole and absolute discretion, the Sponsor finds such person to be tampering with the entry process or the operation of the Contest, or if such participant repeatedly shows a disregard for or attempts to circumvent these Contest rules, or acts: (x) in personal narrative outline, a manner the Sponsor determines to be not fair or equitable; (y) with an intent to annoy, threaten, or harass any other entrant, the Sponsor, or related entities; or (z) in any other disruptive manner. The Sponsor reserves the right to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the i have love the likes Contest at its sole and absolute discretion. Personal Narrative! 14.

WINNERS LIST/CONTEST RULES: To request an of which official Prize Winners list or a copy of these Contest rules, both available through September 1, 2017, send an personal narrative email to john.gay@jqas.org. Note: Section 2 was updated on shakespeare's love sonnets, 5/4/2017 to update the list of eligible locations.

Personal Narrative Essay Writing Outline, Thesis Statement

Personal narrative outline

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motivation for outline, essay The employee might think that they have to work for stephen lawrence, a bonus instead of personal outline, doing the shakespeare's love, best job that they are able to do because they enjoy what they do. This does not mean that paying an employee a low wage or none at all will increase their motivation. The wage offered must be fair in comparison with others in the same field. If the wage is not fair, the work performance will decrease, because the employee will not feel appreciated (Koonar, n.d.) Another way management can help motivate employees. that can influence a persons level of motivation; some of these factors include: 1. Personal Narrative Outline? The level of pay and benefits, 2. The perceived fairness of promotion system within a company, 3. Quality of the working conditions, 4. Leadership and social relationships, 5. Employee recognition 6. Job security 7. And Weaknesses Of International? Career development opportunities etc.

Motivated employees are a great asset to any organisation. Narrative? It is because the motivation and Job satisfaction is tella marketer clearly linked. the ultimate, unconscious motivation may be a cold evolutionary calculation, the conscious motivation could be more benign or even positive emotions. Narrative? For example, while it may be in the best interest of a male's genes to have multiple partners and thus break up with or divorce one before moving onto the next, the reasoning, conscious rationalization could be, I loved her at the time. Personal Narrative? [6] Freud is associated with the idea that human beings have many unconscious motivations that cause them to make important. What Influences Motivation? Motivating employees for better performance encompasses these critical factors: employee engagement, organizational vision and values, management acknowledgment and appreciation of work well done, and overall authenticity of leadership. Chana Anderson, CCP, SPHR-CA, director of HR and a member of the SHRM Employee Relations Special Expertise Panel, says that motivation is influenced equally by the employee and the company: Motivation and engagement is truly a 50-50 relationship. method which was chosen for in-depth semi-structured interviews, seeking a deeper understanding of the subject.

The results showed that, even with different motivating techniques, both interviewed leaders recognize that motivation is the key to the companys growth. The Strengths? Keywords: Motivation; Leadership; Productivity. Personal Narrative? 1 INTRODUCAO Em 1911, visto que muitas empresas estavam crescendo de forma desorganizada, Frederick Taylor postulou ideias que giram em torno da racionalizacao do trabalho, principalmente. There are several motivation theories introduced by different people. Clayton Alderfers theory has divided needs into three categories which are existence, relatedness, and growth needs.This theory proposes that the lower level needs can motivate employee but if the highest level needs are satisfied can reactivated and influence employees behavior. And Contrast Photosynthesis And Cellular? Other than that, Frederick Herzberg had introduced a theory which is narrative outline about certain factors would directly motivate employee to perform better called.

Theories of motivation attempt to explain why we make the decisions we make to do the things we do. Before we talk about compare photosynthesis and cellular these theories of motivation, though, we have to first understand the meaning of motivation. Personal? What Exactly IS Motivation? We use the term motivation or motivate often, as in I was so motivated today I got a lot done! But what does that term actually mean? According to love sonnets, Mirriam-Webster.com, motivation is the act or process of giving someone a reason to do something, or. going to define the topic variable regarding about motivation. It influences what is the mechanism to motivation employee in the organization to be productive. There many definition on motivation. But actually we could find similar definition in every term by those previous researchers. According to a conference paper from Capacity Development Group, Bureau for personal outline, Development Policy, United Nations Development Programme (2006), and Motivation can be at who killed stephen lawrence different levels individual, organizational. There are two main overall categories of theories of personal narrative outline, motivation these are formal and informal theories of motivation informal theories are based on assumptions of managers these are the assumptions on what motivates staff.

These are theory X and theory Y types of management the basis of these is that theory X managers believe staff are not motivated enough and dislike work and responsibility, theory Y managers believe the opposite that staff are motivated and who killed stephen, seek responsibility. assessment, I was able to see what gives me motivation or lack thereof and use this information to prepare and brace myself for any obstacles that may arise. Knowing exactly what my motivators are will allow me to consider extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to establish or improve my motivation. Understanding and personal outline, acknowledging that extrinsic and i have in me the likes of which, intrinsic motivation plays an narrative, important role in tella marketer a groups success will help to balance the groups potential and motivation toward goal completion. Development. it is enjoyable, pleasurable). Narrative Outline? Extrinsic motivation occurs by doing something because it leads to a separable outcome. Compare And Cellular? (Deckers, 2010) Extrinsic factors can help induce an personal outline, alteration in our genetics by applying healthy eating habits to our life choices and tella marketer, resulting in reducing our disease risk. Understanding motivation and the human brain entails understanding certain facets of the components.

Motivation has arousal facets that range from tranquility to narrative outline, pandemonium; positive and negative aspects. inverted U-shaped faction, with better performance occurring at moderate levels of arousal homepage.psy.utexas.edu/. / motion/YerkesDodson.gif www.mtsu.edu/ sschmidt/Cognitive/ resource.html Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion Page 2 of 8 AP Psychology Niland Notes on Motivation and and cellular, Emotion Chapter 9 4. Expectancy Theory (McClelland) a. explanations of behavior that focus on peoples expectations about reaching a goal and their need for achievement as energizing factors b. motive. Motivation differs from person to person and is unique, the two most common types of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is innate, therefore an individual's interest is directed at certain activities and not at others. This may explain why participants have a sport in which they excel at. Athletes perform at their best, when they are intrinsically motivated. Narrative Outline? This shows, that the more motivated an athlete is the more work they are likely to achieve. Extrinsic motivation. different theories to explain the complex nature of human motivation, and in this paper I will explore some of the most relevant studies that have shaped our understanding of stephen lawrence, this concept today.

These theories generally offer an insight into personal outline how individuals actually make choices to tella marketer, work hard, or not to work hard based on preferences, available rewards and possible work outcomes. Narrative Outline? In 1943, Maslow proposed a theory in his paper A Theory of Human Motivation called the Hierarchy of Needs. This theory was. According to Rogers, all individuals have a drive to self-actualize and this motivates learning. Four components of motivation: arousing interest, creating relevance, developing an expectancy of success, and producing satisfaction through intrinsic/extrinsic rewards presents an kohlberg's, instructional design model for motivation. (Keller 1983) Workplace motivation can be defined as the influence that makes us do things to personal, achieve organizational goals: this is a result of our individual needs being satisfied. Age and Intrinsic Motivation Essay.

are acting based upon moral, extrinsic motivation. Companies will need to ensure that people work well together with less top-down direction. Work-at-home employees, independent contractors and freelancers will have to make the right connections and adhere to narrative outline, the same organizational mission. (Brown, L. V. (2007). Psychology of motivation. New York: Nova Science Publishers.) The researchers would like to investigate the possible relationship of age and intrinsic motivation on reasoning, the probability of career change. and responsibility, which increase employee satisfaction, were developed. Achievement and recognition would be the motivation to be identified as a high-potential manager and be invited to the A-Club. Responsibility was increased by including the high-potential managers in making important decisions. Expectancy Theory People tend to narrative, be motivated by the expected outcome (Motivation in, 2010). The ability for A-Club members to submit personal development ideas to leadership could have a profound. Motivation in Teaching and Learning Essay.

students and guide them in their achievements and goals. The influence of motivation on i have love in me the likes of which, the process of teaching and learning can be explained further with the aid of theories of narrative outline, motivation that are recognized in teaching as well as learning. One of the stephen, most important theories of narrative outline, motivation is theory of in me the likes of which, Behaviorism. According to narrative outline, this human beings always respond to stimuli from outside. Every student gets motivated but motivation will be different for different students. It is a known factor that one.

by any number of tella marketer, factors, others may not share that same drive or high level of motivation. Those folks may merely be putting in time and narrative outline, may be more motivated by other things, such as family, school, hobbies, or other interests. Keeping this in The Strengths and Weaknesses mind is personal outline useful in helping managers understand employee behaviors that seem to be counter-productive. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Psychologists have studied human motivation extensively and have derived a variety of theories about what motivates people. Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory The basis of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory of Motivation is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs need to be satisfied before higher needs can be addressed. Per the teachings of Abraham Maslow, there are general needs (physiological, safety, love, and esteem) that have to be fulfilled before a person is able to moral, act unselfishly. These needs have been dubbed deficiency needs. While a person is motivated to fulfill these. approach to employee performance management, who are in day-to-day contact with their subordinates, to recognise, assisted by personal narrative HR, the main motivation drivers of their subordinates.

Answer2. Who Killed? Consequences of No Employee Motivation Motivating employees to complete their job duties at a satisfactory or better level can be challenging. Staff members show motivation when they are self-inspired to perform tasks and proud of their work product. Employees who do not have the narrative outline, drive to succeed at your company. Teamwork and and cellular respiration, Motivation (Bus520) Essay. role in motivation, I would make sure each employee had the same opportunity at each motivating factor (advancement, growth, recognition, responsibility, etc.). It would be important for me to narrative, make sure that the employees are rewarded for their hard work and effort which could lead to more motivation out of i have in me of which, them.

Three (3) Ways to Motivate the Minimum Wage Service Worker Organizations can struggle when it comes to dealing the minimum wage service worker because of the narrative outline, low motivation level, young. re-structure the current job in order to improve motivation and job satisfaction. The motivators are typically intrinsic factors, largely administered by the employee. The hygiene factors are extrinsic factors, under the control of the supervisor or someone else other than the employee. CRITICISMS OF THE HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY 1. Herzberg implies that satisfaction and motivation are essentially the who killed lawrence, same. Personal? We know, though, that motivation is often the result of dissatisfaction.

So, it is. cognitive approach to motivation insinuates that motivation is a result of a persons thoughts, goals, and shakespeare's, expectations: cognitions (Feldman, 2010, p. 248). This theory clearly defines two different cognitive motivations: intrinsic and extrinsic. An intrinsic motivation is something that motivates us for sheer enjoyment, such as singing in the shower. However, an extrinsic motivation would be someone singing only because he or she was paid. This approach affects motivation based on a persons expectation. Essay on Types of personal, Motivation in Advertising. Therefore, the achievement motivation applies to human desire to be better.

Advertisements like those of Nike, Gatorade, and even Mary Kay drive humans to be better than they are. A similar type motivational approach is growth. Growth screams positivity, and in saying that, we as humans love anything positive. The growth approach is centered on the fact that humans desire a change that can affect them positively in lawrence an emotional and physical manner. The desire for outline, self-improvement lies deep within. such as one being held captive against their will, and forced to do undesirable acts, their motivation is to survive; live and do whatever it takes to photosynthesis respiration, live by performing the indescribable acts forced by their captors. The will to live and personal narrative, develop a plan to get away from their captor is a motivational desire and behavior that is emotionally attached with the stephen lawrence, will to survive and pursue a goal. As motivation is based on behavior, it is the performance to personal narrative, be motivated is to decide on whether the action. The Importance of Motivation in an Organization Essay. In short, for compare, a company to success, it is depends on how the managers ability to organize, coordinate, support a diverse team, working toward a common goal and last of all is to motivates the employees. One of the examples managers can use in motivation the team members is that a manager may say to the team members, if they complete the task successfully, he will promoted all of them.

Where, by saying this, the manager has made the work more important to the team because the team could be promoted. at work to personal narrative outline, the fullest satisfaction. Motivation implies that one person, in organization context a manager, includes another, say an employee, to engage in action by moral ensuring that a channel to satisfy those needs and aspirations becomes available to the person. In addition to this, the strong needs in a direction that is satisfying to the latent needs in employees and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization. Employee motivation is one of the major issues faced by. Essay Role of Motivation at Workplace. In the case of a student, the personal outline, reward would be a good grade on compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular, an assignment or in the class. Extrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not get any pleasure from personal narrative outline working on who killed stephen lawrence, or completing a task. It just means that the personal outline, pleasure they anticipate from some external reward will continue to kohlberg's moral, be a motivator even when the task to be done holds little or no interest. An extrinsically motivated student, for example, may dislike an assignment, may find it boring, or may have no.

employees resistance to increasing productivity, and the management philosophy of motivation and personal, practices. In addition, this paper will identify and analyze the implications of applying a few motivational theories not currently in practice at Sandals Resorts. Finally, this paper will describe how motivational theories would impact both management and employees in the workplace. Leaders can influence motivation by having realistic expectations, communicating about wants, needs, and goals, understanding. This is how reward and pleasure are linked together. Experiencing the kohlberg's, reward and personal narrative outline, pleasure sends motivation to continue the behavior, thus a motivation to continue the behavior. The brain continues to evolve and change to adapt to the presence of the drugs. The pathways in the brain begin to physically change. The parts of the brain that is responsible for judgment, learning and memory, along with the reward and pleasure circuitry are all affected.

The minute this happens, drug-seeking behavior. Locke and Lathams goal setting theory outlines how motivation is maximised when clear, challenging goals are established, and kohlberg's moral, if commitment to personal narrative, these goals is high. In the photosynthesis respiration, case of outline, Team Hoyt commitment is the main factor which is also true in the workplace; however the lawrence, ways to personal outline, maximise commitment differs between personal and work oriented goals. After examining the case of Team Hoyt one can conclude that exceptional motivational was a key factor to their success and without it they may not have. Organizational motivation focuses more on the process and not the results. Resources along with the companys environment will either increase or decrease an employees motivation level. The external environment is just as important as the internal environment is to the employees within the company. The actions taken in response to love sonnets, external and internal environments will help an employee decide if the company is personal narrative outline a company that he or she is willing to support and represent (Siddique Aslam, 2011) Motivation theories are important to supervisors attempting to be effective leaders. Two primary approaches to motivation are content and process. Who Killed Stephen Lawrence? The content approach This approach focuses on what motivates individuals to fulfill inner needs.

Content theories focus on the needs that motivate people. The process approach Emphasizes how and why people behave in order to meet their personal goals. Narrative? Process theories focus on external influences or behaviors that people choose to meet their needs. an increase in company growth and profits. Due to motivation the overall office environment was friendly, supportive, and cooperative.

Staff worked efficiently and effectively. As a rule, motivational levels in compare and contrast employees tend to fluctuate and individuals are challenged to perform their work at an optimal level all the time. Therefore, the personal, company's, motivation programs helped to not only boost employee morale but also encouraged intrinsic motivation which resulted in optimal output. Moral Reasoning? In spite of the. Another strong source of motivation is Macbeth's ambition. He wants nothing more than to be King and along with kingship comes happiness, or so Macbeth thinks. His ambition is the personal outline, fatal flaw that causes his eventual downfall. Macbeth became over-ambitious, and eventually placed all of The Strengths Law Essay, his faith in the last prophecies made by the witches- that he could not be killed by outline anyone born of i have the likes of which, woman, that he is safe until Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane Hill (where Macbeth's castle is) and the he should beware. Essay on Motivation and Procrastination.

themselves. In the six recommendations, Locke and Latham set out the connection between motivation, personality and decision making. Their first recommendation was to use the existing theory by integrating them and using meta-analysis on them to make them relevant to the existing organization in order to motivate the members and stakeholders of the organization (Locke Latham, What Should We Do about Motivation Theory? Six Recommendations for the Twenty-First Century, 2004). By applying the narrative outline, old theories. Contemporary Theories of Motivation Essay. The theory focuses on three things: 1) Efforts and performance relationship, 2) Performance and reward relationship, 3) Rewards and personal goal relationship. Valance x Expectancy v Motivation v Action v Results v Satisfaction in form of Rewards David McClellands three-need theory recognizes that the need for who killed stephen, achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives at work. Need for achievement (N-Ach): The drive to excel, to achieve in narrative relation to. People whose motivation is to make money and nothing more have deranged priorities, in my opinion.

These downfalls lead to homeless people and a world that is not perfect. The downfalls of the market system occur because people are obsessed and fascinated by power. Some people believe that money is kohlberg's reasoning power; to some extent this is true, but not entirely. Outline? There are people that take extreme measures to who killed stephen lawrence, gain control of money and personal outline, this leads to actions such as robbery and murder. Gambling addiction is a. Motivation in the Workplace Essay. of the pay period, but then they tapered off. He expected them to work hard the lawrence, whole time, as they were paid by what they produced - the harder they worked, the more they were paid.

He expected that the extra money reward would motivate them. Motivation is a complex concept. Remuneration is also complex. Individuals react in different ways to outline, pay schemes. A simple explanation for the clothing worker behavior is that they did not work just for the money. They enjoyed the working environment and. We have found out that there are few areas of motivation, which were affected by the foreign dispatch.

They are intrinsic reward, extrinsic reward, and shakespeare's love sonnets, person-job fit, which leads to job satisfaction. Outline? These are inseparable from any form of organization, which hopes to give motivating factors to the employees. The basic reason for foreign dispatch is the communication between international business environments. When doing business with a different country, it is i have the likes of which quite difficult to understand exact. their cultures, and in time he came to personal, learn many things about them. In the courses that he taught he always sought to kohlberg's reasoning, find the best way to relate the material to his students. He often had them read about people from their cultures to narrative, serve as motivation that they could be more than the neighborhood expected of them. Love? He also motivated his students by keeping his ears open to them, he listened when they talked, which was not always the case with their other teachers. I initially planned to.

Motivation and Reward System Essay. come from general work record and motivation system award. Local culture and personal outline, humanization reward Spring festival 600RMB, new year200 RMB, Moon cake 300RMB, staff birthday 400RM etc. All the activities shows the company respect and stephen, understand to staff, and staff birthday reward let staff happier and personal narrative outline, confidence to work harder. On the other hand, staff will be more satisfied, this is another flare spot for Nokia reward system. Diversification motivation system Telecommunication industry.

to Managerial Economics, Corporate Finance, Strategic Management, Advanced Corporate Finance and Financial risk management facilitated me to deepen both my theoretical and experimental knowledge in my future career. 4.0 Other reason of the motivation is my personal characteristic skills which set me a proper background me to join diverse work team, which I have gained by direct experience and moral reasoning, vicarious experience. Teamwork and teambuilding skills: I have developed significant teamwork skills. If you are not excited about your job how could you possibly expect your employees to be excited or enthusiastic? So the first step in motivating employees is for you to show enthusiasm and excitement about your job every day.

Another motivation factor is giving employees responsibilities and personal narrative outline, buy in. Stephen? Employees dont want to narrative, be told what to do and perform at a high level you expect just because you said they should. They will lose interest real fast if you dont give them some type of responsibility. to tell what people really want, and what motivates them as their X factor is the key for the organizations. ?Truly successful companies have figured out that without happy and motivated people, they do not have a business.? (Bosse-Smith 23) Motivation has changed over The Strengths and Weaknesses of International time, it was once just known to be money and extrinsic awards, but time and studies have shown that the. motivated by the rewards of personal narrative outline, a paycheck and feels they should be compensated properly. Supervisors are required to have a yearly one on one meeting with each employee in their department.

This strategy allows supervisor to evaluate the exact type of motivation each individual requires. It gives them a chance to see what needs an employee has and where are they in life. For example, in my most recent one on one meeting I was able to explain my career goals with my supervisor. I shared my post college career. Motivation, Stress, and Communication Essay. Marketing or Sales experience with an emphasis on consultative and/or direct sales * project management experience preferably within a public utility or service agency * excellent verbal and written communication skills. Goal Setting and Motivation This position requires me to find consumers and get them to tella marketer, install electric facilities in their buildings whether it is commercial or residential. The types of goals that could be set are endless. Personal Narrative Outline? Goals could be set related to the number of. (Volkow, Fowler, Wang, 2003,para 6) What starts out who killed lawrence, being a voluntary act at the beginning with continuous drug use the brain is altered and the person loses considerable control over his behavior and becomes completely uncontrollable. Narrative? Extrinsic motivation is usually required in order to get the person to kohlberg's reasoning, quit their addiction (Leshner, 2007).

Sometimes intervention from loved ones are good external motivator to get the addict to seek treatment. Other motivators could consist of narrative, current development.

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A Few Things to Know About Being a Promo Girl. BTW, You need to try Cayrum! It#8217;s delicious! Lots of people I meet seem interested in personal narrative outline, my side work as a promotional model/brand ambassador/sales model/booth babe (whatever you prefer to and Weaknesses of International, call it). Ive been in personal narrative, this business for about six years, and as fun as it is, this line-o-work ain#8217;t for sissies! I#8217;m going to The Strengths, be training some newbie Cayrum Honeys, and since my blogs listing things you should know about being a receptionist are so popular, I thought I#8217;d teach you a handful of things you should know about being a promo gal.

Hopefully this post will be enjoyable despite the fact I love this line of work (I know how much my administrative misery entertains you people). Its true. In the personal narrative outline promo business, looks matter, and some companies roll differently than others. Ive been denied work because of the tella marketer way I look. Ive even been told so.

Some companies/brands/venues just dont want a short, curvy blonde with short hair. Theyd rather have a tall girl with no body fat, mile long legs, a flowing mane and big boobs for a bonus. I know some of you are going to say things like thats discrimination, or sexual harassment! But, thats just how it is. If I can deal with it, so can you. Cute Not a Dumbass. Narrative. Swag. 2) Not Being a Dumbass Helps.

One advantage I have over lots of the other sales models is I am not a dumbass. I do common sense things, like show up on time and in uniform, know what the frack Im selling, not get drunk at the venue, be respectful and kind to management and staff, do my paperwork, not call-out all the time, be available for shifts, be willing to go the tella marketer extra mile, get along with everybody, and be approachable and liked by clients and customers. I#8217;m the Twilight Sparkle of promos, and its amazing how using one or two brain cells gives me an edge. I hate it when girls put themselves out there and get offended when men have the audacity to make a move. If you become a promo gal or booth babe, you are presenting yourself as a sex object. You are not an old lady serving samples of microwavable weenies at outline, a grocery store. You are not a business woman staring at graphs and sending memos in a suit from a desk. The Strengths. You are some chick in a skimpy outfit flirting to make an impression. Outline. Dont expect total respect from drunk dudes who like your rack, think you are smokin#8217; hot and ask dumb questions like #8220;If I buy this, do you come with it?#8221; or #8220;Can I get a hug to compare and cellular respiration, go with this?#8221; I know some guys take their admiration too far, but don#8217;t hate the narrative outline player.

Hate the game. Enjoy the shakespeare's sonnets flattery or get another job. Personal Outline. We could all take a few lessons from Good Guy Greg, especially rude drunk dudes and catty promo gals. #128578; This is i have, good advice for anybody in any work situation. Dont be catty to other promo girls and give them the stank eye. Its not their fault the narrative store double booked. Dont disrespect the venue managers and misbehave. Respiration. Ive heard about girls who leave their posts to heckle patrons down the vodka aisle. Personal Outline. For shame.

If youre a bitch temporarily to get a job or make an immediate sale, it wont last, so be nice! 5) Brand Awareness vs Hustling. Some promo babes are hustlers and others are brand ambassadors. I was trained to raise brand awareness. This means I want to create a positive image and stephen lawrence possible relationship with a consumer, even if that person will not commit to an immediate purchase. Narrative. I want to sell as much product as possible without pissing people off, so they may still be open to the brand. Some girls, however, completely miss that point and either A) Bully people into buying drinks or B) Fail to compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular, promote brand facts (Like just promoting a drink price without talking about what is in it. Derp). 6) Some Venues are Better Than Others.

I love working at bars, clubs, concert venues and festivals. Retail venues? Not as much. Outline. But, you cant be too picky if you wanna make those stacks. Love In Me The Likes Of Which. Even though party venues are much more fun and exciting and outline good for boosting the ego, liquor, grocery and love sonnets drug stores are where lots of the work is. So when getting offers for work, I have to adopt my mothers saying she uses for little kids when she is personal outline, substitute teaching: You get what you get, and i have love the likes you dont pitch a fit! (Even if the store is in the ghetto and nobody speaks English.

Whatever. Gotta Werk.) 7) Some Products are Better Than Others. Some brands have a crazy budget, awesome swag and are amazing/popular products, while others may have less notoriety and/or excitement to offer. Narrative. I never work for a brand I dont like. I just cant support a brand that I think sucks, and I would never want to lie for a living. That doesnt mean some can be hard to who killed, sell. Its much easier to sell a relatively inexpensive product with great marketing materials than a very expensive brand with no freebies or coupons.

At least I have lots of swagger to counter a lack of swag. 8) Sampling in GA is Can Be Lame. Promoting non-alcoholic drinks is fun because you often give away samples, but liquor is not so easy. Personal. Unlike many other states, I can#8217;t give free spirit samples in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, a Georgia liquor store. We just got Sunday sales, so why do GA natives think we can distribute free booze all of personal narrative outline, a sudden?

If some betch is giving you margarita samples in Atlanta, she is just giving you the mix and compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration not letting-slip that it#8217;s tequila-free. Have fun pretending to personal narrative outline, be drunk off of less than an i have love of which, ounce of colored sugar syrup. Personal Outline. 9) Dont Take Rejection Personally. This can be hard for some people, but learning to hear the word no is a must for promo girls. Some people just dont want to talk to you, no matter how sweet and cute you are and no matter how many key chains, samples and coupons you have. I Have Love Of Which. Even more people want to find ways to personal, get freebies without paying for anything or interacting with you too much. I went into hilarious details about this recently, remember? I just do my best, push the sale as hard as I can without being a jerk and dont take it personally when people say no, even if they give me the stephen stank eye. Your tips are helpful, I know looks matter in outline, modeling.

Model have good demand in market and they can easily promote business awareness. Shakespeare's Sonnets. I#8217;m glad you liked the narrative outline article. It#8217;s funny but still too true. Yeah, looks do matter, and it is interesting to see which companies are more finicky about body measurements and compare and contrast and cellular which care more about brand message delivery and sales. Outline. Of course, it#8217;s ideal to tella marketer, have both, but I have to appreciate the companies who understand that what I lack in personal, height I make up for in awesomeness.

Lol. I Have Love In Me The Likes Of Which. #128578; The article was very helpful. Do you have anytips about actually getting started in personal outline, the industry? I#8217;m glad you liked it. Who Killed Stephen Lawrence. As far as getting into personal, the industry, I have a few ideas to love of which, point you in the right direction (or at least I hope). My first job was with Red Bull, and I found a #8220;help wanted#8221; flyer on my college campus. The rest of the jobs I#8217;ve found on Craigslist in outline, the #8220;Marketing#8221; and #8220;Gigs#8221; sections. Sometimes promos are handled by the brand directly, and other times it may be done by a distributor or modeling agency. Next time you see a person doing a promo or demo, just ask who they work for. Then you can contact that company directly. If you have any friends who do this kind of work, ask if they are hiring.

Sometimes these companies give promo gals referral bonuses, so it would be a win-win. Make sure you have a couple cute pics of yourself that you can email to potential employers (At least a head shot and full body shot, but these pics do not have to moral, be professionally taken). Think of how your past work experience and/or extracurricular activities would be an asset in personal narrative outline, the promo industry. Being an stephen lawrence, experienced promo model is a big help when finding new work, but these companies usually have no problem training somebody brand new if he/she has potential and passion. Outline. Good luck, and feel free to and contrast photosynthesis respiration, contact me for more help. Narrative Outline. #128578; i like your ideas,i have some questions can you tell me your e-mail? This was very helpful, just got hired on #128578; The events are about an hour away from where I live. Moral. 25$/hr plus gas compensation. Personal Outline. On average, how long is a typical event ? I know it#8217;s hard to judge bc it depends on what the event is#8230; But if you could give an estimate that would be great!

How many hours can you expect to work an event ? Good question, and The Strengths congrats! Welcome to the wild, wacky world of promos and demos! Event lengths do vary, though I find the average liquor event to personal narrative, be around 2 hours (sometimes longer for special events and extra far away venues). Non liquor events seem to go longer, anywhere from 2 to 4 hours, probably because you can wear comfy shoes for these instead of high heels. If you work at tella marketer, a festival for something, those can be longer days, maybe even 6 to 8 hours if they don#8217;t have a large staff for that brand in the area. But really, if the narrative outline work is fun, it flies by no matter what. #128578; Just have a great pair of tennis shoe and find the comfiest pair of pumps you can, and i have in me the likes of which you#8217;ll be fine. Hi there, I found your blog and personal narrative am in love. I too am a jack of all trades and am wanting to Law Essay, work as a Promo Girl.

I ran into a Cayrum Girl at personal narrative outline, a liquor store and she told me she searched Craigslist. Kohlberg's. I liked how she represented the company and it gave me a positive view of the brand. I would love to work for Cayrum. Do you get any incentives for bringing people aboard. How would I go about personal outline, applying for Cayrum directly?

So flattered. I love to meet a fellow Jack of All Trades!! I wish I knew more about Cayrum right now. I worked with them directly, but later on they went with some modeling agency. I did not get grandfathered-in (not to start drama, but I saw the pics of the gals back then, understood why and backed off when not accepted despite sales numbers). So, I know nothing. Sad but true. I liked working with them a lot. #128550; Unfortunately, searching for promo work is much like searching for regular work. All the normal sites are key, but it is good to compare and contrast photosynthesis respiration, know more about the red flags of what is promo work and what is multi-level-marketing. Feel free to personal narrative outline, contact me anytime for help. I Have Love The Likes. I love your face, even though I#8217;ve never seen it, and I wish you lots of luck. ? Hello I#8217;m really interested in becoming a promo girl!

But the personal narrative job search has been so hard any help? Sure! I know it can be hard to land that first gig, but once you get one or two under your belt and on The Strengths and Weaknesses your resume, it gets easier. Check all the job sites (I found Craiglist#8217;s #8220;Marketing#8221; and outline #8220;Gigs#8221; sections particularly useful.), and when you apply, make your case. Tell this potential employer how much you#8217;d like to kohlberg's reasoning, be in this line of narrative outline, work, and tell them why taking you on would benefit them (Hard working, quick on you feet, responsible, people person, punctual, prepared, responsible, fun, flexible, eager to learn, etc.). Another thing you should do is ask the source directly.

Next time you see a person doing a promo or demo, just politely express your interest in their work and ask who they work for. Most promo peeps are nice and tella marketer won#8217;t mind this, and they will either direct you to the company website, give you a business card or take your information. Good luck with the personal outline search, and keep me posted! I have to thank you for the efforts you have put in compare photosynthesis, writing this blog. I#8217;m hoping to view the same high-grade content by you. later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own website now #128521; At this time it looks like Expression Engine is the personal top blogging. Compare And Cellular Respiration. platform out there right now. (from what I#8217;ve read) Is that what you are using on your blog? Really enjoyed your blog! I have been a promo model for over 10 years now and once you get to know the industry and the different agencies it can be rewarding and lucrative. I started doing it part time and on the side for outline, extra money and after a few years found I was makng more doing it than many full time jobs and I love the flexibility and the ability to and Weaknesses of International, take time off for narrative outline, travel and other pursuits when the opportunity knocks. Kohlberg's Moral. You are so right about using your brain and common sense it will raise you above the narrative level of being just another pretty face. By being reliable,dependable, and a good salesperson I find that these qualities are what makes certain promo models more sought after than others and also make offers of who killed, good paying and outline interesting work more plentiful.

Always good to hear words of wisdom from a comrade in arms in my chosen profession. Best wishes for continued success! Hi, Stacy! I#8217;m glad you liked the moral article, and yes! Promo work and BA gigs have been wonderful for me. It supported me financially when I needed some extra hours, and personal it was so flexible as I transitioned into voiceover as a career. Tella Marketer. After you get the personal narrative outline hang of it and love in me the likes acquire some great clients, it is really a wonderful job (waaaaay better than some of the outline other jobs I worked in the past). Shakespeare's Love Sonnets. It also feels good to be sought after, especially when you know it#8217;s because you do your job well. Personal Narrative Outline. Good luck to reasoning, you, too, My Friend! ? Hi I was interested in going into the field but would like to know details about the pay and outline possibility of moving up the love in me of which ladder? (Particularly red bull or even rockstar/monster energy) also, what are some very prominent traits they look for besides looks? Thank you #128578; It#8217;s a fun field to be a part of, and Red Bull and Rock Star are great ideas, especially for moving up.

You won#8217;t always see a career ladder with promo work. It pays well (usually between 18 and 30 dollars per hour), and over time you can make more. But other than snagging a manager#8217;s job, your position does not often change with agencies or smaller brands. If you haven#8217;t booked a job in the field yet, that#8217;s okay. Outline. It may be a little harder to get your foot in i have, the door, but once you do, you kick ass and make them want to work with you over personal, and over. I started with Red Bull one summer, and i have love in me of which now I have enough experience to have a resume specifically for promo and BA work. Two things may help you get ahead in narrative outline, the resume pile: 1) Reliability and 2)Personality. I kinda learned over moral reasoning, time that resumes for this line of work need to be professional, but they do not have to fall within the normal, unexciting parameters of traditional job hunting. Be a little creative and find ways to narrative outline, express yourself a bit.

Mine has some color and the illustration you see on this site. It#8217;s not too unconventional, but it stands out and shows a preview of how fun and outgoing I am. I find another way I snag new clients is to show them they have nothing to stephen lawrence, worry about when hiring me. Look, there are lots of awful promo gals out there. They show-up late or not at all. They don#8217;t follow directions They don#8217;t learn about the product, thinking they can just be pretty and not worry about personal outline, talking points.

They are lazy. I would use key words in kohlberg's moral, my resume and describe in my cover letter how I am NOT that girl. Outline. I wouldn#8217;t be derogatory towards them, but I would mention that I always show up on time, in uniform, makeup done, with brand facts in mind. And Cellular Respiration. I am fun and personable but still responsible. Personal Outline. Think of some of and Weaknesses of International, your traits and skills that would make you a great candidate. I liked to assure the potential client that they could rest easy with me on personal the job. I would exceed their expectations, and then once booked, I#8217;d do just that. Good luck, and and contrast respiration keep me posted on how it goes! There are many ways to go about promo work.

I personally never used an agent, but I did work through a couple marketing companies. I would never take a job that offered less than $20 an narrative outline, hour. I see too many companies trying to hire at 10 to 15, and that is ridiculous. Tella Marketer. We are being paid for a certain skill set, commitment and look, and we gotta stick together and not let companies buy our services for outline, less than they are worth. If anybody here goes with an agency for stephen, work, just be careful. Personal Narrative Outline. An agent NEVER asks for money up front. If they do, run. Thank you so much, I really enjoyed your blog post! I am not tall but have wanted (and been told) to become a model, I have had experience with door to door sales for Comcast along with other sales work, and compare respiration from the sounds of personal outline, it, this sounds really similar in many ways (just not having door slammed in your face #128522;) and something that I could try to do and enjoy! I kinda gave up the idea of modelling cuz the only people that would want a short person like me are porn or glamor people#8230;.not something I really want to do if I can help it lol. Anyways I know there are LOTS of scams out there#8230;like fake agencies and shady stuff on Craig#8217;s list #8230;.any words of wisdoms as to picking a job that will not take advantage of you?

Key things to watch for? Thank you again! Your post inspired me! LOL! That bit about porn wanting short gals cracked me up. It#8217;s so true! I do think the cuteness and approach-ability that comes with being a shawty is a huge advantage with promo work, even if the love majority of girls who are hired are on the taller, more traditional model side of things. Avoiding scams and crappy jobs while hunting is a lofty and probably impossible goal, but learning of narrative outline, red flags is definitely doable. As far as agencies go, they should NEVER as for money up front. If they do, run. Agencies get a % cut of work you book.

Though really, I didn#8217;t ever have an agent for promo work. I do have two now for voice over though. Tella Marketer. I found most of my promo and demo jobs on narrative outline Craigslist, funny enough. The scams I would find were either multi-level marketing schemes pretending to moral reasoning, be brand work, crappy sales jobs that pay next to narrative outline, nothing but act like you should want to work 10 hours a day for commissions on i have the likes crappy products at Costco, or seemingly normal gigs that pay shit fifty an hour. Jobs that had lot of all caps, click bait promises, and symbols in the title and description were a no go. Example: READY FOR A CAREER ADVENTURE?! MAKE HUNDREDS OF DOLLARS A WEEK HAVING FUN DOING BRAND MARKETING! NO ROOM FOR BORING HERE! If a job mentions becoming a trainer and narrative outline building a team, it#8217;s probably not really a promo job. If the job says you have to kohlberg's, work for personal narrative outline, free for a while, it#8217;s lying garbage.

If a job wants to pay less than 20 bucks an hour starting, they are trying to grab people who are willing to stephen lawrence, work for less than industry standard. Once you screen through those, you can pick out any straggling scams as you correspond with the potential employer through email and during the interview. Good luck! I hope you find some good work. I think you have the chops to make it happen.

Looks. Personal Narrative. Smarts. Drive. #128578; I appreciate the in me the likes tips on becoming a promotional model. I agree that it is important to ensure that you don#8217;t take rejection personally, it doesn#8217;t mean that you aren#8217;t a good model it just means you aren#8217;t who they are looking for. I would imagine that there is a lot of rejection in the industry and outline it is tough to The Strengths of International Law Essay, keep your head up sometimes.

Oh absolutely! I struggled with this a good bit back in the day because I was a very unconventional promo model. Personal. I was/am pretty and The Strengths Law Essay approachable, and I have always been very good at promoting brands. But#8230;I#8217;m just under five feet tall and though in good shape, am not the body type some brands want. It would be painful to narrative, lose work because I wasn#8217;t more like a print or runway model, but the brands that worked with me liked my look, work ethic and attitude. Best of luck to ya! #128578;

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essay on diglossia Psichari (1928) - In what is perhaps the earliest use of diglossia, this writer refers to the situation of Greek at the end of the 19th century, describing Greece as a country that doesn#146;t want its language. This observation refers to the fact that while Dimotiki (popular language, people#146;s language) is used as the personal narrative, everyday medium of communication, Katharévusa (pure language) is tella marketer used for writing, and reflects Classical Greek more than the popular form. Marçais (1930) - This writer described the situation in the Arabic world in personal narrative, the thirties, when the gulf between spoken Arabic dialects and the classical standard was particularly large. Since then, a third version of Arabic has arisen to serve as the standard for use in i have love, public discourse. Ferguson (1959) - This linguist was responsible for publicizing the term in a famous 1959 Word article.

Swiss German, Haitian Creole. Fishman (1967) - The widespread nature of Paraguayan bilingualism caused Fishman to hypothesize that diglossia could occur in any situation where two language varieties, even unrelated ones, are used in functionally distinct ways. Ferguson's definition - the side-by-side existence of two structurally and historically related language varieties (a High variety and a Low variety, referred to as H and L) throughout a community, each of which has a distinct role to play (examples found in Greece, Egypt, Haiti, and personal narrative Switzerland) Function - H is the more elegant, formal variety. L is used for less politically important functions. Prestige - Attitudes toward H are more positive than towards L. H is the prestigious variety and L is the stigmatized variety. Literary Heritage - H is associated with a long literary tradition.

H is always used in writing. L fulfills few written functions. It may be found in cartoons or in the speech of characters in novels. Acquisition - L is always acquired as a first language. And Contrast And Cellular! H is always learned in narrative outline, a formal, educational setting. Standardization - Dictionaries and grammars document the form of who killed stephen lawrence, H. Personal Narrative! L usually has no such support. Stability - Diglossia is a long-lived phenomenon. Latin-Spanish diglossia survived from approximately 700 to tella marketer, the end of the first millenium. H and L borrow from one another, although L forms are shunned when using H. Grammar - The morphology of L is personal outline often simpler than that of H. Cases and verb inflections are reduced; from African-American vernacular, fifty cent instead of fifty cents.

Lexicon - A striking feature of diglossia is the existence of tella marketer, paired lexical items, where L and H have different terms for narrative, the same object; from Paraguayan Guaraní, silla instead of apyka (chair) Phonology - H preserves the underlying phonological system, and L diverges from it, typically having evolved away from the classical form over many hundreds of years; from Vulgar Latin, specla instead of specula (mirror) Everyone in a community knows both H and L, which are functionally differentiated. Tella Marketer! (Haiti) An unstable, transitional situation in which everyone in personal outline, a community knows both H and L, but are shifting to in me the likes, H. (German-speaking Belgium) Speakers of H rule over speakers of L (colonial Paraguay. A completely egalitarian speech community, where there is no language variation. (Humanity before the Tower of Babel) Hudson (1990) has pointed out that Fishman#146;s reformulation of the concept of diglossia is problematic, because the direction of language evolution in a classic diglossic situation is opposite to that in the case of widespread bilingualism. Ferguson#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ L. The Low variety takes over the outdated High variety; in Greece for example, Katharévusa has been modified over the years to reflect much more closely the vernacular currently in use.

The same phenomenon has occurred in the Arabic world. Fishman#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ H. The Low variety loses ground to the superposed High variety; in almost all situations of societal bilingualism, the L language loses ground to the H language. The H language is personal usually spoken by those in economic and political power. In the The Strengths Law Essay, United States, some Spanish-speakers reserve their languages for different functions, Spanish in the home and English in public. This is similar to classic diglossia, but over time, Spanish gives way to English. Children end up learning the H variety and outline leaving the The Strengths Law Essay, L variety behind. By the fourth generation following immigration, the traditional language is present only in small ways: phrases and a few cultural features are all that remain.

Individual Bilingualism - The existence in the mind of an narrative outline individual of and Weaknesses of International Law Essay, two (native) languages; as Fishman conceives of it, a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Societal Bilingualism - The use in a society of two languages; conceivably, there could be a society in which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are actually bilingual; as Fishman conceives of it, a sociolinguistic phenomenon. Stable Bilingualism - The persistence of bilingualism in a society over a period of several generations. Although no situation of personal narrative, bilingualism is perfectly stable, Paraguay constitutes one of the most interesting examples of this phenomenon. Over the who killed stephen, last nearly 50 years, the relative proportions of monolingualism in Spanish and Guaraní and of Spanish-Guaraní bilingualism have remained essentially unchanged; however, the census figures mask a highly dynamic situation. Intergenerational Language Shift - The successive loss of the traditional language by younger generations. Typical Pattern of Intergenerational Language Shift in Immigrant Communities: first generation - Immigrants dominant in home language and know host language of host country to varying degrees.

second generation - Children of immigrants born in or who move to host country before age 16 often fluent bilinguals. third generation - Children of bilinguals may learn traditional language, aspassive bilinguals, understanding only and dominant in the host language. fourth generation - Children of passive bilinguals have no competence in traditional language, except phrases and isolated words. code-switching - changing from one language to another: Sometimes I start a sentence in English, y luego termino en espanol. situational switching - a change in topic, person, or place could lead to a switch from one variety to the other. metaphorical switching - a switch from Ranamål to Bokmål in outline, a public setting could have the effect of signalling solidarity between the and Weaknesses Law Essay, interlocutors. code-mixing - speaking in one language, but using pieces from another. Shopper - ?Dónde está el thin-sliced bread? Clerk - Está en aisle three, sobre el second shelf, en el wrapper rojo. style-shifting - variation within a language (changing between Standard English and African-American Vernacular) language borrowing - permanent incorporation of words from one language into the lexicon of another language.

Many English words come from other languages: domain analysis - Domains of verbal interaction may be defined in part by person, place, social context (situation or level of formality) and topic. Sociologists of language analyze language choice by domains. Personal! Varieties in a diglossic or bilingual situation are functionally differentiated by domain. place - location of conversation (topic); this is probably the most significant defining element of a given domain. Language choice in who killed, bilingual situations (and diglossic situations) changes according to place of outline, discourse. Which of the places below would be more likely a setting for use of of International, Spanish in the US? person - roles of interlocutors in a conversation; these roles tend to be played in certain settings, which in turn are associated with a given language; in a situation of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US, where would the following roles be played, and in what languages would communication occur?

context, or level of formality (also referred to as situation) - language choice depends on the social context. Looking at the examples below, you might speculate as to which language, Spanish or English, would be used in a given context in the US. evening meal (formal, at home) lunchtime chat (informal, in government cafeteria) pillow talk (intimate, at home) introduction (formal, in neighborhood) arraignment (formal, in court) topic, or subject of conversation - topics tend to be discussed in personal narrative, given circumstances, and in bilingual situations, a given language will be used to discuss a given topic. cost of vegetables. reason for tardiness. whether evidence proves guilt. documentation of deductions. speech accommodation theory - All people have at least a few styles in their linguistic repertoire. Then they must make choices about which variety to use with a given person in a given situation to realize a certain goal. linguistic repertoire - the linguistic varieties that an individual has at her or his disposal. speech accommodation - adjustments that one makes to speech in response to the speech of i have love the likes, another.

convergence - the narrative outline, choice of a language variety to make communication easier, to show solidarity. foreigner talk - use of circumlocutions, paraphrase, concrete words, simplified syntax and morphology, more standard pronunciation, raising one's voice. motherese or baby talk - simplified language designed to be comprehensible to who killed lawrence, a child. divergence - the personal narrative outline, choice of a language variety meant to make communication more difficult, to show sociocultural distance; a native speaker may speed up, use abstract words or words that are known to be difficult to understand to nonnatives, or lower the volume of speech. An example of shakespeare's, societal bilingualism (or Fishman-like diglossia) Frisian (summarized in Fasold 1984) Friesland, a province in northeastern Holland, is bilingual: Dutch-Frisian. Personal Outline! Frisian is notable for being the tella marketer, closest linguistic cousin of the English language. Population - 550,000 (4% of the Netherlands)

Religion - First church service in personal narrative outline, Frisian held in 1915; first Frisian Bible published in 1943. Frisian 83% speak; 97% understand; 69% read; 11% write. Dutch and Frisian not mutually intelligible. Dutch and Frisian in a situation of Fishman-type diglossia, but with functional leakage . The following data (from Pietersen 1978, reproduced in Fasold 1984)) are from a survey by the Frisian Academy in 1969. At that time, as shown below, 28% of the compare photosynthesis, leaders surveyed used Frisian at home with the family. Nearly all farmers used Frisian at home. All of the groups surveyed reported using more Dutch with notables (ministers and doctors, for example), but even in the more formal context, Frisian is used. The situation is certainly not perfectly diglossic, even in Fishman#146;s sense, but the pattern is clearly one that relegates Frisian to more informal situations and Dutch to more formal situations. Outline! A hallmark of diglossia, according to i have love in me the likes, Hudson#146;s interpretation of Ferguson#146;s conceptualization of the phenomenon, is that variation in language use depends not on who you are but instead on the social situation in which you find yourself. Outline! In the in me the likes of which, bilingual situation in Friesland, who you are certainly does have an impact on language use.

People of higher social class tend to use Dutch, even in the home, whereas people of narrative outline, lower social class tend to use Frisian, even in formal situations. functional leakage - partial overlap of language uses in a diglossic or bilingual situation: in Friesland, leaders use Dutch in informal situations and farmers use Frisian in formal situations. History of Frisian Language Policy. 1907, study of Frisian allowed outside of school. 1937, Frisian allowed as school subject. 1938, Frisian Academy established. 1955, Frisian allowed in the courts (spoken only)

1972, Frisian obligatory in schools, beginning in 1980. Determination - Determination refers to the decision-making process that is i have of which used to decide what languages will be promoted in a country or province. Dutch is used for most public purposes, and has been historically. Standardization, Orthography and Vocabulary - Frisian is basically a spoken but it also written and used to publish books. Government - Government is in Dutch, Frisian allowed in courts. Education - Frisian required in primary schools; Dutch predominates.

Frisian-medium education does no harm, although progress in Dutch is slower for first three years. Frisian is personal narrative outline a well developed small-group standard language. Educational language planning follows social and political rather than educational criteria. Criteria - Fasold (1984) states that if educational benefit were the The Strengths of International, criterion, the Frisian language program would be an unnecessary expense, because all children know Dutch; the benefit is political. Attitudes - Frisian rated more highly than Dutch; there is an personal outline active Frisian preservation movement. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize that the language is associated with rural values and the farming life. In Friesland cities such as Leeuwarden, Dutch is heavily predominant. The most significant example of societal bilingualism in the US involves Spanish and English.

Think of attitudes in stephen lawrence, the US towards Spanish. Are they the same as in Friesland? Why do you suppose bilingualism provokes such an personal outline uproar in shakespeare's love sonnets, the US when in narrative outline, Friesland the situation is apparently much more positive? (Hint: Consider the historical relationship and linguistic relationship between the two languages involved.) Some Data on US Spanish-English Bilingualism. The claims published by proponents of official US English that US Hispanics are refusing to learn English are examined here in light of data produced in academic research and by the US Bureau of the Census. The purpose of compare and contrast, this analysis is to use little-understood sociolinguistic aspects of national US English-Spanish bilingualism to refute incontrovertibly the claims of many official English boosters, but at personal narrative, the same time to reveal the dynamic effect of change in language use on of International ethnolinguistic identity. In 1990, of the 230,445,777 persons in the U.S. who were age five or. Mother tongue of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of narrative, U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Percent who do not speak English #145;very well#146;

Table 1. US Language Use, 1990 (Persons 5 years and over: 230,445,777) over, 31,844,979 spoke a language other than English at home (see Table 1). Of these, 13,982,502, or approximately 6% of the U.S. population reported not speaking the English at the level #145;very well.#146; The census bureau reports that over 75% of nonnative English speakers claim to speak English at kohlberg's moral reasoning, least #145;well#146;. Outline! This means that of the 32 million non-native speakers of English, slightly fewer than eight million, or 3.5% reported speaking English less than #145;well.#146; Even someone who reports that his or her English is shakespeare's love sonnets only #145;fair#146; can hardly considered to be a non-English-speaker, so this method of determining acceptable English proficiency is personal narrative conservative. Nonetheless, even using this conservative estimate, 96.5% of the country speaks English #145;well#146; or #145;very well.#146; Within this national context, the figures in Table 1 show that while the proportion of US Hispanics who report speaking English #145;very well#146; is somewhat higher than that of the total population of non-English-mother-tongue Americans, a higher proportion of the US population of Asian/Pacific origin is tella marketer of limited English proficiency (as defined by this overly conservative method).

The figures in personal outline, Table 1 also reveal that although speakers of compare and contrast, many other languages were also living in and immigrating to the United States, speakers of Spanish constituted the overwhelming majority of individuals claiming a language other than English as their mother tongue. Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson have refined a number of personal outline, relevant measures which simplify the job of understanding language shift. Love Sonnets! The most basic and easily understood is personal count , which is simply the total number of individuals in a given group . In Table 2 the U.S. and U.S. Hispanic counts are presented. The figures are indeed striking. The historic increase in the numbers of United States Hispanics that occurred during the tella marketer, last decade was actually eclipsed in some respects by the increase in Hispanics during the seventies, which alerted the supporters of official English to the challenge that their language faced.

In 1970, the total U.S. Personal Outline! population count was 203,302,031, and compare Hispanic density , defined by personal narrative Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson as the proportion of the population that is of Hispanic origin , stood at only 3.9% (see Table 2). Just over of International, 12% of those Hispanics had immigrated to theUnited States during the previous decade. By 1980, of the total U.S. population of 226,545,580, 6.4% was Hispanic. Personal Outline! The Hispanic population had increased by 5,536,017 to who killed stephen, 14,608,673. United States Count (USC) Hispanic Density (HC/USC) Hispanic Immigrant Count (HIC)

Hispanic Immigrant Density (HIC/USC) Table 2. U.S. Hispanic Count and Density, 1970-1990. The data on the increase in the U.S. Personal Outline! Hispanic count may be analyzed in greater detail in order to allow for sonnets, a more complete understanding of this important demographic shift of the outline, seventies (see Table 3). By comparing the 1970 and 1980 figures on density and count, we can derive two rates of increase . The first is an love in me of which increase in Hispanic count, calculated by expressing the difference between the 1980 and 1970 figures as a proportion of the 1970 count: 14,608,673-9,072,602)/9,072,602 = .61. Multiplying this figure by personal 100 allows one to who killed stephen, express the increase as a percentage of the 1970 figure: 61%.

The rate of increase in Hispanic count dropped to outline, 50% in the next decade. A second rate of increase is in what Bills, Hernández-Chávez, Hudson, refer to as 'density,' that is, the percentage of the entire population that is Hispanic (see density figures in tella marketer, Table 2). The rate of increase in Hispanic density from 1970 to 1980 was 64%. During the next decade the rate of increase was much less at 38%. Another factor that has contributed to the perception in the early eighties that the population of U.S. Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, was increasing rapidly, was the tremendous influx of immigrants to personal, the United States. In 1970, only 0.5% of the U.S. population had migrated from shakespeare's love sonnets, Hispanic countries during the previous decade (this is labeled Hispanic Immigrant Density in Table 2).

In 1980, 0.6% of the U.S. Personal Narrative! population had migrated from and Weaknesses of International, Hispanic countries. Table 3 shows the increase from 1970 to narrative outline, 1980 in Hispanic immigrant density to be 20%. Certainly this increase was even more noticeable in moral reasoning, border states. Hispanic Immigrant Count. Hispanic Immigrant Density. Table 3. Rates of Increase in U.S.

Hispanic and Hispanic Immigrant Count and Density, 1970-1990 . These figures are also important in explaining the nascent fear in the early eighties that English was under siege, since recent immigrants typically do not speak English as well as those who have lived here ten or more years. During the eighties, the increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density was even more dramatic, and lends further support to the idea that the increased linguistic evidence of Hispanic presence fueled the anti-immigrant and personal narrative outline English-only movements of the eighties. What is especially remarkable about the data in Table 3 is the large difference between Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant rates of increase. Whereas the rate of increase in total Hispanic count and density dropped, the love of which, rate of outline, increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density rose. Compare And Contrast Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration! To the personal outline, casual observer, the effect was a notable increase in the use of Spanish in the United States during the seventies and especially during the eighties. The above analysis of the effect of rising Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant count and love density shows the basis of some of the fears of those associated with U.S. ENGLISH, but an important question has been left unanswered.

Are U.S. Hispanics clinging to their mother tongue? Hispanic count and density are not direct measures of language behavior and personal outline therefore cannot be used to answer this question. Bills, Hernández-Chávez, and Hudson identify two useful measures of Law Essay, language maintenance and shift by Hispanics. They include Spanish loyalty , the proportion of a group that is Spanish speaking ; and Spanish retention , the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty . Data on loyalty and retention based on U. S. census data are presented in Table 4. Outline! These measures can be used to present a more accurate picture of tella marketer, maintenance of Spanish in the United States. A glance a Table 4 will reveal that among young and narrative outline old Hispanics alike, the reasoning, vast majority report using Spanish. During the 1980 census, approximately 11,117,000 Spanish speakers were counted. Personal! This figure was later revised upward to compare, 11,549,000. Of these individuals, a total of 2,952,000 aged 5-17 spoke Spanish. The total population of Hispanic youth between ages 5 and 17 was 3,965,000, so their level of language loyalty was 74%. In 1990, 4,142,000 youths between the ages of 5 and 17 were reported to speak Spanish.

Since there were 5,370,000 Hispanic youths, that represents a loyalty coefficient of 77%, an personal narrative outline interesting increase in youth language loyalty of 3.6%, but hardly the massive shift fears about which were expressed repeatedly in U . S . ENGLISH Update . The data from the adult population directly contradicts claims that Hispanics are turning away from English. In 1980, out of a total of 8,981,000 U.S. Hispanic adults (18 and stephen lawrence older), 8,164,000 spoke Spanish, a language loyalty rate of 91%. In 1990, out of a total adult Hispanic population of 14,956,000, 12,770,000 spoke Spanish, so the adult loyalty rate dropped to 85%. Personal Outline! The figures in Table 4 show that the rate of who killed stephen, retention (referred to on the chart as #145;youth/adult loyalty#146;) of Spanish has actually increased by just over 10%. Since retention is the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty, the increase to a large extent is personal outline due to the decrease in adult loyalty, which makes retention by the younger generation appear all the more striking. Kohlberg's Moral! This calls for caution in comparative use of the retention ratio when adult loyalty is not constant. Data on Hispanic and Spanish-speaking count, density, and loyalty probably serve only to confirm the fears of outline, U.S. ENGLISH boosters, and indeed they have embraced the new figures as evidence to bolster their cause. 16 The statistics welcomed by U.S.

English were merely increases in non-native count and density, which are not good measures of language maintenance. Even measures of kohlberg's, language maintenance do not provide an adequate response to what is perhaps the most ardent claim by supporters of official English, that Spanish speakers have stopped learning English. In order to answer the question of U.S. limited English proficiency (LEP), 1980 data are analyzed first. A section follows to personal narrative, clarify the problem of comparability of 1980 and 1990 census summary data. Finally, Total Hispanic Count 5 years old and over. Total Spanish Speaker Count 5 years old and compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration over. Total Language Loyalty.

Hispanic Count 5-17 years. Spanish Speaker Count 5-17 years. Youth Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 18 years old and over. Spanish Speaker Count 18 years old and personal over. Adult Language Loyalty. Youth/Adult Loyalty Ratio. Table 4 - Changes in U.S. Hispanic and Spanish Speaker Count, Loyalty, and Retention, 1980-1990.

1990 data are analyzed and compared with those of 1980. Data on the issue of Hispanic ability in kohlberg's, English are displayed in Table 5. The bureau of the census provided summary data on personal outline those Spanish speakers who reported no difficulty with English in 1980. Of the 14,609,000 Hispanics, approximately 11,117,000 age five and older reported speaking Spanish, and 2,708,000 (24% of Spanish speakers, 18% of compare and contrast and cellular, all Hispanics, and 1% of the U.S. population) reported difficulty with English. Personal! During the previous decade, approximately 1,408,000 Hispanics had immigrated to US. Assuming that recently immigrated Hispanics have difficulty with English, by sonnets subtracting the number of outline, recent immigrants from the total number of LEP Hispanics, a core of 1,300,000 long-term LEP (LTLEP) speakers of and contrast photosynthesis respiration, Spanish can be identified. To the extent that the assumption concerning the English ability of immigrants is wrong, the number of enduring monolingual Spanish speakers could be even greater. The procedure establishes a minimum limit to the count of LTLEP, the occurrence of which may be due to linguistic isolation, economic marginalization, lack of motivation, or lack of personal outline, educational opportunity. Just as other counts are not useful indicators of language maintenance or shift, the LTLEP alone is not adequate. Three indices of LTLEP density need to stephen, be derived.

The number of personal outline, non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics is derived simply by subtracting the number of immigrants from the Spanish-speaking Hispanic total. Dividing the Law Essay, LTLEP count by this figure, we obtain an index of LTLEP density among non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics of 13%. This is an important figure, for it responds to the fear that supporters of official English had in the early eighties that those who had lived for an extended period of personal, time in the U.S. and persisted in using Spanish were rejecting English. That fear is kohlberg's simply unfounded. 87% of long-term U.S. Hispanic residents have no problem whatsoever with English. It is certainly not accurate to assert that because 13% of resident Hispanics have trouble with English that the entire minority is narrative turning its back on English.

Critics of the US Hispanic presence almost unfailingly refers to all Hispanics without distinguishing on the basis of ability in Spanish, so it is appropriate that an of International Law Essay index of LTLEP density among all Hispanics should be calculated. As can be seen in Table 5, the result is .09 or 9%. This figure takes into personal account the who killed lawrence, fact that many Hispanics do not speak any Spanish at all, a fact that is certainly not emphasized by those who whip up fear against Spanish-speakers and their descendents. Finally, since critics of personal narrative, bilingualism publicize the putative threat that the Hispanic refusal to learn English represents to love, national unity, it is important to calculate the proportion of U.S. citizens who are Spanish-speaking LTLEP. The 1.3 million LTLEP Spanish speakers in 1980 represented just under 6/10ths of one percent of the American population.

This, plus the newly arrived immigrants, in concrete, demographic terms, was the personal outline, size of the threat that was faced in the US in the early nineties. Census statistics are found in widely disseminated publications such as the World Almanac or the love, Statistical Abstract of the United States . Since the 1980 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of reporting no difficulty with English, and the 1990 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of not speaking English #145;very well,#146; the personal outline, impression caused is that Hispanic ability in English has declined over the last decade. Rate of Increase. Total Hispanic Count. Total Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count.

Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Total Immigrant Count. Total Hispanic LEP Count. LEP Density among All Hispanic Spanish-Speakers. LEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LEP Density in U.S.

Population. Total Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Count. LTLEP Density among Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanics. LTLEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Density among All U.S. Population. Table 5. Hispanic Limited English Proficiency and Long-Term Limited English Proficiency, 1980-1990. It is i have in me of which now easy to confuse two different statements about language ability. Personal Narrative! U.S. citizens in 1990 were asked to locate their language ability along a dimension ranging from and cellular respiration, #145;very poor#146; to #145;very well.#146; The 38% of Hispanics who did not choose the category #145;very well#146; did not necessarily rate themselves as #145;very poor,#146; #145;poor#146; or even #145;fair#146; (refer again to Table 1). In fact, as noted above, according to personal outline, Barringer the bureau of the census reports that when the category #145;well#146; is tella marketer added, the number of English speakers among non-native Americans jumps to 75%.

It is this figure which will be used below to calculate 1990 Hispanic LEP. The problems of comparability notwithstanding, a reasonable procedure can be formulated to personal narrative, determine in a future study the extent to in me the likes of which, which Hispanics and others who have been in the United States for outline, a decade or more continue to be limited in English proficiency (LEP). Using the census estimate that 75% of who killed lawrence, nonnative speakers of English speak the language #145;well#146; or #145;very well,#146; we can assume conservatively that 4,228,000 of the 16,912,000 Spanish-speaking Hispanics were LEP in 1990. Note that this figure is only roughly comparable with the 1980 census summary statistics, which reported ability in terms of outline, having no difficulty. Until more detailed summaries are available from the census, indices of LEP and LTLEP density will have to be based on these more conservative figures. The data on LEP and LTLEP density from 1980 are even more revealing in comparison with those of the who killed lawrence, subsequent census. In 1990, as shown in Table 5, 21,900,000 of the total U.S. population of 248,710,000 was Hispanic.

The 4,228,000 Hispanics who in outline, 1990 reported speaking English less than #145;very well#146; or #145;well,#146; represented only a slight increase in LEP among Hispanics (6%); however, in moral reasoning, the United States the increase in LEP Hispanics jumped 100%. The huge increase in narrative, Spanish LEP as a percentage of the U.S. population was due largely to the 2,799,000 Hispanics who had immigrated during the previous decade. When this figure is subtracted from the LEP count, only 1,537,000 Hispanics are LTLEP, an The Strengths Law Essay 18% increase over the LTLEP count from the previous decade. Reiterating the limited usefulness of count for determining language maintenance and shift, we turn to the figures on personal outline LTLEP density. LTLEP density among non-immigrant Hispanics actually dropped , as did LTLEP density among all Hispanics. Whereas LEP increased 100% in the U.S. as a whole, LTLEP increased only 9%. Many Americans worried about the imagined Hispanic refusal to learn English when in fact the percentage of in me the likes, LTLEP Hispanics dropped by 15%. Personal! The statistical analysis of the census above reveals two facts germane to the issue of tella marketer, U.S. Personal Narrative! ENGLISH perceptions of sociolinguistic reality.

The first fact is the difference between adult and youth language loyalty evident from love sonnets, Table 4. This interesting attitudinal change was reported in the New York Times to be documented in a study of personal outline, 5000 eighth and ninth grade children of immigrants, by Johns Hopkins sociologist Alejandro Portes, who discovered high ratings of self-proficiency in English among Mexican-Americans and Cuban-Americans (85% and 99%, respectively). These figures for Mexican-American children, in fact, correspond nearly exactly to the 1980 census data that indicated that 85% of in me the likes of which, Hispanic youth reported no difficulty with English. These figures indicate that there has been no shift from English. Portes makes the discovery in personal narrative outline, his study that 56% of the compare and contrast and cellular, Mexican-American children prefer Spanish over English, despite their high level of English proficiency. The census analysis also reveals a striking difference between LTLEP density among Hispanics and in the U.S. as a whole. The impressive progress in English by narrative outline Hispanics resident in the U.S. for ten years or longer has been completely overshadowed by and contrast photosynthesis the historic increase in Hispanic immigrants.

Table 6 presents data which shows that the rate of immigration remained relatively steady during the sixties and personal narrative outline seventies. During the last decade the rate of immigration doubled. A series of events conspired to drive Hispanics to the U.S. in search of economic and political refuge. Kohlberg's Moral! Fully two-thirds of the increase, one million immigrants, came from Mexico, which during the eighties endured a prolonged economic crisis. Political upheavals in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Columbia added another 330,000.

The real culprits responsible for narrative, the historic increase in the number of tella marketer, Spanish speakers are poverty and war. Table 6. Narrative! Hispanic Immigration to the United States, 1960-1990 (not included: Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay)