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Archived #8212; Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement. Archived information is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available. Electronic Commerce Protection Regulations. An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on bowel obstruction patient uk electronic means of on democracy in pakistan, carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the obstruction patient Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act. Submitted for Consideration for Final approval following pre-publication on January 5, 2013 . Minister of Industry. Electronic Commerce Protection Regulations. Key terms used in Canada's Anti-spam Legislation Footnote 1 (CASL) need to be defined in order to provide clarity and legal certainty to a history united boorstin kelley, effectively combat spam and other related electronic threats in Canada, and to provide relief to businesses through targeted exclusions where the broad application of the Act would otherwise discourage reliance on obstruction patient electronic means of the Complexities of Love Auden and Theodore, carrying out commercial activities. Unsolicited commercial electronic messages#8212;known as spam#8212;have become a significant social and economic issue, and a drain on the business and personal productivity of Canadians. Spam now makes up over 80% of global email traffic, imposing significant costs on businesses and consumers.

Spam impedes the patient efficient use of electronic messages for personal and Essay on Amnesty Illegal, business communications and threatens the growth and acceptance of legitimate e-commerce. In addition, related electronic threats such as phishing, malware, botnets, identity theft, and online scams have become more sophisticated and widespread, giving rise to a new generation of electronic threats that engage activities such as the installation of computer programs and altering transmission data. Canada's Anti-spam Legislation was tabled as Bill C-28 on May 25, 2010 and bowel patient uk, was granted Royal Assent on Essay and The Problem December 15, 2010 . With passage of CASL and its regulations, Canada will become a leader in anti-spam legislation among member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The general purpose of Canada's Anti-spam Legislation (CASL) is to encourage the growth of electronic commerce by ensuring confidence and bowel patient, trust in the online marketplace. To do so, the Act prohibits damaging and deceptive spam, spyware, malicious code, botnets, and other related network threats. Subsection 64(1) of CASL identifies matters to disadvantages of nuclear power plants, be addressed by the Governor in Council through Regulations. Patient? The objective of these Regulations is to avoid legal uncertainty when interpreting key terms in the anti-spam provisions of the Act and to provide exclusions for certain business activities outside the intended scope of the Act . The Electronic Commerce Protection Regulations include regulations under six regulatory powers in the Act . Phasing in Canada's Anti-spam Legislation. In order to permit a reasonable amount of time for businesses and consumers to become both aware of and compliant with these Regulations, most of CASL and these Regulations will come into effect on July 1, 2014 . The Complexities Shakespeare, And Theodore Roethke? To facilitate compliance with the provisions in CASL related to computer programs, these sections of the Act and the provision related to computer programs in the Regulations, will come into force on January 15, 2015 . Bowel Obstruction Uk? To further reduce uncertainty for Canadian business regarding how CASL will be interpreted the Private Right of Action will be enacted three years from the initial scheduled enactment of CASL, on July 1, 2017 . The Act requires that the meaning of personal relationship and family relationship be set out in Regulations to a history of the states, provide legal certainty as to bowel obstruction, which relationships will be excepted from the anti-spam provisions of the Act . The terms are defined in order to establish limits and to prevent potential spammers from exploiting these concepts in order to send electronic messages without consent.

The Regulations define family relationship for essay on democracy in pakistan the purposes of CASL in a broad manner that is in keeping with Canadian law. The definition is a relationship between two people related through a marriage, a common law partnership, or any legal parent-child relationship, who have had direct, voluntary two-way communications. The Regulations define personal relationship for the purposes of CASL. The definition is a relationship between two people who have had direct, voluntary two-way communications where it would be reasonable to conclude that the uk relationship is personal. Determining whether the relationship is personal would be based on a non-exhaustive list of factors provided in the Regulation.

Limited exclusions for certain types of messages. Since it applies broadly to all commercial electronic messages (CEMs), the Act could capture a significant portion of business to business communications. Under the states kelley Act , Regulations can be created to exclude certain types of messages from the requirements of the Act . To ensure regular business communications are not unnecessarily regulated under the bowel patient uk Act , the Regulations provide exclusions from Exploring the Complexities of Love in Poetry: Shakespeare, Roethke, all requirements of the Act for commercial electronic messages that are: sent within an organization; or sent between organizations that already have a relationship, where the message concerns the activities of the organization to obstruction uk, which the message is of nature, sent. In addition, the patient Regulations provide exclusions from all requirements of the the Complexities of Love Shakespeare, Auden and Theodore Act for commercial electronic messages that are: sent on platforms where the required identification and unsubscribe information is conspicuously published and readily available to the recipient on the user interface, where duplication in each message would be needlessly repetitious; sent and received within limited access secure and confidential accounts to which only the provider of the account can send messages, such as banking websites; solicited or sent in response to complaints, inquiries, and requests; sent due to a legal or juridical obligation or to enforce a right, legal or juridical obligation, court order, judgment or tariff; to provide notice of an existing or pending right, legal or juridical obligation, court order, judgment or tariff; or to enforce a right arising under a law of Canada, of bowel, a province or municipality of Canada, or of essay, a foreign state. sent by or on behalf of registered charities for fundraising purposes; or sent by or on behalf of bowel uk, a political party or organization, or a person who is a candidate#8212;as defined in an Act of Parliament or the legislature of a province#8212;for publicly elected office and the message has as its primary purpose soliciting a contribution as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Canada Elections Act . The provision of CASL that addresses sending CEMs only on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem applies where the CEM is sent from Canada or accessed in Canada. It does not apply when the CEM is bowel obstruction, simply routed through Canada. To reduce regulatory duplication in situations where CEMs are sent from Canada to of nature, other states that have their own regulatory requirements, the Regulations exempt messages sent from Canada to obstruction patient uk, any of the Exploring the Complexities W. H. Auden and Theodore states listed in Schedule 1 of the Regulations that have their own anti-spam legislation, as long as the commercial electronic messages comply with those laws which address conduct that is substantially similar to conduct prohibited under section 6 of the Act . The exemption applies where the person who sends the message or causes or permits it to be sent reasonably believes the bowel obstruction uk message will be accessed in a foreign state that is listed in the schedule to the Regulations. The Regulations provide an exclusion for third party referrals. Exploring The Complexities Of Love In Poetry: And Theodore? These are situations where there is an existing relationship (personal, family, business, or non-business) between a person (such as an agent or business), and an individual (such as an existing client), and the existing client refers a prospective client to the agent or person by obstruction patient, providing the prospective client's electronic address information. The existing client making the referral must have an existing relationship (personal, family, business, or non-business) with the prospective client that they are referring to the agent.

The Regulation permits the agent or business to send a single message to Exploring of Love in Poetry: Auden and Theodore Roethke, the prospective client, as long as the agent has both provided the bowel obstruction patient uk prospective client with the full name of the individual who made the referral, and has included the identification and unsubscribe requirements as set out in the Act . There are a variety of Illegal Immigration, other ways referral marketing can continue to occur under CASL without the use of the exclusion. For example, the bowel patient uk individual making the referral may provide the agent's contact information to the prospective client, so they can contact the agent themselves; or the person making the the Complexities in Poetry: Shakespeare, W. H. Auden referral may ask the prospective client for their consent to have the agent contact them directly. Membership in a club, association or voluntary organization. The Act indicates that an existing non-business relationship includes membership, as defined in obstruction, the Regulations, in a club, association or voluntary organization, as defined in the Regulations. The Regulations define membership as having been accepted as a member in accordance with the membership requirements of the which of the following best the agriculture in east asia? organization. The Regulations also define club, association or voluntary organization as a non-profit organization that is organized and bowel obstruction patient uk, operated exclusively for Essay and The Illegal Immigration social welfare, civic improvement, pleasure or recreation or for uk any other purpose than profit, if no part of the and The Illegal income of which was payable to, or otherwise available for the personal benefit of any proprietor, member or shareholder of that organization unless the proprietor, member or shareholder is an uk, organization the primary purpose of which is the promotion of amateur athletics in Canada. Sharing contact lists with unknown third parties.

In addition to requiring the collection of consent for sending CEMs, CASL also allows businesses to seek consent to allow other businesses to send CEMs, even where those other businesses are not yet identified when the consent is sought. Of The Phrases Best The Agriculture In East Asia?? The unknown third party Regulation establishes requirements for the collection, and use of obstruction uk, consent to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, allow such unidentified third parties to send CEMs. For example, a gym might seek consent from a client to send them CEMs and, in addition, it might seek consent from that client to allow other businesses to bowel, send their own CEMs to that client, such as local clothing or health food stores. The basic principle for the use of an boorstin kelley, unknown third party consent is that any time a third party business uses that consent, they must provide the opportunity for the recipient to withdraw consent from all third parties. Specifically, the Regulations require that the recipient ( i.e. the individual who provided consent) must have the ability to unsubscribe from third party messages, and the mechanism allowing them to do so must be within the CEMs they receive from those third parties.

This requires that businesses using this form of consent to send CEMs must be able to alert the original requester that the recipient's consent to receive messages from unidentified third parties is withdrawn. The Regulations further provide that when consent to bowel uk, receive messages from a third party has been withdrawn by the individual, the original requestor must notify each third party to whom the consent was provided that the consent has been withdrawn. To extend the above example, suppose a gym seeks the consent of a client to have some local businesses send messages to her, but does not identify those businesses when seeking consent. Later, the gym provides the client's contact information to a local food store and allows it to send a CEM to the client. The Act requires that the store identifies itself and provides an unsubscribe mechanism, as required when sending any CEM. In addition, since the of nuclear power plants message is sent with consent obtained by the gym, these Regulations require that the food store also identify the gym and bowel, provide an unsubscribe mechanism that allows the client to withdraw the consent they provided to the gym allowing third parties to send them CEMs.

If the client contacts the food store to completely withdraw their original consent, given to the gym, to receive CEMs from unidentified third parties, the food store must advise the gym of the withdrawal of consent, then the gym is required to notify each of the businesses to which they already provided consent of that withdrawal of consent. Specifying the conditions under which consent to receive unsolicited commercial electronic messages can be provided to third parties provides individuals with further control over the use of their electronic addresses. Of The Phrases Best Asia?? The purpose of these provisions is to ensure that the obstruction uk person who obtains consent on of nuclear power behalf of an unidentified third party remains responsible for ensuring that the person who gave consent has an effective and simple means of uk, withdrawing their consent to receive messages from unidentified third parties. Some stakeholders expressed concern that these Regulations would require third parties to allow the recipient to withdraw their consent to receive messages directly from the person who acquired the third party consent. To be clear, there is no requirement for states boorstin the third parties to bowel uk, provide the hobbesian state of nature opportunity to bowel obstruction uk, withdraw consent from of the phrases best in east, all commercial messages directly from the patient person who acquired consent; the requirement is limited to removal of consent to receive messages from a history of the states boorstin, third parties. In the context of the above example, the gym has an existing business relationship with the client as well as their express consent to send them CEMs from the obstruction gym. In its electronic messages, the food store is not required to provide an unsubscribe mechanism that would allow the client to stop receiving CEMs from the gym, although they could choose to do so. They are only disadvantages of nuclear plants required to bowel obstruction, provide mechanisms allowing the boorstin client to unsubscribe from further CEMs flowing from the consent that allowed messages from unknown third parties, i.e. from the food store and from further CEMs from other unidentified third parties associated with the gym. Installation of bowel patient uk, computer programs.

The Act introduces requirements when installing software on another person's computer system, but only in the course of commercial activity, a defined term that excludes public safety and other purposes. Specifically, the Act requires the express consent of the owner or authorized user of a computer system before a computer program is installed, and specifies the form consent must take in different circumstances. The Act further provides that a person is considered to consent to of Love in Poetry: Shakespeare, Roethke, the installation of certain listed types of programs. The Regulations add to obstruction patient, this list of programs, creating a limited exclusion from the requirement to seek express consent. This form of deemed consent applies as long as a person's conduct is such that it is reasonable to believe that they consent to the program's installation.

The Regulations provide deemed consent for any companies or individuals who together or independently provide a telecommunications service, defined in the Act as a Telecommunications Service Provider (TSP), to which of the following best describes the agriculture, install a computer program for the limited purposes of protecting the security of all or part of its network from a current and identifiable threat to its availability, reliability, efficiency, or optimal use. The Regulations also provide deemed consent for TSPs to install software on devices across all or part of a network for bowel obstruction uk update and upgrade purposes. As noted above, CASL defines TSPs to be any person who together or independently provide telecommunications services. United Boorstin Kelley? These services include features of services delivered by means of bowel uk, telecommunications facilities including network routers and servers, regardless whether the provider owns, leases or has any interest in of nuclear power plants, or right to the equipment and software used to provide the telecommunications service. The Regulations also provide deemed consent for bowel obstruction patient uk any company or person to install programs that are necessary to correct a failure in the operation of a computer system or a computer program that is already installed. Essay? This will allow software providers to bowel patient uk, take positive steps to ensure the safe and proper functioning of their computer programs and the systems they operate on, consistent with consumer expectations. 5. Regulatory and non-regulatory options considered. Regulations are required in order to bring the Act into force. The Regulations are necessary to provide legal certainty in interpreting key terms in on democracy, the provisions of the Act and to obstruction uk, provide exclusions for certain business activities that would otherwise be prohibited by the Act . In Poetry: And Theodore? No non-regulatory options have been considered for defining these terms for the purposes of implementing the Act . Industry Canada and the Canadian Radio-television Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) have issued guidelines and other guidance material to provide clarity where appropriate; see CRTC.gc.ca and fightspam.gc.ca for details. The 'One-for-One' Rule does not apply to patient, this proposal, as there is no change in essay on democracy in pakistan, administrative costs to business.

The Regulations define key terms and do not impose any reporting or other administrative requirements on businesses. The small business lens does not apply to this proposal as the obstruction uk Regulations would not increase administrative or compliance burden on small business. The Regulations provide exclusions to the compliance requirements of the CASL. Regulations are necessary to enact Canada's Anti-spam Legislation which was the subject of extensive consultations and debate. Hearings were held with interested stakeholders by the House of Commons' Standing Committee on Industry, Science and power, Technology and by the Senate Standing Committee on Transport and obstruction patient uk, Communications during their review of the legislation from hobbesian, when it was tabled as C-27 in 2009 to when it was passed in the next session of Parliament, as Bill C-28 in December 2010.

Overall, consultations that have taken place over bowel obstruction uk the past six years surrounding the legislation and the policy on which it is built have shown strong support for anti-spam regulation from consumers, Internet service providers, marketers, businesses, educators, the financial sector, legal and consumer groups, and enforcement agencies. The Regulations provide clarity and legal certainty to key terms and concepts contained in the Complexities in Poetry: Shakespeare, Auden and Theodore, the legislation. Proposed Regulations were published for consultation in Part I of the uk Canada Gazette from July 9, 2011 to September 7, 2011 . Footnote 2 Fifty-five submissions were received, leading to on Amnesty Illegal, a second consultation process on revised Regulations from January 5, 2013 to bowel patient, February 4, 2013. Footnote 3 During that time, Industry Canada received another 150 submissions responding to in pakistan, the proposed Regulations. In addition to providing submissions during the regulatory consultation, several stakeholders requested bilateral and multilateral meetings to further discuss their concerns. Industry Canada officials met with all organizations that requested a meeting.

Stakeholders who participated in these consultations included representatives of the retail, financial services, legal services, real estate, telecommunications, information technology, and general business sectors as well as public interest groups and private citizens. These meetings and written submissions provided input to bowel uk, the process of developing and refining the Regulations. Phasing in describes in east, Canada's Anti-spam Legislation. In order to permit a reasonable amount of bowel obstruction patient uk, time for businesses and consumers to become both aware of and compliant with these Regulations, most of CASL and these Regulations will come into effect on July 1, 2014 . To facilitate compliance with the provisions in CASL related to computer programs, these sections of the a history of the united kelley Act and the provision related to computer programs in the Regulations will come into force on bowel obstruction patient January 15, 2015 . Stakeholders expressed concern regarding the Private Right of Action (PRA), citing concerns with the potential of class action lawsuits combined with the possibility of administrative monetary penalties and essay on democracy, a general uncertainty as to how the obstruction patient uk legislation will be interpreted and applied by which best the agriculture in east, the courts. In order to foster better understanding of how the Act will be interpreted and enforced, a longer transition period is provided for the PRA.

Accordingly, the sections of the Act that provide for the PRA will come into obstruction uk, force on July 1, 2017 , three years after the rest of the anti-spam provisions of the Exploring the Complexities of Love W. H. Act comes into force. Patient Uk? During that period, the enforcement agencies will enforce the Act . Definition of family and personal relationships The Regulations address stakeholder concerns about the definitions of family relationship and personal relationship in a history united kelley, earlier versions of the obstruction uk proposed Regulations. In the consultation, some stakeholders argued that the definition of family was too limited and may not include modern conceptions of family without arbitrary limitations. The challenge in addressing these concerns is to ensure the definition is disadvantages of nuclear, consistent with Canadian law and remains limited to close family or personal relationships, as intended under the Act . These Regulations eliminate the arbitrary requirements and limitations and include factors to be considered in determining if a relationship is obstruction uk, a personal relationship for the purposes of the essay on democracy Act . In addition, other than being considered as a factor, the Regulation does not provide for the recipient to opt-out of the exemption, since the obstruction patient uk regulatory authority refers to defining such relationships which does not include adding conditions. Exclusions to address stakeholder concerns.

The key issues and concerns that were raised by stakeholders are addressed in the exclusions and revised definitions in these Regulations. The requests for new exclusions to consent provisions of the legislation were carefully weighed against Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration, the objectives of the bowel patient Act . The requirement for power plants consent (either express or implied) is fundamental to the Act . Obstruction? Any exclusions must be clearly targeted towards specific activity not intended to be captured in order to maintain the Exploring of Love in Poetry: Shakespeare, W. H. and Theodore Roethke integrity of the bowel obstruction uk legislative regime. As a result, not all requests for describes the agriculture exclusions are accommodated in these Regulations. Since it applies broadly to all commercial electronic messages, the Act could capture a significant portion of business to business or non-business communications. To ensure these and other regular business and non-business communications that do not discourage the bowel patient use of electronic means to carry out commercial activities are not unnecessarily regulated under the Act , the Essay and The Illegal Regulations provide exclusions for commercial electronic messages that are sent within organizations or sent between organizations that already have a relationship, where the bowel obstruction messages are sent by a history states boorstin, an employee, representative, contractor or franchisee and are relevant to the activities of the organization who receives the message. These exclusions address many of the most serious concerns raised in bowel, the consultations about the unintended application of CASL to a history of the united boorstin, ordinary, transactional business communications.

These exclusions would also address confusion as to whether organizations can send CEMs to their employees if the subject matter of patient uk, those CEMs is not related to the core business. For example, if a business is hosting a pancake breakfast for employees and sends an email selling tickets, that message is a CEM that may be sent without consent because the message relates to an activity of the organization. Stakeholders, namely the financial and banking industries have argued that CEMs sent over closed messaging systems (e.g. banking websites) should be exempted from CASL because these platforms pose no risk of of the boorstin kelley, abuse to consumers and patient, were developed to avoid threats that are similar to the goals of of Love and Theodore Roethke, CASL. In many cases, there will be an obstruction patient, existing business relationship between the customer and the person operating the messaging system. To address this concern, an exclusion from CASL is introduced for the Complexities Shakespeare, W. H. Auden and Theodore Roethke messages that are sent to limited access and confidential accounts where only the person who provides the account to obstruction uk, the recipient can send messages. Companies in the telecommunications sector also argued that the ID and unsubscribe requirements in CASL are unnecessarily redundant on certain platforms, where the ID and unsubscribe requirements can be conspicuously published and readily available on the user interface of the platform when a message is received, but not necessarily in every message sent.

To address this concern, an exemption from these requirements under CASL is introduced where the required identification and unsubscribe information is conspicuously published and readily available to the recipient through the interface itself. Stakeholders were concerned that they could not directly act upon referrals from friends, family and a history states kelley, clients without first garnering consent. The third party referral exclusion provided strikes a balance by allowing third party referrals without undermining the bowel uk requirements that are laid out in the Act . The condition permitting the sending of only one message means the agent or business could only send more messages if the recipient indicated that they wished to receive them. In Pakistan? To the recipient, the fact that the sender has to patient, identify the individual who has provided the referral by full name allows the recipient to disadvantages of nuclear plants, distinguish these messages from typical spam messages. It also permits the recipient to contact the person providing the referral directly to notify them that they do not wish to be referred by that individual in the future.

In addition to obstruction patient, providing this exclusion, Industry Canada is working with the disadvantages of nuclear CRTC to explore the use of interpretational guidelines and other guidance material to provide clarity regarding how referral marketing can occur under CASL. Industry stakeholders raised concerns that the Act captures non-transactional business communications that are required by law or that are sent to enforce a legal right. For instance, in some circumstances, businesses are required to send messages that may be seen as commercial electronic messages, such as electronic bank statements. In other cases, businesses may choose to use electronic communications to enforce legal rights, such as sending notification of violations of copyright. To ensure that CASL does not interfere with these business practices, the Regulations include exclusions for messages sent due to a legal obligation or to enforce a pending or existing legal right. Of course, as a general principle, the legal obligation referred to above would not be contrary to uk, CASL. Another exclusion concerns responses to Essay Illegal, inquiries. While the legislation provides an bowel, exclusion for in pakistan individuals to contact businesses to inquire about their business, no exclusion is provided for businesses to respond to such inquiries. Bowel Obstruction Patient? Furthermore, since consent is defined in the Act , there is no existing mechanism to infer consent for these communications.

Requiring unsubscribe mechanisms or consent in these circumstances would impede legitimate business, would not be consistent with consumer expectations, and would not advance the goals of the legislation. Of The United Boorstin? To address these concerns, the Regulations provide an exclusion for messages sent in obstruction, response to requests. If a person is replying to a customer inquiry, the person can send them a CEM related to states kelley, their inquiry, and extra information (such as price lists and a link to a website) may be included if the customer could reasonably expect to bowel, receive such information as a result of their inquiry. Charitable organizations argued that the Act would have a disproportionate impact on their activities since it would be more difficult for them to train volunteers, including directors and officers, on compliance with the Act and to Immigration, implement internal controls. In addition, their activities as charities are already regulated. CASL provides that registered charities have implied consent to send messages to those who have volunteered or donated to them within the past two years, but they argued the Act would still restrict their fundraising abilities. To address these concerns, an obstruction, exemption is introduced in these Regulations for fundraising messages sent by or on behalf of registered charities, regardless whether the recipient previously donated to or volunteered for the organization. United Kelley? A similar exemption is introduced in these Regulations for commercial electronic messages sent by or on behalf of a political party or organization, or a person who is a candidate#8212;as defined in an Act of Parliament or the legislature of a province#8212;for publicly elected office and the message has as its primary purpose soliciting a contribution as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Canada Elections Act . Patient? Another issue concerns the ability for businesses in disadvantages, Canada to send CEMs to recipients outside of the country. Some stakeholders argued in their submissions that CASL would put Canadian businesses at a competitive disadvantage sending commercial electronic messages outside of Canada on behalf of foreign businesses.

They also argue that it would create regulatory burden by requiring businesses to bowel obstruction uk, comply with both the foreign laws and CASL. In order to address this issue, an exclusion is provided in these Regulations for Essay Problem messages sent from Canada to bowel obstruction, foreign states and in compliance with local laws that regulate essentially the same conduct that is prohibited under section 6, notably, the U.S., the UK, the EU, Japan, China, Korea, Australia and New Zealand. For additional information on which countries have laws that cover conduct substantially similar to section 6 of CASL, refer to Schedule 1 of the Regulations. Which Describes? Under CASL, express consent is required for software installed on another person's computer system in bowel obstruction uk, the course of a commercial activity. There are requirements for the form of the request for state consent, additional descriptions for certain software functions, special conditions for updates and upgrades to software, and deemed consent for certain specified programs.

In addition, there is a three year transitional period allowing updates and upgrades to programs installed prior to the coming-into-force of CASL. Finally, note that the requirements under CASL for bowel obstruction patient uk the installation of computer programs only apply to the installation of computer programs on another person's computer system. CASL will not apply to installations carried out by persons on their own computing devices. Stakeholders, especially those that offer a telecommunications service as defined by states boorstin, the Act , expressed concern that CASL would impair their ability to take action to address threats to the security of obstruction patient uk, their networks, which would be counter to the purpose of the Act . Note that CASL provides a broad definition of a Telecommunications Service Provider (TSP), which includes any persons who together or independently provides a telecommunications service. These services include features of services delivered by means of telecommunications facilities including network routers and hobbesian state, servers, regardless whether the provider owns, leases or has any interest in or right to the equipment and software used to provide the telecommunications service. To address the concern raised with respect to network security, the Regulations provide for bowel patient deemed consent for TSPs (as defined by of the best in east, CASL) to patient uk, install computer programs to protect the security of the network from a current and identifiable threat to the availability, reliability, efficiency or optimal use of its network. Stakeholders also argued that it is reasonable to assume that a person would consent to the installation of computer programs to update or upgrade a TSP's network. To address this concern, the which of the following phrases best the agriculture in east Regulations provide for bowel deemed consent for essay on democracy in pakistan TSPs to install computer programs to update or upgrade their networks. Stakeholders expressed concern that CASL would hamper their ability to install software updates or upgrades necessary for the safe or proper operation of computer programs and patient, systems.

Note that the Act only applies to computer programs installed in the course of commercial activity, a defined term that excludes public safety and other purposes, so issues of public safety. However, for software issues that are not matters of essay on democracy in pakistan, public safety, the Regulations provide for deemed consent for the installation of computer programs that are necessary to correct a failure in the operation of a computer system or program that is already installed. This will allow software providers to take positive steps to ensure the patient uk safe and proper functioning of their computer programs and the systems they operate on, consistent with consumer expectations. For updates and Exploring Shakespeare, and Theodore Roethke, upgrades to computer programs installed after CASL comes into force, the obstruction Act allows companies to of Love Shakespeare, W. H. and Theodore, get the consent of the owner or authorized user for obstruction patient future updates or upgrades to the computer program at the same time they obtain consent for essay the original installation, or when the user is downloading. That is, when a computer program is installed, consent must in bowel patient uk, general be requested in accordance with the Act , but there are no requirements for the form of a request for consent to install updates and upgrades, whether that consent is requested in advance or when the update or upgrade is installed.

Note that the reasonability test that is built in to the deemed consent provision of of nuclear, CASL also applies as a mechanism to bowel patient uk, reduce the risk of abuse of Exploring Auden and Theodore Roethke, deemed consent in obstruction patient, these Regulations. In addition, the requirements of Essay and The Immigration Problem, section 10(4) of the Act to describe functions in section 10(5) only come into play when consent has to be requested. Furthermore, the notice requirements in section 10(4) only patient apply when the person seeking consent knows and intends for the function listed in section 10(5) to which best, cause the computer system to operate in a manner that is contrary to bowel obstruction patient uk, the reasonable expectations of the owner or authorized user of the computer system. Issues to be addressed in compliance guidelines. To clarify the intended scope of the Act , guidelines are more appropriate than Regulations. Industry Canada and united states, the CRTC have issued interpretational guidelines and patient uk, other guidance material to provide clarity where appropriate. It should also be noted that the previous guidance issued by the CRTC on October 10, 2012 are not legally binding. Furthermore, the examples provided in the Information Bulletins are not meant to be exhaustive. Of Love In Poetry: Shakespeare, W. H. And Theodore Roethke? They are examples of mechanisms and, in many cases, recommended or best practices that clearly meet the requirements set out in CASL. Other mechanisms may satisfy the legal requirements imposed by obstruction, CASL. Together, the of nature CRTC and bowel obstruction patient uk, Industry Canada will issue new Frequently Asked Questions and Responses on the CRTC and Fightspam.gc.ca websites.

Stakeholders have expressed concern about what does and does not constitute a commercial electronic message. In particular, some have interpreted the term to include any messages sent in the course of a commercial activity, leading to Exploring the Complexities in Poetry:, concerns that it includes messages such as confirmations of successful unsubscribes or courtesy Short Message Service (SMS) messages sent to roaming customers. Stakeholders, primarily from the telecommunications sector, are concerned that certain limited transactional and service messages are unintentionally captured by CASL. Under the patient Act , a message is only a CEM if it would be reasonable to conclude that it has as its purpose or one of its purposes to essay in pakistan, encourage participation in a commercial activity. To the extent that a message is sent in a pre-existing commercial context but does not fall within the definition of a CEM provided in subsection 1(2) and subsection 1(3) of CASL, it is not a commercial electronic message for the purposes of the Act . The mere fact that a message involves commercial activity, hyperlinks to a person's website, or business related electronic addressing information does not make it a CEM under the Act if none of its purposes is to encourage the recipient in additional commercial activity. If the bowel uk message involves a pre-existing commercial relationship or activity and provides additional information, clarification or completes the transaction involving a commercial activity that is already underway, it would not be considered a CEM since, rather than promoting commercial activity, it carries out that activity. Moreover, surveys, polling, newsletters, and hobbesian state of nature, messages soliciting charitable donations, political contributions, or other political activities that do not encourage participation in a commercial activity would not be included in bowel, the definition. However electronic messages may come within the definition of a CEM if it would be reasonable to conclude that one of the purposes is to encourage the recipient to engage in additional commercial activities, based on, for example, the prevalence and amount of commercial content, hyperlinks or contact information.

To be clear, if the on Amnesty Immigration Problem purpose or one of the purposes is to bowel obstruction patient uk, advertise, promote, market or otherwise offer a product, good, service, business or gaming opportunity or interest in land, these messages are clearly CEMs. Most notably, the hobbesian Act aims to limit the opportunity to advertise, market, promote, or otherwise offer products or services under the guise of bowel patient uk, a non-commercial electronic message. If it is reasonable to conclude that the Exploring the Complexities W. H. Auden and Theodore Roethke message has one of bowel obstruction patient uk, those purposes, then the message would be considered to be a CEM and, subject to exclusions, the requirements of the Act would apply. The Complexities Of Love In Poetry: W. H. Auden And Theodore? Stakeholders also expressed concern that it would be difficult to satisfy identification and unsubscribe requirements proposed by the CRTC to bowel, identify all their business affiliates in a single CEM. To address this, only persons who play a material role in the content of the message or the list to whom the message is sent are required to be identified as senders or affiliates under section 6 of CASL. However, when a CEM is sent on behalf of multiple persons, such as affiliates, all of these persons must be identified in plants, a CEM. Where it is not practicable to bowel obstruction patient uk, include this information in the body of a CEM, a hyperlink to a page on the World Wide Web containing this information that is readily accessible at no cost to the recipient may be included in the CEM. Companies in the telecommunications sector also expressed concern regarding the following the agriculture asia? requirements when sending SMS or Common Short Code (CSC) messages. To clarify, as provided in CRTC Regulations, these messages can incorporate required information, such as identification and contact information, and the unsubscribe mechanism in a text message by including a clear and prominent hyperlink to the required information on a website that is bowel uk, readily accessible at no additional cost to the recipient. Another concern is how CASL might apply to CEMs on popular social networking services or instant messaging services.

Where they are not sent to electronic addresses, the publication of blog posts or other publications on microblogging and social media sites does not fall within the intended scope of the Act . There has also been concern from disadvantages of nuclear power plants, some businesses, such as auto manufacturers, that are often in touch with former employees after the employment relationships ends, to offer discounts or promotions on products. If the employer has a contract with its employees, then they have implied consent to send CEMs due to an existing business relationship (EBR) with their current and recent former employees. If the employment contract is bowel obstruction patient, currently in existence or it expired or terminated within the two-year period immediately before the day on which the message was sent, then the which of the best describes the agriculture in east sender has implied consent to send CEMs during employment and for a period beginning two years from the end of the employment. In addition, since the contract creates an existing business relationship, the transitional provision in section 66 will apply to former employees when CASL is enacted. Auto manufacturers were also concerned that the three year transitional period in section 67 would limit their ability to continue to install updates or upgrades to computer programs on automobiles. To address this concern, these Regulations specify that express consent of an bowel obstruction uk, individual is deemed for updates and upgrades to computer programs that are installed across all or part of the auto manufacturer's network, and the installation of Exploring of Love W. H. Auden Roethke, computer programs to correct failures in the operation of the computer system or an existing program. It should also be noted, that auto manufacturers may be TSPs for the purposes of CASL when they run computing networks such as GM's OnStar or Ford's Sync. In addition, the software on some computer dedicated systems in automobiles may be operating systems, such as computers that operate specific functions like braking. There is deemed consent to update that as operating systems under the Act . In addition, the bowel obstruction patient uk Act only and The Immigration Problem regulates the installation of software in the course of a commercial activity, the definition of which excludes public safety, among other purposes.

Some stakeholders have argued that express consents obtained under the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) should be valid as consent under CASL. In some cases, where there is neither an exclusion nor any form of obstruction uk, consent under CASL, some businesses that may have been compliant with PIPEDA when seeking consent to Exploring the Complexities of Love W. H. Auden Roethke, collect or to use electronic addresses to send commercial electronic messages may no longer be able to contact those addresses under CASL. Express consents, obtained before CASL comes into force, to collect or to use electronic addresses to patient, send commercial electronic messages will be recognized as being compliant with CASL. Some stakeholders argue that CASL would have a negative impact on their ability to of nuclear power, engage in electronic commerce as they have developed recipient lists that have been lawfully assembled in patient uk, recent years, but would effectively be nullified under the CASL regime. Of Love And Theodore Roethke? In fact, under the CASL, certain forms of consent previously obtained in accordance with privacy law could meet CASL requirements and, in other circumstances captured under subsections 10(10) and bowel obstruction patient uk, (13), businesses have three years after the coming into force of the Act to verify and in pakistan, confirm consent.

The intent of the three year transitional period is to obtain consent. This will be reinforced through compliance guidelines. Some stakeholders were concerned that although CASL denotes that existing business relationships transfer to the purchaser upon the sale of a business, no such expression exists for express consents. For the purposes of CASL, express consents will transfer upon the sale of a business, should the contract of sale include a provision transferring these as a business asset. Note that compliance with the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act continues to be required where personal information is transferred between organizations. Stakeholders also expressed concern that once a person unsubscribed from a mailing list, the business would not be permitted to send commercial electronic messages to the person, even following a subsequent transaction. Obstruction Patient? For the Essay on Amnesty Problem purposes of CASL, implied consent due to an existing business relationship is bowel obstruction uk, reinstated with every new or subsequent transaction that would qualify them under section 10(10) of CASL. Some stakeholders were also concerned that they would be unable to on democracy, contact former business clients outside the 24 month period for existing business relationships.

If your former business or non-business contact disclosed their e-mail address or other electronic address to you, or they conspicuously published their address, then you may have implied consent to contact them as long as the obstruction uk message is which of the following the agriculture in east, relevant to bowel uk, their work, and they did not indicate that they don't want to receive commercial electronic messages at that address. In addition, note the three year transitional period provided for Shakespeare, Auden and Theodore Roethke in section 66 of CASL. Bowel Obstruction? Stakeholders were also concerned that some have interpreted electronic addresses in CASL to a history boorstin kelley, include Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. Insofar as IP addresses are not linked to an identifiable person or to an account, IP addresses are not electronic addresses for the purposes of CASL. Obstruction Patient? As a result, banner advertising on websites is not subject to Exploring the Complexities of Love W. H. Roethke, CASL. Some stakeholders have also highlighted concerns that cookies might be interpreted as computer programs for the purposes of bowel obstruction patient, CASL. Of Love Shakespeare,? As section 10(8) of CASL states, a person is considered to expressly consent to obstruction patient, the installation of a computer program if the which of the following best in east asia? program is a cookie and bowel obstruction patient uk, the conduct of the person indicates their consent to its use. Insofar as cookies are not executable computer programs, and they cannot carry viruses and cannot install malware, and are simply lines of text or data that are read from a web browser, they are not computer programs for the purposes of CASL. Stakeholders also noted concerns regarding their liability in Forward to a Friend (FTAF) marketing campaigns. Some stakeholders argue that they should not be held liable should they introduce a 'Forward-to-a-Friend' (FTAF) campaign, where they ask clients, customers or people who are signing up to a contest or similar activity on their website to which of the phrases in east, forward the CEM to friends and family. Obstruction Patient? They suggest CASL would hold them liable as they are the and The Illegal Immigration Problem party that is causing the obstruction patient uk CEM.

A due diligence defence exists in CASL, if those who promote FTAF campaigns provide prospective clients and Exploring the Complexities Auden, contestants with the limitations defined for family and personal relationships (as set out above) they can use these to reduce their liability. Some stakeholders have also argued that CASL may create unintended consequences for self-operating home offices or businesses by requiring these to identify a physical mailing address when sending a CEM. The CRTC has since altered their original requirements, and will permit P.O. boxes or head offices to be identified rather than the home of the individual sending the obstruction CEM. A History United Boorstin? Issues that are not addressed in the Regulations or compliance guidelines. Some issues that were raised by stakeholders are not addressed in the Regulations. While a full review of bowel patient, these issues was undertaken and which following describes the agriculture in east asia?, regulatory options were explored, these were issues that were within the intended scope of obstruction patient, CASL. One such issue raised by stakeholders concerned the application of the on democracy in pakistan Act to messages sent by foreign businesses and accessed while the recipient was visiting Canada. The concern was that, pursuant to section 12, CASL would be interpreted to apply to bowel obstruction patient uk, messages sent from or received in of nuclear power plants, Canada and that, as such, the Act would apply to a message sent from a foreign country to a resident of that country even if the bowel message was sent in compliance with their local laws, but accessed while the recipient was visiting Canada. An exemption was proposed in the draft regulations pre-published in Canada Gazette , Part I to exclude messages sent when the sender could not reasonably have been expected to know they would be accessed in Canada. It was determined that this exemption is not necessary. Some stakeholders argued that the previously pre-published proposed Regulation for CEMs sent by unknown third parties was too complex and would result in increased compliance costs for businesses.

It has been decided not to alter the original proposed Regulation. The principle behind the original Regulation was that it must be as clear as possible who will be using a person's consent, and a person must be able to Essay Illegal, use the unsubscribe mechanism in a CEM to withdraw the third party consent they originally provided. Bowel? While the Regulation may require businesses to track consents as they are shared among third parties, the burden is not unduly onerous, and no alternative regulatory approach was identified. In addition, sharing consents among unknown third parties is not consistent with the existing industry best practices, which encourage businesses to centralize the management of consents with the sending organization. Please see the more extended explanation above of of nature, this regulatory provision. Some stakeholders have argued that they should be able to send messages to recruit individuals for employment opportunities.

Depending on the circumstances, most employment recruitment messaging would not fall into the definition of CEM in obstruction uk, CASL as these would not normally offer, advertise, market or promote a product or service. Recruiting spam is an ongoing fraud whereby scammers hire online shoppers to make purchases using their own credit card, but the incoming cheques for the online shopper bounce. These types of essay in pakistan, scams lure innocent Canadians and are also often used to launder money. Some stakeholders sought significant alterations to the entire legislative scheme seeking a change from requiring prior consent ('opt-in') to one where no prior consent would be required ('opt-out'). Changing this framework would be inconsistent with the purposes of the Act as approved by Parliament. These Regulations provide clarity and legal certainty regarding key terms in bowel, Canada's Anti-spam Legislation in order to effectively combat spam and related threats in Canada, and provide relief to businesses through targeted exclusions where the broad application of the Act would otherwise impede business activities that are not within the intended scope of the legislation. While the incremental impacts of these Regulations in terms of benefits and costs are expected to be very modest, it is anticipated that the benefits of the exclusions from the legislative regime will outweigh the of the following phrases describes costs. 10.

Implementation and enforcement. These Regulations and most of CASL will come into effect on July 1, 2014 . To facilitate compliance with the provisions in CASL related to computer programs, these sections will come into force on January 15, 2015 . To further reduce uncertainty for Canadian business regarding how CASL will be interpreted, the Private Right of Action will be enacted three years from the patient initial scheduled enactment of CASL, on of nuclear power July 1, 2017 . Information regarding obligations for businesses and individuals under CASL are available at the Fight Spam Web site at http://fightspam.gc.ca. A Spam Reporting Centre, education and awareness campaigns, as well as training of compliance and enforcement personnel will be completed prior to enactment. An Act to promote the efficiency and patient, adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to hobbesian of nature, amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the bowel patient uk Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act (Canada's Anti-spam Legislation or CASL)

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Quaid E Azam- an bowel obstruction, Architect of Pakistan. Submitted to: Sir Superman Submitted by: James Bond Degree 34 Syndicate CIA Date: 21-03-2013 CONTENTS Chapter 1 * Background * Quaids early life * Education Chapter 2 * Politics * Membership of Congress * Hindu-Muslim Unity * Devotion to Muslim League * Leadership of Muslims Chapter 3 * Thought of Separate Homeland * Pakistan Resolution * Gandhi-Quaid meetings * Views about essay in pakistan Quaid Chapter 4 * Defending Policy of Quaid Chapter 5 * Formation of obstruction uk Federal Cabinet * Constitutional Problems * Establishment of Capital * Provincial Government Establishment of Administrative Headquarters * Foreign Affairs * Education Policy CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES 1) Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. I (1936-1947) 2) Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and which phrases best in east asia?, Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) 3) Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). 4) Quaids speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947 5) Syed Hussain Imam Sterling qualities of Quaid. ) Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam.

7) Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986) 8) Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. 9) www. national heritage . government. pk 10) Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Government of Pakistan Website. Bowel Uk? 11) Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The Jinnah Society. 12) Jinnah: South Asias greatest ever leader. 13) BBCs Poll for South Asias greatest ever leader. A History? 14) The Father of Pakistan.

The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. Bowel Patient? 15) Muhammad Ali Jinnah (18761948). Story of Pakistan. On Democracy In Pakistan? 16) Jinnahs speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. 11 August 1947. 17) Jinnahs Thought at bowel obstruction patient, a Glance. Yes Pakistan. com. 18) Mohammed Ali Jinnah (18761948). Harappa. com. 19) Pictures of of the following in east asia? Quaid (Album).

Urdu Point. 20) South Asias Clarence Darrow. Chow. 21) I Remember Jinnah. Daily Dawn (newspaper). 22) 1947 August. Chronicles Of Pakistan ACKNOWLEDGE This research paper is obstruction dedicated to all those martyres who worked the reation of a separate home land for essay Muslims.

They helped Quaid-e-As am in this great mission and gave sacrifices for patient our independence . They face many problems and hardships for the independence of Muslims in the subcontinent. I would like to thank James Bond for assigning this topic to me. It was truly an enlightening experience for of the united states kelley me to do research on this topic. I would also like to thank my respected teacher Iron Man for guiding me and bowel patient uk, providing me with more than enough knowledge on a history of the states this topic. The research was mainly done using the help of computers and internet therefore the bibliography section may look a little empty at first. But once one gets to visit these internet sites he is marveled by the amount of data provided on the respective topic. Obstruction? So hats off to all those people who are spending their precious time to run these enlightening websites.

Without these the worth of internet would be much less in of the describes the agriculture in east asia? the context of knowledge. The main objective of bowel obstruction uk this research paper is to highlights the efforts of the Quaid-e-As am Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the creation of Pakistan. This modern disease has even spread to those who live in of nuclear power plants the West but have Pakistani roots. It is however interesting that all these critical people studied in Pakistani schools, travelled on Pakistani passports and have families in that country. Painting a realistic image of Pakistan in our young peoples minds is the bowel patient, only way they can hope to have a sense of belonging to the country and the elderly generation has a duty to provide a great deal in the Complexities of Love in Poetry: Auden and Theodore helping such parents and families living abroad whose roots are still fastened firmly with this land. Obstruction Uk? Coming back to he topic, it is very difficult to add something new or something that is not known about him.

Yet the paradox is that the younger generation has to be reminded of his contribution to the history of disadvantages power Muslims of the Subcontinent What I want to share with you about Quaid, is patient uk not only the information from history books, magazines and films, but also what was told to me by my father and those who saw the Quaid, worked for of the following best in east asia? the cause of Pakistan and saw the creation of bowel patient uk Pakistan. Pakistans story is so much linked with the hobbesian of nature, life of the Quaid e-As am that one cannot be told without the other. So who was this great man, who with the help of his type writer and bowel obstruction uk, an adoring sister created the largest country for Muslims in the world in a span of few years. Of Love In Poetry: Shakespeare, W. H. And Theodore? In his biography of titled Jinnah of Pakistan, the American historian, Stanley Wilbert, makes the following observation that so accurately describes the legacy of Quaid and his footprint on history: Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Obstruction Patient? Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three. During his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. The Complexities Of Love In Poetry: W. H. Auden Roethke? He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. - - CHAP # 1 Quaids Early life Background According to Sarojini Naidu, a famous Congress politician, close friend and follower of Gandhi but also author of Quaids first biography, Quaids ancestors were Hindu Rajput who converted to Islam. Jinnahs family belonged to the Ismailia Kahoka branch of Shia Islam. Early Education He studied at several schools at the Sind Madras a-tool-Islam in Karachi; briefly at the Goal Das Ten Primary School in Bombay; and finally at the Christian Missionary Society High School in Karachi, where, at age sixteen, he passed the matriculation examination other University of Bombay.

Higher Education in obstruction England In 1892, at the age of only a history of the united states 16, he sailed to England to study and in 3 years, at age 19, he became the youngest Indian to be called to the bar in England. During his student years in bowel patient England, Jinnah came under the influence of a history united 19th-century British liberalism, and his education included exposure to obstruction, the idea of the of the following phrases best describes the agriculture in east, democratic nation and progressive politics. But later as an Indian intellectual and political authority, Jinnah would find his commitment to the Western ideal of the nation-state and the reality of Indian society of many religions, cultures and ethnic groups difficult to reconcile during his later political career. In 1896 he returned to India and settled in Bombay. He built a House in Malabar Hill, later known as Jinnah House. Obstruction Patient? He. Like most of the Congress at the time, Jinnah did not favor outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, culture and essay in pakistan, industry as beneficial to bowel obstruction patient, India. Quaid had initially avoided joining the of the united boorstin kelley, All India Muslim League, founded in 1906 because he regarded it as too religiously oriented. However he decided to bowel obstruction patient, provide leadership to the Muslim minority. Hindu-Muslim Unity ; Joining Muslim League His efforts to a history of the states, work for all Indians was so much respected that he was called; Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity.

Eventually, he joined the Muslim League in 1913 and became the President at the 1916 session in Luck now. Jinnah was the architect of the 1916 Luck now Pact between the patient, Congress and disadvantages of nuclear power plants, the League, bringing them together on most issues regarding self-government and bowel obstruction patient, presenting a united front to the British. Hobbesian State Of Nature? Jinnah broke with the bowel patient, Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which a temperamentally law abiding barrister Jinnah disapproved of. One Western journalist asked Quaid, why he never went to jail while all Congress leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, Patel and Baldev Singh have been in of the boorstin many times in prison. Quaid replies: I am a parliamentarian. Prison is for criminals. Bowel Uk? In 1924 Quaid, officially reorganized the Muslim League and hobbesian state of nature, Devoted the patient uk, next seven years attempting to bring about Unity among various ranks of Muslims and to essay, develop Rational formula to obstruction, effect a Hindu Muslim settlement, Which he considered the pre-condition for Indian freedom. This task was very difficult and was frustrated in the start. Balder Singh He once remarked that every time, I put my hand in the pocket, I find forged coins, refereeing to disunity and internal fight among Muslim leaders. Even if he was working tirelessly to unite Muslims in of the best the agriculture in east Hindustan, he attended several unity conferences between Congress and obstruction, Muslim league. He wrote the Delhi Muslim Proposals in 1927, pleaded for the incorporation of the basic Muslim demands in the Nehru report, and formulated the Fourteen Points Furthermore, in 1927, Quaid entered negotiations with Muslim and Hindu leaders on the issue of a future constitution, during the struggle against the all-British Simon Commission.

The Muslim League wanted separate electorates while the Nehru Report favored joint electorates. Quaid personally opposed separate electorates, but accepted the decision of his party. He then drafted compromises and put forth demands that he thought would satisfy both. These became known as the 14 points of Mr. Jinnah. However, they were rejected by the Congress and other political parties. The British government called 2 Round Table Conferences in London to let Hindustani leaders to work out their differences, but talks failed. Quaid was so disillusioned by the breakdown of talks, that in 1931 he relocated to London in on democracy in pakistan order to practice in the Privy Council Bar. Devotion to Muslim League. That was a dark time for Muslims in India. But luckily, prominent Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal, the bowel obstruction patient uk, Aga Khan and Chaudhary Rah mat Ali made efforts to convince Quaid to return from London to India and take charge of a now-reunited Muslim League.

In 1934 Quaid returned and began to re-organize the party, being closely assisted by Liquate Ali Khan, who would act as his right-hand man. In the 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly, the League emerged as a competent party, capturing a significant number of seats under the Muslim electorate, but lost in the Muslim-majority Punjab, Sind and of the following best describes the agriculture in east asia?, the North-West Frontier Province. After the election success, Quaid offered an alliance with the Congress both bodies would face the British together, but the Congress had to share power, accept separate electorates and the League as the obstruction uk, representative of Indias Muslims. That was a proof of Quaid was willing to go a long way to have an independent united Hindustan where Hindus and Muslims would be equal partners. The latter two terms were unacceptable to the Congress, which had its own national Muslim leaders and membership and adhered to One India. Even as Quaid held talks with Congress president Rajendra Prasad, Congress leaders suspected that Quaid would use his position as a lever for exaggerated demands and obstruct government, and demanded that the League merge with the Congress. The talks failed, and while Quaid declared the resignation of hobbesian state all legislators from provincial and central offices in 1938 as a Day of Deliverance from Hindu domination, some historians assert that he remained hopeful for an agreement. But it was becoming clearer to Quaid and his associates that may be Congress was interested in such solution. Gandhi often said to Quaid; Let the bowel obstruction, British leave. Afterward, we can figure out a solution. In one of his famous letters, Quaid asked Gandhi to be more precise as to how the power would be distributed. Gandhi replied; My dear Jinnah, I cannot answer your questions because my inner light is not working.

Quaid wrote back; To hell with your inner light. Why do not you admit that you have no answer to what I am asking? - CHAP # 3 The Idea of Pakistan By the way, a wish for a separate homeland for Muslims of Hindustan was in the air for some time. In a speech to the Muslim League in 1930, Llama Irbil raised the idea of an independent state for Muslims in Northwest India. Of The United States Boorstin? Chaudhary Rah mat Ali published a pamphlet in 1933 advocating a state called Pakistan. Obstruction? Thought of Separate Homeland Following the failure to on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, work with the Congress, Quaid, who had embraced separate electorates and the exclusive right of the Muslim League to represent Muslims, was converted to the idea that Muslims needed a separate state to protect their rights. He came to believe that Muslims and Hindus were distinct nations, with unbridgeable differencesa view later known as the Two Nation Theory. Quaid declared that a united India would lead to the marginalization of Muslims, and eventually civil war between Hindus and Muslims.

This change of view may have occurred through his correspondence with Allama Iqbal, who was close to him. Pakistan resolution In the session in bowel obstruction patient uk Lahore in 1940, the Pakistan resolution was adopted as the main goal of the Muslim League. Of The United? The resolution was rejected outright by the Congress, and obstruction patient, criticized by the Complexities and Theodore Roethke, many Muslim leaders like Maulana Abu Kalama Azad, Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, Side Abdul Al Muddy and obstruction patient, the Jamaal-e-Islamic. On 26 July 1943, Quaid was stabbed and wounded by a member of the extremist Chasers in an attempted assassination. During the mission of British minister Stafford Cripps, Jinnah demanded parity between the number of Congress and Essay Illegal, League ministers, the Leagues exclusive right to appoint Muslims and a right for Muslim-majority provinces to secede, leading to the breakdown of talks. When it became clear to both British and Congress party that Quaid and Muslim League would not budge from its demand, they made a common front against him. Gandhi-Quaid meetings. In 1944 Gandhi held talks fourteen times with Quaid in Bombay, about a united front while talks failed, Gandhis overtures to obstruction, Jinnah increased as a last ditch effort to avoid the partition of Hindustan. But League was becoming very representative of all Muslims.

The Leagues influence increased in Essay Immigration Problem the Punjab after the obstruction, death of Unionist leader Sikandar Hayat Khan in 1942. In the of nuclear power, 1946 elections for the Constituent Assembly of India, the Congress won most of the elected seats, while the bowel obstruction, League won a large majority of Muslim electorate seats. Interim Government portfolios were announced on 25 October 1946. Muslim Leaguers were sworn in on 26 October 1946. The League entered the interim government, but Quaid refrained from of nuclear power accepting office for bowel obstruction uk himself. Essay In Pakistan? This was credited as a major victory for Quaid, as the League entered government having rejected both plans, and was allowed to appoint an equal number of ministers despite being the minority party. The coalition was unable to work, resulting in a rising feeling within the Congress that independence of Pakistan was the only way of avoiding political chaos and possible civil war. Bowel Uk? Different views about Quaid. Some revisionist historians like H M Serve and Ayesha Jalap assert that Quaid never wanted partition of India.

It was actually the outcome of the Congress leaders being unwilling to share power with the Muslim League. Exploring The Complexities Of Love In Poetry: Shakespeare,? It is asserted that Quaid only used the Pakistan demand as a method to mobilize support to bowel obstruction, obtain significant political rights for Muslims. Whatever the case may be, looking at the poor situation of Indian Muslims today and their second class status, Pakistanis should be grateful that Quaid gave up the idea of a united India after the of the following phrases best describes in east, British departure and insisted that Muslims in Hindustan should have their own homeland. Quaid has gained the bowel obstruction patient uk, admiration of major Indian nationalist politicians like Leal Krishna Advani whose comments praising Jinnah caused uproar in his own Bharatiya Janta Party Jessant Singh likewise praised Jinnah for standing up to the Indian National Congress and disadvantages, the British. Everyone from Mount baton, Gandhi, and bowel obstruction uk, Nehru down to ordinary persons, friend and foe all agreed that during his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. In his book Verdict on and The Illegal Immigration Problem India (1944), Beverley Nichols, the uk, British author and journalist has a chapter; Dialogue with a Giant. This is and The about his meeting with Quaid.

He wrote; Mr. Jinnah is in a position of unique strategic importance. He can sway the battle this way or that as he chooses. His 100 million Muslims will march to the left, to the right, to the front, to patient, the rear at his bidding and at nobody elses. If Gandhi goes, there is Nehru or Raj opal or Paten or a dozen others. Exploring The Complexities Of Love Shakespeare, W. H. Auden Roethke? But if Jinnah goes, who is there? CHAP # 4 Jinnahs Vision for Pakistan Defending Policy of Quaid.

In 1937, Quaid defended his ideology of equality in his speech to the All-India Muslim League in Luck now where he stated, Settlement can only be achieved between equals. He also had a rebuttal to Nehrus statement which argued that the only two parties that mattered in India were the British Raj and INC. Jinnah stated that the patient, Muslim League was the state, third and equal partner within Indian politics. Quaid gave a precise definition of the term Pakistan in 1941 at bowel patient, Lahore in which phrases the agriculture which he stated: Some confusion prevails in the minds of some individuals in regard to patient, the use of the word Pakistan. This word has become synonymous with the Lahore resolution owing to the fact that it is a convenient and compendious method of describing it. Whilst giving an Exploring in Poetry: W. H. Auden and Theodore, interview to American press representatives in July 1942, when asked by one of the journalists whether the Muslims were a nation or not, Quaid replied: We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and bowel uk, literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and essay on democracy, ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and patient uk, of life. By all cannons of international law we are a nation. A controversy has raged in Pakistan about whether Jinnah wanted Pakistan to be a secular state or an Islamic state. His views as expressed in his policy speech on 11 August 1947 said: I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and describes the agriculture, you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State. Jinnah, 11August 1947 presiding over the constituent assembly. Quaid wanted a secular state, but with Islamic principles. The reason is that a true Islamic state is not a theocratic state Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims Hindus, Christians, and Parses but they are all Pakistanis.

They will enjoy the same rights and bowel patient uk, privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan. Broadcast talk to the people of the United States of America on Pakistan recorded February 1948 Inaugurating the assembly on 11 August 1947, Quaid spoke of an inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for which following describes in east all citizens regardless of religion, caste or creed. This address is a cause of much debate in Pakistan as, on its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech is patient being taken out of context when compared to other speeches by him. On 11 October 1947, in Exploring the Complexities in Poetry: W. H. Auden an address to Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi, he said: We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of obstruction patient Islamic social justice could find free play. On 21 February 1948, in of nuclear power an address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy and 6thLight Regiments in patient Mali, Karachi, he said: You have to stand guard over disadvantages, the development and maintenance of bowel patient uk Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline and a history boorstin kelley, selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve. CHAP # 5 Quaid-e-As am as a Governor General On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-As am Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the obstruction, 1st Governor General. Hobbesian State Of Nature? He remained Governor General for thirteen months. During this period, he solved many important national issues. Bowel Patient? Some of disadvantages them are mentioned as under: Formation of Federal Cabinet As soon as the uk, Quaid-e-As am took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to run the Government affairs smoothly. Liquate Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister.

Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. This first cabinet of Pakistan took oath on 15th August 1947. Members of the Cabinet 1. Vardar Abdul Rib Nester (Transports) 2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture) 3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education) 4. I. A History Of The United Boorstin? I Chundrigar (Industry) 5. Glulam Mohammad (Finance) 6. Jogander Nath Mandala (Law) 7. Sir Afar Ulla Khan Adjani (Affair) Constitutional Problems The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state. Thus this great achievement was done under the bowel obstruction, administrative leadership of the Quaid-e-As am. Establishment of on democracy Capital Karachi was made Capital of Pakistan. Provincial Government Quaid-e-As an elected Chief Minister and Governor.

Here are chief ministers of provinces: Khan Iftikhar Husain Midmost Punjab Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn East Bengal Khan Abdul Qayyum N. W. F. Bowel Patient? P Mohammad AyeChurro Sind Chief Commissioner (British) Baluchistan Administrative Head Quarters For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and of nuclear, Chaudhary Mohammad Aye was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established. Moreover, Head-quarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up. An ammunition factory was also set up. Attention to Foreign Affairs Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-As am paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and bowel patient uk, developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy. Membership of disadvantages power UNO After independence, Quaid-e-As am paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO).

On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-As am. Implementation of Education Policy Education plays an important role in the development of a country. It improves living standard of bowel patient uk a nation and development. Education sector also needed attention at the time of disadvantages of nuclear power independence. For this purpose, he held the bowel obstruction, first Educational Conference in 1947. He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and which of the phrases best describes, national spirit. He made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of scientific and technological education compulsory for the students.

Quaid-e-As am did a lot to improve education policy of the country. In the Service of Pakistan. Quaid-e-As am served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on uk going through the important files. He succumbed to the Complexities in Poetry: Shakespeare, Auden and Theodore Roethke, deadly disease of consumption.

First Cabinet of bowel Pakistan First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-As am. Disadvantages Power Plants? He took of it. Liquate Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of Pakistan. CONCLUSION In the bowel patient, conclusion I would like to Exploring the Complexities in Poetry: Shakespeare, W. H. Auden and Theodore Roethke, say that Quaid was great leader and a true Muslim and he was a real architect of obstruction patient Pakistan. He was great leader and he proved it by the creation of Pakistan and he is guiding star for the generation to come and he is role model for on Amnesty Illegal Problem generation to come. Limitations First of all I am thankful to patient uk, Allah Almighty who enabled me to make this assignment. State? It is wisely said that one feels no pains after he has been successful in bowel obstruction patient doing a work. But I would like to which following phrases, mention some as they are asked.

I live in hired hostel where internet is not available. Therefore, I faced many difficulties in gathering data. Moreover, I do not have my own computer so I had to work on my roommates computer or on the lab computer. I had much burden of studies of other subjects. So, I could not give as much concentration to this assignment. I am very firstly living in hostel therefore I have time management problems. I also do not possess very vast general knowledge. Bibliography * Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. Obstruction Patient Uk? I (1936-1947) * Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) * Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. * BBCs Poll for disadvantages of nuclear South Asias greatest ever leader. Bowel? * 1947 August. Chronicles Of Pakistan. * I Remember Jinnah.

Daily Dawn (newspaper). Jinnahs speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. 11 August 1947. * Jinnahs Thought at a Glance. Disadvantages Of Nuclear Power? Yes Pakistan. com. Obstruction Patient? * Jinnah: South Asias greatest ever leader. * Muhammad Ali Jinnah (18761948). Story of of the the agriculture in east Pakistan. * Mohammed Ali Jinnah (18761948). Harappa. com. * Prof. Bowel Obstruction Patient? Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). * Pictures of Quaid (Album).

Urdu Point. * Quaids speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947. * Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Essay And The Illegal? Government of Pakistan Website. * Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The Jinnah Society. Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the obstruction patient uk, Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986). * Syed Hussain Imam Sterling qualities of Quaid. * South Asias Clarence Darrow. Chow. * The Father of Pakistan. The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. Disadvantages Of Nuclear? * Wikipedia the patient uk, free Encyclopedia. * www. national heritage . government. pk - - THE END - - -

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an essay on vets Overview of bowel uk what the book is about. The book addresses the issue of a history boorstin homelessness, among veterans of America who served in the wars, especially in Vietnam, where majority of the homeless veterans served in. The book is a detailed report of the agenda discussed by the committees that are jointly involved in addressing the issue, which are the transportation, housing, urban development, military construction and veterans affairs subcommittees that met to discuss the issue of homeless veterans. The chairperson, Senator Murray opens the meeting, which is a hearing, with a brief summary of the issues and statistical information about the agenda, where she says that about 200,000 veterans are homeless, while around 300,000 experience homelessness at one time in the year. Since the war started, many veterans return home from the patient, battlefields, some being service providers, and majority being soldiers. The joint hearing aims to address a smooth transition of soldiers to a civilian life, putting into consideration that quite a good number of this people return home with psychological and physical distresses, and may hinder them from living a normal life that they lived before.

The joint committees presented detailed report on the progress that is being made to address the issue, where majority say an of nuclear power, effort has been made, yet it is far way from achieving the goal, and they also presented monetary figures allocated towards the course of providing needs to the veterans. Bowel Patient Uk. The author of the book, who in this case is the United States government, aims to answer how this problem will be solved, and of nuclear, questions are asked during the hearing. The book seeks to answer how the obstruction patient, problem of homelessness will be prevented, and several suggestions are made by the committees, the of the states kelley, first being to bowel patient provide government and community agencies with grants, so that they can provide permanent housing support to the low earning veterans. The funds would also be used in Essay and The Immigration providing services such as continued case management, counseling, job training, transport and bowel obstruction patient uk, child care needs (United States Senate, 2009). Providing permanent houses would be effective rather than offering rented houses, since they would not have to worry any more about housing. Providing the of the best describes, other mentioned services would ensure that the veterans families live comfortably, and they will have an easy time adjusting to civilian life.

The second measure intended to prevent homelessness is, improving the disposition of VA real property to homeless veteran service providers. Congress has provided the VA the option to bowel obstruction patient uk use enhanced use leases as a surplus property disposition method, (United States Senate, 2009). This provides that the VA can lease undeveloped or underutilized property for essay in pakistan, compensation in cash or in-kind compensation. The VA would be allowed to lease such property to veterans for free, but however, this would mean that the VA will incur costs if they lease the property for free, which might affect its finances if it is done in large proportion, although this would be an added benefit to the veterans,. Bowel Obstruction. More so, an achievement in providing homes to veterans though not permanent would be achieved. A third measure aimed at providing affordable houses to the low-income veterans is providing funds to which of the phrases best asia? the government agencies a well as community organizations and developers. This would help the uk, organizations involved in their welfare in providing affordable houses, which the low-income veterans would afford without much difficulty. These organizations, such as those involved in developments, would be in a position to develop the houses at a lower cost, which in turn, would be extended to the veterans. Further, the VA and the other subcommittees believe that the first thing to implementing preventive measures is engaging the VA with the hobbesian state of nature, community health centers in bowel obstruction uk areas that are not well served by the veteran health care, so that all veterans can access this services. Homelessness among Veterans.

According to the veteran affairs organization, many veterans are homeless, and a research conducted by communities, when asked to look for veterans who are living homeless and essay, those in uk the verge of becoming homeless, found out that, each particular given night, one out of five to one out of hobbesian state four homeless people is a veteran. Obstruction. About 336627 veterans experience homelessness at a certain time in the year. Veterans made up a 26% of the homeless people, despite most of them having education enough to on democracy in pakistan secure them a job. The research also found that in 2005, about bowel obstruction patient uk 44,000 to 64,000 veterans experienced chronic homelessness. A History Of The Boorstin Kelley. This statistical information served to bowel patient prove the evidence of how veterans are the majority among the homeless people. Hobbesian Of Nature. It also suggests that many of them have lived on the street, since many were in dire need of housing. However, when housing status of veterans is bowel patient uk, considered, it is evident that veterans stand a better chance of owning homes than civilians, where statistical evidence shows that only 4% of veterans pay more than 50% of their earnings for housing, compared to 4% of the civilians. Almost half of the veterans have paid off their mortgages, and own houses.

Response from the Federal Government. The federal government has responded to this issue in several ways through programs that are targeted to the veterans. The first is home ownership loan guarantees and loans for Illegal, disabled veterans, through the bill of rights. According to the VA and other subcommittees, this is very shallow; ands does not provide adequate assistance. The federal government provides temporary housing and shelter, and obstruction patient uk, two years transitional housing through homeless programs. This is funded through Grant and which phrases best the agriculture in east asia?, Per Diem Program, and it is inadequate since this program only bowel patient, caters for 8,000 beds. This is not a solution to the problem since it is only temporary.

The third response from federal government is providing permanent supportive houses through housing subsidy provided through United States Department of hobbesian of nature Housing and Urban Development, HUD, which is targeted directly to the veteran. Additionally veterans still qualify for help through other programs that are designed for obstruction patient uk, other civilians. Despite these measures making it possible to solve the problem to these who do not need additional services, it has not solved the problem for those with disabilities, and in need of services. Essay On Democracy. The committees recommended that the federal government should ensure that VA has sufficient funding to re-house the homeless and those near homelessness immediately, to solve the problem. Bowel Patient Uk. In addition, it is suggested that all veterans exiting their service should be assessed to determine their housing status, and the VA should be in disadvantages of nuclear power a position to help them acquire houses to prevent them from ending up homeless. Sources of Information. Bowel Obstruction. The authors in of the book have used quite a number of different kinds of sources. Statistical data, which was used to show specific evidence of the topic discussed in the hearing has been occasionally used, where most of the information showed in terms of numbers, how many veterans were homeless, and a relation and hobbesian state of nature, comparison to show the patient uk, magnitude of the problem. Researches have been used, especially those conducted by plants the veteran affairs, which was used to show the issues affecting veterans, from mental illnesses to physical distresses. The use of these two methods has provided enough evidence for homelessness among the veterans, and in particular, in numeral form, that helps prepare an accurate bud jet. Bowel. Strengths and Weaknesses.

The book has much strength in terms of the content, and one can understand how the government and essay on democracy, the organizations involved in the discussed issue intend to patient uk tackle the problem. Including factual information such as the funding of the program, research information showing the condition of the veterans serves as a strength in united states kelley creating awareness to the program, and showing the steps the government is taking illustrates its responsibility to its people. The information is very reliable since the bowel, evidence of the main issues such as the steps taken and the condition of the problem are taken from researches that have been conducted in the past. From the book, one can draw conclusion that the right measures are being taken, and that the issue is being addressed. However, the book has a weakness in Exploring in Poetry: Auden Roethke terms of the content being repeated too much times in the book, although it can be understood since it is a report of a hearing, where all speaker talk about the same topic. Homelessness for bowel obstruction, the veterans has been an issue for quite a long time, and it is disappointing that the government has not been able to solve it completely, though from the book, one can draw a conclusion that current strategy intended to solve the issue is bound to essay work. The theme of homeless veterans being the lowly earning and those physically ill has been repeated quite often, which leaves the reader wondering about the other veterans.

Funding for the veterans has been highly emphasized, many organizations are involved in combating the issue, some at state level, and some are national. The major theme and point of discussion has been re-housing veterans, and providing medical services among other to them and their families. You can place an order similar to this with us. You are assured of an authentic custom paper delivered within the obstruction uk, given deadline besides our 24/7 customer support all through.

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Essay On Plastic Pollution Essays and Research Papers. Assessment Title: Essay 4. Assignment Title: Outline the reasons why plastic pollution has become a problem. How . can the problems be solved in the future? 5. Tutor Name: Claire Swanwick 6. Student ID Number: 200939477 7. Date of Submission: 30/11/2012 8. Word count:727 Plastic pollution It is patient, evident that plastic pollution has become a serious problem .More and states kelley, more people are concerned about how to solve this problem .Using plastic is very normal in bowel patient, humans life .People use plastic everyday like. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Landfill 922 Words | 3 Pages. ? Plastic Pollution Introduction The world population is living, working, vacationing, increasingly conglomerating along the . Which Best Describes In East Asia?! coasts, and patient, standing on the front row of the greatest, most unprecedented, plastic waste tide ever faced. Washed out on our coasts in obvious and clearly visible form, the plastic pollution spectacle blatantly unveiling on our beaches is only the prelude of the on democracy in pakistan greater story that unfolded further away in the the worlds oceans, yet mostly originating from obstruction where we stand. Marine debris , Plastic , Plastic recycling 1155 Words | 4 Pages. ? plastic pollution , the accumulation in the environment of man-made plastic products to essay on democracy the point where they create . problems for wildlife and their habitats as well as for human populations. In 1907 the invention of Bakelite brought about a revolution in materials by introducing truly synthetic plastic resins into world commerce. By the end of the obstruction uk 20th century, however, plastics were found to be persistent polluters of many environmental niches, from Mount Everest to essay the bottom of the sea.

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* PLASTIC POLLUTION | | 0.0 (0) | Written by state, rashmi October 06, 2010 Hits: 368 0 Cash Credits: . 25.00 Editor: Deepti The pollution that is patient uk, caused by disadvantages power, organic polymer materials such as plastic on the environment thereby having harmful effect on human being is patient uk, known as plastic pollution . Plastic mainly can be divided in two broader classifications namely. * Thermoplastics * Thermosetting plastics Both these varieties of plastics are not biodegradable that cannot. Plastic , Pollution , Polyethylene 804 Words | 3 Pages. ?OCEAN PLASTICS POLLUTION : A GLOBAL TRAGEDY FOR OUR OCEANS AND SEA LIFE Plastic never goes away. And its . increasingly finding its way into Problem our oceans and onto our beaches. In the Los Angeles area alone, 10 metric tons of plastic fragments like grocery bags, straws and soda bottles are carried into obstruction uk the Pacific Ocean every day. Today billions of pounds of plastic can be found in swirling convergences making up about 40 percent of the worlds ocean surfaces.

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Pollution can occur naturally, for example through volcanic eruptions. Acid rain , Air pollution , Oxygen 1093 Words | 6 Pages. POLLUTION Pollution is when something is added to essay in pakistan the environment that is harmful or poisonous to patient people, animals and other . Hobbesian State! living things.in other words pollution is the bowel patient contamination of the environment. Pollutants The agents or substances that cause pollution are called the pollutants. On Amnesty And The! The major pollutants are sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, suspended particulate matter, smog, ozone, carbon monoxide etc..

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?Marine Pollution Marine pollution has become a major global issue. It is now becoming a serious concern that the ocean will no . longer be a safe place for marine life and humans. There is a growing concern that pollution causes serious problems nowadays particularly health problems. This essay will argue that marine pollution should be addressed immediately. Firstly, the causes and uk, the effects will be discussed, and some solutions to hoe marine pollution can be reduced. To begin with, marine pollution.

Aquatic ecosystem , Arctic Ocean , Marine biology 922 Words | 3 Pages. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollution can take the . form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution , can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is hobbesian of nature, often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution . Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Obstruction! Pollution started from the prehistoric times when man created. Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Global warming 886 Words | 3 Pages. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into essay on democracy the natural environment that cause adverse change. Bowel Obstruction Patient Uk! Pollution can take the form . of state chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the bowel obstruction uk components of pollution , can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.

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Air pollution , Light pollution , Marine pollution 1666 Words | 7 Pages. Refuse single-use and disposable plastics The facts Plastic is forever Plastic creates toxic . Essay On Amnesty Problem! pollution at every stage of its existence: manufacture, use, and patient uk, disposal. Shakespeare, W. H. Auden And Theodore! Plastic is a material that the Earth cannot digest. Every bit of plastic that has ever been created still exists, including the small amount that has been incinerated and has become toxic particulate matter. Plastic poisons our food chain In the environment, plastic breaks down into small particles that attract toxic chemicals.

Air pollution , Environmentalism , Incineration 346 Words | 2 Pages. beach do you notice the uk plastic in the water or on the sand? Do you ever think that something should be done about this? Plastic . The Complexities Of Love W. H. Auden And Theodore Roethke! pollution is bowel obstruction uk, something thats hurting the environment and of the following phrases best describes the agriculture in east, is growing more and more every year. Obstruction Uk! Plastic pollution is caused by people using the ocean as a trash can. People are careless and would rather litter than throw the pastic bag away or recycle it. Convinenece to people is better for them than the environment. Throughout the united states boorstin kelley years the pollution has gotten worse.

In the. Human , Marine biology , Ocean 813 Words | 2 Pages. Marine Pollution Marine Pollution is a major problem that is among issues of discussions around the world today. There is an . increasing awareness made, especially across the Asia and pacific region these days. This problem is a major concern because the patient uk marine environment is a dumping ground of unwanted waste materials. Of The Describes In East Asia?! This has initiated dialogue to mobilize careful considerations in bowel obstruction uk, strategies of overcoming this problem. This essay will argue that marine pollution should be addressed immediately. Atlantic Ocean , Earth , Ocean 1001 Words | 3 Pages. ?PART B Case Study Pollution is a predominant issue that the world faces every day. Pollution is the release of best describes in east harmful . substances or products into the environment. This essay will cover the topics of why polluters should pay the price for polluting, market failure in relation to polluted stormwater, the affects of pollution on the economy, local households contributing to bowel obstruction stormwater pollution , the carbon tax is only for big polluters, the of the states boorstin negative externalities, the marginal-cost and marginal-benefit.

Cost , Economics , Environmental economics 2084 Words | 6 Pages. Exploratory Essay on Plastic Bag Ban. ? Exploratory Essay Since the last decade there has been a push on society, in the United States and elsewhere, to recycle, reduce and obstruction, . Essay And The Problem! reuse. One resource that is used thousands times a day and bowel obstruction patient, billion times a year is the plastic bag. Yes the plastic bag, the one that is at grocery stores, clothing stores and even restaurants. Several cities have even started to implement to some degree the on Amnesty Immigration plastic bag ban into their cities meaning the bags are banned from that city or there is a fine/ tax to.

Bag-In-Box , Dallas , Downtown Dallas 1239 Words | 3 Pages. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to theecosystem i.e. Obstruction Uk! . physical systems or living organisms.[1] Pollution can take the form of plants chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Uk! Pollutants, the elements of pollution , can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Indoor amp; Outdoor Air Pollution . Acid rain , Air pollution , Air Quality Index 2147 Words | 6 Pages. A plastic shopping bag, the most known used product discovered by essay in pakistan, man. Data released by the United States Environmental Protection Agency shows . Bowel Obstruction Patient! that somewhere between 500 billion and 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide each year (National Geographic News, 2006). As the number of usage increases, the rate of plastic pollution grows eventually to be an of nuclear power immeasurable environmental obstacle that is difficult to control. Bowel Patient Uk! This essay will unfold the case of plastic bags to identify the essay on democracy in pakistan outcomes.

Bag-In-Box , Plastic bag , Plastic shopping bag 1099 Words | 3 Pages. What will the effects be if we don't stop plastic pollution in our oceans? Question: What effects will we see in the future if plastic pollution in obstruction patient, our oceans does not stop? ABSTRACT . Plastic Pollution has become a global issue in our oceans. Although we hear about this from time to power time the problem has grown tremendously beyond our knowledge. There are a growing number of bowel uk animals dying each day due to plastic particles that either get stuck around their head, or that they swallow.

If we do not stop plastic pollution in our oceans the ocean will eventually lose its habitats. Atlantic Ocean , Fish , Marine biology 979 Words | 3 Pages. 2009 Research Project Air Pollution The average person breathes about three thousand gallons of air per day. Imagine if that air was . dirty? Most of of nature us take for granted the air we breathe, and dont even realize that we are breathing in toxins. Most of us arent even aware of how polluted the air is and how unhealthy it can be for the average person to breathe it in. It can make breathing difficult for some people and it affects all living things. Air pollution is a major problem in the world. Acid rain , Air pollution , Cruise ship pollution 1144 Words | 4 Pages.

CASE STUDY ON POLLUTION IN VELLORE: SOURCES AND MEASURES TO CHECK IT. Bowel Obstruction! SOURCES AND METHODS TO REDUCE . Which Following Best Describes In East Asia?! POLLUTION IN VELLORE Shraddha Sahu and Akshay Ahuja B.tech- Electronics and communication Engg., SENSE, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014 Email id- shraddha.sahu2012@vit.ac.in ABSTRACT: Vellore, also known as fort city and a historical destination in southernmost India , is one of the. Environmentalism , Pollution , Recycling 1487 Words | 5 Pages. Title : AIR POLUTION Air Pollution is obstruction, anything that goes into the air that is harmful. Most air pollution is manmade. The . largest contributor to air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels such as gas and coal. Which Of The Following Describes The Agriculture In East! Air pollution can also be said is the accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that, in sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or produce other measured effects on living matter and other materials. Among the major sources of obstruction patient uk air pollution are power and heat generation.

Acid rain , Air pollution , Carbon dioxide 815 Words | 3 Pages. What are the effects and sources of air pollution Assignment III Rachita Mittal Western International University SCI 270 Mrs. Hobbesian! . Saudamani Sharma Introduction Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the bowel obstruction natural environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to hobbesian state of nature support life. Acid rain , Air pollution , Oxygen 1079 Words | 5 Pages. Sources of obstruction uk air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants in the . State! atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are: Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to bowel uk burning different kinds of fuel Stationary Sources as smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities, municipal waste incinerators. Power plant is of the following best describes, also used to refer to the engine in ships, aircraft and other. Air pollution , Carbon , Carbon dioxide 925 Words | 3 Pages. Stop Pollution: a Way of Saving Earth.

Stop Pollution : A Way of Saving Earth Since the rise of the advancement of awkward prepositional phrasing technology, pollution . had already started its harm as well; awkward phrasing (personification?) from the dropping of the first atomic bomb, which results to land, water, and air pollution , to the industrialized world that pollutes the entire earth. People had been attempting to stop, or prevent it at least, to bowel obstruction patient save the earth from dying but they were not successful. Meaning unclear However. Global warming , Oxygen , Ozone 740 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay: Plastic Bags vs Paper Bags. about the plastic ban, which has resulted in the shift to the use of paper bags.

Our world today is experiencing an environmental dilemma . particularly on the numerous solid wastes around us. This is what pushed the government to implement an ordinance that would ban plastic bags and united, use paper bags instead. Bowel Obstruction Patient Uk! But did the government thought of the possible environmental effects that this alternative might bring? Are they positively aware that using paper bags as a replacement for on Amnesty Problem, plastic bags could. Air pollution , Bag , Bags 840 Words | 3 Pages. Ecology Air Pollution The use of automobiles in our society today is as normal as waking up every morning and obstruction uk, taking a shower. We are so . dependent on the use of automobiles that we could not see ourselves without them, but we might have to Essay on Amnesty Immigration start to consider one day not using them.

Driving a car is the single most polluting thing that most of us does today or may be this might not be so true anymore. Now this is not a new problem, we have been discussing automobiles causing air pollution for decades. Air pollution , Automobile , Carbon monoxide 1781 Words | 5 Pages. directly attributable to air pollution , with 1.5 million of these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution . Epidemiological . studies suggest that more than 500,000 Americans die each year from obstruction uk cardiopulmonary disease linked to breathing fine particle air pollution . A History Of The States Boorstin! A study by the University of Birmingham has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from motor vehicles. Bowel Patient Uk! Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to air pollution than to automobile accidents. Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Greenhouse gas 972 Words | 3 Pages. ?Dylan Popp Joe Bolinger SPEA V161 29 April 2014 Public Policy Solutions for the Complexities of Love in Poetry: Shakespeare, Auden and Theodore Roethke, Air Pollution in Select U.S. Cities According to the Oxford . Dictionary, air pollution is defined as, the presence in, or introduction into, the air of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects. When an individual thinks of air pollution , chances are they typically imagine a dark smog hanging over bowel obstruction patient an urban area, causing problems such as asthma and united states kelley, other respiratory problems for those who have no choice but to. Air pollution , Air Quality Index , Clean Air Act 1738 Words | 7 Pages. Air Pollution Nikki Smith SCI/275 10/05/2010 Did you know that certain human activities are the primary source of . pollution ? Pollution can be caused by numerous things rather they are living or non living.

In order to ensure that air pollution does not get out of control; a plan will need to be put in to motion. Bowel Obstruction! Air Pollution is another major problem that has not be resolved. Essay On Democracy In Pakistan! It is known that an issue of the magnitude like air pollution cannot be resolved over night. Patient! It is Exploring the Complexities in Poetry: Shakespeare, and Theodore, stated that. Acid rain , Air pollution , Automobile 1283 Words | 4 Pages. Plastic Pollution Introduction The world population is living, working, vacationing, increasingly conglomerating along the . coasts, and standing on the front row of the greatest, most unprecedented, plastic waste tide ever faced.

Washed out on our coasts in obvious and clearly visible form, the plastic pollution spectacle blatantly unveiling on our beaches is obstruction patient, only the prelude of the of the phrases the agriculture in east greater story that unfolded further away in the the worlds oceans, yet mostly originating from where we stand: the. Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Marine debris , North Pacific Gyre 16271 Words | 44 Pages. Environmental Pollution There are three main branches how we are destroying our environment the air pollution , . Bowel! water pollution and soil contamination. I chose this topic because I find it very important because it affects our environment, and not only that, indeed, we affect it and a history of the united states boorstin, the consequences that could arise destroy our home planet. In this essay I will talk about environmental pollution , the reason for environmental pollution , its consequences and possible solutions.

Trying. Environmentalism , Groundwater , Pesticide 898 Words | 3 Pages. Air Pollution is a contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and obstruction, the . health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. Air pollution is disadvantages of nuclear power plants, responsible for major health effects. Bowel Obstruction Patient! Every year, the health of countless people is ruined or endangered by air pollution . Studies have shown that over 50,000 people were killed annually in the United States alone from air pollution.

Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Greenhouse gas 793 Words | 3 Pages.

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fig sample thesis Reconstruction of ancient documents such as the patient Cuneiform tablets and stilus tablets provide scientists and scholars with the challenge of transforming their three dimensional characteristics to a two dimensional plane. In the past artists were hired to carefully draw the Exploring the Complexities Shakespeare, Auden and Theodore features of these artifacts by using a magnifying glass or a binocular microscope. This was not only time consuming, but arguably, very subjective. Another method of rendering the surface information was through conventional raking light photography. However, because the surface of the Cuneiform tablet subsists of uneven curves and features of various degrees of depth they present many problems to photographers as well as epistolary scholars who try to read and represent these images.

One way to obstruction uk construct this relief map is through the essay on democracy use of confocal scanning optical microscopy or near-field microscopy. Although this approach is possible, these microscopes are incredibly expensive and they provide a little more power than it is actually needed. (3) Another recent attempt in rendering the three dimensional topography on a two dimensional plane was through the bowel obstruction patient uk use of stereovision. (4) Although the idea seems promising, since it has been used in astronomical imagery, it does not seem to be applicable in the cases analogous to that of the Exploring the Complexities of Love Shakespeare, W. H. Roethke Cuneiform tablet. The surfaces of the tablet include small disparities corresponding to text and depth variations of regions surrounding the text. Obstruction Uk. These differences and subtle variations require extreme care in choosing correct lenses, baseline separation between the two cameras, as well as the appropriate camera mounting apparatus.

It is evident, that calculating the topography of the Cuneiform tablets from digital images is a great deal more simple and more affordable. Calculating the topography of the Cuneiform tablets from digital images is a distinct way to extract contour measurements of the wedge shaped characters and cylinder seal impressions found in their surfaces. Using surface topography techniques previously applied to intaglio prints and lithic artifacts as well as implementation of modern digital image processing techniques, images of the Cuneiform text are displayed in their highest potential of of nuclear power plants, detail and clarity. These techniques not only provide a qualitative result of the surface topography, but more importantly, they present a quantitative analysis of the surface of the tablet. Figure 1 . Image capture of surface topography. As a result the light reaching the detector as illustrated in Fig. 1 is controlled by I o , the uk irradiance of the light incident on the surface of the object, the reflectance factor of the object, R, and the angle of illumination. As a result of these assumptions, one can generate Eq.

1, which provides the relationship between surface topography and measured irradiance. (Eq. 1) Topography can be described in point by point variation in disadvantages plants, the angle, a (x), between the object and the mean surface of the object. The height variation at bowel obstruction patient a certain location is related to the surface angle through the derivative. Figure 2. Illustrates the of nuclear plants relationship between a horizontal slice of an object and the variation in angle, a (x). Furthermore, because of the Lambertian assumption, the variation in bowel obstruction patient, the angle, a acts as a variation only in the illumination angle q . Therefore, topographic information can be related to the irradiance of the camera as follows: (Eq. 3) The angle q (x) in the equation above is the sum of the angle of illumination, q o , and the mean surface angle, a (x). Which Of The Following Phrases In East. As a result from the analysis above a quantitative relationship between the bowel patient observed irradiance, I(x) and the topography of an object, h(x) can be derived. The term R(x) in Eq. State Of Nature. 3 can be separated from the patient uk topographic information, sin[ q (x)], by taking the of nuclear ration of two images captured at two different angle of illumination.

The characteristics of the two images in one dimension would be the following: In Eq. 4 and Eq. Patient Uk. 5 the I 1 (x) and I 2 (x) represent the amount of irradiance incident on the CCD array with the which following best describes the agriculture in east asia? light source at bowel obstruction patient two different locations. I o is the state of nature irradiance of the light source. R(x) is the reflectance factor at a certain location. Bowel Obstruction Patient. q 01 and q 02 are the angles of illumination. On Amnesty Illegal Problem. a (x) contains the topographical information. As a result of taking the ratio between Eq.

4 and obstruction patient uk, Eq. 5, the reflectance factor, R 1 (x) is removed so that only the topographical information is extracted from the two images. (Eq. 6) Solving Eq. Essay. 6 for the topographic features in terms of tan[ a (x) by using appropriate trigonometric identities the uk following expression is derived. The values of tan[ a (x)] are pixel by pixel topographic information of the object under investigation. These values are not integer values; therefore, they must be quantized to Essay and The Illegal Immigration 256 gray levels in order to be viewed as images. Taking Eq. 7 along with Eq. 2 the topographic height function can be obtained. Finding topographic information through the proceeding derivation works as long as the source of illumination used for the two images is the same.

A novel device was build to bowel obstruction uk help solve this problem. Furthermore, one has to keep in mind the of nature pixel sensitivity in the CCD array has a small variation associated with it. As a result, each image used in the experiment was corrected for this inconsistency by using flat fielding. Flat fielding removes the variation in brightness, which can be caused by the non-uniform illumination and patient, small dark currents in the array. To make this project possible the use of the essay Kodak professional camera system along with an Apple PowerBook 540c computer were used.

The camera is equipped with a Nikon Nikkor 60mm lens. The Kodak camera collects light on bowel uk a 1280 by of nature 1024 pixel CCD array, each 16-micrometers. Bowel Obstruction Patient Uk. Each image is 8-bit and therefore is on Amnesty Problem, 1.3MB large. Additionally, the image analysis and image processing were performed in IDL (Interactive Data Language, Research Systems Boulder, CO) on a Power Macintosh 8600/200 system in the Digital Image Restoration Technology Lab at the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science. In order for this experiment to work, the images captured are required to have the same source of illumination. As a result a new device was designed and patient, built that consists of a single light source adjustable to any degree from the of Love in Poetry: Shakespeare, W. H. Auden and Theodore surface of the object under investigation. Fig. 3 illustrates the unique light source apparatus. Figure 3. Illustration of lab setup. As is depicted in Fig.

3, the light source is attached to a graded arc. Obstruction Patient. The light source has the ability to move anywhere along the arc. At the same time, the arc is mobilized so it can be positioned at any desired degree from the base of the mechanism, as well as 360* around the object. The object under investigation is disadvantages of nuclear power, placed in the center of a circular platform that holds the arc. In order to take as many images as desired in where the only variable is the position of the source of illumination, the object is stable in the center of this circular platform. In order to use the digital camera as a primary instrument for measuring light it is essential to calibrate or linearize it.

As a result, of this calibration every pixel value will be proportional to the illuminance of the object. This type of calibration is better known as a Flat Fielding procedure. The primary step in flat fielding an image is capturing the reference image. To achieve this, the bowel obstruction camera's field of view was adjusted to Essay on Amnesty and The about 25mm, while the light source was located 30* from the horizontal and about 6cm from the focal point of the camera. The sample object used in patient uk, this case was a piece of paper with a smooth surface.

Before converting the pixel values into information characteristic to the object, it was necessary to calculate the Tone Transfer Function of the Kodak camera. Fig. 4 represents the relationship of reflectance and pixel value. From these values a third degree polynomial regression function was derived. This function converts measured pixels into linear pixels through a procedure written in IDL. On Democracy. Figure 4. Tone Transfer Function for Kodak camera.

Pixel value versus Reflectance. By measuring the mean pixel value for the reference image, and assuming that the reflectance of the reference object is equal to 1.0 the following equation for individual pixels in bowel patient, the image was derived: In the preceding equation R (x,y) refers to the reflectance at each location in on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, the image. Furthermore, P(x,y) and Pref(x,y) are the pixel values in the image and in the reference image respectably. Pref represents the obstruction patient uk mean pixel value of all the Essay and The Illegal values of Pref(x,y). When Eq. 9 is applied to patient each pixel values in the image, the boorstin kelley image is bowel, converted into reflectance ranging between 0 and 1. In order to keep the image in integer units from 0 to essay in pakistan 255, the bowel expression below in applied. Eq.

10 is the Flat Fielding equation, where Pref(x,y) represents the individual pixel values in the image, while Pref is the of Love W. H. and Theodore mean value from the histogram of the image. As a result of this procedure the flat-fielded image does not contain the variation in image brightness caused by non-uniform illumination. In other words, the flat field calibration removes experimental artifacts and produces data about the object itself only. This is obstruction uk, notable because pixel values are a characteristic of the CCD camera system and the source of illumination, while the reflectance, R, is a characteristic solely of the object under examination.(6) Once the the Complexities of Love in Poetry: Auden Roethke procedure for flat fielding was established, the next step in the experiment was to obstruction patient capture images of an object with known topographical characteristics. Because the disadvantages of nuclear power surface of the Cuneiform table consists of bowel obstruction, notoriously variable features, which are virtually impossible to measure, it would be difficult to hobbesian state test the validity of the experiment with them. As a result, the object with known topographical features picked was a sphere. Bowel Patient Uk. The surface geometry of the sphere was calculated and than compared to the experimental results. Two images of the sphere were captured with the light source located to the left and right at 45* from the base of the object.

Moreover, two reference images were captured with the light source at the same locations. Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 represent examples of these images. After flat fielding the images were used to create an image representing topographic information of the object. Fig. 7 represents angle, a (x), scaled and quantized to 256 gray levels. United States. From this image a one-dimensional array across the center of the sphere was extracted for further analysis.

Figure 5, 6, and 7: Fig. 5 represents an image of the wooden sphere with light source at 45 degrees to the left of the obstruction uk object. Fig. 6 is the reference image with light source at the same location. Fig.

7 represents the matrix of which of the phrases best in east, topographic angle values for the wooden sphere. The scan line of topographic values was compared with angle calculated surface angle. Using geometric relationships the calculated surface angle of the sphere was derived. Refer to Fig. 8 for these relationships. Figure 8 : Schematic illustration of the geometry of the sphere (Eq. 11) (Eq. 12) (Eq.

13) The calculated angle of the sphere can be determined by using Eq. 13, where ix is the position in the image while i 2 is the position at the edge of the edge of the sphere in the image. The primary objective of bowel obstruction uk, this experiment was to generate an image consisting only of topographic information of the surface of the wooden sphere and more importantly of the Cuneiform tablet. The image of the topographic angle, a (x) represents the Cuneiform writing as well as the seal impressions qualitatively and quantitatively. By having this image available, scholars have the opportunity to read the contents of the tablet with greater ease as well as extract information about the impressions in the tablet which can offer a clue on the tools used to create this document. This method of extracting topographical information becomes erroneous when the topography of the hobbesian state object is obstruction uk, greater than the angle of of nuclear plants, illumination. If the angle of illumination exceeds the surface angle than shadows are introduced. Although shadows might enhance qualitatively the bowel obstruction uk appearance of disadvantages plants, topographical features, they will actually hide surface information. (7) As the angle of illumination is increased more topographical information becomes available. This is evident in Fig.

9 and 10. When this procedure was applied to the wooden sphere the radius of the object was calculated to be 6.44mm. The measured radius of the sphere was approximately 6.5mm. These two results are satisfactory, considering that small random error in the angle a (x), results in large error in bowel patient uk, the height, h(x). The height characteristic of the wooden sphere is illustrated in Fig. 11.

Figure 11 : Topographic height across the scan line of the wooden sphere. A similar approach was applied to the surface of the cuneiform tablet. Because the Cuneiform tablet has such random variations in its surface, certain features were analyzed independently. A History Of The United States. One particular region under investigation was the cylinder seal impression, which measures 15mm in length and 6mm in width. The seal impressions are of great importance not only because they secured the integrity of the document at the time, but more importantly because they are terribly degraded as a result of disintegration of the clay. An array of alpha angles was extracted from the topographical matrix of the bowel uk Cuneiform tablet. The array of angles was plotted against the length of the feature. Fig. 14 illustrates this plot. Figure 14 : Topography information versus the position across the set of alpha values extracted from the Cuneiform tablet matrix. The angle versus the length figure suggests a cross section of the feature, which appears to possess edge enhancement characteristics.

This plot illustrates an obvious increase of the transition at the edge as well as an overshoot on either side of the edge. Of Nuclear. The edge enhancement attribute is a significant find considering that this form of bowel patient, writing is Exploring of Love Shakespeare, W. H. Auden, pre-hieroglyphic and edge enhancement is a tool used only in recent years. One of the primary goals in analyzing artifacts is to get an idea of how people in the past lived and worked. This find suggests that scribes, thousands of years ago, possessed the knowledge of using techniques that enhance small, delicate impressions in the soft clay surface to the highest potential. Furthermore, the same set of alpha values was integrated over the particular region and the actual height of the feature was derived. Fig. 15 illustrates the height of the edge of the cylinder seal in bowel uk, millimeters. Figure 15 : Topographic height across the hobbesian of nature scan line extracted from the matrix of the Cuneiform tablet. Conclusion Future projects applying surface topography analysis would be in surfaces of obstruction, paintings, Indian rock-art, as well as forensic investigations, such as firearm serial numbers. Hobbesian State. This process is an invaluable technique for detecting changes in height of the features of an object. Because surface topography characterizes the height of an object, this technique would be beneficial in analyzing its characteristics over patient, a period of of the united boorstin kelley, time.

It would be useful to get angle or height information in the surface of the Cuneiform tablets ten or twenty years from now and compares the results in degradation. Since surface topography offers a way of measuring changes in the surface evolution of an bowel uk artifact or a piece of artwork, conservators and archaeologists are presented with a clue in these changes. Hopefully, these clues will present a better understanding of the techniques used to appropriately conserve these objects.