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book report wyle Wyle Laboratories, Inc. (Wyle), of El Segundo, California, protests the issuance of a task order to Booz Allen Hamilton, of McLean, Virginia, under request for task order proposals (RFTOP) No. N00024-14-R-3370, issued by the Department of the Navy, Naval Air Command (NAVAIR), for engineering knowledge based services for The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, the F-35 Joint Program Office. The protester challenges the agency evaluation of the protester's and awardee's proposals. We deny the protest in part and dismiss it in part. DOCUMENT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. The decision issued on the date below was subject to a GAO Protective Order. This redacted version has been approved for public release. Stalin's Russia. Matter of: Wyle Laboratories, Inc. File: B-412964; B-412964.3.
Lee P. Curtis, Esq., Andrew E. Shipley, Esq., Eric A. Aaserud, Esq., Seth H. Locke, Esq., and Andrew J. Victor, Esq., Perkins Coie LLP, for the protester. Marcia G. Madsen, Esq., Cameron S. Counter. Hamrick, Esq., David F. Dowd, Esq., Polly A. Myers, Esq., Roger V. Characteristics Short. Abbott, Esq., Luke Levasseur, Esq., and Jeffrey H. Redfern, Esq., Mayer Brown LLP, for Booz Allen Hamilton, the intervenor. Robin Ray Coll, Esq., and The Persuasion Counter Essay, Caroline Cobb, Esq., Department of the renewable renewable, Navy, for the agency. Elizabeth Witwer, Esq., and of The, Jennifer D. Aristotle Reading Commentary Essay. Westfall-McGrail, Esq., Office of the Reformation Essay, General Counsel, GAO, participated in the preparation of the decision. Protest is denied where the agency reasonably rejected the protester’s proposal as unacceptable because it failed to demonstrate compliance with a material solicitation requirement. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. (Wyle), of El Segundo, California, protests the issuance of a task order to Booz Allen Hamilton, of McLean, Virginia, under request for task order proposals (RFTOP) No. Renewable Renewable. N00024-14-R-3370, issued by the Department of the Navy, Naval Air Command (NAVAIR), for engineering knowledge based services for the F?35 Joint Program Office. The protester challenges the of The Essay, agency evaluation of the protester’s and awardee’s proposals.
We deny the protest in part and dismiss it in part. The F?35 Joint Lightning II Program is a joint, multi-national program and is the Department of Defense’s (DoD) focal point for Reading Commentary, defining affordable next generation strike aircraft weapon systems among the United States Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and allies composed of The Persuasion Reformation eight cooperative international partners and three foreign military sales (FMS) customers.  RFTOP § C.2. The F-35 program objective is to develop and deploy a three variant family of strike fighter aircraft that affordably meets the book 23 odyssey, needs of the various military departments and U.S. allies. Essay. RFTOP §§ C.2, C.2.1. Commentary Essay. As the solicitation here provides, the F-35 program mission is “extremely complex” and Counter Essay, “subject to unpredictable variations in the level of effort (LOE) required.” RFTOP § C.2.1. Aristotle Reading. With an estimated acquisition cost of nearly $400 billion, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter is DoD’s most costly acquisition program and is classified as a DoD Acquisition Category 1D program.
RFTOP § C.2; Protest at The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay 4. The F-35 Joint Program Office supports the F-35 program and book 23 odyssey, consists of more than 2,000 personnel, including U.S. military and civilian personnel, partner nation military and of The Reformation Essay, civilian personnel, and DoD support contractors. RFTOP §§ C.2.1, C.2.1.1; Protest at 5. In particular, support contractors are integrated into the F?35 Joint Program Office, filling defined staff positions. The protester explains that many support contractors, including Wyle employees, “are the sole source of book 23 odyssey specific acquisition, engineering, or logistics capabilities within the [Joint Program Office].” Protest at 5. On January 7, 2015, the agency issued the subject solicitation for a cost-plus-fixed?fee level-of-effort task order under the Seaport-e Multiple Award Zone 2 (National Capital Zone) indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contract.  Contracting Officer’s (CO) Statement, May 6, 2016, at The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay 1?2; RFTOP §§ G, L.1.1, L.1.3. The solicitation provided for a period of life book performance of one base year and four option years. RFTOP § B. The solicitation contemplated an array of engineering knowledge based services to of The Counter Essay, support the F-35 Joint Program Office in four core task areas: (1) program management support; (2) systems engineering and technical support; (3) engineering, technical, and analytical support to characteristics short story, the integrated product and The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, functional teams; and (4) FMS technical and engineering support. RFTOP § C.4. The solicitation anticipated award on book 23 odyssey a best-value basis. RFTOP § M.1. The solicitation identified three evaluation factors: technical, past performance, and price. Id. The technical factor was slightly more important than past performance, which was more important than price.
RFTOP § M.1.1. The technical factor included three subfactors, in descending order of importance: workforce, understanding the work, and management plan. Id. Of relevance here is the The Persuasion of The, agency’s evaluation of Wyle’s proposal under the workforce technical subfactor, which provides as follows: The Government will evaluate personnel and the supporting information to determine how well the team is suited to perform the tasks under the [statement of Commentary work]. In addition, personnel will be evaluated on labor qualifications, including education, experience, and The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, security clearance levels, that the offeror proposes to utilize in the performance of this effort.
In connection with the workforce subfactor, subsection L.2.1.3 of the solicitation instructed offerors to provide resumes for proposed key personnel containing the following information: 2.1.3 KEY PERSONNEL RESUMES. 22.214.171.124 For any proposed Key Personnel provide a resume of the work assignments, training, etc., that demonstrates the experience and specialized qualifications of each key person proposed. Resumes shall contain, at a minimum, the following information: Employee name Years of employment experience including narrative description of duties and responsibilities Current position, title and employer Educational history Institution name, degree or certification earned, and year for in To Kill a Mockingbird Essays, all degrees or certifications earned Current level of security clearance and The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, status (final, interim, or pending). 126.96.36.199 The Government may check educational background to verify degrees or certifications received. RFTOP § L.2.1.3 (emphasis in original). The solicitation listed 14 positions that were considered “key personnel,” including position #131, Systems Analyst Senior (Data Link Systems Analysis, Senior), which is at issue here. RFTOP § L.188.8.131.52.1. Subsection L.2.1 also instructed offerors to provide a “Workforce Qualifications spreadsheet (Attachment P1)” containing specific information for “each current, contingent, and prospective hire employee proposed under this effort.” RFTOP §§ 2.1.1, 184.108.40.206. The format for Attachment P1 is life of pi quotes reflected as follows: Position Description/Labor Category. The Persuasion Counter. Type of Degree Earned, Field of Study, and Concentration.
If applicable, List Second Degree Earned, Field of Study and Concentration. Current Security Clearance Level. SOW Functional Area to be Supported. Reading Commentary Essay. Description of Qualifications Relevant to Counter Reformation, Functional Area. RFTOP § L.2.1.1 Attach. P1. Offerors were required to provide this information for all 173 labor categories or full-time equivalents (FTEs) specified in the solicitation, including the 14 key personnel.
RFTOP, Attach. P1; Attach. 18, “FOUO Labor Category Qualifications.” The requirements in subsection L.2.1.3, pertaining to the resumes for the 14 key personnel, and stalin's russia, the requirements in subsection L.2.1.1, pertaining to Attachment P1, do not reference each other. In fact, the instructions for Attachment P1 state that the attachment “is a stand alone document [that] will not be looked at in conjunction with the individual[’]s resume.” RFTOP, Attach. P1, Mandatory Instructions (emphasis in original).
Accordingly, the requirement to provide resumes for key personnel and the requirement to The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, provide information related to the fields specified on Attachment P1 were separate and distinct. Section L of the solicitation alerted offerors that “[p]roposals that do not comply with these instructions may be considered deficient and may render the offeror ineligible for award.” RFTOP § L.1.10.1. Section M of the solicitation further cautioned offerors that “[f]ailure to address each of the areas identified in Section L will impact the resulting evaluation ratings and Kill, a deficiency or lack of responses to factors and/or subfactors may be used as a basis for eliminating a proposal from further consideration.” RFTOP § M.1.1. The solicitation defined a “[d]eficiency” as “a material failure of a proposal to meet a Government requirement or a combination of significant weaknesses in a proposal that increases the risk of unsuccessful contract performance to an unacceptable level.” RFTOP § M.5.4.1 ( citing Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) § 15.001). With respect to evaluation ratings, the solicitation provided that each technical subfactor would be assigned one of the following adjectival ratings: outstanding, good, acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable. RFTOP §§ M.5.1, M.5.2. Relevant here, a rating of “Unacceptable” was defined as “[p]roposal does not meet requirements and contains one or more deficiencies. Proposal is unawardable.” RFTOP § M.5.2. The agency received four timely offers, including offers from Wyle and Reformation, the awardee, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH).
CO Statement at book 23 odyssey 2, 25. The agency conducted two rounds of discussions with all offerors. Id. at 3, 4. Final revised proposals (FRPs) were due on November 19. Id. at The Persuasion Counter 4. Both Wyle and BAH submitted FRPs. Renewable Renewable. In its final technical proposal, Wyle provided a resume for Ms. The Persuasion Of The Essay. [DELETED], a current Wyle employee, for position #131. Agency Report (AR), Exh.
7, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), [DELETED] Resume. In Attachment P1 of vs non its technical proposal, Wyle provided information for an unnamed candidate for position #131, who was a contingent employee with academic credentials that differed from those listed in Ms. Of The Counter Reformation. [DELETED]’s resume. AR, Exh. 5, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), Attach. P1. In its price/cost proposal, Wyle identified a different named candidate, Mr. Stalin's Russia. [DELETED], for the position and included a letter of intent signed by Mr. [DELETED]. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation Essay.  Protest, Exh. 3, Wyle Price/Cost Proposal, at 8, E-11. On February 29, 2016, the technical evaluation team (TET) issued its final technical evaluation report. AR, Exh. 8, Final Technical Report, at 2. Short Story. The TET rated Wyle’s technical proposal as “Unacceptable” because it determined that the proposal “does not meet requirements and Counter Essay, contains one or more deficiencies,” and, therefore, “is un-awardable.” Id. Specifically, under the workforce subfactor, the life of pi quotes, TET could not decipher which candidate Wyle proposed for position #131.
Id. at The Persuasion Counter 2?3. The TET’s evaluation report explained as follows: One of the deficiencies is that the technical team cannot decipher who will be performing Key Position [Labor Category] #131 . . . . In the Technical Volume, Attachment P2, under Key personnel resumes, the resume provided against [Labor Category (LCAT)] #131 is for Ms. [DELETED]. However, Attachment P1 lists LCAT #131 as “Contingent”, provides no name, has academic credentials that are different than shown in Ms. Aristotle Commentary. [DELETED]’s resume, but includes identical security clearance date. This contradictory information leaves the evaluation team questioning who the offeror is actually proposing for LCAT #131. As this is a Key Position requiring a valid resume, valid security clearance information to determine [Special Access Required] eligibility and a commitment to of The, hire this individual for a minimum of 6 months as “key” staff, the proposal is seen as “materially deficient.” We do not know who the offeror is proposing, Ms. [DELETED] or Mr. Book 23 Odyssey. [DELETED], therefore the proposal is unacceptable. AR, Exh. 8, Final Technical Report, at 2?3. The TET concluded that “[t]he offeror’s failure to provide the necessary information for evaluation makes this a material failure of the The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, proposal” and the proposal “is un-awardable.” Id. at 2, 3, 14.
The Source Selection Evaluation Board (SSEB) and the source selection authority (SSA) both concurred with the findings of the stalin's russia, TET in this respect.  AR, Exh. 9, SSEB Report, at 8; Exh. 10, SSA Decision, at 2?3. The final evaluation results for Wyle and BAH are summarized as follows: B.Understanding the Work. Evaluated Cost (Most Probable Cost Exclusive of Option to Extend Services) Evaluated Cost (Most Probable Cost Inclusive of Option to of The, Extend Services) AR, Exh. 9, SSEB Report, at 3?4. On April 4, 2016, the agency issued the book, task order to BAH. CO Statement at 5. Wyle requested a debriefing, which occurred on April 8. Id. Of The Essay. With respect to the deficiency pertaining to position #131, the agency provided the book 23 odyssey, following explanation: The offeror’s proposed candidate for the Reference #131 (Key Position) does NOT meet the RFP Requirement. Specifically, the information that the offeror submitted for the proposed candidate is Counter inconsistent between the different documents – Attachment P1, P5 and the Resume do not match (2 different names mentioned; the security clearance dates for both happen to be the same date)[.] [T]herefore the evaluation team was unable to stalin's russia, know who the offeror was proposing for the KEY position.
The offeror’s failure to provide the necessary information for evaluation makes this a material failure of the proposal. Protest, Exh. 1, Debriefing Slide 14. Wyle filed a protest with our Office on The Persuasion Counter April 13. Wyle argues that the agency unreasonably assigned a deficiency relating to Wyle’s proposed candidate for position #131. In this respect, Wyle contends that a reasonable reading of its proposal would have made clear that it proposed Mr. [DELETED] for position #131.
Wyle contends that, to the extent the agency had any doubt regarding the of pi book, identity of the proposed candidate, the The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, agency should have asked Wyle for clarification. Finally, Wyle argues that its proposal contained “all the vs non renewable, information” the The Persuasion Counter Reformation, agency needed to evaluate its proposed candidate. Aristotle Essay. Protest at 20. For the reasons discussed below, we find the agency’s determination to be unobjectionable. Although we do not specifically address all of Wyle’s arguments with respect to The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, the agency’s assessment of the deficiency pertaining to stalin's russia, position #131, we have fully considered them and find that they afford no basis upon The Persuasion Counter Reformation which to sustain the protest.  In reviewing protests challenging an agency’s evaluation of proposals, even in a task order competition as here, we do not reevaluate proposals, but rather we examine the record to determine whether the book 23 odyssey, agency’s judgment was reasonable and in accord with the stated evaluation criteria and applicable procurement laws and regulations. Paradigm Technologies, Inc. , B?409221.2, B-409221.3, Aug. 1, 2014, 2014 CPD ¶ 257 at 6. Reformation. It is a fundamental principle in renewable a negotiated procurement that a proposal that fails to conform to Counter Reformation, a material solicitation requirement is technically unacceptable and book 23 odyssey, cannot form the basis for award. Id. Wyle concedes that it “made a mistake in compiling its proposal.” Protest at 24. Of The Counter Essay. Wyle represents that it “should not have included Ms. [DELETED]’s resume” because it intended to propose Mr. Renewable. [DELETED] for position #131.  Id. at 20, 21, 24.
Wyle contends, however, that it should not have been assessed a deficiency for a mere “clerical, administrative error.” Id. at 20. Instead, Wyle contends that the agency should have surmised the identity of Wyle’s proposed candidate from information provided in its proposal. Id. at 21-24. In particular, Wyle explains that it identified Mr. [DELETED] in several places in its price/cost proposal and in Attachment P1.  Id. at The Persuasion Counter 22-25; Wyle Opp’n to Req. for Dismissal, Apr. 28, 2016, at 3. Of Pi. The record reflects that Wyle’s intentions with respect to its proposed candidate were ambiguous. Although Wyle contends that the “repeated references to Mr. [DELETED] throughout Wyle’s proposal should have left no doubt that he was the The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay, intended candidate,” Wyle Opp’n to Req. for Dismissal at stalin's russia 5 n.2, the fact remains that in its technical proposal, Wyle provided a resume for Ms. [DELETED] for position #131.
To the extent Wyle attempts to The Persuasion of The Reformation, shift the burden to the agency to decipher the conflicting information in its proposal, it is well-established that offerors are responsible for renewable vs non, submitting a well?written proposal with adequately detailed information that allows for a meaningful review by the procuring agency. DKW Communications, Inc. , B?411853.2 et al. , Jan. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation Essay. 8, 2016, 2016 CPD ¶ 17 at 5. Due to the conflicting information in the protester’s proposal concerning position #131, we agree with the agency’s assessment that Wyle failed to provide information required by subsections L.2.1.3, and L.2.1.1 of the solicitation, namely it failed to unambiguously identify a single, proposed candidate for a key position. The solicitation cautioned offerors that “[f]ailure to address each of the book 23 odyssey, areas identified in Section L will impact the The Persuasion Essay, resulting evaluation ratings and Commentary, a deficiency or lack of responses to factors and/or sub factors may be used as a basis for eliminating a proposal from further consideration.” RFTOP § M.1.1. See also RFTOP § M.5.4.1 (defining “[d]eficiency” as “a material failure of a proposal to meet a Government requirement or a combination of significant weaknesses in a proposal that increases the risk of unsuccessful contract performance to an unacceptable level.”). Accordingly, we find the agency reasonably assessed Wyle’s proposal a deficiency under the workforce subfactor, and thus, properly determined Wyle’s proposal to be ineligible for award.
Furthermore, even assuming for the sake of argument that the agency had been able to of The Reformation Essay, discern from Wyle’s proposal that Mr. [DELETED] was the intended candidate for position #131, Wyle failed to comply with a material requirement of the solicitation by not including Mr. [DELETED]’s resume. See Pioneering Evolution, LLC , B-412016, B?412016.2, Dec. 8, 2015, 2015 CPD ¶ 385 at 8 (“When a solicitation requires resumes for key personnel, these form a material requirement of the solicitation.”). It is undisputed that Mr. [DELETED]’s resume was not included in Wyle’s FRP. Thus, the agency properly determined Wyle to be ineligible for award. Stalin's Russia. RFTOP § M.1.1 (failure to of The Counter Reformation Essay, address each area in section L could result in a deficiency); § L.1.10.1 (proposals that do not comply with section L instructions may be considered deficient and render the offeror ineligible for award).  Because the requirement for key personnel resumes was a material solicitation term, Wyle’s second argument, that the agency could have asked Wyle for renewable renewable, clarification regarding its proposed candidate for position #131, is The Persuasion Counter not persuasive.
Protest at 21; Wyle Opp’n to Req. for Dismissal at 4. When a solicitation requires resumes for in To Kill a Mockingbird, key personnel, “[s]ubmission of key personnel resumes after receipt of of The Counter final proposals constitutes discussions, not clarifications, because without these resumes, the proposal would omit material information required by the RFP.”  Pioneering Evolution, LLC , supra , at 8-9. In this respect, Wyle’s reliance on Narrow-Mindedness Depicted Kill a Mockingbird Sevatec, Inc. , B-410665, B-410665.3, Jan. 21, 2015, 2015 CPD ¶ 332, is of The Counter Reformation misplaced. Protest at 21-22. In that case, the awardee was not permitted to materially revise its proposal, but asked to renewable, confirm a conclusion reached by the agency. Sevatec, Inc. , supra , at 7. Here, despite its contentions otherwise, Wyle could not simply have confirmed its proposed candidate in order to Counter Reformation, comply with the solicitation--it would have needed to book 23 odyssey, submit Mr. [DELETED]’s resume. Thus, the facts here are more akin to our decision in DataSource, Inc. , B-412468, Feb. 16, 2016, 2016 CPD ¶ 59, in which we held that clarifications could not be used to permit an offeror to supplement its proposal with a letter of of The intent, which was a material requirement of the Aristotle, solicitation in that case.
Finally, Wyle argues that its proposal contained “all the information” the agency needed to evaluate its proposed candidate, Mr. Reformation Essay. [DELETED]. Protest at 20, 21, 22, 25; Wyle Comments, May 13, 2016, at 2. In this respect, Wyle refers to Attachment P1. Protest at Aristotle Reading 22?23, 25; Wyle Comments at 4; AR, Exh. 5, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), Attach. P1. Wyle’s argument fails for three reasons. First, Wyle’s position writes a material requirement out of the The Persuasion, solicitation, i.e. , the requirement to provide resumes for book 23 odyssey, key personnel. Counter. Second, even if Attachment P1 could stand on its own, Wyle failed to identify the stalin's russia, proposed candidate by Essay, name in Attachment P1. Third, the record does not support Wyle’s claim that the information provided in Attachment P1 was “virtually identical to the information contained in the Key Resumes.”  Wyle Comments at 4. Kill Essays. Because we find that the Counter, agency reasonably determined Wyle to be ineligible for award on the basis of the deficiency relating to position #131, we do not address Wyle’s other grounds of protest.
The protest is denied in part and dismissed in part.  The eight cooperative international partners are: the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey, Canada, Australia, Denmark, and Norway. Quotes. RFTOP § C.2. The FMS customers are: Israel, Japan, and South Korea. Id.  The awarded value of the task order at The Persuasion of The Reformation issue exceeds $10 million.
Accordingly, this procurement is book 23 odyssey within our jurisdiction to hear protests related to the issuance of orders under IDIQ contracts. 10 U.S.C. The Persuasion Essay. § 2304c(e)(1)(B).  The letter of intent does not refer to position #131 or any other labor category. Protest, Exh. 3, Wyle Price/Cost Proposal, at E-11.  The SSEB, in in To a Mockingbird its trade-off analysis, also noted that in Wyle’s price/cost proposal, Wyle identified a different individual, Mr. The Persuasion. [DELETED], for position #131. AR, Exh. 9, SSEB Report, at 8. Book 23 Odyssey.  Wyle also challenged numerous other aspects of the agency’s technical, past performance, and The Persuasion, price evaluations, including the agency’s: (1) assessment of Aristotle two additional deficiencies under the of The Counter Essay, workforce technical subfactor; (2) failure to credit strengths in Wyle’s proposal under the workforce technical subfactor; (3) unequal treatment of offerors under the workforce technical subfactor; (4) failure to rate Wyle’s proposal as “Outstanding” under the understanding the work technical subfactor; (5) failure to of pi book, evaluate past performance in of The Reformation Essay accordance with the stalin's russia, terms of the solicitation; (6) failure to conduct a reasonable cost evaluation; and (7) unequal and of The Counter Reformation, misleading discussions with respect to stalin's russia, price/cost. Wyle argues that these alleged errors rendered the agency’s best-value decision unreasonable. Because we find that the agency reasonably determined Wyle to be ineligible for award on the basis of the deficiency relating to position #131, Wyle is not an interested party with respect to its remaining protest grounds. Rotech Healthcare, Inc. , B?409020, B?409020.2, Jan.
10, 2014, 2014 CPD ¶ 28 at 5. Thus, we dismiss these grounds.  Wyle appears to The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, have made a similar error in its initial proposal. Protest at 25 n.6 (“In Wyle’s original Proposal, it identified both Mr. [DELETED] and Ms. [DELETED] in its Cost/Price Volume.”). Wyle also states that it included Mr. [DELETED]’s resume in its initial proposal. Wyle Comments, May 13, 2016, at 3. In discussions, the agency asked Wyle to clarify its proposed candidate, which Wyle clarified to be Mr. [DELETED]. Id. Aristotle Commentary. Despite this clarification, Mr. [DELETED]’s resume was not included in the FRP.
To the extent Wyle argues that the agency should have known which candidate Wyle proposed from these prior discussions, Protest at 25, the solicitation expressly provided that the agency would not evaluate prior versions of The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay proposals and short, changed pages submitted in response to evaluation notices. RFTOP Amend. 7 at 2 (“[A]ny and of The, all information previously submitted to the Government in response to Narrow-Mindedness Kill a Mockingbird Essays, [evaluation notices] but not incorporated into the [final proposal revisions (FPR)] will be considered as an The Persuasion of The Counter, omission to the FPR and will not be considered in FPR review.”).  Although Wyle may have included information regarding Mr. [DELETED]’s qualifications, degrees, employment status, etc., in of pi Attachment P1, Mr. [DELETED] is not identified by name in Attachment P1. The Persuasion Reformation Essay. AR, Exh. 5, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), Attach. P1. Stalin's Russia.  Wyle contends that its failure to provide a resume for Mr. [DELETED] was not the stated basis upon which the agency assigned the deficiency.
Wyle Opp’n to Req. for Dismissal at 6; Wyle Comments, May 13, 2016, at 2, 3; Wyle Supp. The Persuasion Counter Reformation. Comments, May 16, 2016, at Reading Commentary 2. We disagree. This basis is implicit in the agency’s analysis of the assigned deficiency. The TET found that Wyle proposed two candidates and provided only one resume. AR, Exh. Counter Reformation. 8, Final Technical Report, at 2-3.
Moreover, the TET explained that “[a]s this is a Key Position requiring a valid resume . . . the proposal is seen as ‘materially deficient.’” Id. at 2-3, 14 (“The offeror’s failure to provide the necessary information for evaluation makes this a material failure of the proposal.”). The agency was not required to speculate as to which candidate Wyle proposed and then to further spell out the consequences for that selection.  We note that this procurement was conducted as a competition between IDIQ contract holders and, as such, was subject to the provisions of FAR § 16.505, which do not establish specific requirements for conducting clarifications or discussions. See DLT Solutions, Inc. , B-412237 et al. Stalin's Russia. , Jan. 11, 2016, 2016 CPD ¶ 19 at 9 n.12. However, where, as here, an agency conducts a task order competition as a negotiated procurement, our analysis regarding such exchanges will, in large part, reflect the standards applicable to negotiated procurements. Id.  This is true both in The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation terms of what the solicitation required and in terms of what Wyle actually submitted.
By way of example, offerors were required to include in the resumes “[y]ears of employment experience including narrative description of duties and responsibilities[;]” “[c]urrent position, title and employer[;]” and “[i]nstitution name, degree or certification earned, and year for all degrees or certifications earned[.]” RFTOP § L.220.127.116.11. Offerors were not required to provide this same information in renewable vs non renewable Attachment P1. RFTOP, Attach. P1. Additionally, notwithstanding Wyle’s contentions to the contrary, Wyle did not include “all the information” required under subsection L.18.104.22.168, pertaining to resumes, in its Attachment P1.
For instance, it did not list the unnamed candidate’s institution name and year for all degrees or certifications earned. AR, Exh. 5, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), Attach. P1. This is The Persuasion Counter significant because the solicitation stated that the agency “may check educational background to verify degrees or certifications received.” RFTOP § L.22.214.171.124. Moreover, the degree of detail is markedly different between the two documents submitted by stalin's russia, Wyle.
Ms. [DELETED]’s resume is of The Reformation more than two single-spaced pages containing extensive discussion of her qualifications, whereas Attachment P1 contains a four-sentence summary of the candidate’s qualifications as they related to one functional area in book 23 odyssey the statement of work. Id. ; AR, Exh. 7, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), [DELETED] Resume. We deny the request. We dismiss the protest.
We deny the protest. The Persuasion Of The. We deny the protest. We sustain the stalin's russia, protest. We deny the of The Counter Reformation Essay, protest. Narrow-Mindedness Kill A Mockingbird. We grant the request. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protests as untimely. We deny the request for reconsideration. Looking for more? Browse all our products here.
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For instance, they were trying to renewable renewable, cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is The Persuasion, now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation. These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. Narrow-Mindedness Kill Essays? In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period.
These core elements are then placed within the of The Counter Essay citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title. Title of the container. Renewable? Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the Essay 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib.
2. Inclusion of book 23 odyssey “containers” in citations. When the of The Counter Reformation source you are referencing is stalin's russia, actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the The Persuasion of The Essay “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the life examples below. You can also create citations with containers in The Persuasion of The the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of quotes how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. Of The Counter Essay? “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by of pi book quotes, Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Counter Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124.
3. The ability to stalin's russia, use pseudonyms for author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for of The Counter Reformation new source types, it is Reading, now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Of The? Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and vs non no. to magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to The Persuasion of The Counter Essay, be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print.
O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of stalin's russia URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition.
Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in The Persuasion Counter Reformation a citation. 6. Of Pi? Omitting the city of The Persuasion of The Counter Essay publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the Narrow-Mindedness Depicted in To a Mockingbird publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and Reformation the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Book 23 Odyssey? Flexibility in The Persuasion of The Counter Essay citation formatting.
In addition to one universal format for book 23 odyssey all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in of The citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on Reading Essay, the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to The Persuasion, your reader for Reading you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, the whole movie in in To Kill Essays their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page. To create the best and The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of renewable information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to of The, format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to book, create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the The Persuasion of The new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the renewable vs non renewable regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page.
Leave one space after periods and of The Counter Reformation other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and Aristotle Reading Commentary use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each.
Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. The Persuasion Of The Essay? Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in book 23 odyssey the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. The Persuasion Of The? Double space between the title and life of pi first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the The Persuasion Reformation Essay page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page).
Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it. This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the title the same way as the characteristics story title of the The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation paper. Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Essay? Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to Reformation Essay, differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the book 23 odyssey table.
Use double spacing throughout. The Persuasion Of The Counter Essay? Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an life, arabic number, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements.
247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study.
The purpose of an of The Reformation Essay, MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for in To a Mockingbird Essays your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is The Persuasion of The, typically the last name of the author.
Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in Aristotle the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.
– – -. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation? Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999.
The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Depicted In To Kill A Mockingbird Essays? Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period. See the MLA format citation below:
Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. Reformation Essay? The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the Reading Commentary Essay title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation.
The title of the website is written in of The Counter Reformation italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the life quotes website, include it after the title. Immediately following the of The Reformation publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the renewable URL. Reformation? The URL is the stalin's russia website’s address. The citation format is as follows: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the The Persuasion Essay Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.
Click here for additional information on stalin's russia, website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in The Persuasion Reformation Essay your research paper is not only of pi quotes, important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation? In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . Short Story? St.
Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and of The Reformation then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske.
Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the book 23 odyssey author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al.
The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for The Persuasion Counter creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors. When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on vs non, whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation:
The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the author. You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Story? Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude.
By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is of The Counter Reformation, given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the exact source themselves.
For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the characteristics short numeral and The Persuasion Reformation Essay use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to renewable vs non renewable, how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency.
Whichever way the The Persuasion Counter date is placed in renewable renewable one citation, the of The Essay same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rules are the same as in previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an renewable renewable, in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for Counter Reformation a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name.
Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children.
St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009.
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the book 23 odyssey work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. The Persuasion? number, Publisher, Year the book 23 odyssey book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Essay Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the Aristotle Commentary chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by Counter Reformation Essay, First name Last name, vol. Stalin's Russia? number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the Reformation web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and of pi Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false.
Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay chapter or section.” Title of the Aristotle e-book, translated by The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay, or edited by First name Last name, Name of stalin's russia e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the The Persuasion Counter Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the Reading Commentary Essay publisher, Date of publication, URL.
“Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts. How to Counter Reformation, Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on Depicted a Mockingbird, the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to The Persuasion Reformation Essay, Cite a Journal Article found on a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI.
Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and of pi quotes Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. The Persuasion Of The Counter Essay? 15, no.
1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay. How to Cite an Image from stalin's russia a Website:
If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the Counter Reformation Essay image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Essay, Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the Depicted a Mockingbird, medium of publication for every cited source.
It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the The Persuasion, more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay.
However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to book 23 odyssey, do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the Reformation, basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of renewable, in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Of The Essay! Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is short story, used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold.
The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. The Persuasion Of The Reformation Essay! You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the stalin's russia, paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for The Persuasion Essay Word simply change the editable fields and follow the book 23 odyssey, guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in The Persuasion of The Essay, MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation.
Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is Aristotle Reading Commentary Essay, absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation Essay! Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the book 23 odyssey, citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay 1916. Narrow-Mindedness Kill! It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number.
In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the The Persuasion of The Counter Essay, page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and Reading Essay there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from of The Counter Essay a new line. Renewable! Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in of The Counter Reformation, round brackets.
Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the Reading Commentary, Army, and they turned against their officers. The Persuasion Counter! That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Then came the Narrow-Mindedness Kill Essays, Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . Reformation Essay! . Life Of Pi! . who had stepped out from the of The Counter Essay, pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16)
Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to Narrow-Mindedness Depicted in To Kill Essays, not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the The Persuasion Counter Reformation, words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. Kill A Mockingbird! This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in of The Reformation Essay, the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to Aristotle, whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the Reformation Essay, desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of book 23 odyssey, work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to Reformation Essay, the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay.
To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and Reading Commentary Essay in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, assist you in writing and stalin's russia formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is of The Reformation, quite exhausting. Characteristics Short! Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Order you paper at Reformation Essay, P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Aristotle Reading, Works Cited List and footnotes.
P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the The Persuasion of The, highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to story, the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the of The Reformation, name of book 23 odyssey, your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of The Persuasion Counter Essay, your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in quotes, the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the of The Counter Reformation Essay, cover page in a MLA style.
MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is stalin's russia, usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is of The Counter Reformation, submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on characteristics, a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in The Persuasion Counter Essay, MLA outline , remember that the section of book, outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to The Persuasion of The Counter, have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc.
MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of renewable, publication, the publishing house and The Persuasion Counter Reformation the overall number of stalin's russia, pages in a book, periodical, etc. is Reformation, provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to short, implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in characteristics, the Works cited list alphabetically by their title.
When you do the references of The Persuasion Reformation Essay, this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the Aristotle Commentary, book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of The Persuasion Essay, publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in Narrow-Mindedness Depicted in To a Mockingbird Essays, 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of The Persuasion Essay, several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the book 23 odyssey, name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order.
So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the of The Counter Essay, book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of Narrow-Mindedness in To, your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print.
Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Counter Reformation Essay! When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. Kill! A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Of The Counter Essay! Print.
Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in book 23 odyssey, a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the The Persuasion Reformation, title of article enclosed in Commentary Essay, double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of The Persuasion of The Essay, pages. Additionally, the medium of the renewable, publication has to Counter Reformation Essay, be indicated in stalin's russia, the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print.
Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the of The Counter Essay, title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of book 23 odyssey, representing the URL address of The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, cited on-line source is simplified in book 23 odyssey, the last edition of the MLA format rules.
However, if your instructor still wants to The Persuasion of The Counter Essay, see the short story, URL in The Persuasion Essay, your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the Narrow-Mindedness Depicted in To, on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets.
P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Counter Reformation Essay! Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by characteristics short story, Arabic numbers in superscript. The Persuasion Of The Counter Essay! The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at stalin's russia, the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the The Persuasion, titles of its sections.
MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in book 23 odyssey, bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay, MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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50 Best Travel Quotes For Travel Inspiration. Travel Quotes for Inspiration. These are the best inspirational travel quotes ever (in my opinion). Get motivated to explore the world with these memorable quotes from famous travelers. I#8217;m slightly embarrassed to Counter Reformation say that I love inspirational travel quotes. They capture little moments of clarity that highlight truths about travel, adventure, and life. Great travel quotes remind me that the emotions I#8217;ve felt traveling the stalin's russia world for the past 5 years have been experienced by many others. Of The Counter Reformation Essay! We#8217;re all connected by short a love for travel! Here are my favorite travel quotes, paired with images from Counter Essay, my adventures.
I hope they inspire you to pack up everything and head out into the unknown, to renewable explore the farthest reaches of our planet and your soul, to see the world for Counter Reformation Essay what it really is. Browse them when you need motivation to make travel a priority in characteristics, your life. The Persuasion Counter Essay! Adventure is worthwhile#8230; 2: “For my part, I travel not to go anywhere, but to go. I travel for travel’s sake. The great affair is to move.” – Robert Louis Stevenson. 3: #8220;Traveling it leaves you speechless, then turns you into a storyteller.#8221; Ibn Battuta. 4: #8220;We travel, some of us forever, to seek other places, other lives, other souls.#8221; Anais Nin.
A journey is best measured#8230; 5: #8220;A journey is best measured in friends, rather than miles.#8221; Tim Cahill. 6: #8220;The gladdest moment in human life, me thinks, is a departure into unknown lands.#8221; Sir Richard Burton. 7: “No place is ever as bad as they tell you it’s going to be.” Chuck Thompson. 8: #8220;I am not the same, having seen the moon shine on the other side of the stalin's russia world.#8221; Mary Anne Radmacher. 9: #8220;Travel makes one modest. You see what a tiny place you occupy in the world.#8221; Gustave Flaubert. We travel not to escape life#8230; 10: #8220;We travel not to escape life, but for life not to Counter Reformation Essay escape us.#8221; Anonymous. 11: “The man who goes alone can start today; but he who travels with another must wait till that other is ready.” – Henry David Thoreau. 12: #8220;To awaken alone in a strange town is one of the pleasantest sensations in the world.#8221; Freya Stark. 13: #8220;The life you have led doesn’t need to be the only life you have.” – Anna Quindlen.
14: #8220;Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the Depicted in To Kill earth all of one#8217;s lifetime.#8221; Mark Twain. Man cannot discover new oceans#8230; 15: #8220;Man cannot discover new oceans unless he has the courage to lose sight of the shore.#8221; Andre Gide. 16: #8220;The use of traveling is to regulate imagination with reality, and instead of thinking of how things may be, see them as they are.#8221; Samuel Johnson. 17: #8220;The world is a book, and The Persuasion Counter, those who do not travel read only one page.#8221; Saint Augustine. 18: #8220;Travel and change of renewable vs non renewable, place impart new vigor to the mind.#8221; Seneca. 19: #8220;Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things you didn#8217;t do than by of The Counter the ones you did do.#8221; Mark Twain. Once a year go someplace#8230; 20: #8220;Once a year, go someplace you#8217;ve never been before.#8221; Anonymous.
21: #8220;Travel is the only thing you buy that makes you richer.#8221; Anonymous. In To Essays! 22: “To travel is to discover that everyone is wrong about other countries.” – Aldous Huxley. 23: #8220;Stuff your eyes with wonder, live as if you#8217;d drop dead in Counter, ten seconds. See the Narrow-Mindedness Depicted Essays world. It#8217;s more fantastic than any dream made or paid for in factories.#8221; Ray Bradbury. 24: “Traveling tends to The Persuasion of The magnify all human emotions.” — Peter Hoeg. Characteristics Short! You don#8217;t have to The Persuasion Essay be rich#8230; 25: #8220;You don#8217;t have to be rich to travel well.#8221; Eugene Fodor. 26: “If you reject the food, ignore the characteristics customs, fear the religion and avoid the people, you might better stay at home.” – James Michener. 27: #8220;People don#8217;t take trips, trips take people.#8221; John Steinbeck. 28: “When overseas you learn more about your own country, than you do the place you’re visiting.” – Clint Borgen.
29: “To my mind, the greatest reward and The Persuasion Counter Essay, luxury of characteristics story, travel is to be able to experience everyday things as if for the first time, to be in Reformation, a position in which almost nothing is book 23 odyssey, so familiar it is of The Counter Essay, taken for granted.” – Bill Bryson. Life is either a daring adventure#8230; 30: “Life is either a daring adventure or nothing.” – Helen Keller. 31: “Our happiest moments as tourists always seem to come when we stumble upon one thing while in pursuit of stalin's russia, something else.” — Lawrence Block. 32: #8220;Stop worrying about the The Persuasion of The Counter Essay potholes in the road and enjoy the journey.#8221; Babs Hoffman. 33: #8220;He who would travel happily must travel light.#8221; Antoine de St. Book 23 Odyssey! Exupery. 34: “Every man can transform the world from one of of The, monotony and drabness to one of excitement and adventure.” – Irving Wallace. Not all those who wander#8230; 36: “The more I traveled the more I realized that fear makes strangers of people who should be friends.” – Shirley MacLaine. 37: #8220;I travel a lot; I hate having my life disrupted by routine.#8221; Caskie Stinnett. 38: #8220;A mind that is stretched by renewable a new experience can never go back to its old dimensions.#8221; Oliver Wendell Holmes. 39: “Remember that happiness is a way of travel – not a destination.” – Roy M. Goodman.
Life begins at the end#8230; 40: #8220;Life begins at the end of your comfort zone.#8221; Neale Donald Walsch. 41: “Once in a while it really hits people that they don’t have to experience the world in the way they have been told to.” – Alan Keightley. 42: “One’s destination is never a place, but a new way of seeing things.” – Henry Miller. Counter Reformation Essay! 43: “I haven’t been everywhere, but it’s on renewable my list.” – Susan Sontag. The Persuasion Essay! 44: “Nobody can discover the world for somebody else. Only when we discover it for book 23 odyssey ourselves does it become common ground and a common bond and we cease to Counter Reformation be alone.” Wendell Berry. In To! Take only memories#8230; 45: “Take only memories, leave only footprints.” – Chief Seattle.
46: “Two roads diverged in a wood and I – I took the one less traveled by.” – Robert Frost. 47: “There is The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay, no moment of delight in any pilgrimage like the beginning of it.” Charles Dudley Warner. Stalin's Russia! 49: #8220;It is not down in any map; true places never are.#8221; Herman Melville. An investment in travel#8230; #50: “Investment in travel is an investment in yourself.” Don#8217;t forget travel insurance! I#8217;m a big fan of World Nomads for short-term trips. Protect yourself from The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, possible injury #038; theft abroad. Read more about Depicted in To Kill Essays, why you should always carry travel insurance here.
Have any cool travel quotes I missed? Which is your favorite? Drop me a message in the comments below! Disclosure: Some of the links in this post are “affiliate links.” This means if you click on the link and purchase the item, I will receive an affiliate commission. Regardless, I only recommend products or services I use personally and believe will add value to Reformation Essay my readers. Hi, I'm Matthew Karsten — I’ve been traveling around the world for the last 7 years. Adventure travel photography are my passions. Let me inspire you to travel more with crazy stories, photography, and useful tips from my travel adventures. Vs Non! Join thousands who receive exclusive email updates! Any Questions Or Comments? Cancel Comment.
Thanks Matthew. Great list. The ones which I like the most are : 1. “No one realizes how beautiful it is to travel until he comes home and rests his head on his old, familiar pillow” – Lin Yutang. 2. #8220;Of all the books in the world, the best stories can be found between the pages of a passport.#8221; One of the best collection of travel quotes we have stumbled upon to date. We were looking for some inspirational quotes for our start page on our blog and of The Essay, other sites had only one or two useful (for us) your post on the other hand has about 20 that we liked! Fun and enjoy your time. Remain lighthearted and know that an easygoing attitude will get you further in a place where nothing runs to life of pi book quotes time. Stay safe and take precautions, but be open to delays, changes of plan and adventure.
Life is a great adventure or nothing. Thank u for that inspirational quote I love it#128149;#128149;#128149;#8230;.I home I can joined ur travel someday#8230;..someday#8230;.someday. A great site with loads of inspiration to The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay help us on Essay our way as the band are going on tour soon and need all the help we can get. We#8217;re converting a coach to The Persuasion Essay travel, eat and short, sleep in. The Persuasion Of The Essay! None of us have travelled and lived on Reading Commentary the road before so we#8217;ll be out of our normal comfort zone being in The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, the studio.
Travelling awakening one#8217;s senses. my best quote #8216;I haven#8217;t been everywhere but it#8217;s on my list#8217; hi Matthew, I love to travel natural places. Your collection of quotes is wonderful. Thanks for sharing. Thanks for Reading Commentary the nice quotes and pics. Not all those who wander are lost..this is The Persuasion of The Reformation, me. As the saying goes, A wise man or woman who knows Proverbs, automatically knows how to reconcile difficulties.
Thank you for book 23 odyssey your inspirational messages!! Am always Learning, Knowing and Growing. Recently found another motivational coach. I think his experience is very great and Counter, interesting. Thank you for that wonderful quotes. Credits to, I have used them in Narrow-Mindedness a Mockingbird Essays, my Facebook Page. It has been helping me bringing views in my page. Thanks a lot for the help.
“I haven’t been everywhere, but it’s on of The Counter my list.” – Susan Sontag. This is my favorite quote. Thanks again Matthew. #8220;A good traveler has no fixed plans, and is not intent on arriving.#8221; Lao Tzu. “Take only memories, leave only vs non renewable, footprints.” – Chief Seattle. This is the good one. We always leave our footprints on the way of of The Counter, travel. nice post, sir plz!! can you tell me which font you use above picks. Thanks for the nice quotes and pics.
Not all those who wander are lost..this is me. Three of my all-time favourite travel quotes are in that list#8230; Good post! Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and Aristotle Reading Commentary Essay, things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all of one’s lifetime. The world is a book, and those who do not travel read only one page. Life begins at the end of your comfort zone. – Neale Donald Walsch. #8220;If home can#8217;t be where you come from, then home is what you make of where you go#8221;. Absolutely love these, definitely reminds me why I love to travel so much! Just go wild and free, traveling is where we can . your quotes collection are amazing and inspiring for traveler and people who are planning to travel . great work :) keep it up. Nice quotes :-) I love quotes based on The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay Travel because every traveler has many remembrance stories. I must say you have a good choice and sense.keep entertain us friend. Thanks for book 23 odyssey the awesome quotes. I loved most of it.
These are really inspiring. “Life begins at the end of The Persuasion Counter Reformation, your comfort zone.” this is my favourite one. Good Job!! I just read your blog post, this is so awesome inspirational travel quotes never I read before these. #8220;I cannot rest from book 23 odyssey, travel: I will drink. Life to the lees #8230; I am a part of all that I have met; Yet all experience is an arch wherethro’ Gleams that untravell’d world, whose margin fades. Of The Counter Essay! For ever and for ever when I move.#8221; It#8217;s nice quote that I love. Depicted In To Kill A Mockingbird! #8220;Remember that happiness is a way of Counter Reformation Essay, travel – not a destination#8221; Thanks for Kill a Mockingbird Essays sharing! Thanks for sharing! I found myself in many of those quotes :) And hey, I do my own travel pics with quotes,too, and I put the of The Essay same quote of stalin's russia, your #40 on my skydiving pic :D :D :D Funny, huh :) Just returned from 3 weeks traveling in Belize, Guatemala and Mexico 3. Great quotes Matt! My personal favorite: #46: “Two roads diverged in a wood and The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, I – I took the one less traveled by.” – Robert Frost.
Thanks for sharing. Matt! Awesome quotes! Very inspiring! I think this is also a nice travel quote #8220;Live a Nomad Family lifestyle to broaden your horizon and create a more suitable lifestyle for your family#8221; Brenda Brave. I think # 10 was my favorite that I read. Great quote: #10: “We travel not to escape life, but for life not to escape us.” – Anonymous. Thanks for Reading Commentary Essay the inspiration! Hey, nice quotes! :) This was really inspirational. After reading this I#8217;m like#8230; Where is my passport and dad pls gimmie some money.. I will be back in The Persuasion Reformation, 3 days or 3 months maybe#8230; Great collection!
My favorite is: “The gladdest moment in human life, me thinks, is a departure into unknown lands.” – Sir Richard Burton. Stalin's Russia! Great photos loved it.Really inspired. Of The Essay! Lovely Collection of renewable, Quotes. One is from me #8220;If travelling were free, you#8217;d probably never see me again #8220;. I#8217;ve read this before, some where, it#8217;s not yours I guess. Thank for of The Counter Reformation sharing this wonderful list of quotes. These are just what I need. Nice list, Matt. I especially like quote #8220;A journey is best measured in friends, rather than miles#8221;. Characteristics! Thanks for sharing … basically i follow and i love Dalai lama, really what am looking i got with your wonderful collection of quotes and The Persuasion Essay, also photos quotes.. Thank you once again.
I like this one from Tim Cahill “A journey is characteristics story, best measured in friends, rather than miles.” Stumbled upon your site looking for quotes to supplement a scrapbook documenting a surprise trip to Costa Rica. First time out of the country, they were given an Counter, hr notice (in the middle of Times Square on New Years Day!) that we were beginning the adventure of a lifetime. Amazing to watch them transform as we explored. Their initial shock over the lack of characteristics, amenities evolved into an appreciation of the beauty of The Persuasion Counter Reformation, their land and culture. The kids that stepped off that plane were totally different than the ones that boarded it a month later. Renewable Renewable! Thank you for The Persuasion of The sharing these quotes! They will be perfect for documenting our adventure!
Awesome Heather! That first journey into the unknown is always the most memorable. For me it was a trip to rural Mexico that changed my life. Costa Rica rocks! I live here. I love my country.
Very good collection and the most inspiring one is “We travel not to escape life, but for life not to life of pi book quotes escape us.” gonna steal this one for my website, hope you don#8217;t mind. Keep posting#8230; Thank You! Great travel quotes!! There are so many that inspire me for travelling :) Some of my favourites. #8220;All journeys have secret destinations of which the traveller is unaware.#8221; Martin Buber. “You don’t have to be rich to travel well.” – Eugene Fodor. “A journey is best measured in friends, rather than miles.” – Tim Cahill. Of The Counter Essay! These quotes inspire me to go on a world tour along with my friends. Great quotes, Matt! Thanks for sharing. I actually do some traveling and book 23 odyssey, I do relate with a lot of the quotes. But please keep up the good work! You share a lot of fun and vicarious experience! (btw, I also have a blog but it needs fixing so will keep it to myself for the moment!) its amazing list of inspirational quotes. My all time favorite quote.
“Man cannot discover new oceans unless he has the courage to lose sight of the shore.” What is your favorite? :) Great travel quotes. We are all travellers through the The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay pathways of book 23 odyssey, life. Along these chequered pathways, we meet and leave friends, stay glued to our families and seek belief in a source, for inspiration and for the strength we require, to struggle on, to our destinations. Of The! Regretably, only book 23 odyssey, very few of us get there. And those who get there, are the The Persuasion Reformation ones who understand perfectly that the journey of life is about tenacity and perseverance. Stalin's Russia! Thanks for sharing.. Awesome post!
I love all of these! Great blog too, really inspiring ?? I have just taken the The Persuasion Essay plunge and started a travel blog. Ahh! xx. My personal one I picked parts up on life of pi book quotes the road somewhere is; #8220;And if I only scrape a living…#8221; #8220;At least it’s a living worth scraping…#8221; Eric Criens 11 January 2016. Of The! I love your quote. Its very inspiring. Thank you for Aristotle Reading the quotes, they#8217;re all lovely. :) Thanks for this great collection of of The Reformation, quotes! “To awaken alone in stalin's russia, a strange town is one of the The Persuasion of The Essay pleasantest sensations in the world.” – Freya Stark. I really love this one.. someday, I#8217;m gonna be the person in book 23 odyssey, this quote.
Hehe. The Persuasion Counter Reformation! I#8217;m a big fan of Freya#8217;s quote too! The feeling of knowing absolutely nothing about life of pi book, a new place #8212; and the challenge to learn more about it. Of The Essay! Hey Matt! Try to renewable vs non travel here in the Philippines, its a great venue to relax. Reformation! You#8217;ll probably enjoy here! This is Depicted a Mockingbird, a great article. I love the quotes. I hope you don#8217;t mind my copy pasting a couple of the quotes. It#8217;s for my travel website. The Persuasion Essay! I am very new to this digital world but am trying my hand at book 23 odyssey earning online.
Please let me know if this is The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, not ok and I will definitely take it off. Life Of Pi! We also have a backpacker#8217;s hostel in the jungles of Guatemala. You are very welcome to come visit us. Semuc Champey is beautiful. Oh I#8217;ve been to The Persuasion Counter Semuc Champey before, a few years ago. Loved it! The water is beautiful.
Thanks for this comment it is wonderful. It really sums up how I feel about travel, and it is nice to know others feel the same way. And, thanks for vs non renewable the initial post an amazing collection of quotes to inspire me. I have a travel blog as well, and I love seeing others write about my passion! “ I do not fear death. I had been dead for billions and The Persuasion of The Essay, billions. of years before I was born, and had not suffered the. slightest inconvenience from. Tourism has plenty to characteristics short offer #8230;#8230;.. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation Essay! Be passionate about it. Characteristics! Hi! Are these quotes in the public domain?
I would like to make some into Counter Essay artwork#8230;are they all or just some. Aristotle Essay! Lemme know if you can! This Website is of The Counter, awesome , found some quality sayings/quotes . Awesome travel quotes and love them all. I am also a traveler and have been traveling the world since 2000. keep up the great work Matt. Life Is Like Riding a Bicycle. To Keep Your Balance You Must Keep Moving. Nice one! Thanks. When you come to stalin's russia a fork in The Persuasion Reformation, the road, take it. Story! Great article. Of The Counter Reformation! Made me think of a quote from a friend: #8220;Some journeys in life can only story, be traveled alone.#8221;
This quote was penned just a few short weeks ago by my favorite author Ken Poirot and it is showing up all over social media all over the world! I love your website and especially these travel quotes. My favorite travel quote is Essay, number 43 “I haven’t been everywhere, but it’s on my list.” – Susan Sontag. Great blog. I love traveling!! You#8217;re right investment in travel is an investment in stalin's russia, yourself. May I add the following quotes ; Experience is The Persuasion of The Counter, far more valuable than money will ever be.
Never stop wondering#8230;.never stop wandering#8230;. I loved this one#8230; “Traveling – it leaves you speechless, then turns you into a storyteller.” – Ibn Battuta. I travel not because I can afford it,but because i have no choice. it#8217;s the breath of life that fills my mind and soul. Vic beckner 8/13/20015. I have been doing what Dalai Lama said (number 20) for Aristotle years. And it brings me absolute joy every time I do it.
First time having visited this website, found the quotes very motivating, good work! Enjoy traveling and exploring! i feel really inspired after reading ur quotes. I#8217;m currently living in China for a year and I really like your blog, some of the quotes really relate and The Persuasion Reformation Essay, its nice to see them. hey , i ll be in life of pi book quotes, china #8216;changsha #8216; , in august , some advices. Get a VPN, start Learning basic mandarin, your journey will become much easier. Find some local friends or other expats via facebook or qq! Cheers. Great quotes Matt! One of my personal favorites: #8220;If you are not willing to The Persuasion of The Counter Essay risk the unusual, you will have to settle for the ordinary.#8221; Jim Rohn. Life Of Pi Book Quotes! Nice Adam, haven#8217;t heard that one. Love it! Hi Matt, nice blog!
Traveling is really fun, you can discover new places, and The Persuasion, you can also discover your inner self. We don#8217;t just live, we explore! I LOVE travel quotes! They always make me feel so confident about my wanderlust as I know that#8217;s the feeling that is leading me somewhere right even though I don#8217;t know where it is at vs non the moment! Matthew! What a treasure you#8217;ve created here! You are clearly winning at life.
I came across your page while creating a handwritten (gasp!) calendar of the travels my partner and I have been on. I#8217;ve been collecting quotes for, wow, decades i guess at Counter this point but i didn#8217;t have enough travel ones to stalin's russia fill the The Persuasion of The Counter gaps. Thanks for providing! Here#8217;s a couple i wrote down i#8217;d say 10 years ago? I never travel without my diary.
One should have something sensational to read on the train. Oscar Wilde. It is a strange thing to come home, while yet on life book quotes the journey you cannot at all realize how strange it will be. Selma Lagerlof. To move, to breathe, to fly, to float, To gain all while you give, To roam the roads of lands remote, To travel is to live. Hans Christian Andersen. One of my faves that no one has mentioned yet.
Love it, thanks for The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay sharing! Awesome quotes, mine is. Life is a book, everyday a page, each step a word#8230; So stop reading and life of pi book quotes, create your own novel, cuz no one else is going to write it for you. No. 20 is The Persuasion of The Reformation, actually not a Dalai Lama quote.
Wow thanks Matthew, hey there#8217;s no shame in a little travel inspiration. Love the Dr. Seuss quote (received Oh the Places we Go as gift) For deep thinking this is my fav. Story! #8216;Adventure is a path… your body will collide with the earth and you will bear witness. In this way you will be compelled to The Persuasion Essay grapple with the limitless kindness and life of pi book, bottomless cruelty of humankind- and perhaps realise that you yourself are capable of of The Reformation, both. This will change you. Nothing will ever again be black and of pi book, white#8217; Mark Jenkins. thanks Matthew#8230; nice quotes and pics.. will be using this in my fb wall before i leave the The Persuasion of The Essay Phils. and after my trip#8230;. been travelling too since 1994#8230; You should travel to renewable Kenya#8230;.
Every step is a new experience. very inspirational! i love how you put those quotes in pictures as well.. ^_^ hope to see you on the road one time. Not necessarily a travel quote but one I hammer into my students: Are you waiting for it to happen or making it happen?#8230; I think it sums up our travelling go-get attitudes nicely. That#8217;s the key Gemma, making it happen. Of The Essay! Nothing is impossible! Great list of quotes! I love coming back to these for a bit of inspiration. #8220;A ship is story, safe in harbour, but that#8217;s not what ships are for#8221; -William G.T. Shedd. My friend secretly had business cards made up for The Persuasion Reformation Essay me with this travel quote outstanding! Some of my favourites: #8220;Travel isn’t always pretty. Short Story! It isn’t always comfortable. Sometimes it hurts, it even breaks your heart.
But that’s okay. The journey changes you; it should change you. It leaves marks on your memory, on your consciousness, on your heart, and on your body. You take something with you. Hopefully, you leave something good behind.#8221; Anthony Bourdain. “I always wonder why birds choose to stay in the same place when they can fly anywhere on Reformation the earth, then I ask myself the Narrow-Mindedness a Mockingbird Essays same question.” Harun Yahya. #8220;Travel. As much as you can.
As far as you can. As long as you can. Life’s not meant to be lived in one place.#8221; Great blog by the way, many helpful reads! Amazing and inspiring quotes here! i got my favorite quotes to share here, “Travel is more than the seeing of sights; it is a change that goes on, deep and permanent, in the ideas of living.” 10. Essay! “We travel not to escape life, but for life not to escape us.” Absolutely true. Want to try as many new adventures as possible while young, able and breathing. It all comes back to Dr. Depicted In To Kill! Seuss and oh the The Persuasion Reformation places you#8217;ll go. Love this list!
Just wrote one on my blog with my 21 favs and now I might have to expand that- the beauty of life of pi, travel, inspiration is never in short supply! Thanks Matt! PS- Awesome photos! #8220;In The Eyes of a Traveler You Shall See, The World as it Actually is and The Persuasion of The Counter, Could be.#8221; -Vinjabond. Story! Great list, Matt. I especially like quote #10 and Helen Keller at #30. She nailed that one :) #19, a favorite Mark Twain quote.
I fully agree and try to remind myself of this on a daily basis as I gear up for Reformation Essay solo travel and quitting a fantastic job soon. Renewable! We can wake up one morning and find ourselves dead, if we don#8217;t follow our dreams#8230;. Exactly. Life is short! Make the most of it. Nice list! I was expecting the usual quotes that tend to The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation come up again and again but there#8217;s some fresh and more obscure ones in here.
I simply can#8217;t choose a favourite! Great qoutes! Never heard the last one before#8230;.amazing! I believe this Irish blessing qualifies as a travel quote. Definitely one of my favorites and your family#8217;s wish for you, Matt. :) May the road rise up to book 23 odyssey meet you. May the wind be always at your back. May the sun shine warm upon your face; the Counter rains fall soft upon life of pi quotes, your fields and of The Essay, until we meet again, may God hold you in the palm of His hand. Matt! Awesome quotes!
My faves have always been two Edward Abbey quotes: #8220;May your trails be crooked, winding, lonesome, dangerous. May your mountains rise into and above the clouds#8221; and #8220;we need the possibility of escape just as surely as we need hope#8221;. I am LOVING your photos by book quotes the way, you have come a long long way (literally I guess haha) in just a few years! Oooo, those are great too Payje. Glad you#8217;re enjoying the photos. I have some#8230; I don#8217;t know where I#8217;m going but it#8217;s on of The Counter Reformation my list. Aristotle Commentary! / Don#8217;t look back, you#8217;re not going that way. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation Essay! / Take nothing but photographs, leave nothing but footprints. / Life is a journey, enjoy the ride.
#8220;Road Heart#8221; MatadorU Writing faculty member and nationally published book author Mary Sojourner explains it: #8220;The much to be desired condition of suddenly finding everything astonishing, fascinating, and unique the second you are on a roadtrip…so that even the local gas station becomes full of characters and stories.#8221; Very true. Thanks for sharing that one, love it! This is Reading, so awesome! I just read your blog post about sneaking into Tulum before sunrise. I#8217;m here in Tulum this week and wanted to The Persuasion Reformation Essay see it the same way so I could take some photos. Not sure I#8217;m as brave as you :) They patrol it, so you have to be careful. Hiking up there in the dark isn#8217;t the book 23 odyssey easiest either. If you decide not to, you can always just arrive as soon as they open. If you#8217;re first in line, you#8217;ll have good photo opportunities before too many people show up.
I LOVE when you wax poetic, Matt! Great post and wonderful photos! Thanks, it was fun looking through photos to match with quotes. I truly love your quotes, I use some of them in of The, my travel agency when I posted some places and natures. Book 23 Odyssey! However, if its not okay using your quotes please do inform me so I can delete them.
Your quotes are often apt to the feelings of The Persuasion Essay, discovering new places and characteristics short, the emotions of entailing in going to the unknown. Reformation Essay! thanks.
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Milk Process Automation In Dairy System Using Plc-Scada. As we have selected 'MILK PROCESS AUTOMATION IN DAIRY SYSTEM USING PLC and SCADA' after observing a lot of projects, because we have observed that automation is widely used in most of the companies for various processes. In today's generation it is needed in each field. Thus all the process needs a few operators to Counter Essay control automation. Many processes are done in a dairy so to renewable vs non operate and control the Counter processes need many operators. Stalin's Russia! Our aim is to reduce operators and to save time and money.
This will be achieved by automation and we have use PLC and The Persuasion of The Reformation, SCADA in this project for automation. SCADA is the Aristotle Essay software for of The, this process. In dairy process, first of all raw milk will be collected in Commentary the tank. Then after filtration and clarification of milk will be done and collect into The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, a balanced tank. After that pasteurization of milk will be done.
Further, the process of separation of milk takes place and life of pi book, next standardization of milk will be done. In standardization, milk will standardize in different quality. Now after packing process will take place. In packing process, this different quality of milk will be packed in bottle. This all processes are done with automation using PLC and SCADA. At last we will get different quality of milk in bottle like Silver, gold, platinum etc. Here, we shall conclude that we have different quality milk in bottle from raw milk in real time with automation process. The first ideas about fully automating the milking process were generated in the mid seventies. Cost of of The Counter Reformation Essay, labour in several countries was growing and this was one of the main reasons to start the development of stalin's russia, automation around milking.
The first applications were automatic concentrate feeders. A further step in the automation of milking parlors was the development of automatic cluster removers. In the early eighties, automation in of The Counter Reformation Essay milking parlors was expanded with the development of book 23 odyssey, milk yield recording equipment and sensors to detect udder health problems. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation Essay! All these developments and new milking technology reduces the labour input during milking, resulting in a higher output per man-hour. The final step in the automation development seemed to be the development of automatic teat cup attachment systems. The idea of course was to book 23 odyssey develop a fully automated automatic milking system. An Automatic milking system is in The Persuasion Essay use for 24 hours per day, needs adjusted cleaning and cooling procedures, complicates visual control and the milking frequency varies from cow to cow and from day to book 23 odyssey day. One of the aspects affected by The Persuasion Reformation, automatic milking is milk quality.
The quality of milk is a very important aspect of milk production. Milk payment systems and consumer acceptance are, to characteristics short a great extent, based on it. Automatic milking is The Persuasion, a fully automated process. Visual control of the milk is not possible as during conventional milking. Stalin's Russia! Therefore, the milk quality needs to be managed in a different manner. Several devices such as sensors for conductivity, color and The Persuasion, temperature of the Aristotle milk, yield measurement and machine on time figures are integrated and inform the farmer on The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, the status of the milk. We only know that in book 23 odyssey India there are huge numbers of The Persuasion of The Reformation, people depends on renewable, milk giving animals. They supply milk to Dairies and it reaches to us in The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay the form of stalin's russia, various milk products like cheese, milk, butter, milk powder and The Persuasion Counter, so on. Actually what happens to Narrow-Mindedness in To Essays the milk, how it is processed?
What makes the The Persuasion Counter Reformation milk conducive to health? What treatment it receives? And how various milk products are prepared? Even though with modern automation in place, the need to book 23 odyssey configure design process itself, specifically looking at methodologies for generating optimal dairy processing. Flow sheets over a range of of The, scales, from raw milk to final product and packaging, are most sought after. Automation is delegation of human control functions to technical equipment for increasing productivity, better quality, increase safety in working conditions reducing manpower reduced cost. Manufacturing of story, products under the control of computers and Counter Essay, programmable controllers, manufacturing assembly lines as well as stand-alone machine tools (CNC machines) and robotic devices can be used for dairy automation. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) in combination attract the need of the project for book 23 odyssey, its capability to provide over all fast and reliable control for of The Counter Reformation, large process automation needs. Automation in renewable vs non various process industries using PLC and Counter, SCADA has gained high importance due to efficient reliable control.
Dairy industry is Aristotle Reading, one area in which automation plays an The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, important role to life book quotes control, automate and stream line the process. The Persuasion Essay! Modern day dairy plants are capable of in To a Mockingbird, processing large volume of The Persuasion of The Counter Essay, products, from raw milk to final packaging of various milk based products. The dairy industry is divided into two main production areas: ' Primary production of milk in farms. ' Processing of milk The aim of Reading Essay, this project is to study the dairy process automation, to suggest any scope of improvement in Counter Essay the milk processing and packaging and to implement them using PLC SCADA. Brief History Of Work. 2.1 History Of PLC. The first PLC can be traced back to 1968 when Bedford Associates, a company in Bedford, MA, developed a device called a Modular Digital Controller for General Motors (GM). The MODICON, as it was known, was developed to book 23 odyssey help GM eliminate traditional relay-based machine control systems. Because relays are mechanical devices, they have limited lifetimes.
They are also cumbersome, especially in large applications where thousands of them may exist. With so many relays to Counter Reformation Essay work with, wiring and Reading Commentary Essay, troubleshooting could be quite complicated. Since the MODICON was an electronic device, not a mechanical one, it was perfect for GM's requirements, as well as for many other manufacturers and users of control equipment. Of The Counter Essay! With less wiring, simpler troubleshooting, and easy programming, PLC technology caught on quickly. PLCs are often defined as miniature industrial computers that contain hardware and software that is used to perform control functions. A PLC consists of two basic sections: the central processing unit (CPU) and short story, the input/output interface system.
The CPU, which controls all PLC activity, can further be broken down into the processor and memory system. The input/output system is physically connected to field devices (e.g., switches, sensors, etc.) and The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, provides the interface between the CPU and the information providers (inputs) and controllable devices (outputs). PLCs can be divided into at least three categories: ' Full-size, for top level applications requiring fast program execution with very short instruction cycle times. They are capable of supporting several CPUs for multiprocessing to provide more processing power. They offer the TCP/IP communication capability over general purpose networks to the supervisory workstations, and life quotes, support field bus data transmission with equipment controllers. ' Middle-size, intended for industrial automated systems of Counter, medium power. Short Story! They offer a large choice of analog and The Persuasion Counter Essay, digital input/output modules. Book 23 Odyssey! They are usually connected to a field bus on one side and to The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay the equipment on story, the other side; their speed is not an important parameter, the amount of data transferred is small and Counter Reformation Essay, the average price per function is low. ' Small or micro-size, for stalin's russia, direct interface with sensors and actuators. Essay! They are very simple electrically and vs non renewable, mechanically and are sometimes integrated with the intelligent sensor itself, they are characterized by short reaction times and they transfer a small amount of data.
To operate, the CPU reads input data from connected field devices through the use of The Persuasion, its input interfaces, and book 23 odyssey, then executes, or performs the control program that has been stored in its memory system. Of The Reformation Essay! Programs are typically created in ladder logic, a language that closely resembles a relay-based wiring schematic, and are entered into the CPU's memory prior to operation. Finally, based on the program, the PLC writes, or updates output devices via the output interfaces. This process, also known as scanning, continues in the same sequence without interruption, and characteristics short story, changes only when a change is made to the control program. As PLC technology has advanced, so have programming languages and communications capabilities, along with many other important features. Of The Counter! Today's PLCs offer faster scan times, space efficient high-density input/output systems, and special interfaces to allow non-traditional devices to be attached directly to renewable renewable the PLC. Counter Reformation! Not only can they communicate with other control systems, they can also perform reporting functions and renewable vs non renewable, diagnose their own failures, as well as the failure of a machine or process. When you consider all of the of The Counter Reformation Essay advances PLCs have made and all the benefits they offer, it's easy to see how they've become a standard in the industry, and vs non, why they will most likely continue their success in the future. 2.1. (A) Interacting With PLCs. Occasionally, users will need to interact with the The Persuasion Counter Reformation PLC to program or configure it.
They also need a means through which the PLC can communicate errors or alarms. Users interface with PLCs in a number of ways. All PLCs include ports or network capabilities through which they can receive the short user programming. For other interactions, some PLCs employ a series of of The Reformation, switches or LEDs, while others use a text-based display. Narrow-Mindedness Depicted In To Kill Essays! Still others employ a web-based interface that connects with users through a PC. PLCs are finding their application in accelerators, technical services, experiments and in the laboratory for The Persuasion Reformation, equipment test-beds. The technical requirements of the accelerators, the technical services and the experiments are mostly the same. Thus, a range of PLC products is needed for general purpose applications in book quotes a large diversity of fields such as electricity, water, gas, cryogenics, cooling, ventilation, process control, magnet control, machinery, personnel access and safety systems. Counter Reformation! It is planned to use PLCs for accelerator specific systems like: interlocks for main magnet power supplies, beam targets, dumps, stoppers, collimators, aperture limiters and beam extraction electronics. 2.2 Diagram Of Process Flow Chart.
Figure.2.0 Process Flow. 2.3 Process Flow. Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the life of pi book primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrums, which carries the mother's antibodies to The Persuasion of The Counter the baby and can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. Book 23 Odyssey! It also contains many other nutrients. As an agricultural product, milk is The Persuasion Counter, extracted from mammals during or soon after pregnancy and used as food for humans. Worldwide, dairy farms produced about 730 million ton of milk in 2011. India is the world's largest producer and consumer of milk, yet neither exports nor imports milk. New Zealand, the characteristics European Union's 28 member states, Australia, and Essay, the United States are the characteristics story world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia are the of The Essay world's largest importers of quotes, milk and milk products.
Throughout the world, there are more than 6 billion consumers of milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live within dairy farming households. Milk is a key contributor to improving nutrition and food security particularly in developing countries. Improvements in Reformation Essay livestock and dairy technology offer significant promise in reducing poverty and malnutrition in renewable vs non renewable the world. Despite all the preventive hygiene measures, the The Persuasion Essay raw milk delivered to dairies by agricultural businesses still contains unwanted foreign substances ' such as somatic cells and blood from the udders, contaminants from the book 23 odyssey air and dirt from contact with the milking machines, the of The Essay milk lines and book 23 odyssey, the transport vehicles. The flow chart involves the various following processes: 1. Milk receipt tank. 2. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation! Filter and clarification. The each and every above process is briefly explained as follows: 1. Milk Receipt Tank: This tank consists of the milk that is brought to book 23 odyssey the industry from source like farms.
Here the milk is just stored and care is The Persuasion of The Counter, taken that the stored milk is safe and will then further it is taken for the further process. Separation and clarification can be done at the same time in Depicted Kill a Mockingbird Essays one centrifuge. Particles, which are more dense than the continuous milk phase, are thrown back to the perimeter. The solids that collect in Counter Reformation Essay the centrifuge consist of dirt, epithelial cells, leucocytes, corpuscles, bacteria sediment and sludge. The amount of solids that collect will vary, however, it must be removed from the centrifuge. More modern centrifuges are self-cleaning allowing a continuous separation/clarification process. This type of book 23 odyssey, centrifuge consists of a specially constructed bowl with peripheral discharge slots. These slots are kept closed under pressure.
With a momentary release of pressure, for about 0.15 s, the contents of sediment space are evacuated. This can mean anywhere from The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay 8 to 25 L are ejected at Intervals Of 60 Min. For One Dairy, Self-Cleaning Translated To A Loss Of 50 L/Hr Of Milk. Filtered milk (UF milk) is a sub classification of milk protein concentrate that is renewable vs non renewable, produced by passing milk under pressure through a thin, porous membrane to separate the components of milk according to Counter Reformation their size, permitting greater efficiency in cheese making. Specifically, filtration allows the characteristics short story smaller lactose, water, mineral, and vitamin molecules to pass through the membrane, while the The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay larger protein and characteristics, fat molecule are retained and concentrated. The removal of water and lactose reduces the volume of Reformation, milk, and thereby lowers its transportation and storage costs. Filtration makes cheese manufacturing more efficient and can benefit consumers if cost savings are passed on. Pasteurization or pasteurization is a process of heating a food, which is usually a liquid, to a specific temperature for a predefined length of time and Narrow-Mindedness in To Kill, then immediately cooling it after it is removed from the heat. This process slows spoilage caused by microbial growth in the food.
Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is of The Counter Reformation Essay, not intended to stalin's russia kill all micro-organisms in the food. Essay! Instead, it aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the pasteurized product is book 23 odyssey, stored as indicated and is consumed before its expiry date). Commercial-scale sterilization of food is of The Reformation, not common because it adversely affects the book 23 odyssey taste and quality of the of The Essay product. Certain foods, such as dairy products, may be superheated to ensure pathogenic microbes are destroyed. Milk should be clarified by separators to improve milk quality ' for good reason: As a basic food, milk is subject to national and international laws. The aim of these laws is to ensure that milk and dairy products are brought into renewable vs non renewable, circulation only in perfect condition which will not harm health. Centrifuges can be used to separate the cream from the The Persuasion Reformation skim milk. Under the influence of centrifugal force the fat globules (cream), which are less dense than the book 23 odyssey skim milk, move inwards through the Essay separation channels toward the axis of rotation. The skim milk will move outwards and leaves through a separate outlet. The streams of skim and cream after separation must be recombined to characteristics story a specified fat content. This can be done by adjusting the The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay throttling valve of the short story cream outlet; if the valve is completely closed, all milk will be discharged through the skim milk outlet.
As the The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay valve is progressively opened, larger amounts of cream with diminishing fat contents are discharged from the cream outlet. With direct standardization the Kill a Mockingbird Essays cream and skim are automatically remixed at the separator to provide the desired fat content. 3.1 What Is Automation? Automation is the use of The Persuasion Counter, various control system for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships or aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor; however, it is also used to save energy and Aristotle Commentary, materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision. The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established the automation department. It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, and Reformation, electronic and computers, usually in combination.
Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques. 3.2 Types Of Automations. a. Feedback control. b. Sequential control and logical sequence control. c. Computer control. a. Feedback Control. Feedback control is Narrow-Mindedness a Mockingbird, accomplished with a controller.
To function properly a controller must provide correction in The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay a manner that maintains stability. Maintaining stability is a principle objective of control theory. As an example of feedback control, consider a steam coil air heater in which a temperature sensor measures the stalin's russia temperature of the heated air, which is the measured variable. This signal is constantly fed back to the controller, which compares it to the desired setting (set point). The controller calculates the difference (error) then calculates a correction and sends the The Persuasion of The Counter Essay correction signal to adjust the air pressure to vs non a diaphragm that moves a positioned on The Persuasion Counter Essay, the steam valve, opening or closing it by the calculated amount. All the elements constituting the measurement and control of a single variable are called a control loop.
The complexities of this are that the quantities involved are all of different physical types; the of pi quotes temperature sensor signal may be electrical or pressure from an enclosed fluid, the controller may employ pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical or electronic techniques to sense the error and send a signal to adjust the air pressure. The first controllers used analog methods to perform their calculations. Analog methods were also used in The Persuasion Reformation solving differential equations of control theory. The electronic analog computer was developed to stalin's russia solve control type problems and electronic analog controllers were also developed. Analog computers were displaced by digital computers when they became widely available. Common applications of The Persuasion Counter Essay, feedback control are control of temperature, pressure, flow, speed. B. Sequential Control And Logical Sequence Control. Sequential control may be either to a fixed sequence or to a logical one that will perform different actions depending on various system states. Stalin's Russia! An example of a adjustable but otherwise fixed sequence is a timer on a lawn sprinkler. An elevator is an example that uses logic based on the system states. A basic form of sequential control is relay logic by of The Reformation Essay, which electrical relays engage electrical contacts which either start or interrupt power to a device.
Relay logic was developed when starting and stopping industrial sized electric motors, opening and closing solenoid valves and starting and stopping other devices was done with relays, timers and other electrical hardware. More complicated examples involve start up and shut down sequences for equipment, in which a number of stalin's russia, safety precautions can be taken by The Persuasion Counter Reformation, good design of characteristics, control logic. The number of relays, cam timers and The Persuasion Reformation Essay, drum sequencers can number into the hundreds or even thousands in some factories. Special computers called programmable logic controllers were designed to replace many of these hardware items and to add a higher level of functionality. In a typical hard wired motor start and stop circuit (called a control circuit) a motor is started by pushing a Start or Run button that activates a pair of book 23 odyssey, electrical relays. The lock-in relay locks in contacts that keep the control circuit energized when the push button is released. (The start button is a normally open contact and the stop button is normally closed contact.). Another relay energizes a switch that powers the device that throws the motor starter switch (three sets of contacts for three phase industrial power) in the main power circuit. (Note: Large motors use high voltage and Reformation, experience high in-rush current, making speed important in making and breaking contact. This can be dangerous for personnel and property with manual switches.). Short! All contacts are held engaged by of The Counter Essay, their respective electromagnets until a stop or off button is renewable vs non renewable, pressed that de-energizes the lock in relay.
See diagram: Motor Starters Hand-Off-auto With Start-Stop. c. Computer Control. Computers can perform both sequential control and feedback control, and Counter Reformation Essay, typically a single computer will do both in an industrial application. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are a type of Depicted in To a Mockingbird Essays, special purpose microprocessor that replaced many hardware components such as timers and drum sequencers used in The Persuasion Counter Reformation relay logic. General purpose process control computers have increasingly replaced stand alone controllers, with a single computer able to perform the operations of hundreds of controllers. Process control computers can process data from vs non a network of The Persuasion Counter Essay, PLCs, instruments and book, controllers in The Persuasion of The Counter Essay order to implement typical (such as PID) control of many individual variables or, in some cases, to implement complex control algorithms using multiple inputs and mathematical manipulations.
They can also analyze data and create real time graphical displays for operators and run reports for engineers and management. Control of an automated teller machine (ATM) is a example of an interactive process in which a computer will perform a logic derived response to a user selection based on information retrieved from a networked database. The ATM process has a lot of similarities to other online transaction processes. The different logical responses are called scenarios. Such processes are typically designed with the aid of use cases and flowcharts, which guide the book 23 odyssey writing of the software code.
3.3 Different Control Systems Used In Automation. a. The Persuasion Of The Counter! HMI Controller based control system. b. DCS based Control system. c. PC based control system. d. PLC Based automation system. a. Human Machine Interface (HMI) In complex systems, the human-machine interface is typically computerized. Characteristics! The term Human-computer interface refers to Counter this kind of systems. The engineering of the human-machine interfaces is by considering ergonomics (Human Factors). The corresponding disciplines are Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and Usability Engineering (UE), which is part of Systems Engineering. Tools used for incorporating the human factors in Aristotle Reading Commentary Essay the interface design are developed based on knowledge of computer science, such as computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages.
Nowadays, we use the of The Reformation expression Graphical User Interface for Human-Machine Interface on computers, as nearly all of them are now using graphics. Primary methods used in life quotes the interface design include prototyping and simulation. b. Distributed Control System (DCS) A distributed control system refers to a control system usually of a manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system controlled by The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, one or more controllers. c. PC Based Control System.
Compact, low-cost and yet advanced process-control engineering can be achieved based on Programmable Controllers. d. PLC Based Automation System. PLC Automation panels are used in Process Control application in industries such as . Characteristics Short Story! Steel / Aluminum / Wire and of The Counter Reformation Essay, Cable / Tyre Tube / Packaging / Plastic / Polyfilms / Pharmaceuticals / Defense / Automobile / Power Plant / Marine / LPG Gas Oil / Cement / In fracture / Crane Automation etc. Programmable Logic Controller. A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC or Programmable Controller is a digital computer used for automation of characteristics, electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. The abbreviation PLC and the term Programmable Logic Controller are registered trademarks of the Allen-Bradley Company (Rockwell Automation). PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for of The Reformation, multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact.
In essence, a programmable logic controller reads its input signals and responds to them by turning the renewable output modules on Counter Essay, or off. Narrow-Mindedness Depicted Kill A Mockingbird! It functions under the classic if/then scenario, only on of The Counter Essay, a much more complicated scale since it controls multiple input and output devices, all of Narrow-Mindedness Depicted in To Essays, which must be responded to immediately and constantly as designated by The Persuasion Reformation, the user program. Life Of Pi Book! The unit's output modules usually consist of devices like lights, switches, starters, valves, solenoids, and displays. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result. PLCs are incredibly valuable pieces of technology, since a single unit can often replace hundreds or thousands of relays. Counter Reformation! Though they were originally designed for the automotive industry, PLCs have since been implemented in a number of different fields.
In large part, the automation processes in most modern factories are facilitated by book 23 odyssey, PLCs. These devices are designed to follow their programming instructions precisely, which is especially vital in of The Reformation a factory assembly line setting where a small mistake or miscalculation can result in costly errors. Some PLCs function on a very basic level; others are capable of book 23 odyssey, controlling higher-level, more complicated processes. They can be used for of The Essay, a wide variety of input/output functions and timing applications. They also offer motion control and complex networking capabilities. Figure-4.1 Multiple Inputs And Multiple Outputs PLC. 4.1. (A) PLCs Are Preferred Because: 1) Consistency in manufacturing can be easily achieved. 2) Complete control of the Narrow-Mindedness Depicted Kill a Mockingbird manufacturing process can be achieved. 3) Accuracy and of The Counter, quality can be improved.
4) Productivity can be improved. 5) Makes it easy to work in difficult or hazardous environment. 4.2 Why PLC Is Used In Automation? PLC play a vital role in of pi book quotes automaton, programmable logic controller device can manage and control entire industry to produce better and quick Response. A PLC is Counter Reformation, a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes, like controlling machinery or factory assembly lines. Unlike desktop computers, PLCs are have multiple inputs and outputs, operate under extended temperature ranges, have immunity to Depicted Essays electrical noise, and have resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are usually stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. The main difference between PLC and other computer is that plc has multiple inputs and outputs then can do multiple works at moments, you can produce more output quickly. 1. Of The Counter! Less cost to implement: For the cost of relays and timers to automate about 3 lines for conveying product from finishing machine to packaging machine, you could pay for a PLC to life of pi book quotes do the same job. In general, a PLC system would make production more flexible and responsive.
2. Reliability: Relays and Electro-mechanical timers (magnetic control), are susceptible to electrical / mechanical failure. With PLCs the The Persuasion control logic is non-mechanical, (solid state). And with the PLC, you can program extra logic to monitor and test itself for renewable vs non, possible failure at no extra cost. This would make safety circuits more safe, and reduce process variability. With PLC control you could increase compatibility with existing equipment, scalability, improving ease of The Persuasion Reformation Essay, use, and providing a common look and feel. 3. Speed: The PLC can speed up operation of machines that you could not obtain with that old out Narrow-Mindedness Depicted in To a Mockingbird Essays, dated relay logic. Control logic makes decisions more accurate and faster than a human operator could hope to achieve. Timers can be set to Counter Reformation Essay hundredths of a second to compensate for external variables, and enhance safety. 4. Greater functionality: PLCs have the ability to compare real-time values and make decisions based on that comparison.
They can do complex mathematical functions, and adjust the machine accordingly. The greater functionality allows you to design logic that can automatically adjust for different machine products, there by book 23 odyssey, reducing downtime for setups and machine change over. 5. Safety: In the past with relay control logic, safety circuit implementation was weighed out on a cost verses likely hood method. In other words, the basic emergency stop button, relying on operators to of The stop the machine before an accident occurred. Usually do to distractions and slow reaction time of humans, the button wasn't pressed until after the damage was done. With PLCs, you can cover 99% of Commentary, all the possible safety risk, and the only cost is the time it takes to The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation add a few rungs of logic to your program. Safety curtains are about the most expensive item, but well under the cost of an accident. Using the PLC to monitor safety risks is equivalent to having a full time employee watching, but with quicker reaction time than any human.
6. Less downtime: Downtime can be broken down in to two separate areas. Scheduled and non scheduled. DuPont has been quoted as saying: Maintenance is the single largest controllable cost opportunity, representing $100-$300 million per year corporate-wide. Scheduled down time will be less if that time is for machine modifications, which require less work with PLCs. Renewable! Some of the preventive maintenance can be automated through the The Persuasion Counter Essay PLC to stalin's russia even further reduce down time. Unscheduled downtime can be broken down (no pun intended), further into two groups: Troubleshooting and repair. The more complex our systems become, the more beneficial it is to write logic that will not only isolate failures but also indicate potential failures that may occur in the near future.The trouble shooting down time can be reduced by 90%. This is The Persuasion of The Counter Essay, accomplished by utilizing the sensors already in place, to do testing through PLC logic to short story isolate where trouble is originating. Repair is usually only a fraction of the The Persuasion of The Counter time it takes to find the problem. It's not uncommon to Essay spend hours tracking down a limit switch that is bent, or a dirty proximity sensor. The cost to of The Counter Reformation find the problem is more expensive than the cost to repair it.
With PLCs the cost to stalin's russia find the problem is greatly reduced. A PLC has following sections and each section has unique job to perform. 1) The sensing section. This section consists of Reformation Essay, limit switches, photoelectric sensors, push buttons etc. These incoming hardware devices provides input signal to Aristotle the PLC. These devices are also called as field input devices. The term 'field input is of The Essay, used because this device provides incoming signals that are tangible items that you physically connect to PLC. Figure-4.2 Sensing Section Of PLC Source.
2) Input section. This section is majorly divided into life of pi book quotes, 2 parts: First, the physical screw terminals, where incoming signal (i.e. input), from the field input devices (e.g. The Persuasion Essay! limit switch) are connected to the PLC. The second portion of the input section is the Aristotle PLC's internal conversion electronics. This section converts and of The Reformation, isolates the Aristotle Reading Essay high-voltage input level from field input devices.
High-voltage signals from field input devices are converted to +5 volts direct current (VDC) for a valid ON input signal, and a 0 VDC for a valid OFF input signal. Incoming signal conversion and isolation is necessary because microprocessor components operate on +5 VDC, whereas an input signal may be of 24 VDC, 120 volts alternating current (VAC), or 220 VDC. If 120 VAC signal is inputted, for The Persuasion, example, into 5 VDC, circuit will quickly destroy your PLC. The controller is also known as central processing unit (CPU), or simply as the processor. Central processing unit controls or supervises the entire process. The central processing unit solves the user program and apparently updates the status of the outputs. The programmer is a device used by the programmer or operator to enter or edit program instructions or data. The programmer can be handheld unit, a personal computer, or an industrial computer programming terminal. 5) Output section.
The ON or OFF status of the inputs are read and the information is used to solve the user ladder program and Aristotle Reading Essay, the updated signals is sent to the output section. Counter Reformation! The output section is Aristotle Commentary, simply a series of The Persuasion of The Counter, switches, one for each output point, that are controlled by CPU and are used to turn output field devices ON or OFF. Figure-4.3 Input and output section. 6) Field hardware devices. The devices that are controlled by the PLC's output section screw terminals are the book 23 odyssey field hardware devices. 4.2.(b) How does a PLC work? Microprocessor is the heart of Essay, any computer; it is also called as processor, or CPU.
The central processing unit supervises system control through the stalin's russia user program. After reading the input signal, the CPU follows the instructions, that a programmer or operator has stored in Counter Reformation the PLC's memory. Reading! Depending upon the result of the solved program, the field control devices or outputs are turned ON or OFF. When the PLC is running and following the programmer's instructions, it is The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, called as solving the program. 4.2. (c) How can we register instructions into the PLC's memory? The instructions which we want our PLC to carry out stalin's russia, can be transferred to The Persuasion Reformation Essay the controller memory using either handheld programmer or a personal computer. The first step is to develop the user ladder program. Once the user ladder program is verified for book 23 odyssey, correctness, the next step is to download the program into the processor's memory.
The process of transferring the user defined PLC program from personal computer's memory into PLC memory is Reformation, called as downloading the program. But before downloading the user program, the processor must be in program mode. Now, if all the characteristics short story inputs and outputs signals are wired to the correct screw terminals, the processor can be put in run mode. In run mode, the program will continuously run and Reformation, solve the programmed instructions. The process of solving the programmed instruction is sometime called as solving the logic. This constant running of the program in a PLC is called as scanning. 4.2.(d) The PLC's purpose. The PLC is primarily used to control machinery. A program is written for the PLC which turns on and off outputs based on input conditions and the internal program.
In this aspect, a PLC is similar to a computer. However, a PLC is designed to be programmed once, and run repeatedly as needed. In fact, a crafty programmer could use a PLC to book 23 odyssey control not only simple devices such as a garage door opener, but their whole house, including switching lights on and off at certain times, monitoring a custom built security system, etc. Most commonly, a PLC is found inside of a machine in an industrial environment. A PLC can run an The Persuasion, automatic machine for years with little human intervention. They are designed to withstand most harsh environments.
PLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9-pin RS-232, but optionally EIA-485 or Ethernet. Book 23 Odyssey! Modbus, BACnet or DF1 is Essay, usually included as one of the communications protocols. Other options include various field buses such as DeviceNet or Profibus. Other communications protocols that may be used are listed in the List of automation protocols. Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system, such as a computer running a SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system. PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communication between processors. This allows separate parts of stalin's russia, a complex process to have individual control while allowing the subsystems to co-ordinate over the communication link. These communication links are also often used for HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations. Technicians or other users write unique programs that direct the function of the PLC. The programs are written on a PC in one of the standard programming languages and then downloaded to the PLC directly through a cable or over Counter a local network.
The information is then stored in the PLC's memory. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming languages. A graphical programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on certain programmable controllers. Renewable Renewable! Initially most PLCs utilized Ladder Logic Diagram Programming, a model which emulated electromechanical control panel devices (such as the contact and of The Counter Reformation, coils of relays) which PLCs replaced. This model remains common today.
The most frequently used programming language for stalin's russia, PLCs is ladder logic; however, other languages are also common. The Persuasion Of The! The table below explains each of the five languages most often used for renewable, PLC programming. Programming Language Description. Ladder Logic Ladder logic is a graphical language that includes math operations, timers, counters, and The Persuasion of The, similar functions. Function Block Diagram Function block diagram is book 23 odyssey, a programming language that illustrates data flow and of The Reformation Essay, signal paths. Short Story! It aptly expresses the relationships between control system algorithms. Structured Text Structured text is of The, a text language that is highly structured and supports a broad spectrum of functions.
It is Narrow-Mindedness Kill a Mockingbird, similar to the programming language PASCAL. Instruction List Instruction list is a simple assembly language, and it is widely used in The Persuasion PLCs. Sequential Function Chart Sequential function chart is a highly structured language and book 23 odyssey, is best for complicated control systems. It manages complex tasks by dividing them into smaller tasks. 4.5 Basic PLC Operation. PLCs consist of of The, input modules or points, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), and output modules or points. An input accepts a variety of digital or analog signals from various field devices (sensors) and converts them into a logic signal that can be used by the CPU.
The CPU makes decisions and life of pi book quotes, executes control instructions based on program instructions in memory. Output modules convert control instructions from the CPU into a digital or analog signal that can be used to control various field devices (actuators). A programming device is used to input the desired instructions. These instructions determine what the PLC will do for of The Counter Reformation Essay, a specific input. Narrow-Mindedness In To Essays! An operator interface device allows process information to be displayed and new control parameters to The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation be entered.
Figure-4.4 Scan cycle of PLC. (Source: www.software.inv ensys.com) If input power fails and power supply can no longer deliver voltage to the system; power backup preserves any program that has been inserted into the CPU RAM. Power Supply - This module can be built into Narrow-Mindedness Depicted Kill Essays, the PLC processor module or be an external unit. Common voltage levels required by the PLC are 5Vdc, 24Vdc, 220Vac. The voltage lends are stabilized and often the PS monitors its own health. The power supply gives the voltage required for electronics module (I/O Logic signals, CPU, memory unit and peripheral devices) of the PLC from the line supply. The power supply provides isolation necessary to protect the solid state devices from most high voltage line spikes. As I/O is expanded, some PLC may require additional power supplies in order to The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay maintain proper power levels. Figure- 4.5 Block Diagram of PLC.
(Source: www. plc-scada.html) Pushbuttons (sensors), in this simple example, connected to PLC inputs, can be used to start and stop a motor connected to a PLC through a motor starter (actuator). Figure-4.6 Motor Start/Stop Using PLC. Figure- 4.7 Types of PLC. 4.6 Advantages Of PLC. The same, as well as more complex tasks can be done with a PLC. Wiring between devices and relay contacts is done in the PLC program. Kill A Mockingbird Essays! Hard-wiring, though still required to of The Essay connect field devices, is less intensive.
Modifying the application and correcting errors are easier to handle. It is easier to characteristics short story create and change a program in a PLC than it is to wire and rewire a circuit. Following are just a few of the advantages of PLCs: ' Smaller physical size than hard-wire solutions. ' Easier and faster to make changes. ' PLCs have integrated diagnostics and The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay, override functions. ' Diagnostics are centrally available.
' Applications can be immediately documented. ' Applications can be duplicated faster and less expensively. ' Reliability in operation. ' They are attractive on Cost-Per-Point Basis. ' Flexibility in control techniques. ' Flexibility in programming and reprogramming in the plant. ' Cost effective for controlling complex systems. 4.7 Disadvantages Of Programmable Logic Controller. 1. There's too much work required in connecting wires.
2. There's difficulty with changes or replacements. 3. It's always difficult to find errors and require skillful work force. 4. When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long. 4.8 PLC Vs Microcontroller. Microcontrollers (MCU) are complete computer systems on a chip. They combine an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), memory, timer/counters, serial port, input/output (I/O) ports and a clock oscillator. Programmable logic controllers (PLC) are the control hubs for automated systems and processes.
They contain multiple inputs and outputs that use transistors and renewable vs non renewable, other circuitry to simulate switches and of The, relays to control equipment.They're also programmable via standard computer interfaces and proprietary languages and network options. Programmable logic controllers have been used for industrial control systems for many years. Their proven reliability in harsh environments and design to handle many inputs and outputs has made them the foundation of many factory automated systems. PLCs can be combined with most other technologies to provide a sophisticated control and monitoring system. 4.9 Difference Between PLC And Microcontroller. PLC is a special microcontroller designed for industrial application. It is for stalin's russia, controlling machinery or processes. A microcontroller is a microprocessor that can be used for any type of application. The basic difference between PLC and microcontrollers is only the way of programming.
Most common way of PLC programming is with graphical language Ladder logic programming which looks a little more similar to electrical schematics than a computer programming language. There is some ways like functional block diagrams, as well mnemonic (like assembler), stages etc. Second significant characteristic is the infinite loop (cycling) through the ladder start-to-end and Reformation, again from start. This was for the regular plcs; some newer plcs have event driven capabilities. Also plcs are more restricted in calculations. A PLC is a modular device which one can program using Ladder diagrams (relay logic) or Statement List. It is optimized to handle several digital inputs and outputs, and is more rugged for use in characteristics industrial applications. Basically it scans the inputs, and determines the outputs based on the logical conditions programmed into The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, it by book 23 odyssey, the user. It internally uses a microcontroller to handle all input, output and The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation, logic scans. Application area is mostly industrial automation. Then, Microcontrollers are cores that will do anything you program them to do.
They probably can be used in each of the above applications, but with varying effectiveness. As always, your work is in discerning which option will work best in a given situation. 5.1 Introduction Of Ladder Diagram. Ladder diagrams are specialized schematics commonly used to document industrial control logic systems. They are called ladder diagrams because they resemble a ladder, with two vertical rails (supply power) and as many rungs (horizontal lines) as there are control circuits to represent.
If we wanted to draw a simple ladder diagram showing a lamp that is controlled by a hand switch, it would look like this: We can construct simply logic functions for Commentary Essay, our hypothetical lamp circuit, using multiple contacts, and The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, document these circuits quite easily and understandably with additional rungs to our original ladder. Narrow-Mindedness! If we use standard binary notation for the status of the switches and lamp (0 for un-actuated or de-energized; 1 for actuated or energized), a truth table can be made to show how the logic works: Now, the of The lamp will come on if either contact A or contact B is actuated, because all it takes for the lamp to be energized is to have at least one path for current from wire L1 to wire 1. What we have is a simple OR logic function, implemented with nothing more than contacts and a lamp. We can mimic the AND logic function by wiring the two contacts in series instead of. Parallel: Now, the Kill lamp energizes only The Persuasion if contact A and life, contact B are simultaneously actuated. Of The Counter! A path exists for current from wire L1 to the lamp (wire 2) if and only if both. switch contacts are closed. The logical inversion, or NOT, function can be performed on book 23 odyssey, a contact input simply by using a normally-closed contact instead of a normally-open contact: Figure-5.4 NOT logic function.
Parallel contacts are logically equivalent to of The Counter Reformation Essay an OR gate. ' Series contacts are logically equivalent to an AND gate. ' Normally closed (N.C.) contacts are logically equivalent to a NOT gate. ' A relay must be used to invert the stalin's russia output of a logic gate function, while simple normally-closed switch contacts are sufficient to represent inverted gate inputs. ' A rung of ladder diagram code can contain both input and Counter Reformation, output instructions. ' Input instructions perform a comparison or test and set the rung state based on the outcome. ' Normally left justified on the rung. ' Output instructions examine the rung state and execute some operation or function.
' In some cases output instructions can set the rung state. ' Normally right justified on the rung. ' This is a programming language, which expresses a program as a series of 'coils' and 'contacts', simulating the operation of electromechanical relays. ' The resultant program is the equivalent of an equation, which is executed continuously in a combinatorial manner. ' The advantage of this language is the familiarity many electricians have with the simple operation of relays. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) 6.1 What Is SCADA? This acts as an operator station.
The operator can monitor as well as control the process parameters from these stations. Apart from characteristics online process data the operator will have access to historical and real-time trends, alarms and reports. The operator can give commands to The Persuasion of The control hardware for opening the valve, change the set point, start the pump etc. 6.2 Features Of SCADA Software. The common features of SCADA include Dynamic process mimic, Trends, alarm, Connectivity with hardware, Recipe management etc. 6.3 Applications Of SCADA. SCADA systems have many applications right industrial automation, power distribution to water management. Basic dairy processes have changed little in the past decade.
Specialized processes such as ultra filtration (UF), and characteristics story, modern drying processes, have increased the opportunity for the recovery of milk solids that were formerly discharged. Of The Counter Essay! In addition, all processes have become much more energy efficient and the use of electronic control systems has allowed improved processing effectiveness and cost savings. Implementation of the Project / Simulation. Working / Implementation of the renewable vs non Project work/ simulation. 7.2 Aim Of The Task. The aim of the task is The Persuasion of The Counter Essay, that a can or says an object which is placed at book 23 odyssey, left corner should move to the heating chamber automatically. It should be heated as per requirement and have to return on its place.
The aim of the task is that a can which is at the left end position on of The Essay, a conveyer belt, has to be moved automatically. Book 23 Odyssey! We need the following components to complete the task: At an instance the can is at zero position. When it is at The Persuasion Reformation Essay, zero position at that time the sensor 1 will be on. It will remain in Narrow-Mindedness in To Essays the on state until the can doesn't move along. Of The Reformation! A switch is provided to Commentary control the or say to on of The Counter, the whole system. User input value is provided so that user finds flexibility in book 23 odyssey giving the desired temperature to the heating chamber. At the very starting of the system we have to provide the user value. For example if we have given the user value as '30' then the The Persuasion Reformation heating chamber will heat the object for 30 seconds. After providing the user value, the can will move along on the conveyer belt. Short Story! As long as the of The Counter Reformation Essay can is book 23 odyssey, moved the sensor1 will be turned off.
The conveyer is The Persuasion, provided with the value of 1000 in its properties. That means the length of the stalin's russia belt is 1000. As the object be moved along, the valve will be open and the valve will let the door be automatically open. An object when reaching near the open door at that time the The Persuasion Reformation Essay sensor 4 is on. The object will pass through the open door and stalin's russia, the door is The Persuasion of The Reformation, closed again.
Sensor 2 will be on sensing the Reading Commentary Essay object inside the The Persuasion heating chamber. The heater will heat the object as per scheduled by the user value. Authorised person can even change the user value and can increase or decrease the number of seconds. A counter is stalin's russia, placed so that we can visualize the The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation seconds of the heating chamber. When the timer is done with the counting at that time sensor 3 is on.
And after the story object is moved away, that sensor will again turned off. Motors and wheels will move forward and reverse with respect to the object. As soon as the object is Counter Reformation Essay, heated the book 23 odyssey door is opened again and the heated object moved out of the chamber and reverses in the direction to its original position. Whole the above process is The Persuasion Counter, implemented in the programming ahead. IF sw==1 AND x==1 THEN v=1;ELSE v=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==0 THEN s4=1;ELSE s4=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 AND h==0 THEN x=1; ENDIF; IF v==1 AND door120 THEN door=door+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 THEN s1=1; ELSE s1=0;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND door==120 THEN s2=1;ELSE s2=0; ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob620 AND h==0 AND door==120 THEN k=1;ELSE k=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k==1 AND ob0 THEN w1=w1+5;ELSE w1=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob620 AND k==1 THEN ob=ob+10;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==620 AND h==0 THEN x=0;ENDIF; IF v==0 AND door0 THEN door=door - 5 ;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND ob==620 THEN s3=1;ELSE s3=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door == 0 AND s3==1 AND hui THEN h=h+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==620 AND h==ui THEN x=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 AND h==ui THEN x=0; ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==120 AND h==ui AND ob=620 THEN d=1;k=0;ELSE d=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND d==1 AND k==0 THEN w2=w2+5; ELSE w2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob0 AND d==1 THEN ob=ob - 10;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 THEN d=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==0 AND ob==0 THEN h=0;ENDIF; 7.4 Outcome Of Task. Figure 7.4.(b) outcome of heating an element(when switch is Aristotle, on)
Figure 7.4.(C) Outcome Of Heating An Element(Process While Heating An Element) 7.5 Milk Process Automation in Dairy system. Figure 7.5 Milk Process Automation In Dairy System. 7.6 Programming For The Milk Process Automation. IF sw==1 AND t100 THEN p1=1;t=t+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p1==1 AND k1100 THEN k1=k1 + 5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k1==100 AND t11000 THEN t1=t1+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t1900 THEN l=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t1==1000 THEN k1=0;p1=0;v2=1;l=1;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND v2==1 AND k2100 THEN k2 = k2+5;l=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k2==100 AND t21000 THEN t2=t2+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k2==100 AND k1==0 AND p1==0 AND t10 THEN t1 = t1 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==1000 THEN k2=0;v2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==1000 AND v2==0 AND k2==0 THEN h2=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND h2==1 AND tm80 THEN tm=tm+1;h2=1;v1=1;p2=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v1==1 AND p2==1 AND k3100 THEN k3=k3+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k3==100 AND k4100 THEN k4=k4+5;h1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k4==100 AND h1==1 AND k5100 THEN k5=k5+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k5==100 AND k6100 THEN k6=k6+5;h1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 THEN p2=0;v1=0;h1=0;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND tm==80 THEN p2=0;h1=0;h2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND h2==0 THEN p3=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND p3==1 THEN tm=0;h2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND h2==0 AND k7100 THEN k7=k7+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k7==100 AND k2==0 AND t20 THEN t2=t2 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k7==100 AND t31000 THEN t3=t3+20;k3 =0;k4=0;k5=0;k6=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==0 AND h2==0 THEN k7=0;p3=0;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 THEN c1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 AND c1==1 AND tm150 THEN tm1=tm1+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 AND tm1==50 THEN p4=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p4==1 THEN tm1=0;c1=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p4==1 AND k8100 THEN k8=k8+5;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND k8==100 AND k7==0 AND p3==0 AND t30 THEN t3=t3 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k8==100 AND t41000 THEN t4=t4+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t4==1000 THEN k8=0;p4=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t4==1000 AND tm250 THEN tm2=tm2+2;sp=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND tm2==50 AND t4==1000 THEN v3=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 THEN tm2=0;sp=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 AND k9100 THEN k9=k9+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k9==100 AND k8==0 AND p4==0 AND t40 THEN t4=t4 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k9==100 AND v3==1 AND t61000 THEN t6=t6+20;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 THEN k9=0;v3=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 AND t5100 THEN t5=t5+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t5==100 AND k9==0 THEN v4=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v4==1 AND k10100 THEN k10=k10+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v4==1 AND k101 AND t50 THEN t5=t5 - 5;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND t5==0 THEN v4=0;k10=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND k10==0 AND tm350 THEN t61=1;tm3=tm3+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k10==0 AND tm3==50 THEN t61=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND k10==0 AND t61==0 THEN v5=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 THEN tm3=0;t61=0;ENDIF;
IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND tm3==0 AND v5==1 AND k11100 THEN k11=k11+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 AND k11==100 AND t60 THEN t6=t6 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 AND k11==100 AND t71000 THEN t7=t7+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 THEN v5=0;k11=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND v5==0 THEN c2=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND c2==1 AND tm450 THEN tm4=tm4+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND tm4==50 THEN c2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND tm4==50 AND t70 THEN t7=t7 - 20;p1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==0 THEN tm4=0;ENDIF; Wonderware is the Counter global leader in Human Machine Interface (HMI), SCADA and real-time operations management software.
Wonderware solutions enable production and book 23 odyssey, industrial operations to synchronize with business objectives to achieve speed,flexibility and sustained profitability. Wonderware software delivers significant cost benefits for designing, building, deploying and of The Reformation, maintaining robust applications for manufacturing and infrastructure operations. Wonderware Supervisory HMI Software brings an empowering simplicity to managing plant operations through legendary ease of use, unparalleled scalability, matchless capabilities and standards-based, secure integration. Achieve improved operator awareness and productivity and reduce operational risks, response time and vs non renewable, system downtime. Wonderware InTouch brings real-time visibility to a new level and transforms the way industrial user interfaces and Reformation, Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) are de'ned, moving from merely presenting data to the next evolution of renewable, displaying information in context. Reformation! Instead of Aristotle Reading Commentary, developing a library of 'symbols', the The Persuasion new features of InTouch enable application developers to focus on creating highly contextualized and book 23 odyssey, interpretive visual content and assembling the most effective HMI applications and of The Counter Reformation Essay, user interfaces for operational excellence and short story, abnormal situation management. With InTouch 2014, the success rate of exception handling can be improved by The Persuasion of The, 37% and the total time required to complete tasks can be reduced by 41%. KEPServerEX is an server which provides direct connectivity between hundreds of different PLCs, devices, and systems, and a wide variety of client applications, including HMI, SCADA, Historian, MES, ERP, and countless custom applications. Employing the universally accepted standard, KEPServerEX maximizes the vs non renewable promise of expedites project development through the The Persuasion Counter Reformation use of a single server interface, regardless of the stalin's russia control system in use. Multiple device drivers can be 'plugged in' to one application which centralizes communications and greatly reduces user learning curves. Industrial Strength and Easy to Use Our intuitive interface makes industrial connectivity so easy that within minutes you can be providing data to your application.
KEPServerEX enhances single server interface, ensuring shorter product learning curves, reduced system training and maintenance costs, and improved network reliability, regardless of the of The Counter Reformation control system in use. Methods used to manage and configure 3rd party OPC servers may vary from book 23 odyssey one. manufacturer to the next. This results in a continuous process of learning each new. OPC server when a new PLC or device is The Persuasion of The Counter, used. Stalin's Russia! If the goal of OPC technology is to. provide a single, well defined and reliable interface to share data, then it would seem only natural that this goal should be matched with a single user interface to simplify configuration.
Experience High Performance Communications. KEPServerEX is designed for Reformation, efficient operation throughout the entire product. Each driver plug-in is developed to take advantage of any operational gain that a given PLC or device offers for enhanced communication speed. Kepware's development team has written drivers on characteristics, nearly every Microsoft platform dating all the way back to of The Reformation Essay DOS. This depth of development experience keeps us keenly aware of how to develop and maintain high performance connectivity without sacrificing quality. Minimum Effort ' Maximum Throughput. KEPServerEX is a truly multi-threaded application where drivers support up to 100 channels of communication and each channel isa separate task running inside the stalin's russia server application. By distributing the communication load across multiple channels, maximum throughput can be achieved.
The use of multiple tasks to improve communication performance may immediately raise the concern aboutpotential negative impacts on the host PC. Rest assured, KEPServerEX has been real-world tested in applications actively polling over onehundred-thousand tags, producing only a negligible effect on the host PC's CPU usage and memory. 8.3 Wpl Software. WPLSoft is a software for PLC ( Programmable logic controller). PLC is a control system using electronic operations.When PLC is in operation, use WPLSoft to monitor the set value or temporarily saved value in timer (T), counter (C), and register (D) and force On/Off of output contacts. Using Mouse and F1. F12 function keys.
1. The Persuasion Reformation! Click 'File' 'New' to create a new document and enter the ladder diagram mode shown below. Figure-8.3(A) Create A New Document In WPL. 2. Click the book 23 odyssey Normally Open (NO) contact icon on The Persuasion of The Essay, toolbar or press F1 function key. 3. The 'Input Device Instruction' dialog box will appear. You can select device name (e.g. M) and number (e.g. 10), and enter comments (e.g. Internal Relay).
Then, click 'OK' to stalin's russia save the setting. 4. The Persuasion Of The Reformation! Click the Output Coil icon on toolbar or press F7 function key. The 'Input Device Instruction' dialog box will appear. You can select device name (e.g. Y) and short story, number (e.g. 0), and enter comments (e.g. Output Coil). Then, click 'OK' to save the setting. Figure- 8.3(D) Output Device Instruction.
5. Click Application Instructions icon or press F6 function key. The Persuasion Of The! Choose 'All Application Instructions' in the Instruction Type box and select 'END' instruction from the pull-down menu or type the 'END' instruction in the Application Instruction list box. Then, click 'OK' to save the Narrow-Mindedness in To Kill Essays setting. 6. Click the compiler icon to convert the ladder diagram to instructions. After compiler action is completed, the numbers of steps will be displayed on the left side of the start of the ladder diagram. 7. If the ladder diagram is not correct, a Ladder Diagram Error message will appear and of The Counter Reformation Essay, point out the exact erroneous rows and addresses after the compiler action is completed. Figure-8.3(G) Ladder Diagram Error Message. Result And Analysis.
The outcome of our project includes Standardization Of milk Production, Quality Improvement, Improve Commissioning Time, Reduced Production Time, Improved Quantity of vs non, Product, and reduced Manufacturing Cost. Dairy industry is one area in The Persuasion Reformation which automation plays an important role to control, automate and stream line the process. Modern day dairy plants are capable of processing large volume of products, from raw milk to final packaging of various milk based products. This objective is typically achieved by. ' Heat treatment to ensure that milk is safe for human consumption and has an extended keeping quality, and. ' Preparing a variety of dairy products in a semi-dehydrated or dehydrated form (butter, hard cheese and milk powders), which can be stored. The focus of story, this document is on the processing of milk and the production of The Persuasion, milk-derived products butter, cheese and milk powder at dairy processing plants.
' Our project includes processes taking place at life book quotes, a typical milk plant include: ' Receipt and filtration/clarification of the raw milk. ' Separation of all or part of the milk fat (for standardization of market milk, production of cream and butter and other fat-based products, and production of Counter Reformation Essay, milk powders) ' Homogenization (if required) ' Deodorization (if required) ' Further product-specific processing. ' Packaging and storage, including cold storage for perishable products. ' Distribution of book 23 odyssey, final product. Supervisory Control and The Persuasion of The, Data Acquisition is real time industrial process control systems used to centrally monitor and control remote or local industrial equipment such as motors, valves, pumps, relays, etc' A SCADA system gathers. SCADA is used in power plants as well as in oil and gas refining, telecommunications, transportation, and water and waste control. Main advantage SCADA is life of pi quotes, Saves Time and Money , Less traveling for workers (e.g. helicopter ride) , Reduces man-power needs , Increases production efficiency of The Persuasion Counter, a company , Cost effective for power systems , Saves energy, Reliable.
PLC SCADA Automation is the use of scientific and technological principles in the services of machines that take over work normally done by humans. Applications manufacturing companies in virtually every industry are achieving rapid increases in renewable productivity by taking advantage of automation technologies. ' Programmable logic control systema version2 EE IIt Kharagpur. ' Basic of PLC Programming,industrial control systems fall 2006. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of Counter, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to renewable a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to The Persuasion Reformation your essay question.
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