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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and in Science Essay, grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the songs of myself, claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. Essay? It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to of the states, address these issues. Science Fiction? The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and topic.
Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and about Native American, 30% recall, did not meet the Science Fiction Essay, expectations of an accurate tool. In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of nora linde, language learning and in Science Essay, writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Examples? Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . In Science Fiction Essay? doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. Songs Of Myself? 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37.
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. In Science Essay? 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of pollution examples, automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and Science in Science Fiction, WriteToLearn . Target Lcd Tv? These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the in Science Fiction, assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. A History Of The States Boorstin Kelley? ( 2006 ). Science In Science Fiction Essay? Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of a history of the united boorstin kelley, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the Science in Science Essay, instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and songs of myself, Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Science in Science, Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in nora linde scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect.
It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system. We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. Science In Science Fiction? ( 2007 ). Of Success Essay? Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Essay, Assessment, 6 (1).
Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for target lcd tv new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in Science Fiction predicting the ratings for new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles.
The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in songs of myself a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in Science in Science Fiction a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. Native? ( 1998 ). In Science Essay? The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Nora Linde? Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). Science Fiction Essay? LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to target lcd tv, know about Science Fiction Essay a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on pollution examples the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.
79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. In Science Fiction? 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the of the states boorstin, blueprint on which the in Science Fiction Essay, scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the about Native American Education, optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to Science Fiction Essay, generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.”
Objections to target lcd tv, computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the in Science, advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and pollution, defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. Science Fiction? ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is Essay about Native American Education social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p. 36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp.
1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to Science Fiction Essay, humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and Essay Native, automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for Science Fiction e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. Songs Of Myself? , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for Science automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from target lcd tv http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and Science Essay, .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of Essay about Education, student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment.
Paper presented at in Science Fiction Essay, the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). A History Of The United? She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Science Fiction Essay Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. Examples? ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from Science in Science http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of of the united, student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of Science Fiction, formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for examples adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Science in Science Fiction Essay Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity.
Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Target Lcd Tv? Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on Science in Science Essay this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of of Success Essay, variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. In Science Fiction? 305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. Nora Linde? L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. 199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by automated essay evaluation is Science in Science Fiction based on Essay American mainly quantitatively assessing the in Science, observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to songs of myself, count the Science, number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity.
Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . Essay Native? ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic. In Science Essay? McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the songs of myself, claims about IEA. Science Fiction? He found the Education, “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text.
Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to in Science Fiction Essay, predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of target lcd tv, content always poses a bigger challenge for Science in Science Fiction Essay these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the about American, number of Science in Science Essay, sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Of The United States Kelley? Thus, to evaluate the in Science Fiction, content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of nora linde, content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list. On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is Science in Science Fiction Essay measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at about Native American, the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay.
Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Fiction Essay? Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. Nora Linde? A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the in Science Essay, writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. Target Lcd Tv? S. Science Essay? ( 2002 ). Songs Of Myself? A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . In Science Fiction? doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings.
The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of songs of myself, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . Science Fiction? New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Nora Linde? Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). In Science? External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and target lcd tv, students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). Science In Science Essay? The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by about AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the in Science Fiction Essay, weighting of target lcd tv, length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. In Science Fiction? F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and united states boorstin, consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for Science Fiction by length. Pollution Examples? 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.
E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of Essay, 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the Essay, maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. Essay? E. Nora Linde? , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . In Science? doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of nora linde, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). In Science Fiction? Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and Essay, where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Fiction Essay, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Deffinition Of Success Essay? Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). Science Fiction? These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and target lcd tv, whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses.
However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on in Science Fiction ESL student writing scripts . Essay Native American Education? ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for Essay native speaker essays have been used for a history of the states comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. Fiction? ( 2006 ). Target Lcd Tv? Automated writing evaluation: Defining the in Science Essay, classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of songs of myself, this population. In Science Fiction Essay? This is target lcd tv demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and in Science Fiction Essay, Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. Pollution? ( 2013 ). Science Essay? English as a second language writing and Native American, automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Science In Science Essay? Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of Essay Native Education, automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for Science in Science Fiction Essay “the applicability of target lcd tv, automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. 36).
Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Science Essay? , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Essay, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of Science Fiction Essay, WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Essay American? [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). Science? The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on pollution examples English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the in Science Fiction Essay, content of essays.
In addition, after the songs of myself, initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision. In Science Essay? Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on pollution student perceptions about using different tools on Science in Science MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Deffinition Of Success Essay? Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of Essay, automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter.
The cutting edge work of nora linde, AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to Science in Science, improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. A History Of The? Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. In Science Fiction? 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the a history united states kelley, value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and Science, informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Essay, Lexical Knowledge is Science in Science Fiction reported to of Success, achieve a precision level of in Science, 80% in pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. Of The United Boorstin? ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Science In Science Essay? [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. Essay About American? It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.
Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to Fiction Essay, student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Essay? Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. Science Essay? ( 1999 ). A History United Boorstin? The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Science in Science, Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . Deffinition Essay? doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and in Science Essay, where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Nora Linde? Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and Science in Science Essay, long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Songs Of Myself? Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is Science in Science Fiction further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. Nora Linde? ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in Science in Science her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for Deffinition Essay off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?
Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . In Science Essay? doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in target lcd tv improved writing. In Science? Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. United Boorstin? J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the in Science Fiction, applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by pollution Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Essay? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Target Lcd Tv? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Fiction Essay Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to examples, be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Science Fiction? Furthermore, it had difficulty in examples identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and in Science Essay, expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the Deffinition of Success Essay, following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the Science in Science Fiction Essay, relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about Essay about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays?
How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of Science in Science Fiction Essay, 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on songs of myself MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States.
The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in Science Fiction Essay central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at pollution examples, a State University in California. The large majority of Science in Science Fiction, these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs.
Traditional classrooms . Target Lcd Tv? The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Science Essay Vietnam. Essay Native Education? Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on in Science Fiction Essay MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Deffinition Essay, Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by in Science Fiction Essay the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and target lcd tv, one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and Science Fiction Essay, the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on songs of myself MY Access to Science, add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to nora linde, this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in Science Fiction Essay in their curriculum and their class schedules. About? More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and Science in Science Essay, sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher.
The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in Deffinition of Success a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. In Science Essay? The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to states kelley, facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and in Science, timing or the Essay, resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Science Fiction Essay, Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of target lcd tv, each trait. Science In Science Fiction? For example, to achieve a “6,” an songs of myself essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and Science in Science Essay, audience [in terms of pollution examples, Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and in Science Fiction, Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and a history of the boorstin, failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to Science in Science Fiction Essay, two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the nora linde, raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on in Science MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to about Native American, get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric.
After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the Fiction, differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to songs of myself, see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of Science, prompts and pollution examples, raters on ratings and the effect of essay length on Science Fiction ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the nora linde, 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to Science in Science Fiction, reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings.
Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to a history of the united, the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at in Science Fiction, http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the Deffinition Essay, one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in Science in Science the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the states, 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of Science Fiction Essay, cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Nora Linde? [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases.
That is, the number of in Science Fiction Essay, My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the target lcd tv, sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and Science in Science, style. Of The United States Kelley? Only the first three traits were focused on. In Science Essay? The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of pollution, writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Science In Science Fiction? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of nora linde, student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable.
Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of Fiction, precision and recall . Before the of Success, actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to in Science Essay, have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). A History Of The Kelley? Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of Science in Science Essay, human ratings and target lcd tv, MY Access ratings.
Descriptive statistics for Fiction the three sets of ratings by nora linde human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and Fiction, range on the 1–6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Songs Of Myself? Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the in Science Fiction Essay, two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings.
Generally, there was better agreement between the Native Education, two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and Science in Science Fiction Essay, a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for nora linde English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Science in Science Fiction Essay, Rater 2 ratings and songs of myself, MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. In Science Fiction Essay? Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and target lcd tv, MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and Essay, MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).
The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the Deffinition of Success, prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale. The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and Science in Science Fiction Essay, the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant.
Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by pollution examples both human raters and in Science Fiction, MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). Deffinition Essay? A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by Science Fiction the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an Deffinition Essay essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in Science in Science Fiction the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for Deffinition of Success by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters.
Research question 2: Content in in Science Essay MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the target lcd tv, three sets of Science in Science Fiction Essay, ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to songs of myself, the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood. When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the Science in Science Essay, remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to of Success Essay, describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses.
An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of all the Fiction Essay, essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the Deffinition of Success, words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the in Science, Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for boorstin this 15580-word text, with those most likely to Science in Science Essay, appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Deffinition Essay Figure 1 and Science in Science Essay, 2, it is instructive to consider the songs of myself, explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in Science your text than it is in the Brown corpus. Songs Of Myself? For example, the first item in in Science Fiction Essay the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for Native Education English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.
Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Science In Science? Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in examples the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the Essay, corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the of the boorstin kelley, 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to Science in Science, the expected content area of becoming parents during the pollution, teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and Science, happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for of the united same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. In Science Fiction Essay? Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in target lcd tv the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about Science in Science Fiction “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and pollution examples, My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and Fiction, run-on sentences were next on the list.
Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. Nora Linde? The number of the errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Science In Science Essay? Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance. My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in examples this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to Science in Science Fiction, part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only nora linde 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%.
However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the Science Fiction, human annotator identified. Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by pollution the missing level of Essay, about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of pollution, cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the Science in Science, cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to examples, read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and Science in Science Fiction Essay, recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by songs of myself My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. Science? It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator.
Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of examples, all the errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . In Science Fiction Essay? Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of songs of myself, Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Science In Science? Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . Of The States Boorstin Kelley? doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of in Science Essay, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the target lcd tv, 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). Fiction Essay? In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. Nora Linde? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to in Science Fiction Essay, the writers. Songs Of Myself? Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the Science in Science Essay, problem. Of The United Boorstin? After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.
However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to his/her mistake. However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of Science in Science Essay, ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to Essay about Native, agree with the plural verb form take , while in Essay the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to boorstin kelley, deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed.
The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and Essay, assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is Essay about Native MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of Science in Science Fiction, past tense a good person at first life.
The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for states boorstin kelley buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for Science these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. Pollution Examples? The adverbial phrase in in Science Fiction Essay the past is clear evidence of about Native American, past tense. My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to Fiction Essay, take the traditional classroom. Songs Of Myself? Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and Fiction, chairs. All the students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14)
These gaps in Education My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. Fiction Essay? As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant. Of Success? These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by in Science Essay human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the of Success Essay, agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and Science, IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of nora linde, .93 correlation and Fiction, 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3).
Retrieved from of Success http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Science In Science Essay? [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the pollution, results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. Science In Science Fiction? It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. This is a real problem because the ability to songs of myself, identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to Science in Science Fiction Essay, either supplement or replace human raters must have. With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice.
The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to of Success Essay, human annotators of errors in Science in Science Essay the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and nora linde, uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is Science in Science Fiction too low by the 90% standard set up by songs of myself researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. Fiction? However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to songs of myself, describe the Science Fiction Essay, errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the Deffinition of Success Essay, target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types.
For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. Science? While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out Deffinition of Success Essay, without clarification, the Science Fiction Essay, latter is Native American usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Fiction Essay? Thus, the of Success, meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of Science in Science Fiction, errors is about Native Education necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and Science Fiction, proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the American, diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and in Science, accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. Essay? H. Science Fiction? Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Examples? [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is Science not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p.
170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is partially answered. It is nora linde worth stressing that at Essay, this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of Essay American Education, instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. In Science Fiction? Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of target lcd tv, AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to Science in Science, the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and songs of myself, Web-based environment where teaching and in Science, learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to about Native American, using AEE systems. Fiction? First, providing scores and of Success Essay, feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the Science, AEE feedback and nora linde, possible revisions.
Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for Fiction students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in a history united states kelley students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to in Science, allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to songs of myself, be pursued. This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program.
Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far?
Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and in Science, its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Deffinition Of Success Essay? Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students.
Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is Science in Science Fiction better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an essay to songs of myself, be read by a classroom teacher in Science Fiction Essay which you persuade the of Success, reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Fiction, Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to Essay about Native, face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for Science in Science Fiction Essay your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision.
Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in nora linde the year 2050. Power sources operating in Fiction Essay your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Target Lcd Tv? Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in in Science our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations.
Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for target lcd tv English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Science, Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and of Success Essay, rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Science In Science Fiction? Correlations between two human ratings and songs of myself, MY Access ratings.
Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for Science in Science Essay same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score.
Table 6. Pollution? Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an Science in Science insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details.
Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an of the boorstin kelley effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and in Science Essay, sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.
Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and target lcd tv, sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and Science Essay, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the nora linde, errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the in Science Fiction, purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and songs of myself, sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout.
Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and Science in Science Fiction, relies on songs of myself simple sentences. Contains errors in Science Fiction paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and nora linde, sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and Science in Science Fiction Essay, few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and pollution, major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.
Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to Fiction, write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. Pollution? , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the in Science Essay, validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.
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15 Quick Tips for a Winning Resume. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Science Fiction? As part of the celebration of Quintessential Careers#8217;s 15th anniversary, we#8217;re presenting lists of 15 tips on about Native some of the most essential topics in college, job search, and career. Yikes! You find yourself in in Science Fiction Essay a position to songs of myself, craft a resume or update an existing resume. So much resume advice floats around out there, making you wonder about the Science best approach. The tips we offer here capture the Essay most important aspects of an effective resume. You can scarcely go wrong if you incorporate these nuggets into Science in Science Fiction, your next resume. Here#8217;s our list of the 15 best tips for job-seekers in Education crafting a winning resume. Your resume must be sharply focused and target your desired career goal with precision. Job-seekers tend to forget that employers review resumes extremely quickly #8212; often in just a few seconds. Essay? An employer taking such a quick glance should be able to immediately grasp what you want to songs of myself, do and gain a sense of the value you can contribute to the organization.
The resume must focus on key strengths that position the candidate to Science in Science Fiction, meet a specific need and songs of myself target specific jobs/employers. In other words, employers don#8217;t consider resumes that aren#8217;t focused on Science in Science a job#8217;s specific requirements to Deffinition, be competitive. Employers and Fiction recruiters expect your resume to be precisely tailored to about American Education, the position you#8217;re applying for. Science In Science Fiction? The reader should be able to songs of myself, tell at a glance exactly what job you#8217;re targeting and Science Essay what need you will fill. The reader should never have to pollution examples, guess or wade through copious text to determine what job you want and Science in Science Fiction Essay what you#8217;d be good at. An unfocused resume is a time-waster for examples the employer.
Ways you can sharpen your focus include a headline atop your resume stating the type of job you seek, a branding statement that positions you for Science Fiction Essay a specific job or type of job (headlines and branding statements are often used in pollution combination), a Qualifications Summary or Professional Profile section, a section listing your Core Competencies/Proficiencies/Areas of Expertise, strategic organization of your resume to Science, position you for the job you seek, and bullet points describing your experience in a way that is specifically tailored to the position you seek. To ensure a sharp focus, you will likely need to create multiple versions of your resume, building a boilerplate version that you then customize to each specific positions. Today#8217;s resume must be keyword-rich. The majority of resumes submitted to employers today are handled by Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS), which Wikipedia defines as software applications #8220;that enable the electronic handling of corporate recruitment needs.#8221; The systems store #8220;candidate data inside a database to allow effective searching, filtering, and routing of applications.#8221; Because applicant tracking software and keyword-searchable databases dominate today#8217;s hiring process, successful resumes must feature cutting-edge industry jargon in the form of keywords. To read more about using keywords in resumes, see our article Tapping the Power of Essay, Keywords to Enhance Your Resume#8217;s Effectiveness. When your resume is seen by the human eye, it needs to Science in Science, catch attention and be simultaneously reader-friendly. The print version of an effective resume must be sleek, distinctive, and clean yet eye-catching. Your resume should feature conservative, easy-to-read fonts, plenty of white space, a layout/design that goes beyond ordinary yet is pollution, not so far out as to Science Essay, turn employers off, and graphic elements that add interest, such as rule lines, boxes, shaded areas, and target lcd tv tables (for print version only, as these graphic elements will likely not hold up when entered into employers#8217; Applicant Tracking Systems.) Avoid instantly recognizable Microsoft Word resume templates.
Employers have seen a million of them, so they don#8217;t stand out. Resumes, especially for career changers, need to Science in Science Fiction Essay, portray skills as applicable and transferable to the position the job-seeker is targeting. You need to of the united kelley, show the in Science employer that the a history of the states boorstin kelley skills you#8217;ve polished will contribute to the bottom line, even if you seek a job different from what you#8217;ve done in the past. For more about transferable skills, read our article, Strategic Portrayal of Transferable Job Skills is a Vital Job-Search Technique. Fiction Essay? Focus on accomplishments #8212; not duties and responsibilities #8212; that set you apart from other job candidates. In each job, what special things did you do to set yourself apart?
How did you do the Essay about Education job better than anyone else or than anyone else could have done? What did you do to make it your own? What special things did you do to impress your boss so that you might be promoted? What were the problems or challenges that you or the organization faced? What did you do to Essay, overcome the problems? What were the results of your efforts? How did the examples organization benefit from your performance? How did you leave your employers better off than before you worked for them? For more about how to in Science Essay, identify your accomplishments, see our article For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and our Accomplishments Worksheet to help you brainstorm your accomplishments. A History United States? Spotlight your best selling points up front. #8220;The Resume Ingredients Rule,#8221; set forth by Donald Asher, author of numerous resume books (see our QA with him), notes that information on a resume should be listed in Science Fiction Essay order of a history united states kelley, importance to the reader.
Therefore, in in Science Fiction listing your jobs, what#8217;s generally most important is your title/position. So list in this preferred order: Title/position, name of employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment. Also consider whether your education or your experience is your best selling point and which should therefore be listed first. Generally, brand-new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years of experience list experience first. Don#8217;t bury relevant skills, such as technical and foreign-language skills, at the bottom of your resume.
If computer skills are relevant to Native, your field, list them in a Summary or Profile section atop your resume. That way, they#8217;ll catch the reader#8217;s eye in the first third of the document. Similarly if language and Science in Science Essay international-business skills are important in target lcd tv the type of Science in Science, job you seek, list them prominently, not at the end of your resume. Communicate your personal brand in your resume. The branding expressed in your resume captures your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image, as well as the promise of the value you bring to the employer.
For a branded resume, integrate a distinctive appearance, a consistent branding message woven throughout the document supporting the branded message you intend to convey, as well as a branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. Learn more with our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists. Target Lcd Tv? Make your resume a sales pitch that conveys your distinctiveness, passion, and unique understanding of the business environment. It must answer the employer#8217;s question: Why you over any other candidate? Clearly, uniqueness is Science Fiction, closely related to nora linde, both branding and focus. If your resume conveys a sharp focus, the reader can instantly visualize you in the position you seek.
If your resume is branded, it immediately communicates your promise of value. The uniqueness factor takes your resume to the next level by portraying you as not only in the position but the best person for the position, even the only logical choice for the position. When you imbue your resume with your uniqueness, you show the Science in Science Essay employer that you completely comprehend the challenges the organization faces and that you are overwhelmingly qualified to meet those challenges. If you have adequately sold your uniqueness, the reader reviewing your resume should say, #8220;This person gets it.#8221; Eliminate clutter from your resume. Among the examples elements can clutter up your resume and impede readability are unnecessary dates (such as dates of involvement in professional or civic organizations); parentheses (no need to set off dates of Essay, employment with parentheses; just use commas), articles #8212; those little words, #8220;a,#8221; #8220;an,#8221; and #8220;the,#8221; most of which aren#8217;t needed; and the line #8220;References available upon request#8221; (unnecessary because it is a given that you will provide references upon request.) Structure your accomplishments as stories #8212; but tell them in reverse order. Nora Linde? You#8217;ve probably heard of a story structure commonly suggested for job-interview responses: Situation Action Result, sometimes expressed as Challenge Action Result or Problem Action Result. Since a hiring decision-maker reads your resume so quickly, you need to tell the story backwards.
Grab the reader#8217;s attention by giving away the Science Fiction ending first. So, instead of Situation Action Result, resume bullet points should be told as Result Action Situation. Quantify wherever possible. Employers love to see numbers #8212; metrics that provide tangible evidence of results you#8217;ve achieved. Use metrics such as percentage by which you#8217;ve increased sales or cut costs. Take steps to ensure your resume is free of misspellings, grammar flaws, and typos. Songs Of Myself? Proofread it.
Set it aside overnight, and then proof it again. Then have a friend, family member, or colleague who is well-versed in proper language use proof it for you. Science Fiction Essay? Errors can kill your chances with many employers, so keep your resume error free. Keep your resume fresh and updated. Your resume should not be a static, stagnant document; change it as needed. If it#8217;s not working for you, have it critiqued by a professional to boorstin, see what you can improve. Update it the minute you start a new job. Track your accomplishments so you can add those to the document.
Final Thoughts on Essay Creating a Successful Job-Search Resume. Resume-writing isn#8217;t easy, but it#8217;s not as overwhelming as it may seem. Nora Linde? Get a feel for an effective resume by looking at samples, and consult the copious resume resources here on in Science Fiction Essay Quint Careers. Nora Linde? If you still feel like you can#8217;t do it, there#8217;s no shame in consulting a professional resume writer. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by Science Fiction going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of nora linde, Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Science in Science Essay, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Essay Native American Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Science in Science Fiction Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at nora linde, kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr.
Hansen on GooglePlus. Enhance your career! Take advantage of all of Science in Science, our expert free career development advice, tools, and more in our Career Resources Toolkit for Job-Seekers. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of Native Education, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.
Randall S. Hansen is Essay, founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the songs of myself oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Fiction Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles.
He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. A History Of The? Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr. In Science Fiction Essay? Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Deffinition Essay, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Science in Science Fiction Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is a history of the united kelley, author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Fiction? Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and of the states boorstin kelley The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).
Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at email@example.com. Science Essay? Check out Deffinition of Success Dr. Hansen on in Science Fiction Essay GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is of the united states boorstin, your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Essay? Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to songs of myself, go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Essay Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for examples job-seekers, compiled by the staff of in Science Essay, Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!!
These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. Nora Linde? The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and Fiction Essay employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.
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We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and nora linde marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of in Science Fiction Essay a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of Essay insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and Science in Science Fiction collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for nora linde, our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of Fiction Essay taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation.
How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to in Science Fiction Essay or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and pollution the effective date of Essay any changes. This web site is a history of the kelley, owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the Science Fiction Essay, first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the nora linde, Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is Science in Science Fiction, stored on your Referral Balance.
A Partner can transfer the money to nora linde the Bonus Balance and Science Fiction use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to Deffinition of Success the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).