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artist resume write Edward Winklemans blog recently had a great post about the high cost, resumes/bios with some really valuable information (be sure to american read the comments, too). Ill just add to it by walmart the high cost of low, telling you how I deal with my resume. Name and american expansionism, contact information (I put this in the header and walmart cost of low prices, footer so it shows up on each page) Exhibitions (separated by year and imperial order, then into categories - solo, juried, and group) Publications (in which Im mentioned or my work is reviewed) Collections (public and private) Related Experience (volunteer positions, committees, boards, serving as a juror, etc.) Venue, Location, Date. Shelbyville Community College, Shelbyville, Missouri, 2007. I edit the cost prices, exhibitions and title it, Selected Exhibitions. I dont usually include open shows or member shows, as they arent all that impressive (everybody usually gets in, so its not considered prestigious). Science? Theres a local exhibition that I enter frequently, so I wont usually list that unless there was a particularly well-known juror or I won an the high prices, award in the show. And I do usually include the juror.

Some are more well-known than others, but I think its good to imperial online be consistent (if you list one, you might as well list them all). Freezing, Springfield Center for of low, the Arts, Springfield, ME. Big Time Invitational, The Palomino Gallery, Arlington, CA. Super Cool Art Exhibition, Johnstown University, Johnstown, TX. Simple Things 2005, Sprightly Art Center, Baltimore, OK. Fire Alarm? (Juror: Stacy Smith, Executive Director, Eagle Mountain Art Center, Chicago, IL) Use a consistent, standard formatting method (such as MLA or APA). Johnson, John. Paintings fill art center with life. The Springfield Times 15 Oct. 2005: 7. The High Prices? MFA, Studio Painting - Springfield University, Springfield, TX, 2005. Minor: Art History.

Resume Writing(pdf) School of Art, University of Michigan. Science? A rsum, also known as a curriculum vitae (CV),American and British English respectively, is a document that contains a summary or listing of relevant job experience and education, usually for the purpose of obtaining an interview when seeking employment. Often the rsum or CV is the the high, first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the of deduction, job seeker, and therefore a large amount of importance is often ascribed to it. In the business world, the the high prices, word rsum (also spelled resum and resume) is used especially in the United States and in imperial order English Canada. In North America, Australia, and walmart cost of low, India the terms rsum and CV may be used interchangeably. Ainsworth And Bell? However, a rsum more often has a free-form organizational style and is used for seeking employment in the private sector, whereas a curriculum vitae (also called a vita, but not curriculum vita, see below) usually has a more standardized look and the high cost prices, format for the purpose of seeking positions in academic or educational institutions. Another difference is that a rsum tends to be more descriptive and tailored for a specific purpose or target audience, whereas a curriculum vitae tends to fire alarm systems be organized in a way that presents data about one's self in walmart of low a compact fashion, with a clear chronology. For example, a rsum may begin with a statement about a personal goal, followed by a list of most significant accomplishments or characteristics in order of for website, significance, while a curriculum vitae often includes complete and unembellished lists of walmart the high prices, data such as educational institutions attended, degrees received, positions held, professional affiliations, publications authored, etc. A rsum may or may not be represented by the person as a complete history of themselves without omission, whereas a curriculum vitae usually implies that there are no omissions, and in particular, no temporal gaps between listed items.

The Latin term curriculum vitae (often abbreviated CV) is used preferentially in many places outside of the for website, Anglo-American world. Curriculum vitae is Latin meaning course of life and rsum is French meaning summary. A rsum is a summary typically limited to walmart cost one or two pages of size A4 or Letter-size highlighting only those experiences and credentials that the author considers most relevant to Columbus) the desired position. Simple rsums may be organized in different ways: A chronological rsum enumerates a candidate's job experiences in reverse chronological order. Walmart Of Low Prices? The chronological rsum format is by far the most common rsum layout in use. Imperial Tobacco Order? In using this format, the main body of the document becomes the Professional Experience section, starting from the most recent experience going chronologically backwards through a succession of previous experience. The chronological rsum works to build credibility through experience gained, while illustrating career growth over walmart time.

In the United Kingdom the chronological rsum tends to extend only as far back as the subjects GCSE/Standard Grade qualifications. A functional rsum lists work experience and skills sorted by skill area or job function. The functional rsum is used to assert a focus to skills that are specific to the type of position being sought. This format directly emphasizes specific professional capabilities and american, utilizes experience summaries as its primary means of communicating professional competency. Walmart The High? In contrast, the chronological rsum format will briefly highlight these competencies prior to referencing for website presenting a comprehensive timeline of career growth via reverse-chronological listing with most recent experience listed first. The High? The functional resume works well for fire alarm systems, those making a career change, having a varied work history and with little work experience.

A functional rsum is walmart cost, also preferred for and bell, applications to jobs that require a very specific skill set or clearly defined personality traits. The combination rsum balances the functional and chronological approaches. A rsum organized this way typically leads with a functional list of job skills, followed by a chronological list of employers. The combination rsum has a tendency to walmart prices repeat itself and is therefore less widely utilised than the other two forms. In the american expansionism, United States and Canada, a CV is expected to include a comprehensive listing of professional history including every term of the high cost of low prices, employment, academic credential, publication, contribution or significant achievement. In certain professions, it may even include samples of the person's work and may run to many pages. Referencing For Website? Within the European Union, a standardised CV model known as Europass has been developed (in 2004 by the European Parliament) and promoted by the EU to ease skilled migration between member countries. In the past, rsums used to be no longer than two pages, as potential employers typically did not devote much time to reading rsum details for each applicant. Employers have changed their views regarding acceptable rsum length. Since increasing numbers of job seekers and employers are using Internet-based job search engines to find and fill employment positions, longer rsums are needed for walmart cost, applicants to differentiate and expansionism, distinguish themselves.

Since the late 1990s, employers have been more accepting of the high cost of low prices, rsums that are longer than two pages. Many professional rsum writers and human resources professionals believe that a rsum should be long enough so that it provides a concise, adequate, and accurate description of an applicant's employment history and skills. The transmission of rsums directly to employers became increasingly popular as late as 2002. Jobseekers were able to circumvent the job application process and reach employers through direct email contact and rsum blasting, a term meaning the mass distribution of rsums to expansionism increase personal visibility within the job market. However the mass distribution of rsums to walmart cost employers often can have a negative effect on the applicant's chances of securing employment as the rsums tend not to tobacco online order be tailored for the specific positions the applicant is applying for. It is usually therefore more sensible to adjust the walmart cost of low prices, rsum for each position applied for. The complexity and simplicity of various rsum formats tends to produce results that vary from expansionism, person to person, occupation, and industry. It is important to note that rsums used by medical professionals, professors, artists and people in walmart many other specialized fields may be comparatively longer. For example, an for website, artist's rsum, typically excluding any non-art-related employment, may include extensive lists of walmart the high cost prices, solo and group exhibitions. The Internet has brought about a new age for the rsum.

As the search for employment has become more electronic, rsums have followed suit. It is not uncommon for employers to only accept rsums electronically, either out of practicality or preference. This electronic boom has changed much about the way rsums are written, read, and handled. Including an e-mail address in an online rsum may expose the job seeker to spam. Keeping rsums online has become increasingly common for people in professions that benefit from the multimedia and rich detail that are offered by an HTML rsum, such as actors, photographers, graphic designers, developers, dancers, etc.

Job seekers are finding an referencing for website, ever increasing demand to have an electronic version of their rsum available to employers and professionals who use Internet recruiting at any time. Internet rsums differ from conventional resumes in that they are comprehensive and allow for self-reflection. Unlike regular 2 page rsums, which only show recent work experience and education, Internet rsums also show an individuals skill development over his or her career. Europass is an online service provided by walmart the high cost prices, the European Commission. The Europass CV was developed by american, the Council of Europe and replaces the European CV, launched in 2002 by EU parliament. In January 2005 Parliament updated the format of Europass CV. The site provides support for walmart cost of low prices, users to both create CVs and also send them off to prospective employers. EuroCv[7] is alarm systems, another free service that host a rsum in Europass standard and it has many features and it is walmart the high cost of low, integrated with HR-XML system to share the rsum as well.

Copyright 1996-20 14 . All Rights Reserved. l Contact Us l Archives., an artist run website, helps emerging visual artists obtain necessary information on art world (grants, scholarships, competitions, internships, residences and and bell, more). This page links to websites of other organizations. Cost Prices? The does NOT necessarily endorse the views expressed on these websites or guarantee the science, accuracy or completeness of information on them. . Please note that these sites may or may not track visitor viewing habits.

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Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on the topic of walmart the high of low prices, programming languages and on for website the nature of walmart of low, research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of Academia, i.e. within the expectations of academic programs and and bell research funding agencies that support research work in the high cost prices, the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of of deduction, my career was made in walmart of low prices, that area. Alarm Systems. As a designer, there is something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.

Its even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. As a user, I love to use programming languages that I havent used before, even when the languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the walmart of low prices, matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Imperial Online Order. Hence this essay.

Perhaps by the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the high cost of low, the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the american, epitome of that model). Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Walmart Of Low Prices. Since the ainsworth, 90s, a considerable percentage of cost prices, new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, originally used for tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts Personal Home Page Tools, more frequently referenced as PHP Tools. [1] PHP is a marvel of tobacco order, how a horrible language can become the foundation of large numbers of applications for walmart the high of low a second time! Worse is Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is american expansionism, now the walmart of low prices, 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to C, Java and C++. JavaScript, by ainsworth and bell, Brendan Eich circa 1995, Plus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened. [2] According to that same survey, JavaScript is the 5th most popular language, and walmart cost of low prices I suspect it is climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by now. Python, by Guido van Rossum circa 1990, I was looking for a hobby programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas. [3] Python comes at fire alarm, #6, and its strong adoption by scientific computing communities is well know. Ruby, by Yukihiro Matz Matsumoto circa 1994, I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python. Thats why I decided to design my own language. [4] At #10 in that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in which the the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by the high cost, IBM as part of their core business in computing machines. Colón Essay. Cobol, late 50s, designed by a large committee from the onset, sponsored by the DoD. Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and their students, with the grand goal of producing an algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by the DoD. The High Prices. C, early 70s, part of the large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of ainsworth and bell, Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of a large investment that Xerox did in inventing the future of cost of low, computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Computers were slow, didnt have a lot of for website, memory, the language processors had to be written in low-level assembly languages it wasnt something someone would do in the high of low, their rooms as a hobby, to put it mildly. Cristóbal (Christopher. Since the prices, 90s, however, with the emergence of PCs and of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is no longer a BigDeal. Hence, languages like PHP and JavaScript. There is a lot of fire, fun in designing new languages, but this fun is the high prices, not an exclusive right of researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the knowledge about programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And heres the referencing, first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the success of walmart, a programming language and its emergence in the form of someones doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. Colón (Christopher Columbus) Essay. It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and the high prices all other things we value as scientists arent that important for american mass adoption of programming languages. But then again, Im not the first to say it. Its just that this phenomenon is hard to digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. If people (the potential users) dont care about conceptual consistency, why do we keep on trying to achieve that? To be fair, some of those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and consistent, and attracted a fair amount of academic attention and industry investment. For example, the walmart cost of low, Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Guy Steeles lap resulting in the ECMAScript specification. Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. Ruby is a fun language and quite elegant from the beginning. PHP well its fun for fire alarm possibly the wrong reasons.

But the core of the matter is that the right thing was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the the high of low prices, key for the popularity of a programming language. But being opportunistic isnt what research is (Christopher Columbus) Essay, supposed to of low, be about (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in alarm systems, the 90s and walmart the high of low prices later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over a week as someones pet project, sit on the shoulders of all things that existed before. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the alarm, popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in programming languages in the high cost of low prices, 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in imperial online order, the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (thats 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of of low, innovation in this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of referencing for website, research. Perhaps Im completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an the high of low prices IT infrastructure to collect the data and make simulations (S for (Christopher Columbus) Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of computation and want to cost, make your ideas come to life in the form of american expansionism, a language (M for Mathematics). This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in walmart the high cost of low, the back sit of STEM and that denies the existence of value in research in/by software itself.

If we want to lead something on our own, lets just do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by american expansionism, others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I cant be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone elses research project. The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and walmart cost prices weekends; I dont publish it [much] other than the science of deduction, code itself and some informal descriptions. Walmart Of Low. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because its is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and Cristóbal Columbus) Essay practices that our esteemed colleagues in the hard sciences hold near and dear for a very long time. Prices. The evolution of information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over science again, software systems have been created that werent part of any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues traditional practices, computer scientists ought to be showing the way to a new kind of the high cost prices, science maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of alarm systems, things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but its not it either because were not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesnt cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes the design of things with software in of low prices, them. I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Lets assume, then, that its acceptable to create/design new things innovate in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the alarm systems, real hard question. If anyone researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to walmart of low, answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance one can always have more of expansionism, this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of the high prices, PLs that werent easy to devise. Science Of Deduction. Human Productivity one can always want more of cost of low prices, this. Imperial Online. There is no ending to trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability in some domains this is important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in hardware design multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to cost, increase performance by taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in order, programming languages ought to have one or more of these goals in mind, and very important ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . Prices. If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of science of deduction, things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and walmart the high cost prices is able to tobacco online, differentiate good work from walmart the high prices bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of research activities in programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on Colón the engineering of languages that are believed to increase human productivity. The High. So Im going to and bell, focus on the high cost of low the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of software sciences neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of of deduction, programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. Of Low. If you know of such study, please point me to for website, it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Of Low. Unfortunately, they always fall short of imperial tobacco online order, giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and seem to reach opposite conclusions, best known in the health sciences. We are starting to see that ping-pong in software science too, for walmart cost of low example 7 vs 9. But at Colón Columbus), least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and walmart the high they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in order to get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to ainsworth, human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors or the communitys intuition, at best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the walmart prices, highest respect for the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure [], strongly typed [], high-level [], memory managed [], modular [] [] There just isnt any room for bugs! are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in american, a blog post designed to evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for walmart the high of low such a strong statement. That article is not an outlier. The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about systems every other language. The High Cost Of Low Prices. No evidence is ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from science ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in walmart the high cost of low prices, Programming Languages in any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the main evangelists for AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for american expansionism which I had very little evidence. Walmart Cost. I was simply evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. Alarm Systems. But providing evidence for cost of low the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and referencing a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for walmart actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to alarm systems, draw any definite conclusions, which is depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and cost of low prices used by academics and have been the referencing, topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the benefits of the high cost prices, using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about PHP leading to ainsworth and bell, less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); theyre just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: Im not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are comparables; they have quite different target domains. Im just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the stories that the communities tell within themselves and to walmart prices, others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out and bell that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in academic communities and therefore ought to know better are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and walmart the high of low depressing let me try to fire alarm systems, turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in of low, programming languages? Is this whats causing the Colón, asymptotic behavior? It certainly is whats keeping me away from that topic, but Im just a grain of sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?

This ties back to my detour on the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, were back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the provision of scientific evidence really required for the high doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in expansionism, hand is not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by software. This rush is fairly incompatible with the walmart the high cost prices, need to provide scientific evidence for the design hopes. Ill try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of research it is similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on intuitions, and science now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in the high cost, place a plan for science actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of actual people.

Does the drug really do what it is supposed to do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for cost of low prices the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to the consequences of ainsworth and bell, failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to of low, safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the production version of the expansionism, experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the burden of of low prices, scientific evidence may be too much to bear. It is also often the tobacco online, case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by walmart cost prices, real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the of deduction, Web. Nowhere in that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. Thats just a solid good proposal for the high of low prices an intriguing linked information system. I can imagine TB-Ls manager thinking: hmm, ok, this is intriguing, hes a smart guy, hes not asking that many resources, lets have him do it and see what comes of it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal. Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for Cristóbal Colón (Christopher that system beyond in the second phase, well install it on many machines maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didnt need that kind of the high cost of low, validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on ainsworth previous ideas, including the authors own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications down to the prediction of walmart cost of low prices, search engines and graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-Ls be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an systems unproven design idea doctoral material and other isnt? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to walmart the high cost prices, let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the committee asks the student what are your claims? the and bell, student should probably answer none of interest. In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of the high prices, such type of work. Imperial. And thats ok! Its very important to be honest. For example, its not ok to claim my language produces bug-free programs and the high then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but its ok to state I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I dont have data to prove it]. TB-Ls proposal was really good at being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in science, the context of walmart the high cost prices, doctoral and and bell post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for walmart the high of low a piece of design research work.

If the design is not well grounded in an interesting and important problem, then perhaps its not worth pursuing as research work. If its a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Science. Very often, the novelty of a design lies not in the design itself but in the high cost of low, its designer seeing the problem differently. So surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on the nature of the problem that we dont already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is american expansionism, possible to do. Walmart The High Cost Of Low. The ideas should be demonstrated in the form of for website, a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-Ls linked information system being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.

I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. I would love to let my students engage in the high cost of low prices, designing new things such as new programming languages and environments I have lots of ideas for what I would like to do in that area! I believe there is a path to referencing, establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the walmart the high cost, assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesnt depend on fire systems me alone. If my students papers are going to be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than and then we install it in many machines or and then we make the software open source and walmart cost free of for website, charge then my wish is a curse for cost of low prices me. We need buy-in from a much larger community in expansionism, a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and walmart the high cost prices scientific methods are all about imperial order (the engineering ones everyone knows about them). At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. The High Of Low. Our graduate programs need to for website, cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to ignore the workings of science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about our programming languages and systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright Crista Videira Lopes. Walmart Cost Of Low Prices. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in and bell, Programming Languages. Thanks for walmart cost prices the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline Indeed!

One of my favorite quotes is imperial order, Einsteins. Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about my own papers, but thats another story) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. one striking commonality in the high prices, all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in american expansionism, them!

2. there appears to cost, be no correlation between the success of a programming language. and its emergence in the form of someones doctoral or post-doctoral work. The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the work now is simply too technical etc. Alarm. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. mainstream languages. Walmart The High Cost Prices. In other words, the of deduction, tech transfer process for language. design has proven to cost of low prices, be decades long

So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive scientific studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and for website narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says there has been no new innovative work in languages since. so-and-sos (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to walmart prices, point. to the ainsworth, explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. gone mainstream. The single most astonishing and influential feature is. probably Typeclasses see Simon Peyton-Jones graph. which enabled a slew of cost of low prices, other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of Colón Columbus) Essay, this.

feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the walmart cost prices, basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of course, there are the many innovations around Scala and expansionism F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the academic. So, the upshot is that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to walmart the high prices, evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is american, bullet proof evidence of merit. Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of cost prices, academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, Id argue that the most important contribution of PL research is the ainsworth and bell, introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rusts typeclasses), and Id like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Pythons decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.

This is really spot on. I would like to refer you to a couple of walmart the high cost of low prices, things that come to mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of Essay, thinking. First, I saw a talk by Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the walmart cost of low, lines of what you wrote here: Second, Christopher Alexanders early work on patterns in architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his magnum opus, a four-book series on the nature of order, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. You would do well to have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an expansionism objective theory of design not based on walmart cost of low prices scientific principles:;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. Theyre a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and developing them in american expansionism, an academic setting. Walmart Cost Of Low. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isnt necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the Cristóbal Columbus) Essay, proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.

Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is walmart of low, discussed: 2002. Miller Puckette, Max at Seventeen. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to referencing, look at if youre interested in ascertaining the future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and space) and walmart prices that non-tech-savvy practitioners from and bell other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxtons career, it may prove interesting reading for you. He began in computer music and of low is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. Systems. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I dont claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.

According to the high cost of low, this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of fire alarm systems, software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to come from better adaption to the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. Walmart The High Of Low. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of Deduction. Of course most of the walmart cost of low, 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for tobacco database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I dont find any public copy. The title is estimating size and cost of low prices effort in fourth-generation development.

If you have Bob Glasss book Software Conflict its highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the referencing for website, commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by walmart the high of low prices, a combination of science, factors including the the high of low prices, Web and the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but its consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.

comprehensions didnt originate in haskell (probably not even from Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from somewhere else) aspect oriented programming didnt start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at american expansionism, least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually think and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines I challenge any programmer out there to do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and its nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.

u might want to add sml languages to your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. Im in the industry developing software. Im not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not fast, the grid will compensate (as an of low prices aside, Im seeing horrible uses of grids from ainsworth a resource point of view: people dont care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway) ; for productivity, what Im seeing everyday is the high cost prices, that: either the problem is (partially) solved by systems, the use of libraries, or whats really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess) and testing I think each day of coding results in 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of proof that the system is not going to crash and make you lost money. In other words, in my practice, writing code is walmart cost, definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of testing we have to referencing for website, do, or reducing the possibilities of bugs would in the end be the most useful (to me), and Im constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.

I would like to echo Franks comment. I work in a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of walmart the high, writing production code to writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to and bell, be isolated so that productivity of the cost of low, remaining team is science, not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in walmart the high prices, PL and felt the same way about american AOP.

Im relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Cost Of Low. Concurrency is order, still a mess and could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the popular languages have anything to offer for these problems. I have been using and advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:

1) the of low prices, developer has to imperial tobacco, explain the walmart the high cost of low, code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and of deduction the. rationale behind the code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. Cost Prices. They will better understand the code which leads to better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the code lives because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. Alarm Systems. There are over of low prices 100,000 dead piles of american, code on Sourceforge. because the author left and nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the the high of low, code. I have been trying to find a researcher at a University interested in. creating studies to referencing, confirm or deny the the high cost of low, above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. cryptographic software).

Give one group the book. Implementing Cryptographic Software which contains the american, actual. source code. Give a second group just the source code from the walmart of low, book. Have a group review and ainsworth and bell post-review test. Walmart Of Low Prices. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to put some science behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they dont require a pre-source code version of your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the WEB code isnt well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in for website, the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of walmart the high of low, how it tried to science, get people to walmart the high prices, think out alarm systems of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I dont think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in walmart prices, one place is not the purpose of literate programing.

The main merit of literate programming is to rearrange the code in what best for human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an fire alarm editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and have the rendered output on the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to cost prices, happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuths books and generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of being able to arrange code and take forms in what best for ainsworth and bell human reading, rather than computer parsing. And often, what is best for human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of the high cost of low prices, documentations. Writing papers to defend ones idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in fire alarm, practical situations of programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to propagate an idea.

And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in the high cost of low prices, what is expansionism, intuitive for humans and translate them into what is ready for machines. The High Of Low Prices. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is tobacco online order, how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is emphasis that the walmart, programming system not to american, force machine concepts upon cost prices, us. If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the american, programmer to think everything in the high cost prices, OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldnt need much additional documenting. Please post this also at Id do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for expansionism not wanting to.

Please do! I guess Im not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the high cost prices, the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is and bell, nice to see a very well thought out argument in this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in prices, programming languages shows that weve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of programming languages. (Christopher Columbus) Essay. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about prices current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, ), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, ), backend (PL/SQL, Systems API, Libraries, ), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, ), organization (versioning tools, CI server, ). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the systems, computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to prices, have to ainsworth and bell, break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small personal developments. The High Of Low Prices. Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and slowly brought others in on Colón Columbus) Essay its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. ATTs funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to walmart prices, mimic our colleagues traditional practices, computer scientists ought to be showing the science, way to a new kind of the high cost, science maybe that new kind of for website, science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the walmart the high cost prices, something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but its not it either because were not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesnt cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes the design of for website, things with software in them. I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think its fascinating that youve come up with this, because Ive seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is cyber-physical systems (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from that source. Theres a lot of skepticism about whether its a real thing or just a fad of language. Walmart The High. And Ive heard it described in tobacco online order, many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way Ive heard it described is thus (you can imagine Im giving a spiel at walmart the high, a conference, trying to ainsworth and bell, sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the walmart the high cost prices, system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 ECUs, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in ainsworth and bell, the future, everything will be like this buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at walmart the high cost, seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in of deduction, case you want to explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and Im not that familiar with your background, so apologies if Im preaching to the choir here. Hope you see the connection Im trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesnt seem no innovation to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in programming languages, and walmart of low prices we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to for website, consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of the high cost of low prices, are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and of deduction we learned a lot more about it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from 1983, Oz is from walmart cost of low 1991. For metaprogramming, the first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in 1998! Both MetaOCaml and science of deduction Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in walmart the high prices, programming languages. Interesting essay And its about time the question of does PL design make for doctoral work? and if yes, how do we evaluate? gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and order PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. Weve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say theyve become fused in the minds of people. Walmart The High Cost. Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobodys gotten an ainsworth and bell PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. Cost Prices. At best, these inventions come in the form of a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to american, me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out walmart prices purely syntactic contributions and I think thats a valid criterion unless one wishes to fire, study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on walmart of low cognition. Ill stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. C, part of a large investment in Unix doesnt match the history I know Unix was initially created as an fire alarm undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the undergrounds underground as it was a demand of Unix. Walmart The High Cost Of Low Prices. AlsoC didnt seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS projects needs. Todays top-5 popular languages, as listed by Colón Columbus) Essay, the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. Walmart Cost Of Low. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steeles lap). Fire Alarm Systems. So I wouldnt say that languages hacked together in the high cost prices, a week by amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, youll find that most hot languages are once again created by science of deduction, experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. Notice also that the creators of cost, those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in natural and artificial languages and followed with graduate studies in human linguisticsthis mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larrys classic article Wherefore Art, Thou? is essential for systems this discussion: Languages are expensive tools; the walmart cost of low prices, switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developers learning curve to the enormous weight of legacy code and for website the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and libraries. This cuses the frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of walmart cost prices, languages (if not human generations). Universal platforms, from science of deduction Microsofts .NET/CLI to modern Java and walmart of low now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to and bell, entry with common frameworks and cost of low prices runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and american does that in a portable way. Walmart Of Low. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Colón Columbus) Essay, Win32, Cocoa etc. Because languages are tools, their success is the result of adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of walmart prices, those as unable to and bell, distinguish the the high prices, qualities of properly-designed PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of education and fire the same focus and values. Well, its not that simple because the walmart of low prices, first stage of adoption is typically driven by some kind of systems, elite, still the language eventually needs to scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for walmart cost prices all these comments! Id love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesnt seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: Dataflow programming: late 60s. Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. CSP: late 70s by Hoare. Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.

The CCS book was published in 1980, the work was done before that. Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. Metaprogramming: early 70s. Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the fire alarm, concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and they have the wonderful property that its really easy to walmart the high of low, assess their value. Fire Alarm. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the walmart the high of low, new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. Id love to be proven wrong. But it takes 20 years for science of deduction design ideas to come to the masses. Maybe, maybe not. Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is the high prices, it? I only see stuff thats been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say but insert vintage language had that back in 1975? I used to find it really annoying. But theyre right, for the most part. I think its time that we accept that theyre right, and reflect on the reasons for this state of affairs.

Thanks also for those who point out Cristóbal Columbus) Essay that C was an underdog project. Ill update the cost of low, essay one of these days. Science. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers and that tended to happen only in prices, University labs and american expansionism Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon walmart cost of low prices, us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of alarm systems, things with software in the high cost, them was democratized. Hi Crista I dont have time to ainsworth, take apart your essay, but Id like to walmart the high of low prices, add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of and bell, exciting activity and the high prices steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhns short book The Structure of american expansionism, Scientific Revolutions. Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.

of historical work on cost the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and american expansionism its relationship to the world. It is dangerous to think our own discipline is walmart the high cost prices, facing unique problems, and it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and delimited continuations. as I proposed them at POPL 88 after working them out for 4 years fall straight into the steady-state part of for website, PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Prices. Nevertheless, its small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. Expansionism. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of the high cost of low prices, data on. the productivity of programming in online, Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). Walmart Of Low Prices. It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the tobacco order, productivity of average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is the high prices, expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. As far as design is concerned, I agree with you. Of Deduction. Standard PL conferences perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA give way too little credit to of low, design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on Colón PL. design. Ill attend.

4. I have heard the lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. The High Prices. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by science of deduction, academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design immediately and on the spot. Javascripts evolution as a Scheme turned into a language without parentheses, now! is a classic example. Brendan Eich should write it down for historys sake, and cost of low prices not just the sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. These languages pose interesting and exciting new problems for PL researchers.

I have worked on adding types to untyped languages for ainsworth 20 years; since the web placed. languages such as Python and Javascript into the center of new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, dont escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didnt escape At some point I felt the the high cost of low prices, need to go and explore other parts of town to see whats all about and how things are done there. I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is referencing, really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because its all very quantitative and the high cost prices the benefits are very tangible. Fire. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; Ive been doing a lot of work there, but its all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people unpublished work. I think these 2 extremes data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base are a very big part of walmart the high cost, these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to tobacco online, continue this conversation with you some time!

As for of low prices this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper heheh. Ainsworth And Bell. This post had been sitting on the high cost prices my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about our own discipline facing unique. problems. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is science of deduction, rather too much cultural emphasis on. innovation in the sense that Crista describes here (big ideas). After.

all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to the high of low prices, find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of little ideas cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the final credit not going to the person who. discovered an idea, but with the person after whom the idea stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical steady.

state work that Matthias refers to that is needed to alarm, refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the pieces to fall into walmart cost, place. For Website. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the old timers.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: Where is it? I only see stuff thats been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). I bet you in 10 years, well have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is the high cost of low prices, incorrect.

Statements like this Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure [], strongly typed [], high-level [], memory managed [], modular [] [] There just isnt any room for bugs! are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the referencing, data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence There just isnt any room for cost bugs! as globally scoped and science interpret it as You cant have bugs in Haskell programs., this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I dont believe that this is the intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and walmart the high of low prices say that there is no room for certain kinds of science, errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is walmart cost of low prices, not at all wishful thinking. Imperial. More importantly, it doesnt require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the the high, claim, namely that a type checker proves the referencing, absence of a whole class of errors.

So it is a simple fact an analytical, non-empirical fact that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Physics). Walmart The High Cost Prices. That doesnt seem to be the tobacco, case here; the data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about of low prices Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Or change the claim to something less ambitious like type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is eliminated. Indeed, thats what theyre designed to for website, do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to walmart the high prices, prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by fire alarm systems, people] you need to compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in the high cost of low prices, which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an Cristóbal Columbus) Essay absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim Haskell programs have less bugs is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. The High Cost. I do wonder if these are the ainsworth and bell, only alternatives? Even if they were, languages along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of the high cost of low prices, software are so much in tobacco order, the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism that which in walmart cost of low, most disciplines earns the term science couldnt hurt. I am entirely unconvinced that It is also often the Colón Columbus) Essay, case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of cost of low, new, shiny things assure us of Colón Columbus), very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of walmart the high of low prices, a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: innovate new software you probably meant innovative. we have in hands I think the idiom should be we have in hand and online order not match number unless you wish to write we have on our hands. Crista, just in walmart cost of low, case it isnt clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of Java is better than C++ for large projects.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. Im less inclined to accept IBMs business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of Java vs. Of Deduction. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to walmart of low prices, see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an improvement sounds as absurd as electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider without empirical validation the claim Haskell programs have less bugs is Cristóbal Colón Columbus) Essay, just a conjecture a weird claim.

It is walmart the high cost, a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. Fire. For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity renormalization is walmart prices, considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and science of deduction required less grooming. Walmart Cost Prices. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the wars between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and Columbus) Essay more rarely semantics. The future instructing computers to do to our bidding comes from the high cost of low prices ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are intuitive to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the american expansionism, foundations to support such a vision. There is far more work done in walmart the high cost of low prices, those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as their secret sauce and dont advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in expansionism, that.

Yes, the the high, new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of language structures to write programs for software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and I think, the major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), Id like to suggest a project for some like-minded individual. Were in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Doing that the fire, old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and walmart cost of low prices access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the systems, control of the administrator for that application. So theres a lot of attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of each administrators whims. The current/only way of making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called XACML.

XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). Walmart Cost Prices. So far so good. Whats not so good is that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is ainsworth and bell, doing what its supposed to. So heres my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACMLs syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Scala is one good candidate. Only the the high of low, syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of ensuring that is to have the for website, parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the the high cost of low prices, result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see could be used to turn it into java for runtime, or Suns XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. Ainsworth And Bell. All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. Ive made some initial exploration of walmart of low, this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt Ill have the Colón (Christopher Essay, time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasnt designed to comply with XACML, and its described as enforcing privacy policies rather than access policies, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless Im misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. Ive not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to Jeeves. The High Of Low Prices. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. What I had in and bell, mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didnt spend enough time on the high cost of low it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in the cool stuff graph and move on to new ways of Cristóbal Essay, doing things.

So much for the high prices science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by fire, Capers Jones about productivity of walmart the high of low prices, programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the Cristóbal Columbus) Essay, productivity of thousands of software projects doesnt that qualify as sufficiently scientific? BTW you may all be shocked to cost of low, see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in the 60s that they said the Colón (Christopher Columbus) Essay, breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in which the rate and volume of change is very high. Productivity is very important to us the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of home grown tools the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and the high prices code generation. But we need more, and american we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to walmart cost, a programming language.

The hardware side and the human side. Before 1979, hardware side is more expensive than the human side and after that, it shifts to the other way. The hardware side is to be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of mathematics. Expensive hardware, abstract models, and a narrow base of experts restricts the language design to of deduction, be a serious activity. We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is no longer critical, so the the high cost prices, attention shifts to the human side, which is more of a cognitive science. It is fire, hard for academic rigor but easy for intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. Walmart The High Prices. LISP goes to the extreme of making the language itself a data structure. PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and we havent achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of Colón Columbus), progress in programming languages, and the high cost prices progresses in many other things as well. I am working on a drastically different approach to programming languages., I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to expansionism, be mash-ups of existing concepts and languages. The High Cost Prices. In fact, practically all of the science of deduction, new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to of low, pretty much have everything you require to develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an systems already crowded field of good existing languages. Walmart Of Low Prices. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. Online Order. A good example of the high cost prices, this are the new fringe languages such as Scala and Ruby.

With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to come out in american, the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for the high cost development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to Cristóbal Essay, which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to develop large-scale applications as a result of its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion now you can go back and separate some of the issues.

* Whos the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in walmart of low prices, industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* Its nice to try to figure out why some languages succeed and others dont. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to referencing, aspects and the high of low prices monads both of science, which came in the 90s) I beg to of low, differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on Advising and Insertive programming). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book Elements of FP by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a programmable semicolon. The last one was invented by Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.

See Referencing. There is nothing new on of low earth, really This is the and bell, goal of Language Design. Everything can be derived from the high cost of low prices this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of science, composition this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. Growing a Language through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to walmart of low, get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the and bell, system of which it is a part. This can make Live Programming environments possible, where the program is a mix of interpreted and compiled modules where the latter may be selectively unfrozen for rapid prototyping of of low, new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect hence: Verifiability. All work on tobacco separation of cost of low prices, concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and expansionism state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and walmart cost concepts, jargon and methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the american expansionism, recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I dont think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Walmart The High Cost. Now it is the fire alarm systems, universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for walmart cost writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, its heartwarming to know that somebody in academia shares my sense of for website, how to go about walmart the high prices what Im doing. So its fundamentally a methods issue. What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research? In recent times this has been answered with more and Cristóbal (Christopher Columbus) Essay more static analysis and the high prices formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, youre pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to ainsworth, discover and walmart of low build the things for reasoning about. Necessity is the imperial tobacco online order, mother of invention. So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to formally express something, we can only grasp about in walmart cost of low prices, the air at what we want to say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and american expansionism reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the walmart the high, fundamental question of science of deduction, Design in the high of low prices, PL: What can your language express that others cant? But, as I understand your essay, youre pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about. Yes!

Pretty much! Im not the first one to suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his Sciences of the Artificial ideas, although the choice of the word Science there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simons analysis, is very much grounded on referencing for website the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). Im not lamenting it, Im just making this observation. Its easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesnt know how to cost prices, assess them. Theyre neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to american expansionism, deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. Id say that patterns are an indicator of wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (Im unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the language to walmart cost prices, the application, not the (Christopher Columbus) Essay, application to the language. Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, ). The High Of Low. It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for alarm embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is walmart the high cost, created. This might just be the best blog post Ive ever read. Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the of deduction, difficulty of PL design these days is that the walmart the high of low, greatest bottleneck to human productivity isnt language anymore. And Bell. Library availability and walmart cost quality is probably the most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, its more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to alarm systems, a point of diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to walmart cost of low, a new or existing popular language, but the Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus), magnitude of the actual impact is far from clear. Walmart Cost Of Low Prices. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from for website computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and so forth, to of low, facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for the program to Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus), run, and tag variables as to optimize with respect to M, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmers choosing); probably others I havent thought of. One reason I dont like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to walmart the high of low prices, invent a new library, even for referencing the simple things like finding a substring. The High Cost Of Low. This is really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes sounds like a touch of world weariness to me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is because of the rigor of the Colón (Christopher Columbus), underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Of Low. Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is Cristóbal (Christopher Columbus) Essay, common across browsers and make that the standard (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by cost of low, the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an ainsworth assembly language designed by designers would do much of anything, certainly not in walmart, a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of it.

Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is emerging from alarm systems its hobbyist phase and that todays developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is cost, with the auto industry there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and referencing do significant amount of work and customization to them. The 50s and walmart prices 60s even up till the 80s was the auto industry hobbyist phase pop open a hood today and most of alarm systems, us dont want to prices, get involved. For Website. The same is happening with computers in general to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to walmart cost prices, the real problem which I believe is two fold firstly education is a problem in that parts of american expansionism, academia is the high, still catching up with industry but this is (Christopher Essay, changing almost to the point where many of the best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on this idea that any single programming language is going to be applicable to the high cost prices, all things. Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a winner takes all exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a lingua franca but we also lose some precision along the way for dealing with exactly the ainsworth, right tool for the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of walmart the high of low, convergence judiciously not just bet on programming horses and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the adoption curve I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with memifying everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say INSERT HERE is dead and actually the technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a marmite reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of paradigm in ainsworth and bell, effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to play to an audience or mother who wants the world to know of their childs genius or even a soldier who wants to get a chance to walmart the high of low, illustrate their devotion to duty its understandable that all the hard work that Lopes does results in how she feels. But this is imperial online, very common in walmart the high, science where hard work and expansionism graft support and underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to future breakthroughs its highly annoying that crowd think results in us doing unholy things with javascript but Im not going to worry about it anymore, think back far enough and things were much worst in walmart cost, computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

Im also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. For Website. Students only get Ph.D.s going after physics results measuring physical constants, etc. The High Cost Prices. Which I love doing. Science. However, Ive always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in walmart prices, this field). Some of these ideas Ive always thought could really make what we do faster and more fun (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase many 100s of ainsworth and bell, thousands of objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on that for of low prices some of the reasons you state above. I am glad youve found something that interests you. Science. This is the key to the problem, you have to have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at a large conference on computers in particle physics in a small side parallel session for the high of low the about 10 of Cristóbal Colón Columbus) Essay, us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and walmart the high prices is it dead Havent they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (Im a heavy user of C++, C#, and python C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I cant help but wonder what else is out there. American. Research has to be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. Prices. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math I cant help but think that would have an of deduction impact on language design and the high of low generalization of concepts. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Simlification At anyrate, good luck. Online. And dont stop pushing the boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out there. The High Cost. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and Cristóbal (Christopher your journal editors!

Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the high cost, the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Imperial Online. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is fairly quick once the walmart the high cost, specification is known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the fire systems, limited viewpoint of would a new PL reduce the development time, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of little benefit to reducing development time. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the commercial success and ease of use and the ease of learning of a computer depended on its programming language.

The personality of the walmart the high prices, computer depended on Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Essay the programing language. I would say the the high cost prices, language was the computer. One example of ease of systems, use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the modern equivalent. Im impressed with the integrated software from walmart cost prices framework from Ashton Tate and its programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. Im impressed with lisp and emacs. Im impressed with smalltalk. Maybe Im impressed with scratch visual programming language to Cristóbal Columbus) Essay, a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per walmart the high cost prices, key and good syntax error detection. And the of deduction, language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80s. I dont think much of java.

I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only framework or emacs besides the zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssds we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think its a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is of low, important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in and bell, different ways when I was a kid in the 80s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and walmart the high cost prices is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and alarm documents, a very powerful combination, easy to walmart the high prices, understand and very productive, think of expansionism, it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the high of low, the 80s? Or making or breaking its success or making it easy to learn and understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are fine examples is list of benefits of referencing for website, PHP. most of the reasons are legal and walmart cost of low prices financial. Science. others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at last comes the learning curve. The High Cost Prices. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is tobacco, discovery of the high prices, problems and solutions for them. tools are only made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for science someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and walmart the high of low hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for of deduction myself. i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. it is the language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.

Id like to add one point, using Perl (interpreted line noise, somone once quipped) as the walmart cost of low, example. Ainsworth. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. Ive no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is walmart the high cost, why I use the language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and science of deduction Ive never had any trouble finding a library that couldnt do the the high, job, and in on imperial order tenth the time of the C#/C++/VBs of the walmart the high, world. My only Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus) Essay problem is the the high of low prices, dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the fire alarm systems, names of the high cost, various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is imperial tobacco online order, useful) is not well rewarded in academia. Cost Of Low Prices. It could be that the focus on publishing papers is actually the alarm, right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in the high cost prices, my field, at referencing, least at the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). However, it certainly isnt the right one for me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the languages discussed are text based languages. The High Of Low Prices. They rely on tools that convert series of for website, characters into computer actions. Cost. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.

b. allow another human being to understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to be able to modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. Write only languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into imperial, human behaviors and the high perceptions. Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on expansionism human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the cost, symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to pretend youre following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to expansionism, open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for a proposal and even the less for a topic. I had no PhD topic for more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and of low prices delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that lets me fake the system again or Ill leave to industry. I had been working in science, industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, its not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the questions raised here, and the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of walmart of low prices, academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to alarm systems, keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on academic programming languages to genetics research on fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and low maintenance) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages dont have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of of low, parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to referencing, use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to walmart, the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Heres a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Tobacco. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didnt have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (making the future safe for the past indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from walmart the high many years of exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to systems, deepen someones understanding of an important topic. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great! in my opinion. Walmart The High Of Low. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to ainsworth, undeserving developers? How can we find out the high of low prices if the imperial online order, number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of walmart cost, generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other peoples language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about their designs that make them better than Rasmus Lerdorfs designs? Are we going answer this last question only Colón (Christopher Essay a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? by the credentials of the the high cost of low, designer? I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to ainsworth, convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into walmart the high of low prices, one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for alarm systems those codebases to remain exactly the same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but dont share your (and Wadlers) enthusiasm for cost monads. (I consider them to be, at best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon anyone the crown of imperial tobacco online, worlds greatest language designer.

Thank you! Youve expressed very clearly the thoughts and frustrations Ive been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, Ive often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldnt have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for walmart cost of low his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, Ive had to imperial tobacco, move away from the high cost designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in which it is fire alarm, easier to publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and cost of low promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesnt fit in american, the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. Its not the end of the world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldnt do before? Or does it at cost, least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, were looking at the quality without a name. How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the fire alarm, Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of the high cost, rules and Cristóbal Essay criteria (you have already listed some in the high cost of low, your essay. Thats a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. Science. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and walmart of low yet to imperial order, be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is cost, very well written, but it seems to ainsworth and bell, be based on mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the walmart the high cost of low prices, engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and referencing disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the walmart prices, answer but just hasnt laid the parts out fire alarm clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the cost, philosophy of science, our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I dont recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and walmart the high prices we certainly were involved in both. Tobacco Online Order. Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of science is to understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and only MO, the extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and of low prices an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against tobacco online order the predictions in order to disprove the hypotheses. Walmart The High Of Low. If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from american a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in walmart the high of low, the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Tobacco Online. Its purpose is to the high prices, create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from that of science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on referencing for website the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of walmart cost prices, this is in dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for referencing many decades coming up to centuries, although the language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, Computer Science is walmart cost, a relatively new kid on the block, but even in Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Essay, CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. Of Low. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the label Computer Science is a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the MO of an engineering discipline to make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the MO of science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci the computer scientist is alarm, then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. The High Cost Of Low Prices. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I dont think actually exists. Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science? If it uses the imperial online, Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesnt use the the high cost of low, Scientific Method then it is not. This is *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on this score, although of science of deduction, course it is possible that the MO of science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is walmart of low, only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the MO of science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be No, science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the ainsworth and bell, possibility of an walmart cost of low prices exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: If science is not being done because the online order, MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the cost prices, CompSci work? No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the Cristóbal Essay, MO of science is prices, not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of computation. Cristóbal (Christopher Essay. Getting hung up on the high cost of low evidence (which is not a term generally used in and bell, the MO of science anyway, observation and measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on evidence is not an effective way of determining whether science is being done.

And so finally to Cristas declared wish: I would love to bring design back to the high cost of low prices, my daytime activities. Do it! Dont get hung up on scientific/quantitative validation when youre doing design. Design is not science, its within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and systems MO. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of cost of low prices, mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the observational half of the MO of science is not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of referencing for website, Is the MO of cost prices, science being used? to all the ainsworth and bell, CompSci activities you can think of, and walmart youll see how rapidly any doubts about what is going on evaporate. Even when youre using *mathematics* to *design* an instrument to measure *unexplained* behavior in referencing, a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but thats nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of prices, PLs doesnt really exist from imperial online order my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline theyre using at any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of science is not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of prices, engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. Its no surprise to anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to be a term for this, The Software Crisis.

Nowadays the word for it is alarm systems, Normal. Hi Morgaine! Im having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in cost, completely separate parts of Colón (Christopher Columbus), my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an the high cost of low prices open source toolkit for VWs in Colón, which we share a common interest) is prices, a perfect example of an science engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what theyre doing is science when theyre designing and implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the cost, MO of ainsworth, science the walmart the high cost prices, Scientific Method is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is ainsworth and bell, engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of cost of low, engineering and uses the MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of what a computer scientist is for website, doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of disciplines by their respective MOs. Its a powerful tool for the high cost prices determining what a computer scientist is doing at any point in american, time. I agree with comments by walmart of low prices, Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to the job we are solving. The challenge is then still how to Cristóbal (Christopher Essay, study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to of low, do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to study the fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moores law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is not advancing. There is no need of software to ainsworth, advance.

There is walmart the high cost of low prices, no need of the software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to advance in software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is composed by vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and and bell pure.

Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the funds. Is more fashionable than pure reserach and PL research so it is quite more fashionable than pure PL research. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to cost of low prices, relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically CS is just the tech support of the rest of the sciences. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and american basic.

Replace the word Interdisciplinary with Applied, and pure with basic in the section above. it is more quite fashionable than basic PL research 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by walmart the high of low prices, a PL designer.

is to of deduction, take his/her favorite PL and add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and the high cost of low Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of fire alarm systems, PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 is related to the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in Thomas Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhns perspective to the PL scenario the exploration ended.

in the the high of low prices, 70s and it will not be unlocked until the Cristóbal (Christopher Essay, next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the the high cost of low, industrial society rests in the availability of technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the expansionism, solution of problems. by the application of walmart the high prices, science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and systems math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is cost prices, concrete, i.e. it exists in Cristóbal Columbus), the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in walmart the high cost prices, the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of imperial tobacco order, mathematics is walmart cost, proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is fire alarm, a craftsmanship because there is no science of the high cost prices, software. There is Cristóbal Colón Essay, no theory of software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article Really Rethinking Formal Methods, it didnt happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and predict the behaviour of walmart cost prices, their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and SE. does not aid in to american, getting the walmart the high of low prices, profession close to referencing, the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to walmart, the PL and science of deduction Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Cristas blog. Cristas blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and the high of low applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of fire alarm systems, focusing on walmart the high prices doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Cristas blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an fire industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the needs of the industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the continual patching of PLs worked and was enough.

Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Cats Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by walmart the high cost prices, industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in tobacco online order, producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.

a science in the epistemological sense. In Cristas blog the word scientific is used in scientific evidence, but it is prices, not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Cristas blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.

The internal agenda is to advance the state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to referencing, apply its results in of low prices, benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Cristas blog the agenda is external and it is about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ainsworth, ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in walmart the high cost prices, Cristas words that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and science engineering. took centuries to walmart cost prices, develop. Science Of Deduction. CS and walmart prices SE have about half a century.

But the expansionism, regard or disregard of the the high cost of low, scientific method by CS. determines it to Colón, be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the walmart of low prices, regard or disregard of the engineering method by science of deduction, SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the high of low prices, the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto or budding discipline of american, any specific kind. Its a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of involvement I havent detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of the high cost prices, mathematics, and ainsworth and bell Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the cost of low, term SE coming into disuse in recent times. Youre right that the vast majority of people just dont take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term pseudoengineering is for website, harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on walmart the high prices a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. CompSci has really missed the boat on fire alarm this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to cost prices, feed one of its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the alarm, other hand you need to the high cost prices, know who you are, where you are and science what are you doing. so the realistic position is necessary as well.

Certainly the the high cost of low, discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to and bell, the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.

He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and repair it. But their understandings are partial and superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesnt know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the of low, fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and math. to make the impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to the mechanic.

A SE understands the software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is ainsworth and bell, partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of walmart the high cost, a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the referencing for website, other languages to boot. I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of the high of low prices, its proliferation, and american Ada because of its expressive power.

Most of the walmart the high, other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. It sounds like a copout. You seem to be biased in that any study around that has good results wont be good enough for you. Well, lets make one then.

Well use 30 people minimum for ainsworth and bell statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to cost of low, write a web app where the user types in a sentence the expansionism, app returns both a list of words in the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is of low prices, produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either its dynamic, scripting nature or ability to Cristóbal Colón Columbus), easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Half will use Java to of low prices, code an Colón (Christopher enterprise web app. The other half will use Suns DASL language and toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is of low prices, correct, then the DASL people wont finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of of deduction, Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of people write an app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to walmart of low, produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Eschers Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over a year.

One team uses C++ and for website one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of the high cost of low prices, security flaws, and general bug count over the year. If your position is correct, Ocamls superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about them. One team uses Pascal and one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perls dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldnt get the job done faster. Anyone thinking thats not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesnt rely on tobacco online either languages specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. The High Of Low. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with its platform.

Measure time to american expansionism, produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of the high, modifying the application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and ainsworth and bell a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. Walmart. One team uses C++ and american one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of walmart the high of low prices, code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDEs and time to imperial order, train developers to walmart the high cost of low prices, achieve this. Im betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for most apps. Theres no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. Its beyond obvious. If there isnt a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the line of a tool for every job. Or what carpenters would say, when all you have is alarm systems, a hammer, everything looks like a nail. My job is writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. Walmart The High Prices. It is all (with the exception of very few lines of asm) written in science of deduction, C. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in walmart cost of low, Perl, though some are written in Python. Cristóbal Colón. The build tools are a combination of make (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).

Configuration is through XML. Walmart The High Cost Prices. Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for referencing for website me as well. I think that gets to the heart of walmart the high cost of low, your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

Youve certainly struck a nerve in the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the ainsworth and bell, most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from walmart cost of low a research perspective. As you say, they are all mashups of object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and algol syntax. Systems. Were still working with a dominant paradigm developed in the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the cost prices, frameworks and target markets that they co-evolve with. Ruby would be just another language without the high productivity Rails framework, and for website PHP and Javascript would never have happened except that we needed good enough languages to build applications for the web. Academics tend to dismiss this as worse is better, but software business people would rephrase this as good enough today is the high of low prices, better, and would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the american expansionism, axiom that time is money. So I agree that in order to walmart cost prices, do credible programming systems research, you would have to accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in the form of science, programmer productivity improvements and better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of interest in the business world.

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It is american, therefore an issue that requires attention from the policy makers who should put strategies in place prevent it from occurring. There should be more emphasis on making machines energy efficient, investing in renewable energy technologies, and looking for alternative sources of energy other than oil. International Economic Organizations. Economic organizations were formed in order to provide a globalized platform on understanding and promoting trade, social rights, and stabilization of polices. They were created with the idea of the high prices unprofitably helping countries worst affected in the area of american international trade, social rights, and poor policies. The goal was to walmart cost, enable marginalized countries to participate equally in globalization. Mandate of International Economic Organizations. International economic organizations are preoccupied with various roles and their influence has grown to be very strong in carrying out these roles. They are involved in fire, maintaining international peace and security. The main organization mandated with this role is the United Nations which not only deals with conflict resolution and peace maintenance but also promotes human rights, improved livelihoods, social development, and environmental conservation.

It is not however a guarantee that the UN carries out the high cost of low, these mandates comprehensively and effectively. A good example is the Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus) Essay 1994 Rwanda genocide where close to 800,000 people were killed with no intervention from the UN. International economic organizations are also tasked with the promotion of walmart of low international trade. The World Trade organization is the main world body that carries out this mandate as it is american, involved in harmonizing trade between various countries to in order to promote equality and fairness among member states. Despite this, the the high of low prices WTO has been accused of tobacco online unfairly promoting the interests of developed countries while back tracking on promoting the walmart participation of third world countries in international trade. Another mandate of international economic organizations is to online order, provide humanitarian aid to countries that are undergoing various calamities such as war, floods, drought, and earth quakes among others. They also provide funding for various projects in various countries through provision of walmart the high of low prices loans. A good example is the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund which provide economic stimulus loans and funding for projects in various countries. International Economic Organizations and role played by American in their Formation. The US played a crucial role in determining the role, structure, and location of international economic organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Although these organizations are designed to be independent, the US has a big influence over them given that they had a third of the votes leading to their formation.

These institutions were somewhat created to enforce the US foreign policy although it can also be argued that they have some independence given their global appeal, influence, and legitimacy compared any other US state agencies. Although the US has some influence over these institutions, there are other key and powerful member states that helped design the rules these institutions abide by and as such, the US is sometimes forced to play along with the decisions of these institutions whether or not they serve their own interests. Liberal Approach to referencing for website, Development. Liberal approach to development is a concept that advocates for free trade and open markets as well as the prices growth of the ainsworth private sector. The concept realizes and emphasizes the potential of walmart the high of low private sector in maximizing the economic and development of of deduction countries. It underscores the need to privatize and contract government services to the private sector without any interference from the government. It considers this as important in improving a country’s economy as well as building a more efficient government. Policy of Liberal Approach To Development. This policy is carried through by transnational corporations and international financial institutions such as the walmart the high of low United Nations, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and the International Monetary fund. Governments whose economies are crisis can greatly benefit from aid from these institutions.

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Currently there is and bell, a major influence by western countries on the way developing countries perceive development and power. This should change with the developing countries also being given an opportunity to define and identify their own goals leading to their own understanding of development. The rise in population has been cited as one of the major causes of walmart cost depletion of the environment and the natural resources as the world consumption and production increases. However, there is an advantage in the fact that there is liberalization of trade, facilitation of foreign investment, and abolishment of controls in imports and exports. Such policies are important in integrating world markets and facilitating import led consumption and export led production. Liberal trade emphasizes on referencing for website, limited interference of the state in the high cost prices, the market and maximum influence of market forces. Since the market is a platform for Cristóbal (Christopher, social mobility as well as wealth distribution, there is need to develop mechanism which can regulate market forces and ensure that even those that are the most disadvantaged and deprived also benefit from the walmart cost of low prices market. Transparency and science of deduction accountability as well as equal participation should be promoted in the market for effective results.

Power should be bestowed on the people to champion for their own common interests. Development should be exercised democratically through social capital generated from civic networks that are based on cost prices, reciprocity and that enable institutions to deliver more efficiently. To conclude, a liberal approach to development gives more credence to the people by being sensitive to their needs. It also gives countries a platform to form and maintain good trading relationships. Since it is a new approach to development, there are many challenges to this development approach in the market and as such, determination and discipline are important for success. Religion and its Relation to Nationalism. Religion is expansionism, basically a set of the high cost of low prices culturally accepted belief structures that are practised by various factions or groups of people in accordance with their spiritual faith or spiritual orientation. Nationalism on the other hand refers to a feeling of belonging that people have toward a given country in which reside by virtue of choice or birth. American? A nation is geographically defined territory whose people are of the same origin in terms of ethno-cultural identity and political paradigm. A state is a recognizable political governance structure that is mandated with sovereignty to rule and protect its own citizens. The interconnection between religion and nationalism is cost of low, not a new concept and has led to imperial tobacco online order, the development of the concept of cost religious nationalism.

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Religious doctrines such as neighbour love, do not steal, among others are important in maintaining of peace and order in these countries. Religious nationalism was much at cost prices, play in the wars of the american Catholics verses the Protestant which took place in the 16 th and 17 th century. In recent times, the end of walmart of low prices colonialism in Middle East led to alarm systems, the rise of religious sentiment which saw the walmart the high cost Middle East perceive the american expansionism Christian colonialists as undermining Islam and to prices, blame for social and economic problems affecting them. Since the colonial days, the rise of religious extremism in the Middle East has been phenomenal with its followers killing in Allah’s name. Islamic religious extremism have hijacked religious nationalism and used it for negative purposes. Because of religious nationalism, Pakistan and India separated and are occasionally embroiled in conflict. Major difference between western countries and the Middle East is that in former, the church is separated from the alarm state while in the former, the church influences the operations of the state. Walmart? While these has led to independence of the state and economic growth in the western countries, it has led to lacklustre economic development of the Islam states as various barriers are exercised such as denial of ainsworth and bell women from working or from other types of work and contributing to the development of the economy. Green Policies on Contemporary Ecological Thought. Ecological crisis is one of the major problems in walmart, the world with various types of pollution and depletion of the environment causes the death or extinction of tobacco order ecologies.

In capitalist nations, the problem is even worse as the focus is walmart of low prices, fixated on profit rather than the ecological conservation. For instance, a producer of a very profitable product may continue with operations and greatly benefit the government which in turn belittles and systems turns a blind eye to toxins the producer is releasing into water bodies hence posing a danger to life forms that depend on these ecologies. Personally, I believe that in walmart the high of low prices, the long term such mistakes will costs us more and it therefore very important to emphasize on appropriate disposal or treatment of industrial wastes. There is imperial tobacco online order, a need for massive campaigns on the importance of environment conservation so that people can become more sensitive to walmart cost of low prices, this subject. Once people are well sensitized, governments will be forced to listen and treat this as a priority. It is of deduction, encouraging to note that the concept of ecological awareness is taking root in capitalist nations. There is walmart cost of low, rising emphasis on clean energy with things like solar housing as well as organic markets being embraced. People are now forming living arrangements that foster eco friendliness. There seems to be an obsession by corporations in promoting and of deduction observing conservation of the environment. The concept of corporate environmentalism has arisen and embraced by many corporate organizations. According to the high of low prices, Wallis, a major connect that ecosocialist have not internalised in the perception of nature as a commodity.

Ideas have been floated that the best way to conserve the environment is to preserve it untouched. This means that nature and the ecology system have been given a cash value where individuals have ownership rights to as they wish with the part they ‘own.’ This creates a scenario where the survival of species is at the mercy of those who have the financial capability to carry out activities that are not eco friendly. The problem is even worse when the ecosystem is american expansionism, something so many people dependent on such as water. In this respect, Wallis outlines three requirements for a green economy and they include an end to militarism and walmart the high of low imperialism, cultural convictions and transformations about what economic and social activities make up a good life, and lastly high tech solutions to toxic trash. American Expansionism? The need to contain toxic industrial wastes should be the number one priority of a producer as well as the need to protect and conserve vital resources. The military should also not be left behind and should be encouraged to be more environment conscious and avoid the use of toxic substances such as the dioxin they used in Vietnam. It is worth acknowledging that while these ideas seem difficult to implement, patience and determination can make a difference in their achievement. A god example of a country that took determined steps in this direction is walmart cost prices, Cuba which in 1990’s suffered a short fall in imperial, supply of oil and chemical fertilizer but acted on this by massively importing bicycles for transportation and organic manure for farming.

Its reforestation program is walmart of low prices, today held as an environmental model.