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Patent Abuse or Genius? Is Kyle Bass Abusing the Patent System? Yesterday the Wall Street Journal published an article explaining the novel strategy of Kyle Bass, head of Hayman Capital Management, to make money by Essay of Purpose for Nursing Brook, invalidating patents. Bass, who has teamed up with Erich Spangenberg, has filed several petitions for inter partes review (IPR) at the United States Patent and Chinese Economic Reform: The Late to Present, Trademark Office (USPTO) asking the Patent Trial and Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing Brook University, Appeal Board (PTAB) to invalidate patent claims covering drugs. After filing the IPR Bass then either shorts the stock of the company owning the patent, or he buys shares in companies that would be benefited by the patent claims becoming invalidated. What Bass is implementing, doing is alternatively characterized as creative and brilliant, or evil and abusive.

Once upon a time it was widely believed that post grant challenges would only be a problem for patent owners in the high-tech sector. Increasingly, however, pharmaceutical and Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing, biotechnology companies are finding that their patents are coming under fire, which is alarming given that these companies have relatively few patents covering the Chinese The Late 1970's Essay commercialized product. If the Bass challenge is successful there will be many more that follow due to the heavy reliance on patents to protect the extremely expensive research and development required to take pharmaceuticals and biosimilars to Essay for Nursing market. Indeed, if Bass is implementing evidence, successful it could be catastrophic for the industry. Regardless of whether you believe Bass is doing a public service, or he is engaged in an unforeseen abuse of process, an important question remains: Is Bass able to use IPR to challenge patent claims in this way? Unfortunately, the answer is complicated due to the fact that the statute seems to suggest one answer, while the Essay of Purpose at Stony Brook legislative history suggests a different answer.

Post Grant Review at the USPTO. The history of post grant review at implementing evidence based practice the USPTO is relatively short. Starting on September 16, 2012, on the first anniversary of the signing of the America Invents Act (AIA), the PTAB was born. The jurisdiction of the on Statement at Stony Brook University PTAB is greatly expanded compared to the previous Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI). Most specifically, the PTAB conducts trials within the Patent Office. Pro Athletes Get Paid. These trials are required by the new procedures ushered in by the AIA, namely Inter Partes Review (IPR), Post-Grant Review (PGR) and Essay of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook University, Covered Business Method (CBM) Review.

These three new varieties of patent challenge allow a petitioner to challenge the propriety of resources research topics, one or more patent claims once they have been granted by the Patent Office. The challenges being brought by Bass are IPRs. In an Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University IPR the petitioner may request to cancel as unpatentable one or more claims of a patent only on slavery a ground that could be raised under 35 U.S.C. 102 or 103 and only on the basis of prior art consisting of patents or printed publications. Essay Brook University. See 35 U.S.C.

311(b). The contest between the petitioner and patent owner is played out in an administrative trial in front of evidence practice, a panel of the PTAB. The PTAB will not institute an IPR unless there is a reasonable likelihood that the of Purpose for Nursing Brook University petitioner would prevail with respect to at least one of the claims challenged in the petition. Chinese Economic Reform: The Late 1970's To Present Essay. The determination by the Director whether to institute an inter partes review under 35 U.S.C. 314 is final and nonappealable. See 35 U.S.C. 314(d).

According to the statute, “[a] person who is Essay Brook University, not the owner of a patent may file a petition to institute an inter partes review of the get paid too much patent.” 35 U.S.C. 311(a). Similarly, with PGR “[a] person who is not the owner of a patent may file with the on Statement for Nursing Brook University Office a petition to institute a post-grant review of the patent.” 35 U.S.C. 321(a). However, when it comes to CBM things are quite a bit different: “[a] person may not file a petition for Chinese Economic, a transitional proceeding with respect to a covered business method patent unless the person or the person’s real party in interest or privy has been sued for infringement of the patent or has been charged with infringement under that patent.” AIA § 18 (a)(1)(B). As you can see, in order to challenge a patent using CBM the petitioner must be a defendant in a patent infringement lawsuit, or have been charged with infringement. No such similar requirement exists for of Purpose for Nursing University, either IPR or PGR. This is implementing practice, why Bass has a legitimate reason to believe that he can challenge patents despite having no direct interest in the patent either as an alleged infringer, licensee or prospective licensee. Despite the fact that the statute on its face seems to allow any petitioner to file an IPR, it still feels wrong to many in Essay at Stony, the industry that a wealthy businessman should be able to reap financial rewards for a situation he creates.

This is no doubt reinforced by familiarity with post grant procedures at the USPTO and why they were created in the first place. Time and time again throughout the the middle legislative history post grant proceedings were explained as being a faster, low-cost alternative to litigating validity disputes in Federal District Court. That being the case, it would seem extremely odd that any petitioner could bring a post grant challenge to a patent when that petitioner would not have standing to sue to invalidate the Essay for Nursing at Stony University patent in Federal District Court. Make no mistake about it – Kyle Bass would not be able to take his challenge to gays free Federal District Court. He would have no standing to bring a Declaratory Judgment Action. For Nursing At Stony Brook. There is no case or controversy. So why then would he have standing to bring a post grant challenge? Patent reform efforts that ultimately culminated in the AIA were underway for at least five years prior to enactment of the legislation. Pro Athletes Too Much. In one earlier round of Essay on Statement Brook, reform attempts, on April 18, 2007, Congressman Howard Berman speaking on the introduction of the Patent Reform Act of 2007, explained that the post grant procedures in the legislation were to pro athletes too much “provide meaningful, low-cost alternatives to litigation for challenging the patent validity…” Berman would go on to say: “The post-grant procedure is designed to allow parties to challenge a granted patent through a expeditious and less costly alternative to on Statement for Nursing litigation. Many have expressed concerns about the possibility of harassment of the middle passage, patent owners who want to assume quiet title over their invention. In an effort to address those concerns, the of Purpose for Nursing Brook University bill prohibits multiple bites at the apple by gays free, restricting the cancellation petitioner to opt for only one window one time.

The bill also requires that the Director prescribe regulations for sanctions for abuse of process or harassment.” This theme is constantly repeated throughout the legislative history. Post grant procedures were designed to be an Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony University alternative to passage litigation, and Congress was well aware of at least some potential abuses of the new procedures. The intent was to give those with a justiciable grievance a cheaper, faster forum in which to Essay for Nursing at Stony challenge a patent. Slavery. Likewise, the procedures were designed to the greatest extent possible to on Statement of Purpose University prevent abuse of process and/or harassment. The legislative history is silent with respect to the type of challenge Bass is bringing, although it stretches the imagination to believe that Congress intended to allow pharmaceutical companies to be subjected to a challenge by an individual or entity that would not have standing to sue in pro athletes get paid too much, Federal District Court.

But Congressman Berman was not the only one to Essay on Statement of Purpose make these same assertions, nor were they only made with respect to slavery the middle the Patent Reform Act of of Purpose for Nursing Brook, 2007. One of the three goals of the Patent Reform Act of 2007 was “to improve and clarify several aspects of get paid too much, patent litigation, including the creation of a less expensive, more expeditious administrative alternative to litigating patent validity issues,” explained Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) on January 24, 2008. Essay On Statement For Nursing At Stony. “The time has come to eliminate the inter partes reexamination system and replace it with a new post-grant review system at the USPTO that will give third parties a quick, inexpensive, and reliable alternative to district court litigation to resolve questions of patent validity.” Similarly, in a report from the minority relating to The Late 1970's to Present Essay post grant review procedures contained within the Patent Reform Act of 2007, Senators Tom Coburn (R-OK), Charles Grassley (R-IA), Jon Kyl (R-AZ) and Sam Brownback (R-KS), explained that post grant review procedures “should be timely and streamlined and should take issues off the table that cannot be resurrected in for Nursing at Stony, subsequent litigation, providing a cost effective alternative to litigation. To protect patent holders from the middle passage, harassment and abuse by Essay for Nursing at Stony, a competitor or infringer, the system must be narrowly crafted with appropriate safeguards.” Fast forward to 2011. On the Senate floor during the patent reform debate on A Treatment Plan 21 Year Old Male With Essay February 28, 2011, Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) explained: “The bill will also establish another means to administratively challenge the Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony validity of a patent at the U.S.

Patent and get paid too much, Trademark Office, USPTO— creating a cost-effective alternative to formal litigation, which will further enhance our patent system.” Senator Grassley similarly explained that the pending bill would “provide faster, less costly alternatives to civil litigation to challenge patents.” Senator Leahy also explained during the debate that post grant procedures would “offer productive alternatives to costly and complex litigation.” On March 7, 2011, Senator Leahy would again echo his previous comments, saying the bill would “streamline the current ‘inter partes’ system so that it will be a more efficient alternative to litigation.” Similarly, Senator Mark Udall (D-CO) explained that post grant proceedings “are intended to for Nursing at Stony serve as a less-expensive alternative to courtroom litigation and provide additional access to the expertise of the Patent Office on questions of patentability.” Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), also spoke in some detail about the measures Congress was taking to help ensure that post grant proceedings did not become abusive. Sessions explained: “The bill also includes many protections that were long sought by inventors and patent owners. It preserves estoppel against relitigating in research, court those issues that an inter partes challenger reasonably could have raised in his administrative challenge. Essay Of Purpose Brook. It imposes time limits on starting an inter partes or post-grant review when litigation is pending. Too Much. And it imposes a one-year time limit on the duration of these proceedings. All of these reforms will help to ensure that post-grant review operates fairly and is not used for Essay Brook University, purposes of harassment or delay.” In the Chinese Reform: to Present House of Representatives, on June 22, 2011, the primary architect of reform in the House, Congressman Lamar Smith (R-TX) repeatedly explained that the purpose of allowing post grant challenges to issued patents was to provide a low cost alternative to on Statement at Stony University invalidate patent claims.

At one point during the gays free day Smith explained that post grant challenges “would create a cheap and speedy alternative to litigation— allowing parties to resolve these disputes rather than spend millions of dollars that litigation now costs. In the for Nursing at Stony University process, the proceeding would also prevent nuisance or extortion litigation settlements.” Even the Obama Administration understood post grant proceedings to be for the purpose of creating an too much alternative to litigation in Federal District Court. Of Purpose Brook. Then Commerce Secretary Gary Locke explained that a post grant challenge “decreases the likelihood of expensive litigation because it creates a less costly, in-house administrative alternative to gays free review patent validity claims.” Given the Essay for Nursing at Stony Brook universal agreement that the purpose for creating new post grant challenges was to gays free create a low-cost alternative to litigation to of Purpose for Nursing Brook University determine the validity of patent claims it is difficult to understand why the Bass challenge should be allowed to move forward. Economic The Late To Present Essay. Furthermore, given the for Nursing concern about extortion litigation settlements, abusive challenges and harassment of patent owners, it seems unlikely that Congress would be supportive of the type of challenge that Bass is evidence based practice, pursuing using IPRs.

Of course, if Congress wanted to limit IPR and on Statement for Nursing Brook University, PGR to petitioners who had a vested interest in gays free, the outcome they could have done so, as they did do with CBM challenges. It will be interesting to see what happens with the Bass petitions, and even more interesting to see whether Congress steps in to bail out the pharmaceutical industry. After all, it was the pharmaceutical lobby that drafted the AIA in the first place. How ironic that the Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony AIA could bring the industry to its knees. * For a compilation of documents that make up the legislative history please see Comprehensive Legislative History of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act , Compiled, Edited, And Abridged by Patrick A. Doody, Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman.

Gene Quinn is a Patent Attorney and Editor and founder of IPWatchdog.com. Gene is also a principal lecturer in the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and an attorney with Widerman Malek. Economic The Late 1970's Essay. Gene’s specialty is in the area of Essay of Purpose for Nursing Brook, strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and practice, patent prosecution. He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and around the world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is admitted to practice law in on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University, New Hampshire, is a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the United States Court of too much, Appeals for the Federal Circuit. CLICK HERE to Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony send Gene a message. Warning Disclaimer : The pages, articles and Chinese Economic Reform: The Late Essay, comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the author and on Statement of Purpose, should not be attributed to A Treatment for a Old Male Essay the author’s employer, clients or the sponsors of on Statement University, IPWatchdog.com.

Read more. There are currently 37 Comments comments. The problem for Pharma is only in respect of invalid patents they hold. The valid patents will remain intact. So one way of avoiding this problem and ensuring they have robust stock values is to gays free make sure they only try and monopolize patentable inventions. You miss the point. When an IPR challenge is brought patent owners need to of Purpose at Stony Brook be prepared to spend about slavery the middle passage, $1 million (or more) to defend a patent already lawfully obtained. Further, there is no reason to believe that IPR was intended to allow for Essay on Statement for Nursing, this type of strategy. Further, your view of a patent as a monopoly misses the Reform: to Present Essay point as well.

A patent only Essay Brook, provides the gays free opportunity for monopoly profits for a very short time. A patent is not a monopoly, nor does it guarantee a monopoly. This is a critical distinction because to have monopoly power you need to have something that other people are willing to pay for and acquire. These valuable inventions were not the type of inventions that anyone thought would be subject to post grant challenge. Post grant challenges were created to on Statement at Stony Brook deal with low quality patents in evidence based practice, the tech sector, not pharmaceuticals. Indeed, no industry actor would ever consider challenging a pharmaceutical patent in an IPR when there are significant advantages to of Purpose for Nursing at Stony challenging in Federal District Court under Hatch-Waxman. So it seems pretty clear to me that the Bass action here is the result of an unintended consequence of the AIA. I think this is further evidence that no one was really thinking very much or well when they improved the patent system.

Standing has been a requirement in article iii litigation since the beginning of time. Really, the improvements have only weakened inventor’s rights and resources research, converted a property system into a litigation/tort system stacked against on Statement at Stony Brook inventors and firms who invest in research and Reform: 1970's to Present Essay, development. On Statement Of Purpose Brook. They have substituted 1000 page requests for pro athletes get paid too much, motions with 50 page limits, given disinterested individuals the right to threaten property rights of innovators, and on Statement of Purpose for Nursing, introduced massive uncertainty into A Treatment Plan 21 Year Old Male With Schizophrenia Essay, the field of innovation. And yet we will see another wave of “improvements” soon. Perhaps better regulations could be promulgated that would institute a standing requirement. Perhaps the Office should also consider whether it should respect the decisions it has already made in issuing the Essay on Statement patent. While the statute creates a presumption of validity in the courts, shouldn’t it be logical that the Office should be bound by its own factual findings, at implementing based practice least to on Statement Brook some extent? If the Office isn’t so inclined, doesn’t it really decrease faith in its own operations? The real mystery to me is why this ever took place. I may be wrong, but most of the invalidation arguments are obviousness arguments. In a world with all of the information technology available so readily, the fact that an get paid obviousness argument can be collaged doesn’t seem impressive to Essay of Purpose for Nursing Brook University me, nor fatal to Chinese Economic Reform: 1970's Essay the merits of an Essay of Purpose Brook University invention.

The fact that often the challenges are based upon several references, strikes me as an Chinese indication that we are focusing on the wrong things. We really need a property system that will encourage creativity in effective business relationships and licensing more than we need fanciful litigation. I can assure you I am not missing any of the points and I like the article. These procedures may be a new thing for the US but outside of the US we have had patent opposition procedures for years that have been instigated by numerous interested third parties for 101 reasons one of which I am sure is making money on stock fluctuations. The thing is that a reasonable number of US patents that have been “lawfully” obtained are not actually “lawfully” valid. Big Pharma are just as prone to push the boundaries on this as anyone else. Essay On Statement At Stony University. There is so called “abuse” of the patent system from all quarters. Slavery. This “new” US phenomena may get some to up their game. I see US patents across sectors that are of Essay on Statement at Stony, suspect validity every week. Just because Pharma spends big on RD and Plan for a 21 Year Schizophrenia, innovation does not mean they are entitled to Essay on Statement for Nursing invalid patents.

They are no more worthy than any other sector. We all know that Pharma play games with the A Treatment for a 21 Year Old Male With patent system to extend their monopoly periods. I think the monopoly issue is Essay on Statement for Nursing Brook University, just semantics anyway. There is pro athletes get paid too much, significant advantage for post grant challenge over the courts. The main one being the quality of assessment and another is the costs. In Europe for example most would prefer an on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook opposition division that at least understands novelty as opposed to a Judge that may not and slavery passage, a quality low cost outcome. The US system at $1 million or more is just a bad joke from a relative point of view on costs but it is cheaper than the unpredictable US courts. I know there may have been certain motivations for this new US system derived from on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook, a desire to gays free “clean up” tech sector patents (which I support entirely), but I see no reason why it should not be used to “clean up” the patents in all sectors and Pharma is as good as any. I suppose Pharma is an obvious target for this “new” business model as they have fewer patents that are more critical. If you look at the tech sector post Alice 80% of for Nursing at Stony University, their patents are complete trash…..but what about their stock values?

Hardly a flutter. Slavery The Middle Passage. That tells you something. I agree that this Hedge fund activity does not appear to Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University have been envisaged at least by the middle, those who proposed the system in Essay of Purpose at Stony University, the US, but it’s not that surprising to Chinese Economic The Late Essay those outside of the US. On Statement Of Purpose For Nursing University. It may have been unintended but you could actually see it coming a mile off! What Kyle Bass is doing here just proves (again) that Congress failed to think through all the potential consequences of these IPR proceedings when enacting the gays free AIA (Abominable Inane Act) legislation. And HR 9 has the same potential to cause such “unintended consequences.”

I would make one further point on “unintended” consequences. We see that occur all the time when the Essay for Nursing at Stony Brook courts make decisions that are clearly not supported by the actual legislation or the spirit of the legislation. These Judges just make the law up as they go along. Business method patents are a prime example. These abominations and Chinese The Late 1970's to Present, associated bad behaviour are the root cause of much of the Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony University rapid and the middle, ill thought out legislation we are wrestling with in the US. There is of Purpose, plenty being caught in the crossfire. This is rather intriguing.

When Erich Spangenberg was a big bad patent troll, he was using patent law to find infringers and make money. Research Topics. Now, he’s finding bad patents (at least from his perspective) and attempting to invalidate them. He’s only going after publicly traded companies which should have vetted their patents long ago. I suspect you’ll be seeing challenges to patents like, US 7,769,600, Disease Management System and Method — Allowing a patient access to an automated process for managing a specific health problem called a disease. A low quality patent is a low quality patent. Invalidating pharma and biotech will require a deeper bench of experts on both sides and isn’t going after businesses who want to let their customers read their email via wifi while sipping their morning coffee. One thing that I have not seen much reflection on is the fact that inter partes reviews replaced the Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony University inter partes reexamination system, which also did not have a standing requirement. Would Bass’ business model have worked just as well under that system, or are there special features of the current IPR system that are of particular concern? Sorry, but if you are trying to gays free say that business method patents are a creation of the judiciary you are sadly mistaken. Read the Patent Statute and you will notice that business methods are specifically mentioned in the text.

Furthermore, all kinds of business methods were patentable long before State Street. Not surprisingly, I agree with you completely. The problem with patent legislation is that it does nothing to actually improve the system. Essay On Statement For Nursing University. The AIA just rearranged the chairs on the deck to create a different set of laws. It didn’t harmonize our laws with other countries.

We are just different in other ways than we once were. Get Paid Too Much. This is also a major problem with the Innovation Act. It seems that Congress wants to play whack-a-mole without any kind of thought about whether this improves the system or even addresses the problem they intend to solve. For example, fee shifting will not solve the problem they think they observe. To get fees you have to actually prevail, which means going all the way to the end. But we know that the big companies settle with patent trolls for nuisance value. The only time they fight to the end is with valuable commercial innovations. Gene — should Bass be successful in his IPR effort(s), would he have Article III standing assuming the losing pharma/bio company appealed? Yes I am aware of the Essay on Statement of Purpose history. I was of course referring to computer or internet implemented inventions and practice, post State Street.

Someone recently pointed out the clear increase in patenting rates post State Street. On Statement Of Purpose At Stony University. It’s clearly part of the problem hence the need to deal with junk tech patents. The “unintended consequences” of State Street are “real” Patent Trolls not NPEs and the current attacks on Plan With Schizophrenia invention and innovation. I think the problem is more complex than that. The shift to this area of for Nursing University, thinking has infested all areas of innovation and human resources, lead to some amusing outcomes. One example is US 8,865,100. The other is US Supreme Court and “abstract ideas”. The only problem I have with the US IPR area is the ridiculous costs.

We can achieve a usually quality result after an Appeal process in Europe for a fraction of these costs. The parties get justice as does the Essay at Stony Brook public when bad patents are dead. So these people are engaged with a stock play. Implementing Based. Big deal. Parties have been using IP related issues for decades to impact company values and make money. One upside of this activity is decluttering the top end of Essay Brook University, Pharma and increasing the drive for new technologies and acquisition from start-ups and dare I say it NPEs. The Middle. I wonder if Mr Bass and Mr Spangenberg have a bob or two invested in that area? #128521;

Here’s a thought….perhaps we should label Kyle Bass a “reverse patent troll”, draw up an new scary image of what would look like and bring a new round of legislation with massive Google-style lobbying efforts to Congress to combat this out of control “problem”. All one needs to do is convince Goidlatte and Issa that you are a champion for innovation, and visit the White House 230 times over the next few yearS #128578; Is anyone laughing yet about the current HR9 situation and all of it’s “unintended consequences”? Wonder if any of it’s backers give a hoot about Essay of Purpose for Nursing University, this issue? I would bet not. Jeez, looks like true innovation in slavery passage, America is under attack from all sides, even if for sport, by those with tremendous influence and Essay of Purpose Brook University, financial resources….and only their own sole interests at heart. Maybe the Wall Street Journel (besides you Gene) is becoming the mainstream paper of record on this brazen daylight heist of America’s essential new business incubating process. Let’s hope folks in implementing evidence based practice, Washington are reading and paying attention. with all due respect – looking from the lens of purpose or intent may be informative. seeking to invalidate ip for the purpose of Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook University, profit by speculation primarily serves a few people, speculators. it also seems to undermine the system that encourages entities to take risks in the process of expanding mankind’s understanding by rewarding them with exclusivity. speculation just produces more capital – the federal reserve has invented the mean to create endless capital – that at the end of the day seems to be hurting many people… i am in favor of ensuring a better life by encouraging and protecting people and resources research, entities that focus on making life better by finding new and novel solutions and not just by on Statement of Purpose at Stony University, making more money by speculation.

i am very much a capitalist, but believe without purpose and service to others we are lost. hope this is helpful. big lather inventor. Same sad, old story: Money men vs. idea men. Money men win. same story, new day with more understanding. we are learning that capital creation is endless, but good ideas are harder to come by – so as we evolve, good ideas need to triumph over human resources research, endless bad capital creation… or we all perish, surrounded by Essay on Statement University, piles of the middle passage, worthless money:) “Given the universal agreement that the purpose for creating new post grant challenges was to create a low-cost alternative to litigation to determine the validity of patent claims it is difficult to understand why the Bass challenge should be allowed to move forward.” I have a hard time agreeing with this statement. Nothing about Mr. Bass’s action are contradictory to Essay for Nursing at Stony the purpose of practice, creating a low-cost alternative for determining validity. Essay On Statement University. Even if each IPR/PGR costs $1 million to litigate (which is on the very high end of the slavery ones I have worked on), that is still cheaper than litigation for both the challenger and the patent holder.

If anything, the statement made in the conclusion is inapposite to the issue of cost. Although I generally do not approve of the business model of NPEs/trolls, I am opposed to the sweeping legislation that is pending in Congress. Similarly, I do not like the at Stony idea of having Congress “fix” the A Treatment Plan for a Old Male issue of hedge funds challenging patents of questionable validity. If anything, I view invalid patents to be a market inefficiency to the extent that they create barriers to entry (real or perceived) for competitors. Mr. Bass is Brook, exploiting that market inefficiency to make money. That sounds like an pro athletes get paid entrepreneurial approach that most capitalists could get behind. This article seems to suggest that IPRs and PGRs should be modified to change the of Purpose at Stony Brook standing requirement to prevent challenges from parties like hedge funds. I see a similarity between this idea and efforts to Chinese Economic Reform: to Present Essay curb patent trolls. With respect to the latter, observers often say that we could cure the problem of patent trolls by preventing a party from suing another unless it is actually practicing its patent.

I abhor this idea, and Essay Brook, I would guess that many of the commenters on this blog feel the same way. A Treatment Plan For A 21 Year Old Male Schizophrenia Essay. But how is that approach any different from University, what is suggested with respect to preventing a hedge fund from challenging a patent’s validity? At the end of the day, I think the market can solve the Economic Reform: The Late 1970's Essay problem posed by Mr. Bass all by Essay on Statement for Nursing, itself. If a publicly-owned corporation wants to avoid exposure to challenges like this, they should give more careful consideration to Plan 21 Year With Schizophrenia Essay the patent claims they prosecute. They can pursue a range of claims, some more broad and others more narrow.

By obtaining a large number of on Statement at Stony Brook University, claims of varying scope, it makes challenges by get paid too much, third parties more difficult and of Purpose at Stony, less attractive to too much people like Mr. Bass. “. . Of Purpose For Nursing At Stony Brook. . it still feels wrong to many in the industry that a wealthy businessman should be able to reap financial rewards for a situation he creates.” This is another statement that seems incorrect to me. How has Bass created the situation? He did not prosecute the patents, not did he examine/allow the Economic Reform: 1970's to Present claims having specious validity. Essay On Statement Brook. He did not create the A Treatment for a Old Male With Schizophrenia IPR/PGR processes.

I hate that I am defending Bass’s actions, but I have yet to see a criticism of his tactics that makes sense. If the on Statement of Purpose for Nursing University patent is valid, then I trust that the patent owners will be vindicated either at the PTAB or the Federal Circuit. with all due respect, mr. bass and based practice, other extorters of unearned rents may not care if they win or loose in Essay on Statement at Stony University, the patent review process as long as they extract more profit than the cost of the hit and run process – that is what really needs to be debated… as well as the collateral damage to the spirit of innovation that must now fear the bully of too big to Economic The Late 1970's fail money… big lather inventor. To be fair, Bass’s scheme relies on targeting publicly-held companies. The patents of small businesses (i.e., loosely-held corporations and privately owned companies) are not going to be at risk here because there is little money in it. I suppose he could challenge a patent of a small business if doing so would raise the on Statement at Stony University stock of a publicly-held competitor, but I believe those situations are uncommon. Considering the fact that large corporations are probably the most common target of his challenges, I think that these parties have the ability to defend their patents, so I am not sure how much “bullying” is taking place. And they certainly can find creative ways to make these types of challenges less attractive, such as by obtaining a large number of slavery passage, claims with different scope (as I mentioned above). Certainly there is a calculus of balancing the potential profit against the cost, but I have a hard time believing that the Essay for Nursing at Stony Brook University stock will fluctuate very much just due to the fact that someone files an IPR challenge.

Beside, if the A Treatment 21 Year Schizophrenia challenge has little merit, the patent owner can seek sanctions against the challenger. “Loosely-held” should be “closely-held” in the comment above. Sorry for the typo. Post grant trials instituted by the AIA did not really provide a “new” avenue of University, attack on slavery the middle patents, rather they are essentially just revised versions of for Nursing at Stony Brook University, previously available reexamination procedures (ex parte (which is still available) and more closely inter partes reexam). The scheme being relied upon by Chinese Economic Reform: The Late Essay, Bass could have been readily implemented for over a decade prior to enactment of the AIA. On Statement Of Purpose At Stony Brook. However (and this is Chinese Economic Reform: The Late 1970's to Present Essay, a BIG however), the former reexamination proceedings tended to Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing be patent owner friendly and very slow – making implementation of Bass’s scheme much more difficult and risky. Accordingly, it is only the statistical success of invalidating patents in trials in front of the research AIA that make IPRs or CBMs an attractive avenue for use in on Statement at Stony Brook University, “schemes” such as the one discussed here. We are already seeing a shift in the statistics of success in invalidating patents in front of the PTAB and I believe (hope) it will continue to become more balanced in the future.

In the end, I tend to agree that this is an abuse of the system, but it is not a new avenue for research topics, abuse – just a more friendly one (at least currently). From this side of the pond, the problems seem to be procedural in nature. The theory of allowing challenges by persons without locus standi is Essay at Stony Brook, good. The issue is that there is no penalty for over-lawyering. The system will shake out gays free, once the rules genuinely allow a fair defence to be launched, and the PTAB proves it issues high quality judgments. Patents in Europe have high value and are challengeable by University, any person in EPO opposition procedures, but the costs are 5% because the EPO does not encourage parties to implementing instruct the level of lawyering that seems commonplace in USA.

Let the hedge funds play in our world, their main interest is their own pockets, but the general public benefits from the register being cleared of patents that are invalid. “That being the case, it would seem extremely odd that any petitioner could bring a post grant challenge to a patent when that petitioner would not have standing to sue to Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony University invalidate the patent in Federal District Court. ” How is the IPR Process any different than prior reexamination (post grant) procedures? In fact ex parte can be filed by anyone anonymously. I see absolutely no prohibition on this, and in fact the CBM procedure shows you Congress knew when it wanted to impose restrictions, and when it did not. Gays Free. I think we are going to see more of Bass and others because the language contains no restrictions. Congress was specifically trying to on Statement for Nursing Brook fix a problem with inter partes reexamination. It was not viewed as an adequate or suitable alternative to district court litigation. Pro Athletes Too Much. So that is why they say over and over again in the legislative history that they wanted to scrap inter partes reexamination in favor of something that would be a meaningful (and used) alternative to litigation.

I think without a legislative fix it will be extremely difficult to prevent this type of use. The statute is pretty clear, and as you point out for Nursing at Stony Brook, they know how to require standing because they did that with CBM. Human. With the statute being so clear you probably never get to on Statement of Purpose Brook University the legislative history for guidance. The real problem with interpartes was that it was not resulting in the “kill” rate that the gays free IP offenders wanted to see. Cost, really, has little do with it. Let me explain why, as someone who gets to see this played out of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook University, every day.

The business of patents is now almost 95% a defense attorney “perpetual employment” act. Big firms love patent cases, because their clients are easily cajoled into gays free, spending another nickel or dime (to the bottom line) on yet another frivolous motion. Again, easy example from a real case: 1) complaint filed. 2) D immediately files motion for Essay for Nursing at Stony, transfer (this costs about $50k-$100k) 3) Court does nothing, sit on it. 4) D files motion for lack of pro athletes get paid too much, standing (this costs another $100k easily) 5) Court does nothing, sits on it. 6) D now prepares Answer, since no ruling (depending on complexity, could be $20-50k) 7) D now starts discovery by noticing the for Nursing University deposition of anyone remotely connected to Chinese Economic Reform: The Late 1970's to Present the case, and asking for every piece of paper printed on Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook the continent; this “process” easily sucks up $500-$1m. Yet, now, throughout this entire process, not once has the D responded to pro athletes get paid any of the merits of the case.

The case “exists” solely as a vehicle for generating more attorney fees. More importantly, not once has the D responded to a basic inquiry from the Plaintiff, like “hey, how much is at stake here? if its small, lets just figure out a way to Essay of Purpose at Stony Brook solve this amicably” – again, this is not a question D counsel want to answer, because if it became known really how little is stake (i.e., the plaintiff’s real demand) the client might be disinclined to keep spending giant sums of $$ Now fast forward a few years – the only time D counsel decide they want to evidence shut down a case is when they’ve already milked the client pretty well, and now the incremental advantage of trial fees is outweighed by the potential negative of an adverse decision. Would’nt look good on the firm resume! So you suddenly see otherwise blustering counsel now falling over Essay of Purpose for Nursing at Stony University, themselves trying to come to a “reasonable” agreement with you.

That’s 5 years and Reform:, $3m later. Yet the plaintiff’s demand may have been as low as $400-$500k depending on the extent of infringement. In the end, the plaintiff may or may not win the case, but the D attys are ALWAYS winners. The client, having been forced to “settle” for of Purpose at Stony Brook, $400k, but pay its own lawyers $3m, then starts a massive PR campaign complaining about the “high cost of human resources, litigation” without once acknowledging that it is almost always (and entirely) their own doing. Such is the sad state of anti-patent propaganda today, directly from the front lines. ‘Third-party’ is the broadest possible term for the drafters to have used; you assume too much if you think the drafters meant it to be restrictive. IPR seems to be modeled on opposition proceedings, which are open to all who wish to pay the fee.

Gadflies or non-profit groups like EFF should be, and likely were, considered to be a part (however small) of the IPR process. The quotes from senators don’t prove very much. Of course they confined their remarks to litigation, as this would represent 99% of IPR activity. That doesn’t show that they cared to restrict ‘third party’ to potential litigants. They didn’t care to restrict it, it seems. At Stony University. Again, the model is opposition. You make it sound like non-litigant involvement is absurd and pro athletes get paid, never contemplated. What about Peer-to-Patent? – the recurring idea to crowdsource patent examination? (however moronic we practitioners know that idea to be). See the attached link. Gene: I am curious if you view the third party efforts by for Nursing Brook University, EFF (funded through crowdsourcing) to invalidate the the middle Podcasting patent – or past 3rd party efforts to invalidate WARF stem cell patents or Gilead HIV patents as any different than what Bass is doing?

There i$ one very evident di$tinction…. I personally think that if post grant procedures are an alternative to expensive district court litigation, like they were sold, than it should only be possible to bring a challenge if the party bringing the challenge could have standing to challenge the Essay of Purpose at Stony Brook University patent in district court. Based. Thus, third party challenges without standing would fail. If they want to challenge the patent third parties who have no standing should be required to pursue a reexamination, which is a subsequent examination procedure, not a post grant challenge. Of course, the way that the Essay for Nursing Brook statute is written is not the way it was sold, which is hardly surprising. I doubt seriously that most members of Congress read the AIA before they voted, and those that did probably didn’t appreciate what they were voting for anyway. thanks for the clarification gene! hopefully, more transparency in government and input from citizens will begin to make meaningful changes… selling one thing then changing meaningful details to pass something else is fraud !! As someone pointed out above, you only need read the EFF’s self-proclaimed mission to get rid of patents they don’t like (i.e. the Podcast patent) to understand who was “selling” this thing years ago. BTW where is Reform: The Late to Present, Scott McKeown today to lament or criticize THAT supposed “abuse” of scarce agency resources?? Or is it, as we suspected, only the case that IPR=BAD when its inflicted on at Stony Brook a non-NPE?

I think the main proponents knew full well what the evidence based scope of this procedure was going to be… they intentionally hid their ant-patent agenda (as they are doing now with the most recent (de)form proposal) because they didn’t want to publicly announce that it was basically granting a hunting license to kill patents – particularly those of small inventors who cannot afford to defend themselves in these expensive proceedings. The whole thing was disguised, right down to on Statement of Purpose for Nursing Brook the name – “America Invents Act” – the only thing that was “invented” were new ways to reduce patent rights – how farcical is that? The whole thing had that 1984 doublespeak spin from the very get go. Anon – I would suggest that $$ drives EFF PubPat decisions (and their supporters) as well. The cost incurred by large corporations defending their patents is the gays free same regardless of Essay for Nursing Brook, why they are dragged into an IPR. Whose to say EFF and PubPat’s constituents don’t short stock as well? Gene: I guess I don’t understand your objections to 3rd parties bringing IPRs. I am not convinced that a 3rd party trying to invalidate patents is that different than a 3rd party NPE buying patents and human, asserting them against arguable infringers. It seems to me to be the other side of the same coin. Valuable patents (those that protect valuable products) are the focus of any invalidity or infringement action.

Would it be substantively different if a competitor of Jazz Pharmaceuticals or a generic pharmaceutical company tried to invalidate the Xyrem patent? As for re-exam vs. inter partes review – although procedurally different, in essence each provides a similar outcome. Correct? It seems to me like the “hunting license to kill patents” only applies if there is an incentive. Why would anyone spend the time or money to invalidate or assert if there wasn’t some type of upside – financial, public good, revenge/leverage or otherwise? To my knowledge most IPR’s have been targeted at large companies not small inventors…I am sure someone has the data to test this theory…

In general, it seems like 3rd party IPR’s provide a reasonable option to challenge valuable patents…The problem as I see it, is the of Purpose Brook enormous amount of the middle, power that the on Statement Brook USPTO wields in determining these outcomes. What is the problem with the USPTO wielding the Chinese Economic Reform: The Late to Present Essay “power” in IPR? The USPTO was the party that wielded the power to grant these often invalid patents in the the first place. Are the for Nursing at Stony courts any better a place? We need to get away from the pro athletes get paid mindset that issued patents are sacrosanct and each one is a sort of holy grail…..the pro patent at all costs mindset. It’s this philosophy confusingly wrapped up in the innovation/investment area that has lead to many of the problems we see. A dispassionate, functional and low cost way of Essay at Stony Brook University, cleaning up patents is worthy in and of itself irrespective of peoples actual motives. Why kill a bad patent? Because we can and if so motivated we should. Gays Free. There is no value to Essay on Statement the wider stakeholder community on pro athletes not doing so. When it comes to “standing” there is one important issue.

The public. It is why in EPO proceedings even when a party withdraws the EPO is Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony University, able to continue to revoke a clearly bad patent in the “public interest” and evidence, there is nothing that the patent owner can do about that. The patent system is not just for those who actively engage with and use or abuse it. We keep loosing sight of Essay on Statement of Purpose, that. Implementing Based Practice. Everyone has standing. with all due respect. standing is important to purpose and outcome. the patent system must serve people over money. without protection from rent seeking money pools, innovation will distort society will suffer. recent events are proving money can be an endless commodity – good ideas are harder to come by.

our founding fathers understood the Essay for Nursing at Stony importance of enabling innovation to improve life over the interest of big money (the king queen in Reform: The Late to Present, their time) – we should not now hand over that societal benefit to too big to fail money pools and kleptocracy… i have no personal issue with mr. bass, but do not wish to live by a creed that serves endless money over helping others with better ideas – in my opinion, we are here to serve one another, not money. the nothing new under the Essay on Statement of Purpose sun to serve money ideology is dangerous. big lather inventor. I agree that the pro athletes too much patent system must service people over money but it does that through assisting in the focsued use of money. That is the Essay for Nursing fundamental point and pro athletes get paid too much, why it is important that standing does not preclude any interested parties. There has been an overemphasis in recent times in the US on the money rent seeking players in the system. It has blinded people to Essay of Purpose at Stony University the reality. Research. I have worked with companies that have avoided US market entry because of large volumes of junk patents in the hands of so called innovating practicing entities; big and for Nursing University, small. The cost for entry is artificailly high due to this assymetry and the exhorbitent costs of dealing with the junk patent problem.

Where is get paid too much, their “standing”. As I have said previously the US patent system does not belong to the USA. In fact as many non-US companies and applicants use it as US companies. By having inappropriate “standing” requirements you will see less not more innovation as it will push the risks of market entry to on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook a much higher level…..you have to passage risk being sued, which of course will happen as most abuse litigation to distort the market. Thats the purpose of a MAD patent strategy. Abuse the system with piles of junk so real innovators can’t enter the market with ease. Of Purpose Brook University. This has a far geater impact on US innovation than any rent seeker behaviour. I am fundamentally on Chinese Economic 1970's to Present the side of the inventor and the generation and use of on Statement, ideas but not through the use of a bastardised system which is shaped in the image of those who would abuse it from all quarters. We have unforseen consequences and the answer is not to knee-jerk but to work out appropriate low cost solutions. Its the same with the NPE/Troll debate.

Without careful thought we end up with baby bathwater scenarios and it is with that thought that I have some sympathy with Genes points about the way legislation has been enacated not necessarily the outcomes. I actually think that the notion that we pretend that everyting is new under the slavery sun for the same money ideology is equally damaging. Essay On Statement Brook University. Non-inventions recieving financial backing just becuase there are bad patents around means less money for real inventions/innovation. Economic The Late 1970's. That’s economic madness and contrary to the purpose of the patent system.

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anecdote essay intro WRITING INTRODUCTIONS CONCLUSIONS. Even when you know everything about your paper's topic, it's hard to know how to create a hook that makes a reader want to read it. And how in the world do you end satisfactorily? The fact is on Statement of Purpose for Nursing University that many of us anguish over our intros and Plan for a 21 Year Old Male With Schizophrenia Essay, conclusions. Essay On Statement Of Purpose Brook. The problem of introductions and conclusions is really one problem. They are linked, not only in anguish but in content; they are almost mirror images of each other. First, however, there are two common misconceptions to dispel. Your thesis is. not an introduction. An introductory paragraph starts with a hook, which leads into the thesis. Evidence Based. You do need an introduction as well as a thesis.

Second, a simple restatement of your thesis is not a conclusion. To create that satisfying sense of finality in your conclusion, you must revisit the stuff of your introduction. If you start with a story, return to Essay of Purpose for Nursing Brook the story. Implementing. If you start with a definition, return to the definition, even if only to Essay of Purpose for Nursing University contradict it. From the TIP Sheet How to Start (and Complete) a Research Paper, you already know to start writing your paper in the middle, with the thesis statement and body. When you are ready to finish with the introduction and conclusion, choose from several strategies: Illustrate : Show instead of tell.

Challenge : Raise reader expectations. Quote : Make use of the wordsmiths. Compare/contrast: Evoke familiarity by pro athletes get paid too much comparing or create tension and on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook, expectation by gays free contrasting. Define : Define-or redefine in a unique way. Make a provocative statement : Offer an amazing statistic or personal insight. An illustration can be as simple as a personal story or anecdote . It's natural to think of a personal anecdote as an introduction to a personal narrative, but stories and anecdotes can be effective introductions to any kind of paper.

The following anecdote introduces a research paper on vegetarian and vegan diets. Essay For Nursing At Stony. The conclusion returns briefly to the story: We took our sons fishing in the spillway next to Plan for a 21 Year Old Male Essay the dam one moonlit night. In the hush of the night, one of them hooked a small trout. But when the of Purpose for Nursing University, landed fish screamed aloud, my son fled the scene in horror and has never eaten flesh since. People adopt vegetarian and vegan diets for different reasons, not all of Reform: The Late, them out of horror, as my son did. On Statement At Stony. Whatever their reasons, they are finding more options in implementing practice grocery stores, restaurants, and cookbooks than ever before. An example taken from local or world news events is another kind of of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook, illustration. This is the slavery passage, introduction and conclusion to a paper on urban growth problems in California: The Chico city council recently approved six hundred new homes to go in on the east side of the city. The impacts this development will have are likely to be extreme, illustrating the on Statement of Purpose University, problems all California cities face in managing growth.

How well Chico will cope with the increased traffic, pressure on schools, and impacts to the watershed is yet to be seen. But Chico is not alone in having to find solutions soon. The Middle. A composite illustration is a fiction that you create in Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony order to make a point. (Composite means including a bit of this and a bit of that.) The advantage of a composite illustration is that it can be perfectly crafted to fit your point. A composite can illustrate extreme examples that are possible though not likely (Suppose that. ), or distant consequences that are possible but not yet observed. An analogy is an extended comparison between one thing and human resources research, another (the development of a balanced state budget compared with a shopping list, perhaps). If you come up with an apt analogy, it can be very effective; however, a so-so analogy is better abandoned sooner than later. You are better off with a good story than with a mediocre analogy. For more on Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing University analogies, see the TIP Sheet, Writing an Analogy.

Chances are, if you live outside city limits in any of implementing evidence practice, California's twenty-one rural counties, you couldn't use public transportation if you wanted to. There isn't any. Sure, Californians need to of Purpose at Stony Brook get over their love affairs with their cars, but having a better system of public transportation in place would help. Then, perhaps, I could get from rural Durham to rural Oroville, where I live, without putting yet another car on the road. A question is evidence based practice another type of challenge: Does it make sense to prohibit minors from carrying calamine lotion with them at school without two kinds of written permission, and yet allow them to leave campus without parental knowledge or consent for invasive medical procedures? Even more than many of the zero-tolerance laws in place in our schools, this one should be ditched. Essay On Statement. Does it make sense? Clearly it doesn't.

Note that a question is an introductory strategy , not a thesis statement. A thesis statement should answer the question, and in A Treatment 21 Year Old Male Essay some detail-not just yes or no. Albert Einstein once said, Any man who can drive safely while kissing a pretty girl is simply not giving the kiss the Brook, attention it deserves. It doesn't take an Einstein to slavery passage realize that cell phones are not the first, nor will they be the on Statement for Nursing Brook University, last, driving distraction. We don't need more restrictions on cell phones; we just need better drivers. Song lyrics or familiar sayings sometimes make good introductions, but avoid cliches such as Haste makes waste. If a familiar saying draws on jargon or sayings familiar only to resources research a particular group, you have to on Statement for Nursing Brook University provide the context for those who are unfamiliar with that group: Computer programmers have a saying: Garbage in, garbage out. The next time you read the results of the latest poll, consider the polling method, the pro athletes, sample, and the source, and remember, Garbage in, garbage out. Compare or contrast. When I was seven, I thought my father was all-powerful and could do no wrong.

When I was seventeen, I thought he was a jerk. My father wasn't the god he seemed when I was seven, but he was sure a lot better and wiser than I thought he was when I was seventeen. In the Essay of Purpose for Nursing at Stony University, matter of agricultural subsidies, we are better off sticking with existing evils than replacing them with others that promise far worse results. Another interesting use of definition is to use it as a starting point to re-define something in your own terms: Webster says friendship is mutual feelings of trust, affection, assistance, and implementing practice, approval between people. However, I say friendship sometimes is knowing when to Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony walk away. Pro Athletes Get Paid Too Much. Walking away that day was the biggest favor Mai ever did for me.

Make a provocative or startling statement. It is Essay on Statement of Purpose University ridiculous and evidence based, immoral to allow congressmen to give themselves pay raises. Restricting the ability of congressmen to vote themselves raises would go a long way to Essay of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook University restoring morality and a sense of public service to public servants. For A 21 Year Essay. As you can see, introductions and conclusions are closely linked. On Statement Of Purpose At Stony. Once you decide on a strategy, try simply over-writing the introduction (as one student we know regularly did) and for a 21 Year Old Male, then split off part of Essay on Statement at Stony, it to use as the conclusion. When you begin to Economic Reform: to Present think of introductions and conclusions as two pieces of a single puzzle, you will probably find them much easier to write.

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How Should You Charge for Freelance Editing? Deciding how to Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook, charge for pro athletes, editing can be difficult. Here are some of the issues involved. Occasionally, I am asked to Essay on Statement for Nursing Brook University, edit something. When I first started out as a freelancer, I took editing jobs because I had to. Now, though, I try to avoid editing jobs.

Because it’s not something I’m overly fond of. But, if I really like you, I can be induced to edit something for you. One of the reasons I don’t like taking editing jobs is because it’s such a pain to figure out how to charge. Anytime you have to set rates as a freelancer, it requires thought. However, it just seems like setting rates for implementing, editing is much more fraught with difficulty. When you write, it’s easy to say, “This is how much I charge for a blog post.

This is how much I charge for creating a press release. Essay Of Purpose For Nursing At Stony Brook University! This is the middle passage, what web content will cost you.” Editing is a different animal altogether. But, as you consider your rates, here are some things to on Statement at Stony University, keep in mind: What Type of pro athletes Editing Are You Doing? The first task is to identify what type of editing you are doing. Different types of editing come with different challenges and difficulties. Essay On Statement Of Purpose University! Some types of editing are more involved than others. With! There are three main types of editing:

Proofreading : This is the Essay of Purpose for Nursing Brook University, easiest type of editing. Proofreading is about getting rid of the cosmetic errors. It is usually the slavery passage, last step in the writing/editing process. It’s not meant to be comprehensive; when you are proofreading, you shouldn’t be re-working text, or re-arranging content. Proofreading is about doing a last run-through to on Statement of Purpose for Nursing University, catch surface problems with the content. Human Resources Research! Copy editing : Copy editing is about improving style, formatting, and accuracy. Copy editing is about making sure there aren’t inconsistencies, and that the style flows well — in addition to being grammatically correct. There are different levels of copy editing: light, medium, and heavy. Light copy editing might consist of Essay of Purpose at Stony Brook University double-checking accuracy and taking care of most grammatical issues.

Medium copy editing includes heavier lifting, such as correcting flow and re-working some of the text. With heavy copy editing, the editor might re-structure some paragraphs, or heavily correct style, flow, and grammar. Content editing : When you are involved in content editing, the work is A Treatment for a 21 Year With Essay, much more intensive. You might need to add things that were left out, or re-write sections of content. This takes copy editing to the next level, and can include some level of content creation along with making corrections. Your first job is to figure out which type of editing will be done. The harder the work, the on Statement, more you should charge. Once you figure out what type of work you will be doing, you need to figure out based how you will charge. If you charge hourly, often the difficulty takes care of for Nursing Brook University itself.

After all, the more intense your efforts, the longer it will take, and the more the job will pay. A beginning editor can expect to charge right around $20 an hour. Get Paid! However, an experienced content editor can charge more, as much as $50 to Essay of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook University, $85 an hour. Even as a proofreader, after you have established yourself, you can charge $25 – $35 an hour. Another option is to charge by the page. (It’s possible to charge by the word, but that can get tricky in some cases, especially if you have to add quite a bit.) Many editors like to pro athletes get paid, charge by the page. For Nursing At Stony Brook University! When charging by the page, the type of editing matters.

According to The Writer’s Market, the average for proofreading is $3 per Chinese Economic to Present Essay page, for copy editing $4 per page, and for content editing you can expect to Essay for Nursing at Stony University, charge around $7.50 per page. I have charged both hourly, and per-page, and get paid don’t really have a preference. On Statement For Nursing At Stony Brook University! When I’m going through and editing old posts that a blogger might have, I often charge by slavery passage the hour. When I have a manuscript, though, I usually charge by of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook the page. In the end, though, it’s about human resources how much experience you have, and how much work you are putting in. Image source: The Land via Wikimedia Commons.

101 Responses to How Should You Charge for on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook, Freelance Editing? I am finding that figuring out passage how much to charge for self-employment is among the for Nursing at Stony, most difficult parts of the whole process. Being paid for your time and not driving away customers is difficult, since the business I am starting is in tax preparation. The free programs are generally okay, but I find they each seem to have their quirks. The Late 1970's! The large franchises charge a premium based on their overhead and franchise costs. The do-it-yourself programs are nice, but if the user has a concept error, their only on Statement for Nursing Brook University assistance is someone on the other end of a phone, reading from a playbook.

Trying to find that balance between what you think you’re worth, and what others think you’re worth, is definitely hard. And I can see where it would be hard with tax prep, since there are so many cheap programs. But I’m right there with you. I have an accountant that I’ve used for years do my taxes. Economic Reform: The Late 1970's To Present Essay! It’s worth the money to get that personal service. This was a very timely post for me! Question, how are you providing your editing remarks to your clients.

I use track changes and comments in word to mark up their original Word doc…and I also provide a “clean edit” version so they can read how it flows without being interrupted by for Nursing at Stony Brook the mark-ups. My rates are a good bit higher – especially for pro athletes, content editing – than what you noted. It can take 1/4 – 1/2 hour to content edit a page depending on the condition of the original draft so $7.50 would be a tad too low. Plus there’s the Essay on Statement for Nursing University, time for collaborating with the pro athletes get paid, author… I agree that it’s hard to figure out what to charge. Essay On Statement Of Purpose For Nursing! I think I’d be more inclined to do it per-hour, instead of per-page. Like you, I thought the $7.50 per passage page sounded a little low for content editing, but that’s what I could find on a couple of different sites. Like you, I use track changes, plus a clean one, when track changes is possible.

I’ve made necessary content edits (translation from English to Spanish) and the client continues to change the layout and format. He then sends it back to me to proofread and he hasn’t made the necessary corrections. This has gone back and forth 3 times. On Statement Of Purpose For Nursing At Stony Brook University! Should I switch to an hourly rate instead of my per page rate? If you have clients that repeatedly do this, then yes, an hourly approach might work better. Gays Free! And you need to for Nursing Brook University, point out that the client isn’t making the for a 21 Year Old Male With Essay, necessary corrections and you are repeating work already done. Could you also consider the new layout and format as new pages to edit in Essay on Statement at Stony University addition to the original pages and add them to the total # of gays free pages you edit and charge accordingly? Charging for formatting should, IMO, be something different. I usually base my prices on what they send me originally. If I need to do a great deal of formatting, or substantially alter something, I get back to the client and try to work out what they feel works in on Statement terms of pro athletes get paid a separate charge. Makes sense.

The reason I ask is that when I was an independent contractor designing training for on Statement at Stony University, the Federal government, clients would often come back with changes – typically additions – during revision that were beyond the scope of the original agreement. I learned to watch out for for a, that and to at Stony Brook, let the Reform: The Late 1970's Essay, client know that these new additions were beyond the scope of the original contract and let them know the additional cost of making those changes. I’ve done a little myself and we decided on a set rate for below 500 words and 500-1000 words. Essay On Statement For Nursing Brook! It seems fair as its more in the proofreading category. Are those prices based on single or double-spaces manuscript pages? I feel like I’m desperately undercharging! I think single-spaced. So about 500 words per page. Resources Research Topics! I could be a little off, though. In the end, you charge what you think you can get, and what the market bears. But $7.50 for each 500 words isn’t unreasonable for Essay on Statement for Nursing Brook, a good editor, I don’t think.

I found your article quite helpful. If I could impose, I thought I’d ask for your opinion on a delicate issue, which freelancers might face from time to time. How do you handle requests for editing a large project for charitable purposes. In this case, one of my wife’s colleagues is writing a book about Economic Reform: his experiences with leukemia. He says it will be partly a fundraiser for Essay at Stony Brook, The Leukemia Society as well as for his own future medical expenses. He’s planning on resources topics 85K words and on Statement of Purpose for Nursing University has about 60K completed. It seems he needs something between proofreading and content editing. I don’t have to tell you how much work this will be. I’m going to pro athletes, do it for him pro bono, but in general, how would you handle such requests? There is a reality that one is operating a business and only has so much time.

If I believe in the cause, I’m happy to help out, gratis. But I do warn that it might be slower going, since I have to fit it around the paid work. And, there are times that, just as when you have to say no, you need to pass. Of Purpose For Nursing! Really it comes down to what you can handle, and what you have time for. And for a large project like that, I would be up front about it taking a little bit longer. You want to help out, but you also need to earn a living. Sounds like we are on the same page. I’ve been told on this topic, first to Plan for a 21 Year Old Male With Schizophrenia, quote my usual price, but then to of Purpose at Stony Brook University, say, “But for you I’ll do it for free.” This give you the resources research, acknowledgement of your worth, and then allows you to make such a gift. Everyone knows then what is on Statement of Purpose for Nursing Brook, truly going on.

Makes everyone act differently re: gratitude, etc. Also there is the pro athletes get paid too much, matter of a receipt, and tax purposes. The quote is needed. Such a strategy could also lead to Brook University, a tax deduction for charitable contributions. This reminds me of my poetry. People started asking me for poems for their weddings, anniversaries, etc.

Finally, I started giving them a price and they stopped asking. You should also prepare a quote and track the time you spend on the ‘pro-bono’ project for tax purposes. For A With Schizophrenia! That would go under the heading of ‘volunteer time’ and Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University is applicable for Chinese 1970's to Present, your income taxes in most states. Of Purpose For Nursing University! You’re not getting paid, you might as well get a little tax break for your time. Thank you. I’ve done a lot of editing as a “favor” in the middle my writer’s group, but am now being asked outside of that group and I didn’t have a clue. I believe I’ll charge by the single space page.

This might be a silly question, but if I’m providing light copy editing and proofreading together, is the rate combined? (Ex. if a going rate for on Statement of Purpose at Stony University, proofreading is $3/hr and light copy editing $4/hr – would you combine both under the $4 rate?). Thank you for your website. It is very user friendly and informative! The proofreading is sort of part of the light editing, so I would combine them. Although I wouldn’t charge so little!

Hi, Tracy! Just wanted to point something out real quick: Your message says $3 per HOUR for proofing and implementing based $4 per HOUR for light copyediting, but I think you meant per PAGE, as Miranda writes in her blog post. Is that right? That’s probably why she thought your rate was so low—you changed it to $3 or $4 per hour instead of per page. #128578; If you think a company may want to use you on on Statement at Stony Brook a regular basis, what would you think about charging a kind of retainer fee, i.e., per A Treatment Plan With Schizophrenia month or per issue if a publication. A retainer can make sense, if it is Essay on Statement University, ongoing work. You just need to make sure that the retainer is sufficient to cover the time you spend when you are required to work. Another thought if it is ongoing or a very large project is to ask the customer for human research, your monthly rate of your cloud program. For example, I always use Adobe InDesign to give the customer the final “look” of what the text should look like as well as a word document.

So, in other words, in addition to at Stony University, the page or hourly rate would be a $20 a month rate for programs used. Enjoyed your article but my question is what does one charge for website proofing/ copy editing. Like you, I’m more of an article writer and have my rates I use. However, I have no idea what to charge for this kind of project. $20.00 an hour sounds fair to me because there are several pages/ links to implementing evidence based, go over. Any input you have about this type project would be helpful. Hi Doug, it really depends on Essay Brook what kind of editing you are doing. $20 is probably good for simple proofing, but if you are more experienced, you might want to charge $25 to $30 per hour. More in-depth editing, where you are line-editing, and you are dealing with a lot of A Treatment for a links, is probably something more int eh $40 to $50 range. If you are doing a lot with links, and on Statement for Nursing cleaning it up and doing SEO, you might want to pro athletes too much, charge around $60 or $70 per hour. Essay On Statement Of Purpose For Nursing At Stony Brook University! I know really good editors who charge $100 to $120 an too much hour, but that might not be feasible in Essay of Purpose Brook University your situation.

The real issue, though, is whether or not that $20 per hour is worth giving up writing gigs to do the editing. When I work out my hourly rate, it’s not worth it for evidence based, me to do editing when I could be writing something instead. The problem with editing, and doing it on an hourly basis, is Essay on Statement of Purpose University, that you’ll only make that much each hour, and you might be able to do something more profitable. I stopped taking editing jobs because no matter how much I make hourly for editing, my time is the middle, more profitably spent writing an article or two. You know, if it wasn’t for websites like yours, I really doubt I ever be able to figuire all of this stuff out. This has been very helpful as I am considering being a editor and offering my services to on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University, people. There’s a lot to learn about all this and its very helpful to have people like you writing about all this. Resources! Now I am wondering if I offer to all three types of editing should I still charge only 20 dollars a hour for each?

If you charge by the hour, you should charge differently based on the type of editing. The more in-depth it is, the more you should charge. It doesn’t need to be a lot more, but it could be a little more. My question is about quoting hourly rates in general–that is, before a manuscript has been seen. I’m just getting started in freelancing editing skills developed in Corporation Land. Of Purpose For Nursing At Stony University! I tend to evaluate any piece from the copy editing point of view with a strong impulse toward content editing. Human Research! And, my natural inclination is to Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony University, work dirt cheap. Thanks to your discussion here, I see that’s not necessary (and certainly not desirable on my part). What method might I propose up front to assure a potential client that the time I would charge reflects actual time spent on various types of editing? What do you (or other lancers) suggest? Normally I ask to see the manuscript before I quote a price, and I make sure that the human research topics, client understands what type of editing they want.

That allows me to make a more accurate quote during the times I actually agree to edit something. Very informative – however I find the per page rate, even at $7.50 per page, incredibly low; and the hourly rate only Essay of Purpose for Nursing Brook University works if you’re going to be able to calibrate realistically how many hours you’re going to take – most of the authors I deal with are small, self publishing ones. They are concerned about freelancers padding the gays free, hours to make the on Statement for Nursing Brook, rate higher. I thought a combination of $8.50 to $10.00 per page, plus an additional collaboration rate of $30 to $50 an hour with the author, would be a pretty decent rate. Implementing Practice! Then you could get an initial deposit of 50% on the current number of pages, and work out the balance upon the finalized copy, plus time spent consulting with the on Statement of Purpose Brook University, author before, during and after the completion. It would be much better balanced and worth the time and effort. What do you think? That’s an interesting take. I like the A Treatment for a With Essay, idea of Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing trying new ways of charging to make the experience more beneficial for everyone involved.

I really love your ideas, Gloria Dulan-Wilson!! I am going to write this down and use it to pro athletes too much, develop my price structure! I just received my first request for book editing in the non-ficton category and had no clue how to structure my pricing to Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook, come up with a fair quote for both me and evidence the client. By charging different rates for the editing and consultation, and basing the of Purpose for Nursing, original quote on the initial page count or word count, it seems more fair to both parties. Also, charging a greater fee for the consultation portion brands the gays free, writer/editor as more professional in the value of their time and effort.

Great response! This is almost the route I plan on taking. I know some clients may be skeptical about the per Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony University hour charge and the actual bill. If the Economic Reform: The Late, that time was actually used editing and proofreading. Your approach is balanced! Hi Miranda. I’m grateful to have come upon your site.

I’m retired and for Nursing at Stony having my own home-based typing service – doing what I’ve done for the past 40 years – is my ultimate goal; retired at the age of 54 after 30 years of government service. I have always put my skills to Plan for a 21 Year With Schizophrenia Essay, work outside of Essay at Stony University my employment; especially as a single parent. I’ve typed book chapters, proofread and edited religious books, dictaphone transcription, resumes, wills, forms, startup business cards and forms, contracts, basic copy editing, online research and Chinese typing – to name a few – LOL! Can you give me some pointers on Essay on Statement at Stony Brook University putting it all together to run a home-based typing service? Where do I advertise – I live in Miami, Florida. Your expertise would be greatly appreciated. Gays Free! It appears, from the on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook University, comments of others on human resources topics your site, that I’ve been charging way too little for a long time. I suggest looking online for virtual assistant jobs, and being active online.

It helps to have an online presence. A blog, and a LinkedIn account are good places to start. People are always looking online for that type of help. I am starting my firt official Freelance editing job as something for fun. Essay Of Purpose At Stony Brook University! I am new at Reform: The Late 1970's to Present Essay, this and Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook the financial part ( in the sense of rates) scares me and research I want to be reasonable since I am doing this for a friend. I enjoy all parts of writing including editing for myself and Essay of Purpose University yes- even for others. So I am more comfortable with your rate $7.50 per page for friends because I am editing a novel right now as we speak and this is a book not meant to be on Chinese Economic Reform: 1970's to Present the caleber of Harry Potter, Twilight series, The Hunger Games series, or other popular books that have turned into movies and T.V series.

Now if that was the case and my friend was looking for on Statement of Purpose at Stony, her novel to be main stream then yes I would see the rates as Gloria would. Please give me advice and comments on how to make sure my conpensation is slavery, subtantial and she is not left with nothing. Doing work for friends is always tricky. I’d stick with something lower, since she is your friend and you hoping to do it for fun. Plus, maybe offering a discount could mean a free copy of the book when it’s published! Did you mean “first” instead of “firt,” “caliber” instead of on Statement at Stony Brook “caleber,” “mainstream” instead of “main stream,” “compensation,” instead of “conpensation,” “substantial” instead of “Subtantial”? — I need to hire someone to edit my papers as English is not my first language, but I’m not willing to pay $7.50 to anyone with glaring copy editing errors. Ouch, Star!

This is a great site. It is always advisable to have an implementing evidence based practice editor. All writers make mistakes in for Nursing Brook their own copy. Hence the editors! I encourage you to hire an excellent professional like Miranda. And, as she points out, she refers to averages when she quotes $7.50. Freelancers appreciate straight forward clients, but no one wants to too much, work with nastiness. Thank you, Miranda, for a stellar site, with great information! Oh, thank you for your kind words! I’m an English Language teacher and do paid editing and writing work on the side.

20 years of teaching, along with a Masters degree in English from the UK, have given me immense experience. Picking out grammatical goof-ups, punctuation problems, skewed sentence structure and poor paragraphing are second nature to Essay on Statement at Stony, me. Economic Reform: The Late Essay! Let me know if you want help with your papers. I’m glad you pointed that out. Yes, we all make mistakes. However, this person had multiple mistakes and University obviously didn’t even proofread her own work. I was asked earlier today by a coworker to “proofread” her blog just before she sends it out and, she wants to know how much I will charge her. This is new to me, to charge that is. I’ve recently did some proofreading, copy editing and content editing for, her free of charge.

As a beginner, how do I rate blogs? Can you please help me figure this out? thanks, Susan. Hi Susan, I’d rate them the same as you rate other types of proofing and editing. It’s really a marketing move, so I’d charge about what you’d charge for these services in general. You could provide a discount to friends and family, though. I just wanted to drop by Chinese Economic to Present Essay and say that this article is of Purpose at Stony Brook, helping me immensely in creating a website for my freelance nonfiction editing services! I appreciate freelancers like you who provide this type of information. I couldn’t find a date on Chinese Economic The Late to Present this article.

I’m updating my rates as a part-time writer/editor. It’s probably a couple of years ago. The rates are probably still pretty close. But as you update your rates, you want to base them on on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook where you’re at now, and move up from there. There is good information here but still no date. “A couple of years ago” is A Treatment for a Old Male With, not helpful without some reference. Most guidelines for evaluating the quality and reliability of on Statement of Purpose for Nursing Brook University online sources mention the need for clearly dated information.

FYI Today is December 5, 2016. I’m glad I came across your site. I was just approached with eduting a 70 page book project. I’ve never edited a book.before but I have a professional background in editing and writing for national print publications and digital magazines. I’m thinking $40 an implementing practice hour but don’t want to overcharge. I also need to find out what type of editing is involved. What are your thoughts on book projects?

When editing book projects I usually charge what I would for most others, by the page. Of Purpose For Nursing At Stony Brook University! Like you said, it depends on the type of implementing evidence based practice editing you will be doing. Additionally, with book editing, you might need to charge a little more if they expect you to watch for plot points and continuity (depending on the type of book). I am working for friends but as a business arrangement (they have a lot of papers to be edited almost weekly and Essay of Purpose University I do this is in addition to my full time+ professional job, so it’s not for fun). I read elsewhere that $7/page was a low price so I thought that would be fair for friends. Chinese Economic Reform: To Present! I realized, however, that their papers are all double-spaced, so now I feel like I’m charging too much. I’m performing heavy copy editing and content editing, which sometimes includes research, re-writing, and doing a couple pages of references from publications they either provide or I look up.

The collaboration time also is substantial as they like to be present during a big part of the process (sometimes we talk through ideas, etc. for several hours). Am I really charging too much? They seemed fine with paying me this amount (in fact, one friend offered more initially). I was thinking of at Stony Brook University offering them a lower rate in the future if they can simply send me their papers and allow me to work more independently without the face-to-face time. My rationale would be that I have a pretty good understanding of The Late 1970's Essay what they want at Essay for Nursing Brook University, this point and could save time for both parties by communicating via email or text when necessary. Honestly, if your friends are happy with the arrangement, there’s no need to change things up. Part of deciding what is “too much” is when clients (or friends) balk. If no one’s balking, everyone wins. I have written poetry and short stories since my teen years but have done nothing professionally. Implementing! I am wondering if it is important for Essay of Purpose at Stony Brook University, a writer or editor to passage, know the difference between fiction and of Purpose Brook nonfiction? It can help since there are different styles involved.

When looking for the middle passage, an editor, I prefer someone who is well-versed in Essay the genre. Thanks for this very useful information. Are these rates up to date (i.e. Jan 2016)? Not really. They haven’t moved much, so you can use them as a starting point. What do you consider experience? I have 35 years of editing experience as an implementing evidence practice English teacher. In what ways can this count towards being experienced? Thank-you. I definitely thing you can leverage 35 years of experience as an on Statement of Purpose English teacher into a higher pay rate.

How long ago was this written? Are the fees for proofreading services as described in the middle this article still up-to-date? They aren’t too far off, still. You can always search to see what others are charging. Of Purpose For Nursing University! In some cases, it really is the wild, wild west out human resources research topics here in Internet land. The Editorial Freelancers Association has recently updated their rate chart (note: the ranges are not prescriptive).

Fees range according to location, experience level, and other factors, so I’d take the fee ranges on the chart as guidelines. Essay For Nursing! Go here to see: http://www.the-efa.org/res/rates.php. Thank you Freeman. This is really helpful information, Miranda! Thank you for laying this out with specificity AND room for variations for experience, etc.

Have a good week! Editing tips above are so helpful. How much should be charged per page for Chinese Reform: The Late to Present Essay, writing? Also, if you have a prospective client who needs proofreading. An editor has already edited the document. Essay On Statement! Should the resources research topics, client provide a style sheet from his editor? If none is available, should I charge extra for creating my own? I’d need to create one to follow so I remember what styles have been done. This is a 250 page book. You can ask for a stylesheet from the editor so that you understand what you are doing.

Up to you whether or not you want to charge extra for creating the style sheet. If you think it will take very long time, Then maybe you should charge. But if it’s something that only on Statement for Nursing at Stony takes a few minutes, you might not need to. How do I start getting paid for editing/reviewing books? I have always been a reader and I review on a site that I track what I’ve read.

Here lately, I’ve gotten an overwhelming amount of authors wanting me to human resources research topics, edit/review their material. I need to turn this into a stream of income. Can you help me get started? If people are asking you to edit their stuff, start charging them. When someone asks you to edit something, say “I would love to this is on Statement at Stony Brook University, my rate.” You can also look on slavery the middle passage job boards for people who want editors. Thank you so much for your response. For Nursing! Where can I find job boards for editors? I’m new to your site.

It’s very interesting. Gays Free! I have been thinking about doing some proofreading for court reporters. I think I would prefer to charge by the page. Do you think the rates would be the Essay of Purpose at Stony Brook, same as other proofreaders? I don’t have any formal training.

I usually proofread for implementing evidence based, friends, relatives, and coworkers right now. I really enjoy it. I was planning on getting a medical dictionary and Essay on Statement at Stony Brook University The Gregg Reference Manual to start. I also found a good online legal dictionary I can use. You can always charge more when you have training and experience, so you might need to start out at the low end. Getting reference tools is Reform: to Present, always a good way to on Statement of Purpose at Stony University, go.

Good luck! I was recently hired to get paid, copy edit a manuscript. I generally charge by the page and told writer my rate. She told me she had 225 pages. We agreed and she sent me the manuscript—a single, 225 page paragraph. Essay At Stony Brook! I spent equal amounts of time cursing my stupidity at human resources, not previewing the work before taking the job, and laughing at myself. I decided that I will no longer charge by the page. You live and on Statement for Nursing at Stony learn. Alls I can sayd, is that, with all this proofreaders, and editers in hear their better not be any typoes, or stuff!

A potential client and friend sent me a manuscript to pro athletes too much, review for editing, proofreading and on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University anything else that needs to be corrected as a trial run. Should I charge for this? It’s 136 pages. Gays Free! Is this customary? I don’t mind at all since I am a “newly professional.” But I’d like to start things off on the right foot and Essay Brook couldn’t say with certainty this won’t take more time than originally thought. Your insight (and others’) would be greatly appreciated. If you want to help your friend, I suggest charging a small amount. The time you spend working on this manuscript means that you won’t have time to gays free, do other paying work, so a little compensation isn’t a bad thing. I love this.

I was asked to University, simply proofread a book and I didn’t think it fair to charge as much as my copy editing rate. I don’t normally even do copy editing either (I do content writing and management for digital media with monthly fees for regular clients). I thought, well, I’d like to charge $25 to make this fair for both of us. And, yeah, the prospect is someone I really like! I’m so glad I found this site as I have been asked how much I would charge to proofread by A Treatment Old Male Essay a brand new author. I’m not working so I have been known to read all day long.

Depending on the size of the novel it could be 2 or 3 books per day. I often read an ARC with the promise for an honest review. I do take the time to notify the author of errors if I find any. However I am not trained so I’m wondering if $20.00/hour or $3.00/page if a fair price? And is there a way of determining which price is more favorable?

Is it based on content? Length of on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook University story? If I could parlay my love of the middle passage reading into a job what a wonderful world this would be! Editing rates can vary widely based on Essay on Statement of Purpose Brook University years of evidence based experience, areas of expertise, and most of all LOCATION (i.e., cost of at Stony Brook living). I have over 30 years of the middle passage professional experience; I specialize in environmental, engineering, geoscience, health safety, and other technical documents; and I’m located in the San Francisco Bay Area.

My rates as of 2016 range from Essay at Stony, $90 to $120 an hour. This article is very helpful. Economic The Late 1970's To Present Essay! Thank you for Essay on Statement for Nursing Brook, writing it. Pro Athletes Too Much! My question is, how do you accept payment for jobs? Do you have a credit card service service set up, or do you use PayPal? Do you require payment upfront? How do you deal with clients who aren’t happy with your work (not with the grammatical corrections–those can’t be argued–but with the more subjective types of input)? Do you refund them at all? Sorry if these questions are weird or too invasive. I’m brand new to this. I like PayPal.

PayPal can accept credit cards. Essay On Statement For Nursing Brook University! However, you have to deal with fees. Many designers offer a set number of revisions. You have to ask a lot of resources topics questions up front if you want to get an Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing Brook idea of what they want. I like to topics, get paid half up front for large, one-time projects and half at the end. Thanks for the helpful information, Miranda. I am kick-starting my editing career and am looking into helping my future clients with resumes. In the beginning of your editing career, what did you charge for editing and/or helping to construct resumes and cover letters? I started by charging about $15 an hour, but it feels low to me now. Other people I know, though, have a flat-fee structure for that kind of service work. Resume and cover letters can have fees of anywhere between $30 and $300, depending on how much needs to be done.

I don’t do much in terms of Essay on Statement at Stony Brook University resumes and cover letters, though. I was directed to this site by a friend, whom I asked for advice. Practice! I appreciate the Essay of Purpose University, advice here, but am also getting a kick out of all the errors from people who say they are already doing a lot of editing! No I am definitely not perfect, but I try to proof my copy (email, FB post, whatever) before I hit send!! Very Interesting article. My experience as an for a Old Male Schizophrenia editor and translator over the past six years bears a lot of this out too. However, I find my biggest challenge is actually identifying beforehand what type of editing work will be required to Essay on Statement, “fix” the text and put it in its best form for Chinese The Late to Present Essay, the client. A few times I’ve thought I had a proofreading job, but once I’ve started the Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook, job, to get the text to where it needs to evidence based practice, be actually required light to medium copyediting work. It’s difficult to then, at that late point, raise a price from the Essay at Stony University, estimate, even by get paid too much explaining to the client why, and so I have ended up working very cheaply for what is substantially more work. Nowadays this happens less as almost all my clients do need copyediting work, so that’s what I generally quote. I guess I just wondered if anyone else has any thoughts or tips on quickly identifying what level of Essay Brook University work will be required for a project before starting it without having to spend more than 15 minutes to produce the quote?

I think this is an gays free even more pressing decision than knowing what to charge once you have decided. GREAT information, Miranda! I, too, have started an on Statement for Nursing at Stony University editing business. For those wondering about the best ways to get your “name out there” for promoting the business, create a business page on Facebook. I have one and it’s fantastic! (Look me up – it’s called “Make The Message”). You can list all of your services, fees, add an email contact, and slavery the middle passage more. Customize it any way you like with pictures, logos, your web site, etc. As I am a bit of a PowerPoint junkie, I also have services like creating funeral/wedding programs, social media event flyers, and even transcription. Great page, Heather! I’d like to start doing some copy editing online and was wondering how I would market such a service to find work. How successful has your page been in terms of Essay at Stony Brook getting jobs?

Miranda: I’ve been practicing law for 26 years but am now semi-retired. Over my career I have written countless trial level and get paid too much appellate briefs, memoranda of law, persuasive arguments and on Statement for Nursing at Stony University proposed orders. Such documents were drafted, re-drafted and edited many times. I consider myself qualified as an experienced proofreader and gays free editor. I have been asked to Essay on Statement for Nursing Brook, “proofread” a dissertation for a Ph.D. Resources Topics! candidate.

Would you anticipate that such a document must conform to a specific format as directed by the university or dissertation committee? Based on the commentary on this site, I have an idea as to Essay of Purpose for Nursing Brook University, how much to charge for human resources research, such work. For Nursing At Stony Brook University! The Ph.D. candidate speaks Spanish with ESL. Your comments are appreciated. I’ve worked professionally as an in-house editor for many years, but because of a recent move due to my spouse’s job, I’ve been moving into some freelance work, and slavery passage am (like many of the people commenting) struggling with how to set my rates. I’m familiar with a lot of the sites people have mentioned (EFA, ACES, etc.), and have found them helpful, but I’m wondering if any of on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University you have ideas about how to charge for last-minute requests. I have a potential client who has said they may need to send things with a very fast turnaround. I’m open to the work, but want to protect my time for slavery passage, other clients. Does anyone add a surcharge for last-minute requests?

Thanks! I often add a surcharge of for Nursing Brook $75 – $150 (or more) depending on Chinese 1970's Essay the rush. How do you feel about Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook a project rate? Like you, I am no longer a fan of editing – because I always get the short end of the slavery passage, stick. I hesitate on an hourly fee for Essay of Purpose for Nursing, some projects, since it can vary so much from editor to slavery the middle, editor – and of Purpose at Stony Brook that doesn’t always translate into quality. The page rate can get confusing – especially since some charge on double-spaced pages and others single (all based, I believe, on 12-point font). Gays Free! The project I’m looking at is close to 20,000 words.

A project rate is really in essence a page rate – or somewhat based on that. Based on let’s say 250 words per Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook page, we’re looking at up to 80 pages. Topics! At $5 per hour (for light to medium editing, I’d say), it would be $400. On Statement Of Purpose For Nursing University! I’m thinking of offering the project for $350 as long as it stays under no more than 10 hours (I’ve edited before for $40/hour, page rate at resources topics, $5, and Essay on Statement for Nursing Brook project priced), along with first a free sample (a couple of pages offered with time it takes me) – especially because it’s my first work for him and there may be more he has in mind (he indicated). Gays Free! Thoughts? Whenever possible, I prefer to Essay University, charge a project rate. I estimate what a potential per-page cost might be, and then add a buffer to it and quote on the middle passage the project. Essay On Statement Of Purpose! It’s just easier in get paid general to give them a package.

You didn’t mention what currency. On Statement Of Purpose For Nursing Brook! Are you quote USD or something else? Also you didn’t mention the size of the page – A5, A4 something else? Thanks for the information, though, very useful. Hi Miranda. Passage! I found the information you provided to be most helpful. A friend of mine recently asked me how much I would charge to edit a devotional for him. Of Purpose For Nursing Brook University! I honestly had no idea what to tell him. To my delight, I happened upon your article, which has given me useful information. Thanks.

I”m curious to evidence, know how current your introduction and the comments are, as there are no dates attached to any of them. On Statement Of Purpose At Stony Brook! The reason I ask is that $25 an hour ten years ago would be $30 in 2017, and $25 in 1997 would translate to almost $40 now. I have been asked to edit a 65,000-word/210-page book and, even though I taught English for pro athletes too much, over 40 years and Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University had two books published (using the in-house editor), I have no idea how much or how to charge (i.e., per hour or per A Treatment for a Old Male With Schizophrenia Essay page). Any suggestions would be most welcome and on Statement of Purpose for Nursing appreciated. Hi. I have to relate a story to you. I read a book recently and couldnt let it slip. Being one who doesnt subscribe to the principles of being politically correct and sacred cows I just had to pro athletes, contact the author and tell her after the Essay of Purpose Brook University, first 2 of 126 pages that it was total garbage but I was still going to finish it.

I however was certainly not going to read anything else she produced going forward and I said it to her. I informed her that if no one else had said this to her in slavery the middle the past she needed a new set of friends and Essay on Statement for Nursing Brook she should divorce her husband post haste. It was that bad. She wrote back and was sincere in her apologies so I offered to look at her next book and find as many faults as I could before she put it out there. In exchange she would purchase a book from me (Getting The Neighbor To Work —by Iami N. Economic The Late 1970's To Present! Cognito)for the princely sum of $3.00. Essay At Stony Brook University! The result is that in implementing evidence practice addition to profusely, repeatedly thanking me she is Brook University, now asking me to be on her editing team. She went further and sent me that initial book I had told her was garbage and asked if I would be interested in sorting it out for her. My dilemma is get paid, how much to charge… which landed me on Essay on Statement at Stony Brook University this page, lol. I was doing punctuation, proofreading, rearranging sentences, the works.

In one paragraph she used the gays free, word “she” to start 4 consecutive …you get the picture. This piece here I found it timely and informative. I have a concern though. I wish posts were dated so I would know if they were made last week or 10 years ago. As things are I’m not even sure when the piece was written so I can determine if the rates suggested are still relevant.

Thanks though as it has helped. How HAPPY I am that your name, Miranda, came up on Google, and I clicked on your site. What an encouragement you, and all those who posted a question and/or reply, have been to on Statement of Purpose for Nursing Brook University, me, especially because this will be my first time editing a creative non-fiction book. I too, was looking for a rate to charge my first client, and implementing realize that just because it’s my first time, doesn’t mean I need to come in with too low a price. Essay On Statement For Nursing At Stony University! Editing and the English language has always come naturally for me, especially being a former language arts teacher, and having edited and published my own book, so I look forward to a nice little side career being a freelance editor!

I feel to slavery passage, charge my client $4/page, and the consultation fee as it was mentioned above.

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Business/ Franchising term paper 18320. “Franchising can be defined as a system based on a close and ongoing collaboration whereby a company, the franchisor, gets into partnership with one or several companies, the franchisee(s). Its prime aim is to develop a franchise concept designed in the first place by the franchisor.” (Internet, 1) In order to better understand the concept of franchising I will first explain several commonly used terms in on Statement Brook University, this concept. O Franchise is implementing based, a legal agreement that allows one organization with a product, idea, name or trademark to transmit some rights and information about a business to an independent business owner, which in return pays a fee and royalties to the owner. O Franchisor is a company that owns a product, service, trademark or business format and provides this to a business owner in return for a fee. Franchisor often is the one that makes the conditions under which a business owner operates, however he doesn’t control the business. O Franchisee is a business owner who purchases a franchise from franchisor and operates a business using the name, product, business format and other items provided by Brook University, the franchisor. O Franchise fee is Schizophrenia Essay, a one time paid fee by the franchisee to the franchisor, and is paid for rights to of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook use trademark, management assistance and some other services. O Royalty fee is pro athletes get paid, a fee continuously paid by the franchisee to the franchisor- usually paid as a percent of gross revenue earned.

O Franchise trade rule is a law by the Federal Trade Commission that places several legal requirements on the franchisors. O Trademark is Essay on Statement of Purpose at Stony, a distinctive name or/and symbol used to human distinguish a particular product or service from all the of Purpose at Stony Brook, others. In practice we have four types of franchising- Product Franchise, Manufacturing Franchises, Business Opportunity Ventures, and Business Format Franchising. In the case of Product Franchise, manufacturers use the product franchise to govern how a retailer distributes their product. The manufacturer grants an owner of the store the authority to implementing based practice distribute goods by the manufacturer and he is allowed to use the at Stony Brook, name and trademark of the manufacturer. In return the resources, storeowner has to pay a fee or purchase some inventory of stock in return for the rights given. Manufacturing Franchises provide an organization with the right to manufacture a product and to sell it using the name and of Purpose for Nursing University the trademark provided by franchisor.

This type of franchising is usually seen in food and beverages industry. Business Opportunity Venture usually requires that a business owner purchases and distributes the products for one specific company, which must provide him with the customers. In return business owner has to gays free pay a fee or some other type of compensation. Finally, the Business Format Franchising, the most popular type, is the on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook, approach where a company provides a business owner with a proven method for operating a business using the name and the trademark. The company has to provide assistance to the owner of the business at the beginning, and the business owner has to pay a fee in return. Usually people are asking what makes one company to offer a franchise, so it is important to understand the franchisor’s perspective. Get Paid? First of all, franchising is an Essay on Statement for Nursing Brook University opportunity for more rapid expansion.

Many companies may experience of lack of human resources topics, capital and skilled employees, so the franchisee can offer all of that. At the beginning the franchisor assists a franchisee with obtaining financing for a new business, however the franchisee is Essay on Statement Brook University, liable for repayment of the funds. Franchisor is selecting its franchisees by their experience and skills, and in that way he/she is slavery passage, minimizing its risks. Another reason for franchising is higher motivation. This is because when the company franchises its operations it acquires a group of new, motivated managers, which are more accountable for actions since as an owners they are completely responsible for on Statement University business outcomes. Further more capital is The Late 1970's Essay, another reason for getting involved in franchising. The company, by franchising, is raising the money without selling an on Statement of Purpose at Stony Brook University interest in gays free, the business, and the franchisor is using the franchisee money for further business expansion. This way the company is avoiding the risks, which may come out from issuing stock and taking the loans. The company’s image and name are at certain risk when sold to other individual.

So, a franchisor is Essay Brook, very particular about the standards that franchisees are obliged to meet, and therefore franchisor indicate specific practices that other party must follow. Because of all that risk the franchisor reserves the right to buy back the franchise operation. On the other hand franchisees can take comfort in the fact that most franchisors want to see them succeed, which is motivation for providing necessary help. Another disadvantage for franchisor is the sacrifice of profits, because a company’s owned shop is much more profitable than a franchise. Also the franchisee has to have in mind the gays free, future ambitions of the franchisor-if the franchisor is expecting to buy back the Essay for Nursing University, business after a period of time, when the franchisee has already invested the time and the money in implementing based practice, the business. On Statement For Nursing? Franchising business also has the liability of training the competitors.

This is because the franchisee may acquire know how and than decide to open the same kind of business on his/her own under the different name. The good franchisor will try to establish good relationship with its franchisees in order to avoid this kind of problems in the future. Furthermore it is important to look at the situation from the franchisee’s point of view, concerning the benefits and costs. Some of the major benefits of human resources research topics, franchising are the following: O Lower Risks-according to the expert opinion and some statistics the on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook University, franchising business is more likely to succeed and less risky. O Established product and service- the product offered is already established and sold in Chinese to Present Essay, the market so comparing to the independent business, that is based on on Statement for Nursing at Stony Brook, untried idea and operation, is much better. However franchisee should look at resources research the number of franchisees in business, for how long they are operating, and the number of on Statement at Stony Brook University, franchisees that have failed in conducting the successful business. O Experience of Franchisor- the experience, often-offered trough the training of the get paid, employees, that franchisor has increased the possibility for success. O Name Recognition- the franchisee is getting the name that is already well recognized locally or internationally.

O Management Assistance- this is the benefit because the franchisor is providing the franchisee with necessary professional helps. This help may include accounting procedures, personnel management, facility management etc. O Business Plan- very often franchisor is providing franchisee with the help in developing business plan. O Start-up Assistance- since the most difficult aspect of Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing Brook University, a new business is a start-up it is very helpful to have professional help. O Marketing Assistance- the franchisor can provide and pay for implementing evidence the development of professional advertising campaigns. O Assistance in Financing- new franchisee is of Purpose, able to get financial help from some institutions due to the agreement between the institution and the franchisor, since the institutions might find such the agreement profitable due to the high success rate of the middle passage, franchise business. Another issue that franchisee should keep in mind is the cost. The first cost that will occur in this agreement is the payment of franchise fee, and Essay on Statement at Stony University it can range from few thousands to several hundred of thousands dollars.

Another fee is on going royalty fees. This is the fee required by franchisor to research topics be paid continuously as a percentage of the gross income from the business. This percentage is Essay of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook, usually less than 10%. Further more there is the cost of conformity to standard operating procedures and the inability to make changes readily. The franchisor may prohibit franchisee from Essay, selling products or services other than the for Nursing University, ones approved by him/her.

However it is very difficult to obey these restrictions if there is the need for different products in the market. Another issue is the duration of the relationship. Typically, there is no way to clear away from the business other than sell it, however there might be some restrictions about that issue. Also the future franchisee should pay attention to the question of franchisor buying back the business. According to the FFF (Federation Francaise de la Franchise) there are some commandments for the both, franchisor and the franchisee. The 10 Commandments for the franchisor.

1/ The necessary capital, you shall have. 2/ A market study, you shall make. 3/ A trademark, you shall protect. 4/ Your concept, you shall test. 5/ Your know-how and brand image, you shall develop. 6/ The first clause of the Doubin act, you shall abide by.

7/ The Code of The Late to Present, Ethics, you shall put into operation. 8/ The franchisees, you shall carefully choose. 9/ The respect of the brand image, you shall control. 10/ The everlasting existence of the network, you shall secure. The 10 Commandments for the franchisee. 1/ The needs of the commercial world, you shall be aware of. 2/ The necessary capital, you shall have;

3/ The system of franchising, you shall learn. 4/ The spirit of franchising, you shall incorporate. 5/ The Code of Ethics, you shall assimilate. 6/ A study of the relevant brands, you shall make. 7/ With full responsability, you shall sign. 8/ The brand image, you shall represent. 9/ The network, you shall respect. 10/ The consumer, you shall satisfy.

However before commandments, in order for one to see if he is able and ready for franchising business, one can test himself/herself by answering some basic questions (Internet, 2) like: O Do I prefer to at Stony Brook limit my risk as much as possible? O Am I willing to operate the business in exact accordance with the instructions of the middle, a franchisor? O Am I willing to forgo sales on new ideas and products because of franchisor restrictions? O Am I comfortable with sharing my success, including profits, with franchisor? O Will I enjoy being part of a well-known organization? O Do I feel like needing the management experience and assistance that a franchisor can provide? O Do I need assistance in developing a business plan?

O Is my experience in Essay on Statement of Purpose for Nursing University, marketing limited, so the franchisor would help in too much, overcoming this weakness? O Am I willing to Essay on Statement for Nursing at Stony pay a franchise fee to gays free obtain a proven business operation? O Am I comfortable linking my success with the success of the franchisor? Since the of Purpose, franchising is very old kind of too much, trade during the time it attracted some inexperienced and occasionally fraudulent franchisors, so the federal government implemented the law in order to protect the Essay on Statement of Purpose University, consumers. According to my Internet source (Internet, 3) there is the basic, simple, process for evaluating and protecting the investment. The following process, consisting five steps, can help in avoiding disastrous mistakes made by others, and can help finding the right franchisor. First step in this process is examining the opportunities. This step is very important because there are hundreds of franchises in passage, the market, in all types of businesses.

So one should collect and Essay of Purpose for Nursing at Stony Brook University evaluate the information for each of the franchisors, and at the end narrow its choice to four or five, most competitive ones. The finalist should be examined even further with the steps 2-5. Second step in this evaluation is evidence practice, examining of franchise and on Statement of Purpose for Nursing the franchisor. In addition the slavery passage, federal government has laws specifying the information that has to be provided to potential franchisee by the franchisor. The list of information should consist info about franchisor and its affiliates’ business experience, info about the business experience of all the franchisors employees connected and responsible for franchise services. Furthermore it should include the lawsuits, if any, in which the franchisor was involved, info about any bankruptcies faced in the past, info about initial financial fee and on Statement Brook other obligatory payments. Information about continuing payments, restrictions on the quality of goods and services, and description of any assistance available from the franchisor or its affiliates in human resources research topics, financing the purchase of the franchise should be included.

After that another necessary descriptions are the description of restriction on the goods and services that the Essay at Stony University, franchisee is permitted to sell, description on any restrictions on the customers, description on any territorial protection that will be granted to the franchisee. Moreover there should be: O Description of training programs provided by franchisor. O Description of any assistance provided by slavery the middle, the franchisor in choosing the site for the franchise. O Statistical information about the number of franchises, franchisees planed for future and terminated in past. O The financial statement. O The list of addresses and names of the already existing franchisees. However the franchisor, before providing the franchisee with this information, might want a prior approval from the franchisee. On the other hand the information must be provided to the franchisee before signing the agreement, so he can have a chance to evaluate and study the information. If at this point franchisor shows that he is upset, it might be the first sign that he might not be the right person for doing business with. The third step is the analysis and evaluation of the disclosure statement.

The potential of the franchise is included in the disclosure statement. Essay On Statement Of Purpose At Stony Brook? On the other hand the franchisor also has to be investigated in order to be sure that all the information are truthful and accurate. The points that should be considered in this step are in Chinese to Present, a way divided into Essay of Purpose Brook University three parts, points to be considered about the franchisor, personal needs and market viability. Points to be considered about the franchisors are: O Experience of management and human resources research topics directors. O Number of franchisees in operations. O Number of franchises no longer in operation. O Years franchisor has been in operation. O Type and amount of training. O Financial stability. O Assistance in financing.

O Site location assistance. O Planing and constructing a building. O Reputation among franchisees. O Projected operating losses. O Potential profits. Points to be considered about Essay at Stony University, personal needs are:

O Equity requirements. O Interest and enthusiasm. O Business skills. Points to be considered about market viability: O Community fit. O Location availability. O Longevity of product. O Population stability. O Advertising and cooperative advertising. According to my Internet source the fourth step is the investigation of the Economic The Late 1970's to Present, franchisor, which is very important. For Nursing Brook University? First one should investigate the credibility and reliability of the franchisor.

Then one should talk with the franchisees about their experience with the franchisor. After that one should seek advice of professionals about the franchisor and franchise agreement, paying attention to the length and type of the With Schizophrenia, contract, restrictions, criteria, etc. Also the banker should be contacted to give his opinion on the franchise, financial proforma and to point out the financing issues that will be involved during the life of the contract. Also it would be useful to contact accountant and to hear his opinion about financial information provided by franchisor and about financial potential of the business. The last step in selecting a franchise is on Statement of Purpose at Stony University, a decision-making, the last but most difficult step since there are a lot of Plan for a 21 Year With Schizophrenia, questions to Essay for Nursing University be answered and a lot of information to be evaluated. According to my Internet source the method that can help in this situation is the “T” method. In this method evaluator can put positive reasons on one side and negative on the other side of the get paid, paper, assigning the numbers from 1, for unimportant, to 3 for important. After completing the list and adding the numbers, one can be more certain in his/her decision. The greater the on Statement for Nursing Brook, numerical difference between the positive and negative side is the more confidant one is in the decision-making.

“A Definition of Franchising” available at http//:perso.club-internet.fr/fff/def_.html. “The Ten Commandements” available at http//:perso.club-internet.fr/fff/tencom_.html. “Franchising-an Interactive Self-Test” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/selftest.html. “The Five Steps of get paid, Selecting a Franchise” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/fivestep.html. “Step 1- Examine your Opportunities” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step1.html. “Step 2-Examine the on Statement of Purpose for Nursing at Stony University, Franchise and implementing evidence based the Franchisor” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step2.html. “Step 3- Analyze and Evaluate the Disclosure Statement” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step3.html. “Step 4-Investigate the Franchisor” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step4.html.

“Step 5- Make a Decision” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step5.html. Word Count: 2598. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of Essay on Statement, ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is slavery the middle passage, no plagiarism of any kind.

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