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anthology essay plan This guide is written for students and teachers who are preparing for GCSE exams in English and English literature. This guide gives a general introduction to the AQA Anthology , which is a set text for the AQA's GCSE syllabuses and to the poetry texts. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Brown type is how to save the environment essay, used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Main section headings look like this. Sub-section headings look like this. Revolution And Social Essay. Minor headings within sub-sections look like this.

The English Anthology is a collection of poems and essay short prose fiction. These are set texts (texts you have to Disability study) for GCSE exams in English and English Literature. How To Save Essay. If you are a student preparing for these exams, then #45; for some parts of each exam #45; you will write about some of these texts. For other parts (such as written or spoken coursework) your teacher may use the Anthology or may choose other texts. There is more than one Anthology #45; as different exam boards have their own. This guide is aimed at Disability Essay, the AQA Anthology for the environment essay, GCSE English/English literature (Specification A) from 2004 onwards. Your teacher will help you prepare for your exams, but you may use other sources of bioremediation help. Your Anthology is a very important book. Your teacher may ask you to keep it in school for at least part of the GCSE course.

You will use a clean copy of the Anthology for your exams, which will normally be in June or possibly May. (Most students take a two#45;year course and are assessed at the end of Year 11, but it is possible to take either exam in an earlier year. There is a special syllabus for older students; this usually takes one year to do.) For GCSE English (AQA Specification A), you need your Anthology for the first half of the second exam paper ( Section A: Reading ). For this you will answer one of the questions (in past exams there have been two to choose from) on Poems from Different Cultures . You will normally write about poems in one or other of the two clusters #45; but you can mix poems from both clusters. How To Essay. The two clusters belong to a single coherent collection of texts. The only significance of the clusters is the requirement to name a poem - there will be two questions and one will have a named poem from cluster 1 whilst the other names a poem from cluster 2. And candidates are free to man choose a second poem from either cluster. Answering your chosen question should take you about half an hour.

If you go over this time, you may have to rush the essay, second half of the paper ( Section B: Writing ). This is not a good idea generally. However your teacher may advise you to spend a little more time in a given section if he or she knows that you can pick up extra marks at and Social Essay, one point without too much risk of losing lots of the environment marks elsewhere. Of course, if you finish the Writing section early, you can always go back to rising your work on Poems from Different Cultures in essay Section A: Reading. Below you will find guidance on the true man, how to use your answer booklet to leave space for this. For GCSE English Literature , use of the Anthology is optional for the first part of the paper (you may use it but you don't have to) but compulsory for the second part. In the end#45;of#45;course exam (for which there is only one paper) you have to write on set texts. These are divided into two sections: post 1914 Prose (Section A) and pre#45; and post#45;1914 Poetry (Section B) Section A #45; the how to, prose texts in the Anthology are mostly shorter than the was henry the 8th a good king, other set texts.

If you find a lot of reading hard or can't cope with lots of books, studying the prose in the Anthology may be best for you. This section is worth 30#37; of the how to essay, total marks for the true man, literature. Section B #45; there will be a choice of three questions and you will answer one of how to the environment these. Each question names a particular poem. This could be a poem by was henry a good, one of the four named poets, or a pre#45;1914 poem. The essay question will always ask you to compare one poem by each of two authors (either Seamus Heaney and how to save essay Gillian Clarke as one pair or Carol Ann Duffy and Simon Armitage as an alternative pair), and two pre#45;1914 poems #45; one of these four poems must be the one that the examiners have named. Man. The four poems will have a common theme or subject or some shared feature of how to essay approach, style or structure #45; for example, poems spoken by a character as monologues.

So pupils need to study a broad range of the poems including those by the pair of modern poets they have chosen to study. This section is worth 40#37; of the total marks for literature. You may find it hard to was henry know which are the save the environment essay, poems to write about #45; you will find examples and tables below that show this more clearly. You may be studying both of these or just English. (English is a core subject of the National Curriculum. Pupils take GCSE exams in English in of a man all parts of the UK outside Scotland.) When you are examined in English, the examiners are looking for particular skills. When you are examined in essay English literature, the skills required are rather different, but there is bioremediation, a lot of overlap. This should not frighten you. It may help you if you know what the how to save the environment essay, examiners are looking for.

You will find guidance about this below. This means that you may use the Anthology in Disability very different ways for each subject. The Environment. English is generally considered more important than most other subjects. This is because it is (like maths and examples in college science) a core subject of the how to save the environment, National Curriculum . If you wish to apply to university some time in the future, you will be required (normally) to have GCSE passes in both English and maths at action examples in college, grade C or above. How To Save The Environment. For some courses, such as teacher training, the affirmative action, required grade may be higher. English literature is an optional subject. You don't have to take it by law, although it may be compulsory in your school. Save. In many schools pupils will do this by studying English and English literature together. The AQA Anthology is clearly divided into three parts or sections, one (Section 1) for English and the true measure man two (Sections 2 and 3) for how to save essay, English literature.

These are the three sections: This section contains Poems from Different Cultures divided into two clusters: Edward Kamau Brathwaite: Limbo Tatamkhulu Afrika: Nothing's Changed Grace Nichols: Island Man Imtiaz Dharker: Blessing Lawrence Ferlinghetti: Two Scavengers in a Truck Nissim Ezekiel: Night of the Disability, Scorpion Chinua Achebe: Vultures Denise Levertov: What Were They Like? Sujata Bhatt: from Search For My Tongue Tom Leonard: from Unrelated Incidents John Agard: Half-Caste Derek Walcott: Love After Love Imtiaz Dharker: This Room Niyi Osundare: Not My Business Moniza Alvi: Presents from my Aunts in Pakistan Grace Nichols: Hurricane Hits England. Section 2 #45; English literature - poetry. There are groups of eight poems by how to the environment, each of four poets (so 32 poems in all) whose work is from the merthyr, after 1914. (In fact, the first published work by any of them appeared in 1966.) They are Seamus Heaney, Gillian Clarke, Carol Ann Duffy and Simon Armitage. These are the poems: Storm on how to the environment essay, the Island Perch Blackberry-Picking Death of affirmative action examples a Naturalist Digging Mid-Term Break Follower At a Potato Digging. Catrin Baby-sitting Mali A Difficult Birth, Easter 1998 The Field Mouse October On The Train Cold Knap Lake. Havisham Elvis's Twin Sister Anne Hathaway Salome Before You Were Mine We Remember Your Childhood Well Education for Leisure Stealing. from how to, Book of Matches , #147;Mother, any distance greater than a single span#148; from Book of Matches , #147;My father thought it. #148; Homecoming November Kid from bioremediation examples, Book of Matches , #147;Those bastards in their mansions#148; from Book of Matches , #147;I've made out a will; I'm leaving myself#148; Hitcher. How To Save The Environment Essay. There is also a collection (or #147;bank#148;) of poems from before 1914 #45; some that go back to the 16th century, and others from more recent times. These are the poems: Ben Jonson: On my first Sonne William Butler Yeats: The Song of the Old Mother William Wordsworth: The Affliction of measure of a man Margaret William Blake: The Little Boy Lost and how to The Little Boy Found Chidiock Tichborne: Tichborne's Elegy Thomas Hardy: The Man He Killed Walt Whitman: Patrolling Barnegat William Shakespeare: Sonnet 130 - #147;My mistress' eyes are nothing like the the merthyr rising, sun#148; Robert Browning: My Last Duchess Robert Browning: The Laboratory Alfred Tennyson: Ulysses Oliver Goldsmith: The Village Schoolmaster Alfred Tennyson: The Eagle Gerard Manley Hopkins: Inversnaid John Clare: Sonnet - #147;I love to see the summer. #148; Section 3: English Literature - prose.

This section contains the complete text of seven short stories: Doris Lessing: Flight Sylvia Plath: Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit Michele Roberts: Your Shoes Joyce Cary: Growing Up Ernest Hemingway: The End of Something Graham Swift: Chemistry Leslie Norris: Snowdrops. Below you will find detailed guidance on how to how to save the environment answer questions about the poetry. You will also find information about other places where you can find help #45; whether in print, broadcast or online. Most teachers will ensure that you have lots of practice, so you get it right on the day. At the moment you normally have to take exams at Disability, the end of the course. How To The Environment Essay. For GCSE exams the maximum amount of marks for coursework is 40#37; in English and Revolution and Social Essay 30#37; in English literature.

All the rest of the save, marks come from the terminal exam. For AQA Specification A there are two papers for Russian Change Essay, English and one for English literature. If you want to save know more about how the different parts of the exam are assessed, then ask your teacher, or visit the exam board's Web site at Russian. You should provide your own writing implement. Amazingly many students use pens that make it hard for them to write clearly and save harder for examiners to read it.

Please make sure you have a good supply of affirmative examples suitable pens before the exam #45; keep one or more spares handy. Save Essay. Being easy to read is more important than being neat. Exam boards do not penalize you (give less marks) for crossing stuff out #45; just put a line through it ( like this ), and keep writing. Do not use correction fluid. Don't write in red or green #45; examiners use these colours to rising mark your work. Keep to blue , dark blue or black . Ballpoint pens are allowed, but don't use too fine a point or a faint colour (hard to how to save read when the in college, examiner marks your work late at night) or a pen that smudges ink on the examiner's hand. Rolling ball pens and gel pens are OK, too. So are traditional fountain pens (what you call ink#45;pens), if you can write at speed. Speed is save essay, more important than neatness. You may need to change your handwriting from the beautiful style you develop for Russian Revolution Change, coursework #45; a large, round open hand is best.

A fast writer can easily cover four to how to the environment six pages of an answer booklet per hour. Russian Revolution Change. But don't write too much #45; especially in save the environment essay the Writing sections of the English exams. The exam board gives you an Russian Change Essay answer book. Sadly this is a book in which you write #45; not one with the answers already in. There are sections where you fill in how to save details about measure of a, yourself and the questions you have answered. Whoever is supervising the how to the environment essay, exam should tell you how to bioremediation examples do this. The Centre Name is the name of your school, college, pupil referral unit or other place where you take the save the environment, exam #45; it is not your own middle name. The 8th A Good. Most of the book is for you to write your answers in.

Expect to have a book of 8 or 12 pages. The Environment Essay. If you need more you can ask for another smaller book or individual sheets. If you use extra sheets or a second book, attach it with string or a tag #45; but don't do it too tightly . Bioremediation Examples. The examiner needs to be able to essay turn the pages. It's your book #45; don't try to Disability Rights California save paper. Start each answer on a new page #45; always leave room for how to the environment essay, more at the end of an answer. If you finish your last question and want to California go back to expand an earlier one, this is allowed. In the Writing section (for English), you may complete a task in such a way that you should not add to it.

But this won't be the case with the how to save the environment essay, Reading section or with the whole English literature paper #45; here you may think of bioremediation examples extra points to the environment essay make about a text you have studied. Always write the question number (and letter if there are alternatives). Normally you will do this at the front of the answer book, and at the point where you begin your answer. You don't have to write out the question: the examiner knows what it is. This may comfort you but just consumes time. Of course, if you have nothing to say, you may have plenty of time to use up.

Write a plan. This should take a few minutes at rising, the most #45; the plan should remind you of the things you want to the environment write about. If you don't do all of them, the examiner can still give a mark for something on the plan. If you think of things to the merthyr rising add to it, you may do. You can show that this IS a plan, rather than the real answer by ruling a diagonal line through it, or simply writing #147;PLAN#148; at the top, or even over save, the text. Use paragraphs and spaces to the 8th a good king show the how to save the environment essay, structure of the 8th a good king your work (or create an impression of structure even if there is none). How To. There is rising, no set number of poems that you must prepare. The absolute minimum number you will have to write on will be two for any question in English (Poems from Different Cultures) and four for English literature (two post#45;1914 and two pre#45;1914 poems). If you prepare more poems you have more chance of save the environment including those that will help you answer the exam questions. For English , there are eight poems in each cluster for Poems from Different Cultures.

You should prepare one cluster #45; there will be questions on both. Essay. Rather than do all eight superficially (and badly), it is the environment, better, perhaps, to bioremediation examples prepare some of them (five or six) very well #45; it is likely that at least one question will be fairly open and allow you to the environment essay choose the poems about which you write. For English literature you will need to study most of the Disability Rights California Essay, poems by one pair of modern poets and those in the Pre#45;1914 section. Your teacher, who will know your abilities, should advise you on a suitable range of texts to study. On the very first page of the how to the environment, Anthology is a warning, which tells you what you may and may not do #45; read this and do as it says. Revolution Essay. This rule is changing.

For one year only save the environment essay, ( 2004 ), students will be allowed to write key words in examples the margin, underline, highlight and add symbols. From 2005 , you will not be allowed to take any text into the exam in the environment which notes have been made #45; you will have a clean copy to use in the exam. This will give you and your teacher some problems #45; while you are preparing, you will of course want to make notes. In College. The question is how to do this, so that you remember things, without having any notes to refer to in the exam. How To Save The Environment Essay. You need to the merthyr #147;write#148; them in your head. Writing about poetry for GCSE English and essay English literature. Below you will find more detailed comment on particular texts.

This part of the guidance will help you write about poetry generally. Poems do not write themselves: be aware of the poet . Don't write: #147;It says that. #148; Do write: #147;The poet writes/claims/argues/states that. #148; Refer to #147;the poet#148; or #147;the author#148; or identify him or her by Change, name (but check spelling of this). If the poem is save the environment, about a person, decide if this person is meant to be: the poet (literally or autobiographically), someone a bit like him or her, or someone wholly different. Avoid writing pronouns like #147;he#148; or #147;her#148; as these are confusing #45; the examiner may not know whom you mean. Instead write #147;the man in the poem#148; or #147;the poet's friend#148; or whoever. You should also understand about grammatical person. This refers to pronouns: First person: singular = I/me ; plural = we/us Second person: singular = you [and old fashioned or regional thou/thee ]; plural = you Third person: singular = he,/she,it/him,her ; plural = they/them.

A text may be written in the first person if the author writes #147;I#148; and examples #147;me#148;. In this case, decide if the #147;I#148; is save, really the poet or some other person. Examples. If the words #147;I#148; or #147;me#148; are within speech marks, the whole poem may not be in the first person, just the speech which is quoted. A text may be written in the second person. This may seem odd, but many poets do this when writing as if speaking to someone. How To Save The Environment. Love poems and a good religious poems (and prayers) often speak to the beloved (the one who gets the love) or to God in the words #147;you#148; or #147;thou#148;. Carol Ann Duffy's Before You Were Mine is partly written in how to the environment essay the second person, but mostly has a first person view. Simon Armitage's Homecoming is mostly written in the second person. A text may be written in the true man the third person if the author refers to someone by a name or description or a third#45;person pronoun such as #147;she#148; or #147;them#148;. How To Save Essay. This is quite common. Was Henry A Good King. Sometimes, though it may seem odd, a writer will write about himself or herself in the third person #45; usually this has a distancing effect.

When you write about your chosen poems you are quite likely to find that the how to save the environment, poet's use of first, second or third person is important in creating a particular effect. Thinking about this may also help you not to confuse the poet with the people he or she writes about. When you name the poet, you may use the full name, but this may be a lot to write (Carol Ann Duffy has two given names, as does Edward Kamau Brathwaite). It is quite acceptable (and saves you time) to use the surname only (in some cultures this is the Revolution and Social Essay, first name). Do not use a given name (like Simon or Grace) on its own, unless you are a personal friend of the how to the environment, poet. This is unlikely but possible #45; someone has to live next door to Simon Armitage, and it isn't me. Affirmative Examples. Maybe it is you. (If it is , you might ask for some tips about how to save, his poems!) You may find these basic questions helpful: What is a poem?

Is it the the 8th a good, same as verse? What is the environment essay, poetic language? Is it a special language, or everyday language used in special ways or something else? Is it the same in bioremediation all times and cultures? How is a poem different from prose?

Is there always a clear difference? What is a poem for? Why might the poet write it? Do poets have different purposes? What is the nature of the poet's craft? Are there techniques that all poets need? How does this show in a particular poem? How does a poem work? How does the reader respond? How many times should we read a poem to appreciate it? What has poetry to do with other things in the reader's and writer's background, like culture, age, sex and how to the environment personality?

Does good poetry go out of date? You may have pretty good ideas of your own about these things, and have gone way beyond these questions. You will find some more advanced and sophisticated guidance below, on how to explore and reflect on poetry. Here are some ideas suggested by the 8th, experienced examiners. Teachers should: teach poetry quickly let students make open responses - pupils should know the teacher is not looking for some particular predetermined #147;right#148; answer give frameworks or step-by-step procedures for exploring poems - especially for less confident or less able pupils break up big poems into essay manageable chunks - get pupils to look at words or phrases before studying the whole poem from which they come make posters to bioremediation examples interpret the poems - take them down as students move on to other poems, but keep them and how to the environment essay put them back during revision periods. Examples. Teachers sometimes get messages from students and occasionally parents, who want to know where they can buy a replacement for the Anthology . The short answer is that you can't do this, unless you contact the examining board directly. The book is not offered for sale to the general public, because of the how to, copyright restrictions on the many texts it contains #45; in UK and Disability Rights California US law, material prepared for examinations is the environment essay, exempt from (not covered by) many parts of copyright.

You will find guides that contain the poems, but these are not allowed into exam rooms, for obvious reasons. In the first place, this means you should look after your Anthology #45; don't lose it and don't write notes all over it. (If you are a parent, think how to help your son or daughter to look after it.) But supposing that you have a disaster, and as the exam draws near, you don't have one, what do you do? Speak to bioremediation examples your teacher or head of how to save essay English (the person who is Revolution and Social Change Essay, responsible for the subject) #45; or any English teacher at a school or college that enters students for the exam. Many teachers will keep used copies from previous years #45; of course, this won't be helpful in the first year of the new exam. Essay. Alternatively get photocopies of the Russian Revolution and Social Change, pages you need to revise. The Environment Essay. For the exam itself, you should be given a clean Anthology to use. However, there are new procedures for both English and English literature exams. And any guidance may change as exam boards and teachers find problems and solutions.

The only was henry the 8th, way to be sure you have the latest information is to take advice from the teachers responsible for how to save the environment essay, the course at affirmative examples in college, the exam centre where you are registered (your school or college) #45; these will usually be the save the environment essay, head of English and the examinations officer. In the English exam you will probably be asked to measure man write about two (or #147;at least two#148;) Poems from Different Cultures for any question you are set. You will have about half an hour in which to do this (you have 1? hours for the whole paper), so each poem (if you do two) has fifteen minutes, and if you do three, only ten #45; you must make this time count. Here is an example of save essay a question: Example question for English #45; Poems from Different Cultures. In the English literature exam you may be asked to write about four poems #45; one of which will be specified by name. And Social Change. You will choose the other poems, but you need to save the environment make sure they fit the task you have been set. To make things even more complicated, you have to study poems by Seamus Heaney and Gillian Clarke (that is, both of them) or poems by Carol Ann Duffy and Simon Armitage . In your exam task, you will write about one poem by each of these two and two poems from the Pre#45;1914 section. Confused?

You ought to be #45; but an example may make this clearer. The Merthyr. Here is a question of the save the environment essay, kind you might get in the exam. There will be three questions #45; but you do only one of Disability Rights California Essay them: Example question for English literature #45; Poetry. If you were answering this question you would have to choose one suitable poem by Gillian Clarke and save the environment essay two from the pre#45;1914 poetry bank. Good choices would be: Gillian Clarke: A Difficult Birth, Easter 1998, The Field Mouse or October . And Social Change Essay. Pre#45;1914 poetry bank: two of Walt Whitman #45; Patrolling Barnegat , Alfred Tennyson #45; The Eagle ; Gerard Manley Hopkins #45; Inversnaid , John Clare #45; Sonnet: #147;I love to see . Essay. #148; For each poem, make sure that you comment on the particular features that the examiners ask for (such as the the merthyr, poet's attitude to how to the environment essay love, or to time and change). Start by stating what the poem is rising, about both obviously or on how to, the surface and at a deeper level: #147;This poem ( Stealing ) seems on the surface to be about a man who has stolen a snowman. Carol Ann Duffy explores the difference between law#45;abiding ordinary people like herself (and her readers) and Disability California Essay the anti#45;social criminal depicted in the poem. How To Save The Environment Essay. #148; Make sure you refer to interesting or relevant points of detail #45; very general answers are unlikely to get a mark higher than that which corresponds to grade E. It is the true man, not enough to how to essay point things out and #147;translate#148; them #45; make sure you explain how they work. Where possible, make comparisons within and between poems.

For example, show how the end contrasts with what goes before it, or show how a similar theme receives different treatment in two poems. Do not waste time on examples, pointing out the very obvious (such as that poems are different because one is spoken by how to save the environment essay, a woman who came to the true measure of a man England from Pakistan while the other is a funny version of a news broadcast in a Glaswegian accent #45; this would earn some marks, but would not be suitable for a Higher Tier or even strong Foundation Tier candidate). On the other hand, you could usefully compare these two poems (do you know which two they are? Click here to essay find out) by affirmative action, stating that they each explore ideas of nationality and identity. And you could contrast them by showing how one poet looks at ways in which people want to be more like the English while the other challenges the idea that Englishness is right or normal. Always end with a brief statement about whether you like each poem and why. Often (but not always) the examiners will invite you to do this anyway. A clear personal response earns some marks for how to save, you. Quote briefly #45; use a single word or phrase #45; to support your comments. The Merthyr. You may refer to a whole stanza or longer section but should not copy this out: there are no marks for copying the how to, text in a good king the Anthology . Show you are quoting by save the environment essay, using inverted commas (speech marks or quotation marks #45; you may call them #147;quotes#148; or 66s and 99s).

If you quote a whole line or more (if you really must) you should start on a new line, and indent. Whenever you quote, always explain in your own words what the rising, quotation means (unless it is really self#45;evident) and how to the environment essay comment on its effect. Merely repeating the poet's words is no use, as you have not shown the examiner that you have understood. A good pattern or model to use (in this case based on Tatamkhulu Afrika's Nothing's Changed ) might be as follows: Make a statement: Tatamkhulu Afrika thinks that nothing has changed for the better in his country. Affirmative Action. Quote evidence: He describes the experience of pressing his nose to the glass of the #147;whites only how to, inn#148;, knowing in advance what he will see. And he contrasts the luxury of the linen tablecloth and the rose on the table with the working man's cafe where people take their food out, or eat off a plastic table top, and have nowhere even to wash their hands. Explain this evidence: The glass pane becomes a symbol of the Russian and Social Change Essay, way the black working people are still shut out from sharing in the wealth of South Africa. Comment on its effect: The reader sympathises with, and maybe even shares, the writer's wish to how to save essay #147;shiver down the glass#148; - that is, to bring about the merthyr rising, a real change.

As you study the poems, you will see how they have certain things in common #45; perhaps the save, same subject , or theme , or maybe something less obvious like their interesting use of language and some features of form or structure . It is important to see as many such connections as possible, so that you can choose suitable poems on Rights Essay, which to how to essay write in an exam. Bioremediation. The examiners may ask you to how to save the environment essay write about affirmative action in college, poems with a quite specific link (such as poems about parents and children) or something much more general (such as poems which show strong feelings). This guide lists some connections, but the number is potentially vast. You cannot guess in advance all the things the examiners might ask about. Prepare a range of poems, then pick the question that lets you write on essay, those you know best.

For English it is quite easy #45; if you prepare all eight (or even most of them) in either cluster, then you should be able to Rights California answer any question. For English literature it is essay, quite a lot harder, as you will have to find three poems that go well with the poem the examiners have named in Rights Essay the question. You can expect them to set at least one very open question, therefore, to give you a fair chance of responding. What follows are a few ideas of possible linking themes, subjects or approaches. The examiners might use one of these to how to the environment essay set a question. But even if they do, they are quite likely to the 8th a good use other words for it. You must read the essay, questions closely, as the best one for you may not be obvious. Use these examples to start your own lists but add to them #45; with your teacher's help #45; throughout the Russian Revolution Essay, GCSE course. How To Essay. English - Poems from Different Cultures: Cluster 1. Bioremediation. Discrimination and victims of violence: Limbo, Nothing's Changed, Vultures Rich and poor: Nothing's Changed, Blessing, Two Scavengers, Night of the Scorpion Animals: Night of the essay, Scorpion, Vultures Different places: Island Man, Blessing, Night of the Scorpion, What Were They Like? English - Poems from a good, Different Cultures: Cluster 2. Language: from Search for my Tongue , from Unrelated Incidents Personal identity: from Search for My Tongue , from Unrelated Incidents, Half-Caste, Love After Love, This Room, Not My Business, Presents from My Aunts in Pakistan Different places and how to cultures: from Search for My Tongue, Not My Business, Presents from Rights, My Aunts in Pakistan, Hurricane Hits England. English Literature - Seamus Heaney and Gillian Clarke.

Nature: Storm on the Island, Perch, Death of a Naturalist; A Difficult Birth, The Field Mouse Family and relationships: Digging, Mid-Term Break, Follower; Catrin, Mali, On the the environment essay, Train, Cold Knap Lake Past and present: Digging, Follower, At a Potato Digging; Catrin, Cold Knap Lake Growing up: Blackberry Picking, Death of a Naturalist, Digging, Follower; Catrin History and bioremediation politics: At a Potato Digging; A Difficult Birth, The Field Mouse Death: Mid Term Break; October. English Literature - Carol Ann Duffy and Simon Armitage. Interesting characters: Havisham; Elvis's Twin Sister; Salome; Education for Leisure, Stealing; Kid , #147;Those bastards in save the environment essay their mansions#148; Violence and crime: Salome, Education for Leisure, Stealing ; #147;Those bastards in their mansions#148;, Hitcher Death: Salome, Education for Leisure; November Independence/growing up: Havisham, Salome, Before You Were Mine ; #147;Mother any distance greater than a single span#148;, #147;My father thought it bloody queer. #148;, Homecoming, Kid Love: Anne Hathaway; Homecoming Parents and children: Before You Were Mine, We Remember Your Childhood Well ; #147;Mother, any distance greater than a single span#148;, #147;My father thought it. Disability Rights. #148;, Homecoming, November Monologues: Havisham, Elvis's Twin Sister, Anne Hathaway, Salome, Education for how to save, Leisure, Stealing; Kid , #147;Those bastards in their mansions#148;, Hitcher. English Literature - Pre-1914 poetry bank. Was Henry The 8th. Parents and children: On My First Sonne, The Song of the Old Mother, The Affliction of save the environment Margaret, The Little Boy Lost and The Little Boy Found Death: On My First Sonne , Tichborne's Elegy, The Man He Killed Love and relationships: The Affliction of Margaret , Shakespeare's Sonnet 130, My Last Duchess, The Laboratory Nature: Patrolling Barnegat, The Eagle, Inversnaid , Clare's Sonnet Monologues: The Song of the examples, Old Mother, The Affliction of Margaret, The Man He Killed, My Last Duchess, The Laboratory Interesting characters: The Affliction of Margaret, My Last Duchess, The Laboratory, Ulysses, The Village Schoolmaster. These should be enough to how to essay get you started. But as you study the poems you will discover many more links. You can learn some of the more obvious ones (poems about parents and examples children or childhood, monologues) but you need to how to save the environment essay be ready to cope with any surprises in the real exam. The best way to do this is to know the poems well, so that whatever the examiners' idea for linking them, you can find examples from the other poems you have studied.

Below you will find examples of tables for the merthyr, comparing the poems when you study them #45; these may help you organize your ideas as you prepare for exams. But they are only examples and you should feel free to the environment alter them #45; adapt and customize them. The Merthyr Rising. Tables to help you compare the poems. It can help, if you use a table and fill in your own comments or notes about the poems. Save Essay. Here are some examples: The first is a table for comparing poems in the merthyr the English assessment. The second is a table for comparing poems in the English literature assessment. The third is also a table for how to the environment essay, comparing poems in the English literature assessment - but this one is filled in, as an example. Click on the links below to open the table as a document in bioremediation its own new window. Alternatively, you can use a right mouse click and save the file to save the environment a local data drive for your own use.

The table is available as a rich text document (.rtf) or a Microsoft Word (.doc) file. Comparing poems for English literature. Click on the links below to was henry a good king open the table as a document in its own new window. Essay. Alternatively, you can use a right mouse click and the true measure of a man save the file to a local data drive for your own use. The table is available as a rich text document (.rtf) or a Microsoft Word (.doc) file.

Example table for how to save the environment essay, English literature. Click on the links below to open the table as a document in its own new window. Man. Alternatively, you can use a right mouse click and how to save the file to a local data drive for bioremediation examples, your own use. Essay. The table is measure man, available as a rich text document (.rtf) or a Microsoft Word (.doc) file. Learning about the texts in the Anthology. This section is aimed at teachers.

If you are a student, you may find this section boring and not very helpful #45; but if you want to know how teachers think, it may be useful after all. How To Save Essay. As a teacher, you will have your own ideas about the best ways to do this #45; but it may be almost impossible to find approaches that. help all pupils equally, are interesting and yet also make efficient use of the Disability Rights Essay, teacher's and students' time. Preparing for exams can be a way to make students take things seriously and study texts closely #45; but no#45;one would recommend an exam as the best way to make you have a lifelong passion for poetry. Your pupils may have noticed that most grown#45;ups do not take exams for pleasure. When adults read poems for save, enjoyment, they rarely ask to sit an exam paper to action examples in college complete the how to essay, experience. Was Henry A Good King. Below are some general suggestions for you. These things may help students learn more efficiently and take a more positive attitude to what they do. Some classrooms are more equal than others. This may be a counsel of perfection #45; and things will happen that upset your plans. But as a teacher you can make an immediate difference by looking after the physical surroundings in which you teach #45; maybe displaying things that reinforce some of the ideas you want pupils to how to essay learn.

More importantly, you should try, as far as possible, to help students want to learn. Let your students see that you have high expectations, but try to avoid stress and anxiety. The 8th A Good King. Your head teacher and school managers should support you in this #45; if they want to see pupils become more positive, and how to save improve the numbers achieving particular targets. In a school, many students will be influenced by was henry the 8th a good king, whatever they did in the previous lesson, registration time or lunch break. As a teacher, you may need to use some short mental and/or physical exercise to refresh them, wake them up or calm them down. How To The Environment. You may need to help them with physical comfort #45; or insist that they have a cold drink and examples visit the toilet before the lesson. Try to connect the work for a given lesson or series of lessons with the wider aims of the subject.

Show how it relates to what they did previously or will do in the future. Explain, briefly, the save, learning outcomes and the questions they will be able to answer when they have done the work. Give them a series of keywords. Give a short outline of the Rights, lesson content. In the case of poetry this may be about themes and ideas , and about how the poems may touch on the readers' personal experience. As teachers, we may be tempted to give too much detail at this point #45; so this is one thing we may need to practise, or where we should keep to how to the environment essay a script. At this point teachers should be quite explicit about what we expect students to achieve #45; allowing for the most and least able. It is also important to Rights Essay break the content down into manageable chunks #45; this may be as simple as putting a list of bullet points on a whiteboard, worksheet or electronic document. Save Essay. When we are studying poetry we are dealing with words #45; if the poem is any good, then this should make our job all the Disability Rights California Essay, easier.

Unless the poem is very literal and the students very perceptive, then we can expect that they will not get much from hearing and reading for the first time. There is no single right way of presenting all poems #45; and how to save the environment a lot depends on the teacher's ability to present a live reading. Even if you are a talented oral performer, you may wish to vary the bioremediation examples, listeners' experiences #45; for example, by: asking another teacher or suitable adult to how to save the environment essay read a poem (useful if you need a regional accent that your colleague has and you cannot produce authentically; helpful if you want someone of a different age or class; essential if you think the in college, poem needs a reader of another sex) playing audio or video tapes in which an actor or the original poet reads the poem giving talented students (individually, in pairs, in groups) time to how to save essay prepare a reading for bioremediation, the class #45; they may use props, costume, music and how to save essay sound FX to do this. This need not be high#45;tech #45; they could use a simple percussion instrument (like a fist on a desktop) to reinforce rhythm. They may get help from teachers of drama, dance, art and music. You could record these performances and use them for revision or with other groups.

Given the number of times you will expect students to look at some texts, you may want to do all of these things on different occasions. The True Measure Of A. Try to make sure that students who are listening or reading do so actively. How? Ask them beforehand to how to save the environment think about the merthyr rising, one or more questions or ideas that the text suggests. Tell them that, when the reading ends, they will have one minute in which to write down five words to summarize it. How To Save. Give them, that is, a reason to listen and read attentively . Action In College. Give them time to how to essay look at the text more reflectively #45; perhaps by the 8th king, trying to answer a specific question (for example, Does the poet like the character she presents in this poem?) Given that everyone studies English, then many of the learners will have preferred learning styles that differ from the teacher's #45; and how to save the environment essay we should let them use these wherever this helps.

Don't make your students always do it your way. Bioremediation Examples. Give them opportunities, for how to the environment, example, to draw diagrams, illustrations, symbols and other visual representations of the poem or a part of it (if you do this on a big scale, or use information technology to display or print, then these may become useful for review and recall later). to prepare short talks, jingles, adverts, raps or chants based on the text to learn through physical movement #45; this may simply be gesture to accompany speech, a mime or tableau or any kind of Russian Revolution and Social Change repeated action that refreshes the student and triggers a memory to make their own mnemonics and explore other ways of how to learning. Try to develop activities (other than #147;write an essay to answer this practice exam question. Russian Revolution And Social Change. #148;) that help students focus on the content #45; with poems this might be to transform the original into a different kind of text (a news report, a short animated film, a scene from a TV play) or to challenge them to produce their own study aids and how to the environment essay revision guides in a range of media. In an exam, students will be using primarily verbal intelligence, though their ideas of the was henry a good, poems may also come from other kinds of intelligence. But in learning before an exam, the student is not limited in this way. In designing activities, you should allow for all learning styles #45; and allow students to favour those that work best for the environment, them . Sometimes you will want students to work alone (in which case you may need to the 8th a good king be very firm in preventing distractions).

At other times, you will want students to work collaboratively #45; in how to save pairs, small groups or even larger groupings. You may need to devise these groups, rather than leave it to students' own preferences. Try to avoid strategies that consistently favour one sex #45; some boys may find working in pairs much less natural and comfortable than female students seem to do . Exploit the groupings intelligently #45; for was henry a good, example, give each individual or group one or more texts or authors on which to be experts (and use this later in hot#45;seating activities). One can overdo introspection #45; and the students' perceptions of their own progress will eventually be challenged by how to, the examiners' judgement #45; but some time for reflection on what the students have learned can be useful. It can be especially helpful, if the teacher is the merthyr, open about the how to, learning styles he or she uses, and invites the students to help him or her to fine#45;tune these. Revolution And Social Essay. This cannot work unless the teachers and students have a healthy relationship and common goals.

This does not mean photocopying the brilliant essay of your most able pupil #45; he or she won't thank you for save the environment essay, being labelled a swot (and may even go in for some spoiling tactics). And, anyway, writing like the most able is clearly not an option for all students. It does mean that the teacher provides simple examples or models that show understanding, and ask students to do the same #45; bulleted lists, spidergrams, posters, booklets, short talks and the 8th a good so on. Most of these things allow the teacher (and other students) to give immediate responses #45; sharing and building on what others have done. How To The Environment. A few learners have naturally retentive memories #45; most do not, but can learn anything by rising, repetition (as the writers of advertising slogans know). In studying texts in save essay the Anthology , you should not expect students to learn large chunks of text by rote #45; but they do need to be able to find things quickly.

You should not make them learn detailed points of interpretation in a given sequence (examiners will see this as the prepared essay, and award low marks). But you should, perhaps, expect them to learn short lists of Disability Rights themes and images #45; so long as they still try to answer the question the examiners have set them . Visual, auditory and how to essay kinaesthetic learning. Here are a few ideas for using these different learning styles. Use posters around the classroom #45; with short texts and images. Show keywords. Rising. Use memory maps, flowcharts and storyboards. The Environment Essay. Use videotapes, overhead projector transparencies or a computer and data projector. Give spoken presentations (but time them and structure them). Discuss in groups of various sizes. Make individual presentations. Play (appropriate) music for of a man, some periods #45; in the case of poetry you would choose a wide range of musical styles and genres.

Make raps, rhymes, chants and dramatic readings. Make physical (3D) models #45; could this help students learn about literature? Go on visits and study trips. Design mimes and tableaux. Avoid negative effects #45; as a teacher you can decide how much of how to save the environment any lesson students will spend sitting in the same place.

You can allow some exercise and affirmative action in college movement #45; or lots of the environment it. If you have the same kind of chair as the students, you may have a realistic sense of how much they can take. It is possible to do two or all of these at once #45; as would happen, if students were to perform a dramatic interpretation of a poem, with music, lighting and sound FX. In a well#45;planned lesson it is bioremediation examples, very easy to use all three at some point. They are especially useful for the kind of shallow learning #45; say, recalling a slogan #45; that advertisers favour. In the save, case of poetry and stories, however, teachers may want, some of the time, to encourage rather deeper reflection on timeless truths and Russian Change Essay more serious questions. Can I print this guide and photocopy it? This guide is free for individual users - for example, teachers or students working from save the environment essay, home - in any part of the world. You can print out the guide, but it is not ideal for printing and photocopying, and may run to many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying.

The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to make multiple copies, this will probably save on your bulk photocopying and printing costs. To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Disability Rights. Click on the link to go to how to essay the ZigZag Education Web site: Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the Rights California Essay, URL of save the environment any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for and Social Change Essay, improvement are welcome.

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and save essay, Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the merthyr rising the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of how to save the environment essay investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesnt reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, weve provided a list of was henry a good key fields from those forms and the applicants responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and budget specifics. The text of this application is copyrighted. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and essay, the PI, the grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions? Contact The Merthyr Rising. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

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Here are the key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for examples HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of essay primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Disability Rights California Ab and how to save essay, use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. The True Measure. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is how to essay, disparate from classical neutralization. The Merthyr Rising. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of essay Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of affirmative examples in college antibodies with ADCC activity.

Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of essay this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the bioremediation examples functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science. 1984; 224: 500-3.

Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of the environment essay a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. Examples. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Organization WH.

Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in how to essay, antibody protection against HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. And Social Essay. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. How To The Environment. The utility of ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. Rising. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. How To Save. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects.

J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for bioremediation examples the rapid fluorometric assessment of save the environment antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Disability California Essay. Journal of immunological methods.

2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. How To Save. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. The Merthyr Rising. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. The Environment. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. The True Measure Of A Man. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood. 2009.

Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. Save The Environment. J Immunol. The Merthyr. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. How To Essay. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of the true measure Sciences of the United States of America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of save HIV infection. Bioremediation Examples. J Clin Immunol. How To The Environment Essay. 2001; 21(3): 227-33.

Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and Change, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Essay. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. Russian And Social Change. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Burke B, Barnett SW. How To Save The Environment Essay. Broadening our view of Disability Rights California Essay protective antibody responses against HIV.

Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Save Essay. Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to Disability Rights California kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of how to essay human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol.

2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist dont experience until their first post-doctoral experience. While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from the 8th a good Richard Siegel, Director of the how to essay NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge.

I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for Disability Rights California training in teaching skills. How To Save The Environment Essay. I will also take courses pertinent to rising my research offered at the Dunn School of save essay Pathology. The True Man. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer. The Environment Essay. Bench space is shared within the Revolution and Social lab. Safety In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in how to the environment essay, a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples We receive blood samples from the 8th king patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: Oxford University is how to save the environment, held in high international regard for its strong teaching and the 8th a good, research background and its unique and how to save the environment essay, personal teaching style.

Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of the merthyr a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the how to candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on Rights, the candidates progress. The candidate will be expected to save essay attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and king, a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research.

Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and writing. How To Save The Environment Essay. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to affirmative in college all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and save essay, scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise. BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator.

AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The 8th. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and essay, ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and Disability Essay, associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells.

Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and the environment essay, two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels I, -II and III. Light microscopy. Russian. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of how to save essay varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for Rights California live cell immunofluorescence work. Save The Environment. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and California Essay, live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy.

The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is how to save essay, 4 miles from the Pathology Department. The Merthyr Rising. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.]

My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in how to essay, science but through my participation in the merthyr, the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Save Essay. Since middle school I have been preparing for Revolution Change Essay a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. The Environment Essay. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the rising Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for the environment essay a career as a scientist. My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers lab. Not only did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. The True Man. Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of save the environment immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly.

In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The Merthyr Rising. The medical education Ive received at the environment Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of bioremediation examples Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in how to save essay, their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of affirmative action infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in how to, these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from the true measure of a man UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa.

Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry. 44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. How To Save The Environment. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003.

Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. Disability California. 2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at how to save the environment essay 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to action in college DNA.

Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding.

Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at how to save the environment 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu.

2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Revolution And Social Essay. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at save the environment essay 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010.

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of action in college HIV. Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. Save. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project.

Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project. We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. Essay. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for save the environment essay a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in affirmative, Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 1989 Chief Resident in how to save, Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Russian Revolution Change Essay Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. The Environment. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of the merthyr Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and how to the environment, Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of California Essay Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S.

Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of how to save the environment essay Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of measure of a virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. Save The Environment Essay. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and the merthyr, Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by save exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Revolution Change, Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. The Environment Essay. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, OShea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and measure, Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for save essay HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021.

Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and Rights California, cytotoxicity are not restored by how to save the environment antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Action. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and how to, association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636. Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in the true man, HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Essay. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1.

Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Russian and Social Change Essay, Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of the environment HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in press] The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of immunity to HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. Was Henry The 8th A Good. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at how to the environment essay the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of of a structure-function relationships of save HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project.

Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the Division of Disability Essay Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the how to the environment essay Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the California Essay Office of AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre dImmunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of the environment essay Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the of a Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. How To Essay. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the true of a the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. Save. J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Affirmative Action Examples In College. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and save essay, Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at bioremediation the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse.

J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008). Efficient HIV-1 transmission from how to macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Revolution And Social Change Essay. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008).

Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for how to save the environment essay HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. King. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol. How To Save Essay. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for the true measure an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread.

J. Virol. The Environment Essay. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and rising, Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. Save Essay. J. Russian Revolution And Social Change. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of save essay important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and action, immunogenicity. J. Mol. Biol. How To The Environment Essay. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. Disability California Essay. (2010).

Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. Save The Environment Essay. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of a good king this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.]

Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Save Essay. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of measure of a primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. How To The Environment Essay. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and bioremediation examples, use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to save essay understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and examples in college, characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to save the environment essay examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and Revolution and Social, targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of how to save the environment essay Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from affirmative examples lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell.

Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of save targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of the merthyr rising progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. Compare the ADCC and how to save, neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of the true man specific epitopes is save the environment essay, required for ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV.

Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and Russian Revolution and Social Change, function of the target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and save the environment, infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in Russian Revolution, 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine.

One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of save a vaccine with regard to rising protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at the environment essay a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of was henry the 8th a good king participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and how to save essay, bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the Disability targets cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to how to HIV.

A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. The True. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on save essay, virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and was henry the 8th king, proof of the how to concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo. The True. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in save the environment essay, ADCC as an important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the was henry the 8th king prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and save, AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. The Merthyr. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is essay, now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and measure of a man, specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Save Essay. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against and Social HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC.

One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for how to essay HIV-specific ADCC. Disability Essay. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to how to the environment essay measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is a good king, highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for essay 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and the true of a, subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of how to save essay many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and was henry a good, dendritic cells 9. Save. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is Rights California Essay, still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing.

The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and how to save, autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and examples, highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and how to essay, targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of Disability Rights Essay a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate.

Granzyme delivery to the target cell and how to save, elimination of rising HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. Essay. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of rising HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for how to save essay intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Bioremediation Examples. Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and how to the environment essay, is an examples in college indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. The Environment Essay. Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in Revolution Change Essay, our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from how to essay uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to bioremediation noise ratio that we will use to compare the serum of how to save essay HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assays ability to measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. Bioremediation Examples. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of save the environment essay targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from Russian Revolution Essay HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the how to save essay sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to the merthyr measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in the environment, a dose dependent manner, and Russian Revolution and Social, (3) GrB delivery is proportional to essay cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in the merthyr, HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in how to, sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the measure serum of save the environment essay HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. Examples. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the save the environment Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the Essay patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by how to the environment essay NAbs and presumably by Disability Rights California Essay ADCC-mediating Abs.

We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from save the environment clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is Russian and Social Change Essay, possible that variations in essay, ADCC activity of sera are mediated by Disability Rights variations in IgG subclass. How To Essay. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry. We believe flow cytometry is Revolution Change, a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of the environment essay eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for affirmative examples in college subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project.

Aim 3: Evaluation of the save the environment target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function. Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of was henry the 8th a good king viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. How To Save. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to examples kill HIV infected targets 24.

With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and the environment, undergoing lysis and by examples 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the how to the environment NK to man HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in how to the environment essay, HIV infection. They were the first to Disability demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26.

To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and the environment, applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. The True Of A. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope.

We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the save ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and was henry a good, stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for how to save essay structural studies with the Rights California Essay aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology departments core bioimaging facility and I will take departments Advanced Light Microscopy and save the environment essay, Electron Microscopy course in preparation for Disability this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in how to the environment essay, accomplishing this objective. The results of the merthyr rising these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for how to save the environment essay the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in Disability Essay, the field of how to save the environment essay HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from the merthyr patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs extensive experience in this area.

Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies. Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the essay course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of the true measure of a man blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on the environment, rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to measure of a 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to essay deal with any of the merthyr these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and save essay, Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and examples, Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of how to essay age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by California advertisements posted in essay, the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to rising the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response.

Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and how to essay, will be offered therapy, based upon Rights California the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of how to essay age.

As an the merthyr observational study there is how to, no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from action in college participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on how to essay, HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and Russian Revolution and Social Change, therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. How To Save Essay. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at Russian Revolution and Social Change the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to how to save essay prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of California Essay reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and how to save the environment essay, microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC.

I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Affirmative. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and how to the environment, meet at conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentaus lab.

Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to join Columbias MSTP program because of its tradition of a good exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIHs Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences Ive had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the the environment essay Vaccine Development course I completed.

The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at the merthyr rising NIH and one at how to essay a university. The Merthyr. When I joined the save the environment program I searched for Rights Essay HIV investigators throughout NIH and save the environment essay, Oxford and man, identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development. How To Save. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Bioremediation Examples. Through my search at save the environment essay the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connorss expertise in bioremediation examples, NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentaus vaccine development goals.

In addition, Dr. Connorss unique cohort of how to LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. In College. Sattentaus approach to how to essay research as a PhD and Dr. Examples. Connors as an how to save essay MD will teach me to think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher.

I will follow the the merthyr principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in how to save the environment essay, NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to a good king one another and medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an save the environment online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics. Revolution And Social Change Essay. Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the how to confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Was Henry The 8th A Good. Oxford offers an Ethics: Confidentiality course in how to the environment essay, which I will enroll to affirmative action examples better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to research.

As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individuals immediate suffering; and save the environment, as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. Bioremediation Examples. To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degrees greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to how to the environment approach patient care with a researchers eye, and to was henry a good approach research with a physicians focus on save essay, improving the quality of of a man life. A few years ago I conducted research on save essay, telomerase, an rising enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. Save The Environment Essay. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Action Examples In College. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. How To. These observations led me to wonder whether the the merthyr progression of cancer in how to essay, individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from Rights California that aspect.

A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in save the environment essay, biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of affirmative examples in college keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxfords doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for save the environment essay me to the merthyr garner through a traditional medical student experience. The Environment Essay. The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to bioremediation examples carefully cultivate these skills early in my career. Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connorss lab I have acquired specific skills such to save creatively study immunology such as learning to rising use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr.

Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. How To Save The Environment Essay. Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the a good king year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). How To Save. I will also complete the Scientific Writing from a Readers Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the affirmative 3-day Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy course offered by FAES in February 2010. How To. I also attended Psychiatry and HIV, a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the the true Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings.

Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. How To The Environment Essay. I have also had opportunities to present posters at Rights Essay the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and how to save essay, the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings.

Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and Disability Essay, finance speak with us about their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on how to save, career development. Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentaus lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Connors at various conferences throughout the year. Rising. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. How To Save The Environment. I will complete the rising following 1-day courses offered at how to save essay Oxford: Writing Skills Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including Advanced Light Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, and Introduction to Statistics. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. Bioremediation Examples. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course Teaching and Learning Skills to prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome.

That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to how to essay design experiments. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in affirmative examples, biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Save The Environment Essay. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG. While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization.

Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an was henry the 8th a good king interaction with the save the environment essay A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the Rights California A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of essay 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in the 8th king, patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high schools Science and Technology Program, and save essay, presented it at my schools science fair, where I was awarded third place in the true man, biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is how to essay, key to developing gene and antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome.

Packaging of dimerized RNA is action examples, mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the how to save RNA called the Psi-site. Disability Rights. Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of save the environment binding NC are sequestered by examples base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC. My project was to the environment investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the was henry king NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays. As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of the environment this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to a good king the Laboratory Program.

I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the how to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. The Merthyr. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and how to save essay, setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the the true of a man Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in how to, the lab of Dr.

Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in was henry a good king, protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of two common human ailmentscancer and aging. To study how and how to save the environment, where in the cell telomerase is assembled from bioremediation examples its RNA and protein components, we used the save the environment budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to and Social Change Essay the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in how to save essay, importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in its various stages. During the summer between my first and rising, second year of medical school I joined the save lab of the true measure man Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for the environment breadth and potency of the 8th a good king neutralizing Abs against how to HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and Russian Change, lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in how to save essay, translating basic research into bioremediation medical treatment. How To Essay. Although Ive experienced frustrations and disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to Disability Essay improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. See below for how to save essay the data fields and critiques.] Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and bioremediation examples, Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION:

In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to how to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Examples. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to save the environment provide the necessary training and the letters of Russian Essay recommendation were uniformly laudatory. Minor weaknesses of the application included the save essay ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the risk of conducting the research at two sites, and action examples in college, the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an how to save essay independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. California Essay. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to save the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the the merthyr magnitude and how to the environment, characteristics of the Russian and Social best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on how to save the environment essay, these findings, we will select the sera of Russian Change Essay patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. How To Save The Environment. Finally, we will use microscopy to the merthyr examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of how to save the environment Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of the true measure HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and how to save the environment essay, subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in bioremediation examples, ADCC.

Aim 2: Characterize the how to save the environment specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the Revolution and Social Essay structure and function of the save target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of the merthyr antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the the environment essay functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for Russian and Social Change Essay the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an save applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D.

Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in of a, a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by how to save the environment previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is affirmative action, matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and interests of the how to the environment mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the examples co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in that training and research will be accomplished in how to save, two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. Rising. training program, is described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive.

Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the how to save Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase. Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an the true measure man outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and how to, numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the Russian Revolution and Social Essay sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicants mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the environment essay, the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to the merthyr rising HIV/AIDS.

The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicants research and the environment, training. Was Henry King. The expertise of the save co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an bioremediation average of four students per how to the environment essay year over was henry a good 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Save The Environment Essay. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in the 8th king, the sponsors lab, and four Ph.D. Essay. trainees in the co-sponsors laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicants training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. The Merthyr. Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the environment, the structure/function of the was henry the 8th king target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and how to, quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsors lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays.

Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and Russian Revolution and Social Change Essay, study procedures are already in place. How To Save Essay. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and was henry the 8th a good king, training in year 1 in the sponsors lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsors lab at Oxford, and years 3 and essay, 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking.

Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the Russian Revolution and Social Change Essay scope of essay studies in Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (rates of progression and viral loads) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of how the Revolution and Social results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to the environment guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and was henry a good, productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at save both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the sponsor and was henry a good, co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites.

Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and the environment essay, does not provide a detailed plan for affirmative action examples formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of save RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required):

The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on the merthyr rising, Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2.

Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and how to the environment, outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. The True Of A. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena.

The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to how to save the environment essay an HIV infected cells. A Good. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of how to save the environment disease progression and to define the affirmative in college specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and the environment, 2). The third Aim to characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of bioremediation Dr. Sattentau.

This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from how to the environment essay this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in action examples, the Dr. Connors lab and how to save the environment essay, 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the the merthyr applicant plans to save the environment essay finish all the work they outlined. Disability Rights Essay. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the how to save the environment proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the the merthyr highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in how to, the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital. As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Measure. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Save The Environment. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of affirmative examples in college high quality research and publications and how to save, a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). Disability Rights California. The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection.

The project is well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to how to the environment support the feasibility of the affirmative in college project. How To Save The Environment Essay. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to was henry the 8th king measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of the environment sera from Revolution and Social Change Essay subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of how to save essay antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the king applicant plans to examine the structure and how to save essay, function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant. The Merthyr Rising. It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is how to the environment essay, shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive.

The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in examples, class room training of save the environment essay new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and was henry the 8th king, seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institutions role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and save, Oxford for one year and then back to was henry the 8th king medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training:

The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to save all the required resources. Rising. Oxford has a program in place for how to save essay graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for measure Advanced Education in how to save essay, the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an the true measure of a man infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the environment the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH. The 8th. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and how to save essay, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. Revolution And Social Essay. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in how to save, sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and examples, subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the how to the environment specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of was henry the 8th king known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to perform this research. It is essay, a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment.


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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of save essay, six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on examples in college, candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of how to essay, what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. Affirmative In College! She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. The Environment! It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for was henry a good king, someone else.

If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on the environment essay, your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Russian Essay! Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement.

There's no point in how to save including a generic objective about measure of a man, a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. Save! 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youre great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to Russian and Social Change a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in the environment essay recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on Disability Rights California, networks, than your resume, she says. 7. Save The Environment! It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. The 8th! Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the how to, right candidates.

You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the merthyr rising the job descriptions of how to the environment essay, your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. The True Of A! It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of how to essay, a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the was henry the 8th, description. This should be included right underneath the name of the essay, company. While the action, company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in.

For example, being an how to, accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. The Merthyr Rising! If you're looking to how to save the environment essay switch industries, your focus may be on the company size assuming it's similar to your goals and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at rising, a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to how to save essay understand why you're perfect for the job. Revolution Change Essay! Dense blocks of save the environment essay, text are too difficult to read, says Augustine..

10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your teams projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bioremediation examples, bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Save! Quantify your major accomplishments and bioremediation examples, contributions for the environment, each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and examples, projects delivered on time or under budget.

Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Essay! Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the Disability Rights California Essay, reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us.

14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the essay, basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says.

You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Russian And Social Change Essay! Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for how to the environment essay, t he same reason with embedded tables and bioremediation, charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at how to save, the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine.

Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. Bioremediation! It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. How To Save The Environment Essay! Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. Disability Rights California Essay! NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume.

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Top 148 Successful College Essays. Get into the college of your dreams! We hope these essays inspire you as you write your own personal statement. Just remember to be original and creative as you share your story. Enlist the expert help of one of our Ivy-League editors.

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Each decision is action, like a ripple that spreads out uniformly, increases many fold, and eventually changes the person’s futur. Its never easy to how to, appreciate something unconventional. Just ask the people who attended the premiere of Igor Stravinskys , a performance infamous for sparking a riot, reducing the proud composer to tears. Even as a passionate musician, I had trouble finding value in any of California, Stravinskys avant-garde. 28. Short Extracurricular Activities Essay - Volleyball Co-captain Mr. Trupe, World History teacher and former Torrey Pines volleyball coach, was taken aback when he heard I was an athlete.

Kevinyou play volleyball? I could knock you down with my breath! It's trueI'm 5'10 and a flimsy 130 pounds. I don't have the fram. 29. Essay: Interest in math, science, or engineering. Over the phone, my dad described what was happening as he lifted the cover off of the viewing portal. Suddenly, he began to how to save the environment, laugh uncontrollably: the robotic mousetrap I had built out of LEGO Mindstorms had actually caught a rat! On the other end of the line, my 8-year-old self also collapsed in action examples, lau. 30. Stanford MS in Computer Science.

I'm hoping to the environment, do an bioremediation examples, MS in Computer Science at Stanford so that I can become more technical and obtain the how to the environment essay, skills I need to build the Rights California, software that I want to exist, rather than just imagine it. I've had several jobs in technology-related fields, as an investment banker and as an how to save essay, early non-technical e. 31. Northwestern Supplement - Engineering Music. Passionate about both science and music, I find Northwestern’s exceptional undergraduate engineering and music programs extremely appealing. The unique opportunity for in college me to essay, combine McCormick and Disability Rights Essay, Bienen into one dual-degree program is even more attractive, allowing me to receive certification . Lord of the Rings/The Silmarillion - Tolkien; Gödel, Escher, Bach - Hofstadter; Surely You're Joking, Mr. How To Save The Environment Essay. Feynman - Feynman; The Code Book - Singh; The Elegant Universe - Greene. Films: Gattaca, Chariots of Fire. Music: Simon Garfunkel, Basshunter. I am very attracted to the opportunity to explore the offerings at MIT’s. I have a disease, an ambiguous disease that coerces me into festering in a ridiculous situation until it’s even more ludicrous resolution and compels me to the merthyr rising, exacerbate the event by my own capricious nature.

With neither cure nor vaccination for this disease, it can develop at any age. Its sympt. She wore a fluffy elf cappowder pink, of courseand at barely an the environment, arms length, she already sported wispy hair and delicate fingers and the 8th a good king, toes. Still, her puffy eyes seemed too big for her tiny visage, which seemed curled into an eternalscowl? Gingerly, I poked one chubby cheek. Not cute at the environment, all, I . Dear Jack Daniels, Bacardi, Budweiser, the other suppliers of my mother's closet laundry basket, and Edna Ferber Elementary, Thank you. It is the summer before Kindergarten. Face ashen, she stumbles toward me, the Disability, heavy footfalls syncing with my throbbing heart. I wait as she feebly attempts to p. I see the beauty in our natural assembly of neurons, the splendor of circuits in the environment, digital chips, and of course the rising, undying symphony of how to, computer code running through a compiler. As a firm believer of the values of Russian Revolution Change Essay, interdisciplinary education, I embrace Benjamin Franklin's drive to save essay, create an Rights California Essay, intellectu.

I tried to hold the how to essay, canvas as close to me as possible without risking touching it. It was dry, but with oil paints you never really know. It’s painting care 101: Don’t move your painting around when it’s wet. Any artist worth her salt knows that. But if you had spent the bett. 39.

Intellectual Development Essay for Stanford. I remember one of the worst moments of the true measure, being a child is how to, when you're bursting with something to say, and your parents just don’t have the time to acknowledge you. Listen to me! I would roar inside my head. Perhaps they could have turned and said, Alex, you've. My life is a series of intense fascinations, which I dive into headfirst.

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Stepping out onto the environment essay, the muddy riverbank, I anticipated the surpris. I love sitting by the Haft-Seen, surrounded by family, at the turn of another solar year on the first day of spring. I love listening to my dad pray for Disability Rights California Essay us with the how to, Quran before him. I love the smell of our traditional foods wafting from the kitchen. For that one day I am truly an Iranian; before I r. I am an artist; a strange blossom of creativity sticking out awkwardly from Disability California a long lineage of electrical and later electronic engineers, like a lonely flower on a big, rigid cactus plant. Behind me, I have eight consistent years of rigorous education in the practice of Fine . After a long school day, I frequently come home and rush straight to my piano, where I close my eyes and play out my emotions. But though I have been playing traditional piano for ten years, you will be hard-pressed to find me churning out a vigorous Chopin etude for fun; instead, my greatest joy co.

49. UPenn Supplement - Business Technology. 2 months of coding and design. Endless all-nighters. Now, the time had come. The service was set to go live the following day. 1 day later: 6 countries. 1 week later: 14 countries. 3 months later: 78 countries. My first attempt at creating an online service was the result of the environment essay, a desire to help those st.

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The master wraps your broken wrist in the. I told him that it was like aliens. Like flying saucers. Like Star Wars. Like Transformers. But no matter what analogy I made, the little boy standing in front of me could not grasp the how to save the environment, concept of science fiction. Does that mean you cant shrink this? The little boy revealed a small, green H. 54. Northwestern Supplement - Juggling Extracurriculars

Sweat drips onto my violin as we are filing into the auditorium. I just arrived from a basketball game, Im not nervous. However, that changes when I realize that I still have my basketball shoes on. And that I still have a plethora of edits to make in the newspaper room. And that I have three . As my thoughts drifted by with snapshots of scenes of the Disability Rights California Essay, most memorable parts of my summer, I realized more fully than ever why I love engineering:

Standing in the dim auditorium at the University of Texas in save the environment, Austin, I nervously gulped as I nodded at my First Bytes computer science ca. 56. Why Carnegie Mellon University? However, unlike them, since my childhood I constantly thought about and tinkered with the things that permeate our everyday lives often technology items, like phones and software. But stories, ideas and how to communicate different messages was equally of interest. My enthusiasm in both areas. I only allow myself to watch one movie in was henry a good, theatres every year.

Although some people may view me as cheap, my frugal nature has been a strong source of my self-identity. This sense of essay, resourcefulness is apparent throughout my family’s activities, whether it is cooking our own dinner or bargaini. 58. Lessons from was henry a good Failure Essay Piano And I stand up, my dark blue dress cascading down my legs, the last note still echoing in my ears.

Then, a thunderous applause rattles every bone in my body. Save The Environment Essay. I bow. The Merthyr Rising. It gets louder. Carnegie Hall. This was supposed to be a dream, seemingly unattainable. Yet, here I am. Looking bac. I never knew Id find a second home. The Environment Essay. I guess it waltzed itself into bioremediation examples my life the moment I timidly walked into how to save the environment the advanced journalism pub, sitting down next to the merthyr rising, the only how to save the environment, other freshmen who had been accepted onto staff that year, a tall, ungainly-looking boy with a brilliant grin and bioremediation examples, a girl who looke. Everyone longs to be a href=http://www.happy.comhappy/a.

Some people seem happy regardless of whatever they are going through in their lives. Others feel secure and satisfied even when they do not have the material things that other persons have. Another group seems happy. One bead of sweat splashes across the save the environment, newspaper headline. Still dressed in examples, full football pads, I sit alone in the journalism computer lab, editing copy a few minutes before 9 p.m. Three hours after football practice, my cleats, untied, remain stuck on my feet and I have barely even made a dent in th. I should have been on a train back home, hours ago.

Instead, I was standing under the looming flicker of the save the environment, departures board, weary of the word . Suitcases packed, stacked and shipped, I had just enough to escape. I needed, more than anything, to escape. Sharp inhale. Affirmative Action In College. Dial. Im going to Europe. I . 63. Ubiquity - Idea or experience that is essay, intellectually engaging. Ubiquity is a beautiful piece of software. With constant use, it becomes part of you. All the world’s knowledge resides in your fingers.

It’s the extension of a man’s mind, the slow but inevitable fusion of the brain and the computer. But, sitting on a soft couch at a Starbucks in c. Had my synthesis reaction workedyes or no? It was a simple question, but I had already spent hours trying to answer it in vain. As much as I loved chemistry, my patience was wearing thin. Midnight had come and gone three hours ago, and the long evening had taken its toll. With bleary eyes I pored o. “Look at her. She’s your baby sister.” I curiously walk over to the crib on the right of my mommy’s bed and stare down at this so-called “sister.” Suddenly, her mouth twitches as she chews on a strange object. Memories. My first was of March 2nd, 1998, the Disability Essay, day my s.

66. What alternatives to transferring to how to, Harvard are you considering? I am overwhelmed by the rules and the true measure, precepts that are observed in the college. Harvard is a school built on strong christian foundations and this has influenced my body, soul and spirit to how to save, be in the merthyr, that college. I am someone who is so much concerned about my spiritual life and all the rules and pre.

67. Clarinets, Calluses, and how to the environment essay, Chemisty. For as exclusive as it was, Copley's soloist room was rather simple, furnished with only a piano and a bench. It was narrow too: the the true measure man, architect must not have considered the consequences of claustrophobia before a solo performance. In any case, I took a seat on how to save the environment essay the bench and started to rising, set up my clari. 68. Stanford Supplement - Golden Coast Girl. There were few dull minds in San Jose the spring of 2010.

Around 1600 teens from around the world streamed into how to save the environment essay the heart of king, Silicon Valley for the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair; for me, it was an unforgettable first glimpse of the talent and imagination of my global peers. Sometimes all it takes is one person, or one assignment, to make an indelible impact. In my case, freshman year Western Civilization and my eccentric teacher allowed me to the environment, learn the benefit of hard work and determination. My lanky, bald, and animated instructor, who often wore various cultural outfi. 70. What Makes Stanford Good For You? - Least Squares Reduction In AP Statistics, I often utilized the Least Squares method to find correlations between two data sets.

First, I would generate a curve that minimized the residuals: the differences between corresponding values of the two sets. Smaller residuals implied greater correlation, with a residual of r = 0 . 71. And Social. Karate Extracurricular Essay - Little Ninjas Every weekend after my karate class, I volunteer for the environment essay an hour and a half teaching kids ages 3-12. The first class is the Little Ninjas, who are just 3-5 years old. These are among my favorites to teach because they have no preconceptions or attitude.

They look at you unjudgmentally and Disability Rights California Essay, li. 72. UPenn Supplement - Autobiography (Robotics) It moved timidly at first, its gears slowly churning as it felt the spark of life flow through its wires. Slowly, it turned, rotating on its treads, as it scanned the arena for any signs of how to, movement. Its light sensors on the alert, it sensed that something was near.

It nudged forward as it felt its . Take my advice, I've been here for a while. Man. How long? What did you do? Don't get on anybody's nerves, don't tell the doctors the truth, and don't forget to smile. The car comes to a quick stop, the how to save essay, kind that should have smashed my knees into the back of the. Many scholars have come up with different definitions for the concept of education. Examples. Some motivational speakers call it “the key to success”. Others refer to it as the backbone of how to, our society. Many leaders, especially duri.

Post-Colonial African Conflict. After World War II, the people of Africa fought to Disability Rights, end the effects of European imperialism to how to save the environment, achieve political independence and reclaim African culture. After many years of being controlled by Eur. ?In 7th grade, a classmate told the table that all East Asians were either hot or ugly. It won a few agreements, but I sat stunned. “What am I?” I demanded. His face scrunched up a little.

At the time, I was 12-years-old, and I was plain. He, however, had summed up . My life was drastically changed on January 6th, 2014. It was about 7 A.M. on a Saturday morning. Rising. I was awakened by the sound of an explosion. When my eyes opened I found myself suspended in the air and unable to move. Below me, the floor began to cave in and split, the ceiling started to crumble abo. It was always, and still is, entertaining to listen to how to the environment essay, the botched attempts of rising, my teachers to pronounce my last name. Lost in how to save, a fusion of languages, I entered the English Language Learners Program where I felt the pressure of always being a step behind those around me. Outside of class each day was . Increase the Rights California Essay, pressure in my bow-arm. Bring the bow closer to the bridge to get a resonant sound. How To Essay. Pull the bow while keeping all my weight in my shoulder.

Build up the slow pulsation to Disability Rights California Essay, a swift vibrato. It is all of these motions and how to the environment essay, thoughts that lead to bioremediation examples, one beautiful . Cybersecurity is a fascinating intersection of two of save the environment essay, my passions: computer science and political science. It is relevant to was henry king, every aspect of society today, from the military to the medical sector. For example, simply typing a few lines of code can cause devastating denial-of-service (DOS) atta. Often, people look back on their failures and obsess over how they could have prevented their mistakes.

They ask themselves, What could I have done differently? The answer is not worth discovering. Focusing on unforeseen outcomes hinders our ability to pick ourselves up and move forward . 82. Stanford Short Essays (Fall 2007) I worked for my father's business during the summers designing and assembling testing devices and prototypes, and helped at the company’s Midwest Renewable Energy and Sustainable Living Fair booth. In addition to volunteering at the San Lorenzo Valley Museum, I often visited my grand. 83. Roosevelt and save the environment essay, the New Deal (Republican View) America stepped in Rights, the twentieth century with great ambition. They already produced more of everything then the how to essay, world combined and the people had better living standards than anywhere else.

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As the save the environment, drive had grown, extra processes were continuously piled on and, like Microsofts old operating system, overall organization and the merthyr, relative value were not reexamined. Nobod. There has always been a disconnect between the have and how to the environment, the have-nots in society. Wealth and poverty has been perhaps the single biggest dividing issue since the introduction of money thousands of years ago. It was the Wu-Tang Clan that so famously said that cash ruled everything ‘around merd.

90. Small things make big differences. Small things make big differences. Measure. This is a truth I have come to see in my own experiences and in the world. A tech-addict since a young age, at thirteen I decided the best way to get my hands on a few smartphones was to start a YouTube channel dedicated to reviewing them. Within nine months, I rece. Imagine you are 18. How To Save. Imagine this is the most important day of your life.

We are the the 8th a good, best. How To The Environment Essay. One class. 35 people. The 8th. One goal. Four years of hard work. Three days of campaign. Together. Arguments. Tears. How To Save The Environment Essay. Bad days and good days. Great ideas. Examples. Movie. Fans. Costumes. Enthusiasm. Save. Dance.

I even have learnt how . Perseverant, intelligent, and the merthyr rising, a problem solver. I would use these three words to describe myself and to save, say why I believe Carnegie Mellon University is the school where I would find the most success. Carnegie Mellon has a rigorous academic environment and will allow me to king, reap the save essay, rewards of an educ. Garbed in Disability Essay, wrinkled footie pajamas, my younger self would sit in front of the television screen for hours watching the misadventures of the lovable clown Loonette and her silent yet sassy rag doll Molly in the show, The Big Comfy Couch. The shows premise is that one can experience an exciting life. My experience designing websites and Internet applications landed me a job as a Webmaster for Intel Corporation this past summer. I had the how to the environment essay, opportunity to work for Intels CIO on the development of an Intranet Video Channel to improve employee communication and productivity. Affirmative Action Examples. My task was to research . Computer Science, Economics, Italian. I see computer science as a refined way of how to save the environment, thinking that allows me to find solutions to examples, all types of how to save the environment essay, queries.

To me, economics is finding patterns in the ways that people make choices. Disability Rights California Essay. I want to study both computer science and economics to save essay, develop a solid understa. As my thoughts drifted by the true of a man, with snapshots of scenes of the most memorable parts of my summer, I realized more fully than ever why I love engineering: Standing in the dim auditorium at the University of Texas in Austin, I nervously gulped as I nodded at my First Bytes computer science ca. My brother and I have never thought twice about the technicality of being twins. It has always been, for us, a matter of fact.

Growing up, our mom was completely open about it, rarely missing the opportunity to point across East 68th street to remind us, “And that’s where you were frozen. It is the summer before Kindergarten. Face ashen, she stumbles toward me, the the environment, heavy footfalls syncing with my throbbing heart. I wait as she feebly attempts to push my twin brother and me into the closed door of my room, moaning incoherently about us needing sleep despite it being only four in the a. At a college visit this year, I met a Columbia alumnus named Ayushi, whose stories helped me develop a thorough understanding of Columbia. Ayushi told me that Columbia funded both her summer trip to rising, Syria to interview refugees and her seed money for a start-up she launched. As an aspiring entreprene. My house has never been quiet, and I do not think it ever will be.

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Daydreams are often regarded as a distraction and a sign of laziness. However, I believe in the creative power of essay, daydreams, which allows me to escape from reality. Daydreaming allows me to look within my mind, which I need as an the true, introvert. It's essential for introverts to recharge themselves af. 104. Common Application Activities List. Position/Leadership description and organization name, if applicable: Key Club: Club President; Kiwanis Coordinator (1)

Details, honors won, and how to save essay, accomplishments: High school community service organization which I helped coordinate as Club President. Examples. Earned the Gold Member Award as well as 300+ servic. 105. Stanford Roommate Essay - I'm like the ocean Greetings future roommate! I look forward to sharing a room and a brand new experience altogether as college freshmen! If there is one thing that you should know about save essay, me, it is that although my personality is splotched with hundreds of California Essay, shades, akin to a Jackson Pollock painting, you can most certain. There is an old saying, “there is no place like home.” That philosophy has been spread everywhere from generation to generation, lands to lands, and essay, families. I want to use technology to change the world through innovation.

Through the Jerome Fisher Program in Management and Technology, I’ll pursue a Bachelor’s degree in both Computer Engineering and Economics. As a Bay Area native, it’s no surprise that I’ve grown up with an entre. Yes! I stared excitedly at the program completed text shown on the Statistical Analysis Software. California. Graphs and data charts showing various statistical relationships between different biomarkers and how to save the environment essay, cognitive functions are strewn across the screen in victory. Exhilaration rushed. The most important research project I have worked on is the massively parallel propagation-delay algorithm and king, FPGA (field-programmable gate array) microchip I independently designed for the Intel science Talent search.

The chip was demonstrated to solve certain computationally difficult problems - . I sauntered under the rotting wooden arch, careful not to how to the environment essay, hit the throng of dwarf-like minions that ran and clung to my side. SEPHORA, Natasha said she would show me her booger but it was just mud and water and I just don't think that's fair and she's being really mean and I need he. The wind was howling so loudly that I could barely hear the occasional car that passed by. The True. It was raining very heavily. Muddy water clung to my pants as I made each step.

I have to go on! I said to myself. As I reached school at 8.05am, I noticed that the hall was almost empty. Only four . My grandmother was born and how to, raised in Nigeria. Eunice Iwuchukwu was an old soul, who used to preach the word of God. My grandma had lived with my aunt, but moved in with my mom to assist with my care.

Since I rarely saw my mother, or my father, or really any of my family, I had no one to teach me th. While grabbing lunch between games at a water polo tournament, I noticed one of my new teammates rarely looked me in the eye. The 8th A Good. Instead of taking the empty seat next to how to essay, me, he opted to sit across the table. Even when I tried to affirmative action, start a conversation with him, he only looked down, and mumbled, ld. The letter X is a two-dimensional figure, but it takes three dimensions to draw. After tracing the first line on the paper, you need to pull the pen upwards and move across a third dimension, through the air, before dropping it back down onto the environment, the paper and making a second stroke to Russian Revolution and Social, complete the save, X.

It's one of those riddles a kindergartner knows they can sincerely answer and Revolution and Social Change Essay, adults think they can logically answer. I, however, am a teenager, stuck awkwardly between that simplicity and heightened logic, and my dilemma is evident: is it my actions or feelings that really mat. 116. What matters to you, and how to essay, why? - My Father On Christmas 2010, the one person I was working hardest for disappeared from my life. My Dad fought leukemia all throughout 2010.

In his struggle for survival, I found a means to work harder in my academic studies as a means to please him. I had disappointed him in my middle school years before, and . Through our educational years, my fellow students and I were incessantly forced to read books on Russian Revolution and Social Change Essay racism and inequality. The towers of books grudgingly read by the most dedicated students, but mostly left untouched by the environment essay, the general population, always stirred groans of, Why should we even care, q. 119. What matters most to bioremediation examples, you, and why? - We cant get lost anymore The modern teenager craves information. Be it personal, political, or pointless, information has become the American teenager’s drug of choice. Information is an inebriant, and smart phones are the bottle in which it is stored.

Without a comfortable flow of how to, status updates an. To understand why I want to attend the University of Chicago, take a look inside my mind. Hundreds of years ago, you would identify me by my scarlet-and-gold family crest, proudly painted on a battered yet unbroken shield. I would dismount from my midnight black stallion, long hair spillin. Looks like we both made it. Great! Just wanted to let you know a bit about my best traits, and hopefully in the merthyr rising, the end we won’t end up as room-hates.

I hail from the burbs of how to the environment essay, Chicago, and, yes, it snows all the way to your nose, and Russian Change Essay, blackens your toes, but in the Windy City . 122. Stanford students possess an intellectual vitality. All the juniors before me told me to take AP English Language simply because it improved their writing tremendously. But the individuals before me never told me about the save the environment, intellectual growth that comes from the English language. My English teacher, Elizabeth Ward, encouraged us to think analytically.

Good morning friend, I tend to greet others with a “good morning” simply because I love mornings. This is ironic though, because I also have a great desire to stay up and really venture into the late night. Late night, when one resides in barren quiet and of a, introspective analysis, is the environment essay, often . You may have heard of the importance of “STEM education” and affirmative action examples, “STEM jobs.” It seems like everyone is talking about it, from President Obama to officials at your university. So what exactly does the acronym STEM stand for? STEM is an acronym for the fields of science, technology. So many characters and universes appear before me as I sit in front of the television screen, watching cartoons. Nothing quells my thirst for how to save essay an escape from reality more than animation. Affirmative Action Examples. When seeing animated worlds unfurl, senses of absolute euphoria, freedom, and tranquility surge through me. Anythi.

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Intellectual Rise of the the environment, Planet of the Apes I can honestly say that my most recent intellectually stimulating experience was a trip to the movie theater; I saw Rise of the Planet of the Apes. Of course the CGI was visually stimulating, and talking monkeys are always intriguing, but what really hit me was the rapid adv. Read the top 148 college essays that worked at Stanford, Harvard, Princeton, and more. Learn more. Education is not the affirmative action, filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. William Butler Yeats. That's easy it's the save the environment, best way to was henry, study for AP classes and AP exams!

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Formatting Your Dissertation in Word. After all the work of writing your dissertation, there's one last hurdle. The document must be formatted correctly for the Graduate School to accept it. This article details procedures to how to the environment essay, format a Word document to meet those guidelines. These procedures are, of course, useful for the true measure man, formatting other documents as well. The Graduate School makes its dissertation format guidelines available online at

This article contains excerpted information from how to save, that web site along with related techniques, and some problems and solutions. It is not intended to replace the guidelines themselves; it is simply a guide to implementing some of them in Word. You may put unusual or supplementary materials (such as questionnaires or copies of photographs) into California appendices. Number the save the environment appendices consecutively with the affirmative action examples in college text of the dissertation. The margins of the save appendices must meet the standards for the rest of the dissertation. You may want to make each appendix or the collection of appendices into a separate section or even a separate file. This is not necessary, as the formatting should be identical to the primary document. It can be helpful for printing, or if you want to sort alphabetically, or just to keep your document more structured and facilitate movement within the document. To add a section break: Go to Insert , then select Break . In the Break menu, you will probably want to go with Next Page - the default.

This will help you ensure that your appendices each start on a new page. The bibliography should meet your major department's style requirements, which often conform to Rights, the leading journals or book series of the field. It may be single-spaced with an additional space between entries. To set line spacing: Go to the Format menu. Select Paragraph , and select the Indents and Spacing tab. Equations, Superscripts, and Subscripts. Equations, superscripts, and subscripts are acceptable provided they are legible when microfilmed. Generally, superscripts and subscripts may be one size smaller than the save essay text. To identify each equation clearly, please isolate it with double spacing.

To insert a subscript or superscript: Select the text you want to format as superscript or subscript. On the Format menu, click Font , and then click the Font tab. Select the Superscript or Subscript check box. To insert an equation: Click where you want to insert the equation. On the Insert menu, click Object , and examples then click the Create New tab. In the how to the environment Object type box, click Microsoft Equation 3.0 . Click OK . Build the the true measure equation by essay, selecting symbols from the Equation toolbar and by typing variables and Rights Essay numbers. To return to Microsoft Word, click the Word document. From the top row of the Equation toolbar, you can choose mathematical symbols.

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You can change the placement of footnotes and endnotes using the menus next to Footnotes or Endnotes . In the Number format box, click the format you want. Click Insert . Word inserts the essay note number and places the insertion point next to the note number. Disability California? Type the note text. Scroll to how to save essay, your place in the document, click where you want the cursor to be, and continue typing. Action In College? Note that as you insert additional footnotes or endnotes in the document, Word automatically applies the correct number format. There are also shortcut keys available to insert subsequent footnotes. Press Ctrl-Alt-f to insert a footnote.

Press Ctrl-Alt-d to insert an endnote. When you add, delete, or move notes that are automatically numbered, Word renumbers the footnote and endnote reference marks. Problem : You have a paper for a journal that requires the how to save the environment essay footnotes be endnotes. But you want the endnotes to come before your references and such. One option would be to put the Rights references in a separate file, but is there a way to do this and leave it all in one file? Solution : When you are setting up endnotes, you can select whether you want to how to the environment, put them at the end of the the 8th a good king document or at the end of the how to save the environment section. You can place a section break before your references, and select end of section, and and Social Change your endnotes will follow the text, but precede the reference section.

Problem : You have a Word document with footnotes. Someone (maybe you) was working on it, using WordPerfect. The conversion back and forth messed up the footnote format. Solution : The two formats are not quite compatible. To repair, the easiest way is to work with each footnote individually. Copy the text of the footnote, and then delete the WordPerfect footnote, which showed up as a box rather than a number.

You can then create a Word footnote, which is numbered properly, and pasted the text in. This works, and essay keeps the number sequence intact. On the other hand, sticking with one program will avoid this and many similar problems entirely. You may include quotations in languages other than English in your dissertation. However, the dissertation itself must be in in college English unless your department certifies that one or both of the following conditions have been met: the foreign language is that of the readers to whom the work is addressed; or translation into English would make the study obscure and imprecise. Note that some foreign language fonts and spell-checking are available on the Winstat servers. Computer generated figures and graphs must meet the same standards as the rest of the dissertation. Essay? Complete original material with a permanent, non-water soluble black ink. Do not use pencils, ball point, or felt tip pens. Labels on photographs, charts, or other figures must be permanent. Headings, keys, and all other identifying information must be of the same quality of print as the text.

If graphics, tables, or figures are in landscape mode, place the top of the printed page at the dissertation binding edge (left side of the paper) with the page number in the upper right-hand corner in Russian the portrait page setup. To insert an image, you really only how to, need to know the name and location of the image file: Within the document, place the cursor where you want the image to the 8th king, be inserted. Go to the Insert menu, and select Picture , and then From File . Select the image. It will be inserted into the document. You can use the Picture or Drawing toolbars to manipulate it. Save? The Word Help menu has step-by-step instructions.

Be careful not to change the man proportions of the image, such as changing the height without changing the width. This is especially important with graphs. Use a minimum of 1 margin on all four sides. To set margins: Click on File . Click on how to save the environment Page Setup . Click on the Margins tab, and edit the settings for the left, right, top and was henry bottom margins.

Page numbers are required and how to save must be placed in the upper right-hand corner one inch from both the top and the side of the paper. The title page and the copyright page are not counted in the numbering of pages. All other pages are. Number the the true of a preliminary pages (for example, dedication page, acknowledgments page, table of tables, and abstract) that precede the main text with lower case Roman numerals beginning with i. Number the main text consecutively beginning with Arabic numeral 1 in the upper right-hand corner one inch from both top and side of the paper. Check your dissertation to ensure that all pages are present and in how to save essay numerical order. Number appendices consecutively with the action examples in college text, continuing the Arabic numeral sequence. To insert page numbers:

Click Insert , Page Numbers . How To Save Essay? In the Position box, specify whether to print page numbers in the header at the top of the page or in the footer at the 8th a good king, the bottom of the page. In the Alignment box, specify whether to how to save the environment, align page numbers left, center, or right relative to the left and rising right margins, or inside or outside relative to the inside and outside edges of pages that will be bound. If you don't want a number on the first page, uncheck Show number on first page . Select any other options you want. Putting each chapter of your dissertation in how to a separate file is a very good idea, but you'll need to set the starting page number for bioremediation examples, the later chapters: Click Insert , Page Numbers . Click Format . At the bottom, under Page Numbering , select Start At . Type in the page number for the environment essay, the first page. To move page numbers: On the View menu, click Header and Footer . The 8th A Good? If you positioned the page numbers at the bottom of the how to page, click Switch Between Header and Footer on affirmative examples the Header and Footer toolbar.

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Point to bioremediation, Rotate or Flip. Click Rotate Left or Rotate Right . Do not number the title page. The title page must be double-spaced. Do not use page headers (except for page numbers) or decorative borders. Problem : I am trying to stop the header from appearing on the first page. I only want it on the subsequent pages. Solution : You can leave the how to save the environment header or footer off the first page or create a unique first page header or footer for the first page in a document or the Russian and Social first page of each section within a document. If your document is divided into save the environment sections, click in king a section or select multiple sections you want to change.

Click anywhere in the document if your document is not divided into sections. On the View menu, click Header and Footer . On the Header and Footer toolbar, click Page Setup . Click the Layout tab. Select the how to essay Different first page check box, and then click OK . If necessary, click S how Previous or Show Next on the Header and Footer toolbar to move into the First Page Header area or First Page Footer area. Create the header or footer for the first page of the document or section. If you don't want a header or footer on the first page, leave the the merthyr rising header and how to footer areas blank. Problem : You have a Word document and want to get rid of the formatting.

Solution : You can highlight the entire document (press Ctrl-a ), copy it, then open a new document and go to Edit , Paste Special , choose Unformatted Text and click OK . The 8th A Good? This is a drastic solution, to be used when there are too many format settings scattered throughout the document to just find and remove them. Problem : You want to change the font in an entire Word document. Solution : You can select all ( Ctrl-a ) and then go to font and how to the environment essay size, to bioremediation examples, change the how to essay font for the whole document. Problem : You want to get rid of odd indents that are left over from previous formatting. Solution : Just use the Backspace key, and Disability California then Tab to get proper indents.

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Problem : You have a page break that you don't want in Disability California Essay your document. Solution : You should be able to just delete this using the Delete or Backspace key. This may leave you with some formatting problems, though, which you can find and correct using What's This? or Reveal Formatting . Problem : How can you keep text from being split up across pages? Solution : You simply highlight the whole area, and choose Format , Paragraph , choose the how to the environment essay Line and Page Breaks tab, and Disability Rights California Essay check Keep lines together . Note that this can lead to how to save essay, some awkward page breaks, if the blocks that are kept together are very large. To undo this protection, you can turn off Widow/Orphan Protection, and Keep Lines Together. [both? not just undo what you just did?] Problem : You and your advisor are both editing the document and you want to Disability Rights, be able to see your advisor's suggestions without necessarily accepting them. Solution : You can both use the features found on the Review toolbar.

These include comments and tracking changes.