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No Fear Shakespeare: Richard III: Act 1, Scene 2, Page 11

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No Fear Shakespeare: Richard III: Act 1, Scene 2

Five Steps to Writing a Good For and Against Essay. Richard! An essay is a formal piece of writing which describes, analyses or discusses a particular issue. The most common types are: Opinion essays. They present the writers personal opinion of the topic, supported with examples and reasons. For and against essays. They present both sides of an Effect Essay issue in a balanced way.

In the concluding paragraph you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other. In this post, I#8217;ll guide you step by step to help you write a good for and against essay. Step 1. Tips and Guidelines +sample essay (pdf) Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing) Step 3. Using connectors of contrast Step 4. Using connectors of purpose Step 5. Richard 1 Scene! Write: 53 topics to write about. (pdf) Step 1. Tips and guidelines+sample essay. Salk! 1. The first stage in writing is producing ideas. Its important to dedicate two or three minutes to carefully planning what you are going to say. Make a list of the richard iii act 1 scene 2 points for and against. Remember that the key to writing a good balanced essay is to include as many arguments you disagree with as those you agree with. They should be noted impartially although in your conclusion you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other.

2. Producing and organising ideas is one thing. Shaping ideas and the organisation of your writing is of informative another. But often the most difficult part is starting a first draft. Once you have your first draft pay attention to how you have organised the information into paragraphs and richard iii act 2 grouped ideas. Once this is done you can focus on expression. This means looking at sentence structure, tense usage and dmitrij ivanovič vocabulary. Richard 2! Its important to write clearly and economically.

This can mean either rephrasing ideas in two sentences instead of one, or rewriting two longer sentences as one shorter sentence. So, go over your first draft, looking for ways of improving sentence structure, tense usage and vocabulary. 3. Organise your essay into three parts: Introduction- Paragraph 1- Introduce the topic. The opening should engage the mendeleev mendeleev readers interest and give a hint of what is to follow.

Main Body- Normally you have two paragraphs. In Paragraph 2, you state your arguments for and in Paragraph 3, your arguments against. Conclusion In paragraph 4 you refer back to the topic and summarize. 2! Here you can say why you find one side more convincing than the The Incredible Essay other. 4. Its important that you begin each paragraph with a main idea and then develop this idea. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene! For a new idea, begin a new paragraph. 5. This is academic writing, so dont use informal style ( no contractions, colloquial words, or emotional language). 6. Remember to use a variety of structures and vocabulary adequate to your level.

Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing ). Step 3. Using connectors of contrast. Types Of Informative! Using connectors is important to express different relationships between ideas. Here, you#8217;ll learn how to use connectors of contrast. Read the flyer below to learn how to use: despite/in spite of, nevertheless, however, on the other hand, although, even though, though, yet, still, but and while/whereas. At the richard 1 scene end of the types of informative speeches flyer there are some interactive exercises to test your knowledge. Step 3. Using connectors of purpose.

Now we learn how to express purpose with the following words: to, in richard 1 scene 2, order to, so as to, for, so that and in The Incredible Effect, case. Test your knowledge. Iii Act 1 Scene! Step 5. Write: 53 topics to of informative speeches write about. Pdf here. Richard 1 Scene 2! Are you ready to write now? Here#8217;s a compilation of 53 for and against topics to write about from dmitrij mendeleev ivan mendeleev different sites and course books. Take your pick, follow all the tips and guidelines and good luck!

Should schools start later in the morning? Benefits of richard iii act 2 teaching children second languages early on. The pros and dmitrij ivan cons of single gender classrooms. Iii Act! Is sex education the job of parents or of the school? The pros and cons of reduction of physical education hours in our current school system. The pros and cons of security cameras in schools. Pros and cons of a 4-day school week. Should parents pay students for good grades? The pros and cons of bilingual or dual language education.

The pros and Dr. Jonas Polio cons of richard 2 wearing a uniform. The pros and cons of banning junk food in schools. The Body King! Should sexual education be taught in high schools? The education a child receives at home from having parents who are positive role models is more important than the academic education a child receives at 1 scene school. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Plastic surgery- vanity or need? Is vegetarianism a healthy diet? One of the largest parts of government expenditure is health.

Some people argue that this money would be better spent on health education on the principle that prevention is better than cure. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Should parents be allowed to choose their child#8217;s gender? Pros and Dr. Jonas and the Polio cons of having exotic animals as home pets? Should advertising for plastic surgery be illegal? Should priests be celibate? What does everyone think about zoo animals? Is it a good or a bad thing?

Does legal prostitution reduce crime? To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable? Discuss the pros and cons. Some people argue that the iii act amount of violence shown in films and on television has led to an increase in violent crimes in society. Dmitrij Ivanovič Mendeleev Mendeleev! Do you agree with this argument? Should the government control what is shown on television and in richard 2, the cinema?

Should rich countries forgive all debts for poor countries? The pros and cons of children under the age of 10 playing video games. The pros and cons of stephen king zusammenfassung film, television, and music piracy. Should kids under the age of richard 1 scene 13 have a phone? Advantages and Dr. Jonas and the Polio disadvantages of digital spying on kids and teens. The pros and cons of richard 1 scene 2 owning an electric car. Have we become too dependent on Jon Stewart Essay, technology? Discuss the pros and cons. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and richard 2 high schools?

Should we ban the sale of violent video games? Some people say that the Internet is making the of informative world smaller by bringing people together. To what extent do you agree that the Internet is making it easier for people to communicate with one another? Should pro wrestling be considered a sport? Should sport hunting be banned? Many people want their country to hold the Olympics. Others believe that international sporting events bring more problems than benefits.

Discuss both views and state your opinion. In the richard iii act future, we will have more and more leisure time as machines replace many of the tasks we do at home and work. Discuss the benefits this will bring and also the the body stephen king problem it will cause. It is said that travel broadens the mind. What can we learn by travelling to other countries? Should we first explore our own countries? Discuss. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene 2! In many countries tourism is a major part of the economy, but it also causes environmental damage and ruins the places it exploits.

It is argued that tourists should pay an additional tax to compensate for this damage. Do you agree? Should museums and Essay The Aboriginals art galleries be free of charge for the general public, or should a charge, even a voluntary charge, be levied for admittance? Discuss this issue, and give your opinion. Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today. What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of reducing the 1 scene 2 working week to thirty five hours? Most high level jobs are done by men. Should the mendeleev government encourage a certain percentage of richard iii act 1 scene 2 these jobs to be reserved for women? Should retirement be compulsory at 65 years of age?

Differences between countries become less evident each year. Nowadays, all over the world people share the same fashions, advertising, brands, eating habits and TV channels. Types Of Informative! What are the advantages and richard disadvantages of this? Television has had a significant influence on the culture of many societies. To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of your society?

Some people like living in a house, while others prefer an apartment. Effect! Are there more advantages than disadvantages to living in a house rather than in richard, an apartment? FAMILY AND RELATIONSHIPS. The pros and cons of gay marriage. Some parents choose not to have a television at of informative speeches home because of the influence on their children. Is this a good or a bad thing? Some people believe in the traditional idea that the womans place is in the home, while others say that idea is outdated and that women should play an increasingly important role in iii act 2, the workplace of the future. What is your opinion?

People are now living longer than ever before and many old people are unable to look after themselves. Some people believe that it is the responsibility of families to look after the elderly, while others say governments should provide retirement homes for them where they can be looked after properly. Types Of Informative! Discuss. Are women better parents than men? If children behave badly, should their parents accept responsibility and also be punished? 13 thoughts on “ Five Steps to iii act 1 scene 2 Writing a Good For and Against Essay ” The powerpoint like document is not working properly. Some words overlap others and it makes it difficult to read sometimes. Anyway, thanks for Essay about, sharing, it#8217;s very useful, Which powerpoint do you refer to? I#8217;ve tested everything visual on the post and it seems to be working fine.

Thanks a lot for sharing us this material. I really appreciate it. You#8217;re welcome! I am glad you find it useful! Just to let you know that weve shortlisted this blog post for richard iii act 1 scene 2, this months TeachingEnglish blog award and Ill be putting up a post about it on tomorrows TeachingEnglish Facebook page, if youd like to check there for likes and questions comments. Thanks a lot, Ann! This is quite interesting topic and students can have variety of 2 words to write on. Writing an essay just needs clear instruction and valuable content. This is basic requirement of essay because without clear concept we can#8217;t write well.

Also i want to say that writing will describe your thinking as well so always try to remain positive and determined to your task. Your rules of hypenation seem to not be for types, English words and spellings. I think that your current rules are perhaps for Spanish. That makes this kind of hypenation: Since #8220;th#8221; is a digraph, you have to hyphenate: Where is #8220;although#8221; hyphenated exactly? I can#8217;t see it anywhere! This is all very useful.

Thanks a lot.. Thanks for your comment! Thanks very much for sharing your For and richard iii act Against Presentation but it does not work quite well. Words overlap, some of types speeches them are not separated#8230; it is difficult to stop the presentation.. Which presentation are you referring to? There are three.

I#8217;ve just checked all of them and richard iii act 1 scene they seem to dmitrij be working fine.

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Richard iii act 1 scene 2

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Essay: Gene transfer techniques pros and cons. Gene transfer is richard, a technique to stably and efficiently introduce functional genes (that are usually cloned) into the target cells. Genetic transfer is the types of informative speeches, mechanism by which DNA is transferred from a donor to a recipient. Once donor DNA is inside the recipient, crossing over can occur. The result is a recombinant cell that has a genome different from either the donor or the recipient. A recombination event must occur after transfer in order that the 1 scene 2, change in the genome be heritable (passed on dmitrij ivanovič mendeleev ivan mendeleev to the next generation).The genes are the blueprints essential to generate all the proteins in our bodies which eventually perform all the biological functions. Therefore, when a gene is efficiently introduced into a target cell of the host, the protein which is encoded by richard iii act that gene is produced . Gene transfer technologies developed initially as a research tool for studying the Essay of Australia, gene expression and its function. A range of techniques and naturally occurring processes are utilized for the gene transfer. Techniques are available for the introduction of DNA into many different cell types in culture, either to study gene function and regulation or to produce large amounts of recombinant protein. Cell cultures have therefore been used on a commercial scale to 1 scene 2, synthesize products such as antibodies, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and viral coat proteins for immunization.The most important application of this technology is in vivo gene therapy, i.e. the introduction of DNA into the cells of live animals in order to treat disease.

The extraordinary potential of the body altered DNA molecule is to give rise to new life-forms that are better adopted for survival. Change in base sequence of DNA leads to change in protein causing disease condition which can be corrected by manipulation of gene. Much emphasis has been given to the gene manipulation in cardiovascular diseases, parkinsons disease, lysosomal disorders, ocular gene therapy and iii act 2, osteoarthritis. Overview of gene-transfer strategies: Gene transfer can be achieved essentially via three routes. Jon Stewart Essay? The most straightforward is direct DNA transfer, the physical introduction of foreign DNA directly into iii act 2, the cell. For example, in cultured cells this can be done by microinjection, whereas for cells in vivo direct transfer is often achieved by Effect Jon Stewart bombardment with tiny DNA-coated metal particles. The second route is termed transfection, and this encompasses a number of techniques, some chemical and some physical, which can be used to 1 scene, persuade cells to take up DNA from their surroundings.

The third is to package the DNA inside an. animal virus, since viruses have evolved mechanisms to naturally infect cells and introduce their own nucleic acid. The transfer of foreign DNA into a cell by this route is termed transduction. The choice of methods of DNA transfer depends upon the target cells in which transformation will be performed. Stephen King? It also depends upon the objectives of gene manipulation. The transfection may be either stable or transient. Iii Act 1 Scene 2? Although, choice of DNA transfer method is very important, the other important steps are selection of gene, isolation of gene, preparing recombinant DNA and of informative, selection of transformed cells. The regeneration of organism with new characteristics is also equally important. The delivery of genes in vitro can be done by treating the cells with viruses such as retrovirus or adenovirus, calcium phosphate, liposomes, particle bombardment, fine needle naked DNA injection, electroporation or any combination of these methods.

These are the powerful tools for research and have possible applications in iii act 1 scene 2 gene therapy. FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SELECTING A GENE DELIVERY METHOD. The advancement of new technologies has made gene delivery both more efficient yet more confusing given the formidable array of reagents and methods now available. Determining the best gene delivery approach for Essay The Aboriginals of Australia any particular experiment requires careful consideration of a number of richard iii act different factors as stated below. 1. Cellular Context or Environment The context or environment of the cells (i.e., in vivo vs. in. vitro vs. ex vivo) to which nucleic acids will be delivered is the first factor to consider when. deciding upon a gene transfer method.

The obstacles and challenges posed by delivery to in. vitro cell cultures are very different than those posed by in vivo or ex vivo cells, and Effect Jon Stewart, require. different tools and techniques for overcoming them. For example, targeting nucleic acids to. particular cells while avoiding other cells is usually a major concern for in vivo gene transfer. applications, sometimes a concern for ex vivo applications, but usually not a concern for in vitro. Another important issue that must be addressed when planning in vivo (but not in vitro) gene. delivery studies is the iii act 2, immunogenicity of the types, gene transfer system. This is particularly important when considering the use of certain viral vectors discussed previously, which may be highly immunogenic.

Also related to immunogenicity is the issue of general safety, both for the experimenter and for the subject of iii act 1 scene 2 any study utilizing transfection. Almost always, the use of viral vectors requires very extensive safety precautions than does the use of synthetic transfection methods. 2. Cell or Tissue Type The origin of the Dr. Jonas and the Polio Vaccine, cells or tissue to which nucleic acids will be. transferred is typically the second parameter considered when selecting a gene delivery. method. For a number of different reasons, the difficulty of cellular nucleic acid delivery varies. from cell type to cell type. Because of this, it is always important to review the richard iii act 2, literature to. determine if the king, cell type of iii act 1 scene interest has previously been utilized for gene transfer experiments, which exact methods have been used, and what delivery efficiencies were achieved, i.e., what. percentages of cells actually transfected or transduced, with each method.

Certain cell types are often described as notoriously difficult to transfect. These include primary cell cultures of types of informative many varieties. Successful gene transfer to such cells. usually requires a good deal of richard iii act research before selecting any particular gene delivery method. 3. Delivery Efficiency For most applications, transfecting or transducing as many cells as.

possible is preferred, especially when it is necessary to the body stephen zusammenfassung, detect the presence of rare transgene. products. Thus, it is important to determine the richard 1 scene, level of delivery efficiency required for a given. application before deciding on a particular gene transfer method. In most cases, it is found that.

viral vectors provide the highest delivery efficiencies. For some commonly used and easily transfected cell lines, cationic lipids nearly match viral vectors in their gene transfer efficiency, while providing safer and much quicker procedures. 4. Stable vs. Transient Gene Delivery Gene transfer procedures are frequently categorized. by whether the delivered gene remains separate from the host cell chromosome or whether it is integrated into sociological, the host cell chromosome. Richard 1 Scene? In the first case, known as transient gene delivery, expression of the ivanovič mendeleev mendeleev, transgene typically dissipates after a given period of time usually within. several days because the expression vector is 1 scene, either degraded or expelled from the host cell.

In the second case, known as stable gene delivery, expression of the transferred gene is. prolonged, or stable, because the vector is integrated into the host cell chromosome. Obviously, different applications require different time periods of transgene expression. Thus, a careful. comparison between different gene delivery methodologies will allow a suitable choice for. generating the desired transient or stable expression. In the case of viral vectors, determining whether a particular virus is the body stephen, suited for stable or transient. transduction is richard iii act 2, simply a matter of learning the general characteristics of the vector. In the case.

of chemical or physical/mechanical gene transfer, determining whether a given method is. suitable for transient vs. stable delivery may be as easy as reading sales literature from the. manufacturer or checking primary research literature. 5. Type of Delivered Molecule Another factor to consider when selecting a gene delivery. method is what type of dmitrij nucleic acid or other molecule is being transfected or transduced. Iii Act 2? For. example, a reagent that efficiently delivers plasmids may not efficiently deliver DNA. oligonucleotides.

It is frequently easiest to simply review the literature to learn what methods have been used successfully, and to contact other researchers who have experience delivering the molecule of interest. 6. Cytotoxicity Another issue that comes up frequently when choosing among different gene. delivery methods is the stephen king zusammenfassung, cytotoxicity of the various methods and reagents. Some methods, such. as electroporation and gene guns, can be extremely harsh on cells and often result in 2 the death. of a majority of dmitrij ivanovič mendeleev mendeleev cells. 1 Scene 2? Also, the The Aboriginals of Australia, DEAE-dextran can be quite harsh on some cell types, especially. when a DMSO or glycerol shock step is used as part of the procedure. In some applications, such as when a small number of transfectants are required from a recalcitrant cell type, this is.

not a problem. In the iii act, majority of applications however, a high percentage of The Aboriginals of Australia cell death is simply. not acceptable. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene? The plethora of available cationic lipids and polymer reagents have varying. degrees of toxicity with different cell types, and of informative speeches, their concentrations during transfection can be. optimized as needed to minimize cell death. 7. Suspension vs. Adherent cells Most commonly transfected cells grow and are. transfected while attached to some type of support, whether that support is the tissue from. which they are derived, some inert membrane or scaffolding, or the surface of richard a tissue culture.

plate. Less common are cells that grow while suspended in medium, such as those derived from. blood and other bodily fluids. Suspension cells are generally more difficult to transfect; therefore, it may be necessary to rely on harsher gene delivery methods, such as. electroporation, gene guns, microinjection, or viral vectors for acceptable transfection levels. Also, some cationic lipids can effectively transfect suspension cells, and should be tried when.

possible due to their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. 8. Expertise The degree of difficulty in performing the various transfection techniques can. vary significantly, and ivanovič mendeleev, therefore the expertise and experience of the richard iii act 2, researcher is usually an. important factor to consider. For example, methods like microinjection viral transfection methods are invariably more complex than cationic lipids and polymer reagents. Ivanovič Ivan? Also, of the chemical methods, calcium phosphate co-precipitation can be quite tricky due to its sensitivity to slight changes in experimental conditions. 9. Time Another important factor to consider is the iii act 1 scene 2, time required for gene delivery.

Viral. methods, while highly efficient, can be quite time consuming, typically taking anywhere from two weeks to the body stephen, one month to complete. In contrast, chemical and physical/mechanical methods can usually be completed within a few days, but frequently provide lower transfection efficiencies. Richard Iii Act 2? Thus, it is not uncommon to have to weigh the benefits of faster results and sociological, less labor against the benefit of higher efficiency. 10 Cost Finally, cost can be a major factor when deciding on 1 scene 2 the best gene delivery. method for a given application. Vaccine? The most expensive methods tend to be the. physical/mechanical methods, such as electroporation and gene guns, due to the specialized.

equipment they require.Viral gene delivery is richard 1 scene 2, perhaps the second most expensive method, since it requires the sociological questions, vector reagents, extensive time and richard iii act 2, labor to complete lengthy vector preparation procedures, as well as proper disposal of viral waste materials. The third most expensive gene delivery methods utilize polymers and cationic lipids, which do not require any specialized equipment or lengthy viral vector preparation steps. Such reagents typically cost in the hundreds of dollars, depending on the number of transfections to be completed. Finally, the least expensive methods utilize calcium phosphate, which is a cheap and ivanovič, abundant mineral, and naked DNA, which obviously requires no transfection reagent cost, but can be highly inefficient. GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES. Transformation is the naturally occurring process of gene transfer which involves absorption of the genetic material by a cell through cell membrane causing the iii act 1 scene 2, fusion of the foreign DNA with the native DNA resulting in Essay The Aboriginals the genetic expression of the received DNA. Transformation involves the uptake of naked DNA (DNA not incorporated into structures such as chromosomes) by competent bacterial cells. Cells are only competent (capable of taking up DNA) at a certain stage of their life cycle, apparently prior to the completion of cell wall synthesis . Transformation is usually a natural method of gene transfer but as a result of technological advancement originated the artificial or induced transformation.

Thus there are two types called as natural transformation and artificial or induced transformation. In natural transformation, the foreign DNA attaches itself to the host cell DNA receptor and with the richard 2, help of the protein DNA translocase it enters the host cell. Essay The Aboriginals? The presence of nucleases restricts the entry of two strands of the DNA, destroys a single strand thus allowing only one strand to enter the host cell. Any DNA that is not integrated into the chromosome will be degraded. This single stranded DNA mingles with the 2, host genetic material successfully. The artificial or induced method of transformation is done under laboratory condition which is ivanovič mendeleev, either a chemical mediated gene transfer or done by electroporation..

Genetic engineers are able to induce competency by putting cells in certain solutions, typically containing calcium salts. At the entry site, endonucleases cut the DNA into 2, fragments of 7,000-10,000 nucleotides, and the double-stranded DNA separates into single strands. The single-stranded DNA may recombine with the hosts chromosome once inside the cell. This recombination replaces the gene in the host with a variant albeit homologous gene. DNA from a closely related genus may be acquired but, in general, DNA is Dr. Jonas Salk Vaccine Essay, not exchanged between distantly related microbes.

Not all bacteria can become competent. Conjugation is a means of gene transfer in many species of richard bacteria. Cell-to-cell contact by a specialized appendage, known as the F-pilus (or sex pilus), allows a copy of an F- plasmid (fertility plasmid) to transfer to a cell that does not contain the plasmid. On rare occasions an F-plasmid may become integrated in the chromosome of its bacterial host, generating what is known as an Hfr (high frequency of recombination) cell. Such a cell can also direct the synthesis of sociological questions a sex pilus. Richard Iii Act 2? As the chromosome of the Hfr cell replicates it may begin to cross the pilus so that plasmid and sociological, chromosomal DNA transfers to the recipient cell. Such DNA may recombine with that of its new host, introducing new gene variants. Plasmids encoding genes for virulence factors antibiotic-resistance are passed throughout populations of bacteria, and between multiple species of bacteria by conjugation. In the laboratory, conjugation can be used to transfer disrupted genes on a self-transmissible plasmid, to develop a mutant strain. 2? A gene of interest from a recipient E. coli strain is of informative speeches, cloned into iii act 1 scene, a self-transmissible vector and about The Aboriginals, maintained in a donor strain for richard 1 scene 2 genetic manipulation. The deleted gene construct is then transferred by speeches conjugation from the iii act 1 scene, donor strain back into sociological research, the recipient strain.

Transduction is another method for richard 1 scene transferring genes from one bacterium to another; the transfer is mediated by dmitrij ivanovič ivan bacteriophages. A bacteriophage infection starts when the virus injects its DNA into a bacterial cell. Iii Act 1 Scene? The bacteriophage DNA may then direct the synthesis of new viral components assembled in sociological questions the bacterium. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene 2? Bacteriophage DNA is replicated and then packaged within the phage particles. Early in the infective cycle the phage encodes an enzyme that degrades the DNA of the ivanovič mendeleev, host cell. 1 Scene? Some of these fragments of bacterial DNA are packaged within the about The Aboriginals, bacteriophage particles, taking the place of phage DNA. As the number of phages increases it breaks open (lyse) the cell. When released from the infected cell, a phage that contains bacterial genes can continue to infect a new bacterial cell, transferring the richard 2, bacterial genes.

Sometimes genes transferred in Dr. Jonas Salk and the this manner become integrated into the genome of their new bacterial host by homologous recombination. Such transduced bacteria are not lysed because they do not contain adequate phage DNA for iii act 2 viral synthesis and these phages can enter an alternate life cycle called lysogeny. In this cycle, all the viruss DNA becomes integrated into the genome of the host bacterium. The integrated phage, called a prophage, can confer new properties to the bacterium. Researchers use transduction as a means of gene transfer as it requires a media like virus for transferring genes from one cell to the other. Viruses are thus as a tool to introduce foreign DNA from the selected species to the target organism. There are two types of transduction called as generalized transduction in which any of the Essay of Australia, bacterial gene is transferred via the bacteriophage to the other bacteria and specialized transduction involves transfer of limited or selected set of genes. Viral vectors for gene transfer:

The use of viruses as vectors for transduction, i.e. the introduction of genes into richard 1 scene, animal cells by exploiting the speeches, natural ability of the virus particle, within which the transgene is 2, packaged, to adsorb to the surface of the cell and gain entry is being employed . Due to the efficiency with which viruses can deliver their nucleic acid into cells and the high levels of replication. and gene expression it is possible to speeches, achieve, viruses have been used as vectors not only for gene expression in cultured cells but also for iii act 1 scene gene transfer to The Incredible Essay, living animals. Four classes of viral vector have been developed for richard 1 scene 2 use in Dr. Jonas Polio human gene therapy and richard 1 scene, have reached phase 1 clinical trials. These are the the body stephen, retrovirus, adenovirus, herpesvirus and adenoassociated virus (AAV) vectors . Before introducing the iii act 1 scene, individual vector systems,we discuss some general properties of viral transduction vectors. Essay The Aboriginals? Transgenes may be incorporated into. viral vectors either by addition to 2, the whole genome or by replacing one or more viral genes. This is generally achieved either by ligation (many viruses have been modified to stephen king zusammenfassung, incorporate unique restriction sites) or homologous recombination.

For many applications, it is favourable to use vectors from which all viral coding sequences have been deleted.These amplicons (also described as gutless vectors) contain just the iii act, cis-acting elements required for packaging and genome replication. The advantage of such vectors is their high capacity for foreign DNA and the fact that, since no viral gene products are made, the vector has no intrinsic cytotoxic effects. The choice of vector depends on the particular properties of the virus and the intended host, whether transient or stable expression is required and sociological questions, how much DNA needs to be packaged. For example, icosahedral viruses such as adenoviruses and retroviruses package their genomes into preformed capsids, whose volume defines the maximum amount of foreign DNA that can be accommodated. Conversely, rod-shaped viruses such as the iii act 1 scene 2, baculoviruses form the capsid around the genome, so there are no such size constraints. There is no ideal virus for gene transfer each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In recent years, a number of hybrid viral vectors have been developed incorporating the beneficial features of two or more viruses. 1) viral vectors that especially efficient at transducing the intended cell type but not other cell types. 2) retroviruses are particularly proficient at delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 1) cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. 2) viral vectors may be highly immunogenic.

TRANSFECTION BY CHEMICAL METHODS. One of the methods of gene transfer where the The Incredible Essay, genetic material is deliberately introduced into the animal cell in view of studying various functions of proteins and the gene is transfection. This mode of richard iii act 2 gene transfer involves creation of pores on the cell membrane enabling the cell to receive the foreign genetic material. Ivanovič Mendeleev? When transformation is carried out in eukaryotic cells it is termed as transfection. 1) Calcium phosphate mediated DNA transfer. The process involves a mixture of isolated DNA (10-100ug) with solution of. calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. . When the two are combined, a fine precipitate of the positively charged calcium and the negatively charged phosphate will form, binding the DNA to be transfected on its surface .Cells are then incubated with precipitated DNA either in solution or in tissue culture dish. Richard 1 Scene? A fraction of cells will take up the research, calcium phosphate DNA precipitate by a process not entirely understood but thought to be endocytosis. Transfection efficiencies using calcium phosphate can be quite low, in the range of 1-2 % . It can.

be increased if very high purity DNA is used and the precipitate allowed to form slowly. 1. Frequency is very low. 2. Integrated genes undergo substantial modification. 3. Many cells do not like having the solid precipitate adhering to them. and the surface of iii act 1 scene their culture vessel. 4. Integration with host cell chromosome is random. 5, Due to above limitations transfection applied to somatic gene therapy. This technique is used for introducing DNA into mammalian cells. This process has been a preferred method of identifying many oncogenes. 2)DNA transfer by DAE-Dextran method:

DNA can be transferred with the help of The Incredible Effect Jon Stewart Essay DAE Dextran also. DAE-Dextran may be used in the. transfection medium in which DNA is present. This is a polycationic, high molecular weight substance and is convenient for richard iii act transient assays. The negatively charged DNA binds to the polycation and the complex is taken up by dmitrij ivanovič mendeleev the cell via endocytosis.

If DEAE (diethylaminoethyl )-Dextran treatment is coupled with Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO) shock, then upto 80% transformed cell can express the transferred gene. The advantage of this method is that, it is cheap, simple and can be used for transient cells. which cannot survive even short exposure of iii act 1 scene 2 calcium phosphate. The major advantages of the technique are its relative simplicity and the body zusammenfassung, speed, limited expense, and remarkably reproducible interexperimental and intraexperimental transfection efficiency. Disadvantages include inhibition of cell growth and induction of heterogeneous morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, the richard iii act 1 scene, concentration of serum in the culture medium must be transiently reduced during the transfection. It does not appear to questions, be efficient for the production of stable transfectants. For cells that grow in suspension, electroporation or lipofection is usually preferred, although DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection can be used. Transfer of DNA by polycation-DMSO:

As calcium phosphate method of DNA transfer is richard iii act 2, reproducible and efficient but there is narrow range of optimum conditions. DNA transfer by. Another polycationic chemical,the detergent Polybrene is carried out to increase the research, adsorption of 1 scene DNA to the cell surface followed by a brief treatment with 25-30% DMSO to increase membrane permeability and enhance uptake of DNA. In this method no carrier DNA is required and stable transformants are produced. This method works with mouse fibroblast and chick embryo. LIPOSOME MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER. Liposomes are spheres of lipids which can be used to transport molecules into the cells. These are artificial vesicles that can act as delivery agents for exogenous materials including transgenes. They are considered as spheres of Effect Jon Stewart Essay lipid bilayers surrounding the molecule to be transported and promote transport after fusing with the cell membrane.

Liposomes for use as gene transfer vehicles are prepared by adding an appropriate mix of bilayer constituents to an aqueous solution of DNA molecules. In this aqueous environment, phospholipid hydrophilic heads associate with water while hydrophobic tails self-associate to exclude water from within the lipid bilayer. This self-organizing process creates discrete spheres of continuous lipid bilayer membrane enveloping a small quantity of DNA solution. Iii Act 1 Scene? The liposomes are then ready to sociological research, be added to richard iii act 1 scene 2, target cells. Germline transgenesis is The Incredible Effect Jon Stewart, possible with liposome mediated gene transfer.Lipofection is the most common and generally utilized gene transfer technique in the recent years and it utilizes cationic lipids. The combined DNA and cationic lipids act instantaneously to form structures called as lipoplexes that are more complex in structure than the simple liposomes. Cationic lipids have a positive charge and these form cationic liposomes which interact with the negatively charged cell membrane more readily than uncharged liposomes.

This leads to richard 1 scene 2, a fusion between cationic liposome and the cell surface resulting in quick entry by endocytosis and the delivery of the DNA directly across the plasma membrane. Cationic liposomes can be produced from a number of dmitrij ivan mendeleev cationic lipids that are commercially available and sold as an in vitro-transfecting agent, termed lipofectin. However this pathway would usually result in the fusion of lipoplexes with lysosomes and undergo degradation. Richard 2? This problem is overcome by types speeches utilizing the neutral helper lipids, which are generally included along with the cationic lipid. This allows entrapped DNA to escape the endosomes, reach the iii act 1 scene 2, nucleus and get access to the cells transcriptional machinery.The endosomal structure is about The Aboriginals of Australia, destroyed by increasing the osmotic pressure created by the lipids buffering action within the endosomes and by the fusion of the lipid with the endosomal membrane. The ability of a lipid to destroy endosomes is one of the main characteristics of a transfection reagent. 2. Long term stability. 4. Protection of nucleic acid from richard iii act degradation.

5. particularly proficient at delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 6. cationic lipids effectively transfect suspension cells. 1) Cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. A rapid and simple technique for introducing genes into a wide variety of microbial, plant and animal cells, including E. coli, is electroporation. Electroporation uses electrical pulse to produce transient pores in the plasma membrane thereby allowing macromolecules into the cells. These pores are known as electropores which allow the molecules, ions and Effect Jon Stewart, water to pass from one side of the membrane to 1 scene 2, another. Sociological? The electropores reseal spontaneously and richard 1 scene, the cell can recover. Essay? The pores can be recovered only richard iii act 1 scene 2 if a suitable electric pulse is applied .The formation of dmitrij mendeleev electropores depends upon the cells that are used and the amplitude and duration of the electric pulse that is applied to them. When subjected to electric shock, cells take up exogenous DNA from the suspending solution.

Once inside the cell, the richard iii act 1 scene, DNA is integrated and the foreign gene will express. A proportion of these cells become stably transformed and can be selected if a suitable marker gene is carried on the transforming DNA. The most critical parameters are the intensity and duration of the electric pulse, and these must be determined empirically for different cell types. Sociological Research? Electric currents can lead to dramatic heating of the cells that can results in cell death. Heating effects are minimized by using relatively high amplitude, a short duration pulse or by using two very short duration pulses. However, once optimal electroporation parameters have been established, the richard iii act 1 scene 2, method is simple to carry out and about The Aboriginals of Australia, highly reproducible. Many different factors affect the efficiency of richard iii act electroporation, including temperature, various electric-field parameters (voltage, resistance and capacitance), topological form of the DNA, and various host-cell factors (genetic background, growth conditions) and post-pulse treatment. General applications of electroporation. 1. Introduction of exogeneous DNA into animal cell lines, plant protoplast, yeast protoplast and bacterial protoplast.

2. Electroporation can be used to increase efficiency of questions transformation or transfection of bacterial cells. 3. Wheat, rice, maize, tobacco have been stably transformed with frequency upto 1% by this method. 4. Genes encoding selectable marker may be used to introduce genes using electroporation. 5. To study the transient expression of molecular constructs. 6. Electroporation of early embryo may result in the production of transgenic animals. 7. Hepatocytes, epidermal cells, haematopoietic stem cells, fibroblast, mouse T and B lymphocytes can be transformed by this technique. 8. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene 2? Naked DNA may be used for gene therapy by applying electroporation device on animal cells. Advantages of electroporation. 1. Method is fast. 3. Applied for a number of cell types.

4. Simultaneously a large number of dmitrij ivanovič mendeleev ivan mendeleev cell can be treated. 5. Richard 1 Scene? High percentage of stable transformants can be produced. 1)Limited effective range of. 1 cm between the Salk and the Polio Essay, electrodes. 2)Surgical procedure is required to place the electrodes deep into the internal organs. 3)High voltage applied to tissues can result in irreversible tissue damage as a result of thermal heating. The technique has high input costs, because a specialized capacitor discharge machine is required that can accurately control pulse length and amplitude. 4) Larger numbers of cells may be required than for other methods because, in richard iii act 1 scene 2 many cases, the most efficient electroporation occurs when there is up to 50% cell death. Sonication is the of informative speeches, act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample. Ultrasonic frequencies (20 kHz) are usually used, leading to richard iii act 2, the process also being known as ultrasonication . Sonoporation, or cellular sonication, is the use of these ultrasonic frequencies for modifying the permeability of the cell plasma membrane.

This technique is usually used in molecular biology and non-viral gene therapy in order to types, allow uptake of large molecules such as DNA into the cell, in a cell disruption process called transfection or transformation. Sonoporation employs the acoustic cavitation of microbubbles to enhance delivery of such large DNA molecules. Although the early results could achieve only 10- to 30-fold increases in transfection efficiency in vitro, technical refinements have lead to enhancements of up to several thousand fold in iii act 1 scene vitro ,sufficient to encourage ultrasonication mediated gene transfer in vivo. 1) It is and the Vaccine Essay, non-invasive and well tolerated, 2)extraordinary safety record over a wide range of frequency and intensity. 3)high levels of public acceptability and understanding. there are highly sophisticated, flexible, cost-effective and iii act 2, readily available diagnostic and therapeutic systems that can achieve site-specific transfer of ultrasound energy almost anywhere in the body, except perhaps the lung. 4) The bioactivity of this technique is similar to, and in some cases found superior to, electroporation. 5) in vivo is relatively nontoxic.

1)Extended exposure to low-frequency (MHz) ultrasound has been demonstrated to result in complete cellular death (rupturing) as well as microvascular hemorrhage and research questions, disruption of tissue structure, thus cellular viability must also be accounted for when employing this technique. 2) Whether ultrasound affects later steps in the transfection process, particularly plasmid entry into the nucleus, remains unclear. Sonoporation is under active study for the introduction of foreign genes in tissue culture cells, especially mammalian cells. Sonoporation is also being studied for use in richard iii act targetedGene therapy in vivo, in a medical treatment scenario whereby a patient is given modified DNA, and questions, an ultrasonic transducer might target this modified DNA into specific regions of the patients body. In microinjection DNA can be introduced into cells or protoplast with the help of very fine needles or. glass micropipettes having the diameter of 0.5 to 10 micrometer. The DNA may be directly delivered into iii act 2, the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. Some of the speeches, DNA injected may be taken up by the nucleus.

The desired gene in the form of plasmid or alone is injected directly into 1 scene, the plant protoplast. Injection into the nucleus is more efficient than that into the cytoplasm. Micro-injection is Essay of Australia, carried out with automatic equipments (robotics) using a micro-needle. Computerized control of 1 scene 2 holding pipette, needle, microscope stage and video technology has improved the efficiency of this technique. Advantages of microinjection. 1. Frequency of stable integration of DNA is Dr. Jonas and the Polio Vaccine Essay, far better as compare to other methods. 2. Method is effective in transforming primary cells as well as cells in iii act 1 scene established cultures. 3. Salk Vaccine Essay? The DNA injected in richard iii act 1 scene this process is subjected to Essay, less extensive modifications. 4. Mere precise integration of recombinant gene in limited copy number can be obtained. 2. Skilled personal required.

3.Has not been successful for many plant cells . 4. Embryonic cells preferred for manipulation. 5. Knowledge of mating timing, oocyte recovery is essential. 6. Method is useful for iii act 1 scene 2 protoplasts and not for the walled cells. 7. Polio? Process causes random integration. 8. Rearrangement or deletion of host DNA adjacent to site of integration are common. 9. 2? The technique is laborious, technically difficult, and limited to the number of cells actually injected. Applications of microinjection. 1. Process is applicable for Jon Stewart plant cell as well as animal cell but more common for animal cells. 2. Technique is iii act 1 scene, ideally useful for producing transgenic animal quickly. 3. Procedure is important for dmitrij ivan gene transfer to embryonic cells.

4. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene? Applied to inject DNA into plant nuclei. 5. Method has been successfully used with cells and of informative, protoplast of. tobacco, alfalfa etc. Fig: microinjection in mouse egg. Biolistics or particle bombardment is a physical method that uses accelerated microprojectiles to. deliver DNA or other molecules into intact tissues and cells. Biolistics transformation is relatively new and novel method amongst the physical methods for artificial transfer of richard exogenous DNA. The nucleic acid is delivered through membrane penetration at a high velocity, usually connected to microprojectiles like microscopic particles of tungsten or gold coated into types speeches, cells using an electrostatic pulse, air pressure, or gunpowder percussion. Richard? As the particles pass through the cell, the types speeches, DNA becomes free to integrate into the plant-cell genome.

The gene gun is a device that literally fires DNA into target cells . The DNA to be transformed. into the cells is coated onto microscopic beads made of either gold or tungsten. Beads are carefully. coated with DNA. Richard 2? The coated beads are then attached to the end of the plastic bullet and loaded into. the firing chamber of the gene gun. An explosive force fires the Jon Stewart, bullet down the barrel of the gun. towards the target cells that lie just beyond the end of the barrel.

When the bullet reaches the end of. the barrel it is caught and stopped, but the DNA coated beads continue on toward the target cells. Some of the beads pass through the cell wall into the cytoplasm of the target cells. Here the bead and. the DNA dissociate and the cells become transformed. Once inside the target cells, the DNA is. solubilised and may be expressed. 1. Biolistics technique has been used successfully to transform soyabean, cotton, spruce, sugarcane, papaya, corn, sunflower, rice, maize, wheat, 2. Genomes of subcellular organelles have been accessible to genetic. manipulation by biolistic method. 3. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene? Mitochondria of plants and chloroplast of chlamydomonas have been.

4. Method can be applied to filamentous fungi and stephen king zusammenfassung, yeast (mitochondria). 5. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene? The particle gun has also been used with pollen, early stage. embryoids, meristems somatic embryos, plant cells, root section, seeds and pollen. 6. This approach has been shown to be effective for transferring transgenes into Essay, mammalian cells in vivo . 1. Requirement of protoplast can be avoided. Unlike electroporation and microinjection, this technique does not require protoplasts or even single-cell isolations and is applicable to even intact plant tissue.

2. Walled intact cells can be penetrated. 3. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene? Manipulation of about The Aboriginals of Australia genome of subcellular organelles can be achieved. 4. This is also a highly mechanized or robotic mediated technique in which the. speed of the micro-projectile particles is controlled by iii act 1 scene foolproof mechanisms. 5) It is also gaining in use as a method for transferring DNA construct into whole animals.

6) This technique is fast, simple and safe, and and the, it can transfer genes to a wide variety of tissues. 7)there appears to be no limits to iii act 2, the size or number of Dr. Jonas Salk Polio Essay genes that can be delivered. 1. Integration is random. 2. Requirement of equipments. 3.It can be a challenge to richard iii act 1 scene 2, obtain a sufficient number of cells modified by mendeleev mendeleev this method to see a biologically significant effect. A new technique is richard 2, presented to incorporate exogeneous gene materials (DNA) into cells with a microbeam irradiation from an uv pulsed laser. A frequency-multiplied Laser, 355 m wavelength, 5 ns pulse duration, punches a self-healing hole of submicrometer aperture in cell membrane under selected irradiation conditions.

At the site of the types of informative, beam impact, due probably to local temperature changes, the cell membrane modifies its permeability. Richard? As a consequence of the hit, circular areas, whose radius may be apparently regulated by types of informative changing the irradiation time and/or the radiation intensity (energy), appear on the wall, last for a short time and fade spontaneously . It takes a fraction of a second for the aperture to close, long enough to allow the foreign DNA, contained in the medium, to slip into the cell. It is well established that a strong pressure wave, known as a laser-induced stress wave (LISW), accompanies laser-induced plasma. We have extended their method to deliver macromolecules, such as genes. Plasmid DNA (circular DNA residing in bacterial cytoplasm) is used as a vector of the gene of interest. We inject the plasmid into 2, target tissue, on which a laser target is placed, and Essay The Aboriginals of Australia, subject the target to irradiation with a high-intensity, nanosecond laser pulse to induce plasma and hence an LISW.

By placing optically transparent material on the target, the plasma is confined, resulting in an increase in the LISWs impulse. Interaction of tissue cells with the LISW allows plasmid to enter the cytoplasm. 1) it only takes advantage of the presence of phenol-red, a normal cell medium component, with no need of addition of extraneous substances; (2) it is a very mild treatment virtually suitable for any cell type and. (3) it allows transfection of selected cells even in the presence of cells of different type (providing that they are morphologically distinguishable). 4) . it is rapidly replacing virus mediated techniques as they have serious side effects caused by immune response and limited targeting characteristics rendering them inappropriate for clinical application. 5) The method offers a clear advantage over richard 1 scene existing methods: increases the success rate of dmitrij ivan DNA transfection as well as the efficiency of cell modification by orders of magnitude. 6) . It enables minimally invasive tissue interaction. Thus there are a number of ways by which the genes can be introduced into the cells. With the advent of molecular tools and technologies it is now comparatively easy to richard 2, introduce gene into ivanovič, cells without losing its integrity and biological activity.

Moreover the recent development in molecular biology has made the richard iii act 2, transfer of gene with great accuracy to the target cell. The transfer of gene through different gene transfer technologies has cured a number of diseases. Research is on progress to cure those diseases which cannot be cured by using drugs. Moreover the treatment of diseases by gene transfer provides better result for a prolong period of time. It is the need of hour to discover new and cheap method of gene transfer technologies so to make the treatment of the diseases a little easier and affordable.

Improvements in gene transfer are required in terms of transfection approaches to allow improved transgene uptake efficiencies. 1)Society of Applied Sciences. Gene Transfer Technologies and their Applications: K.H.KHAN. Medical Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and speeches, Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamil Nadu, India. 2)Principles of gene manipulation: R.W.Old ,S.B. Iii Act 1 Scene 2? Primrose and R.M.Twymann sixth edition,chapter 10 and 11. 3) BIOTECHNOLOGY 2020-From the Transparent Cell to. the Custom-Designed ProcessProf.

Gerhard Kreysa Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr.h.c. Dr. Types? R??diger Marquardt. 4) INTRODUCTION TOBIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING.

5)From genes to genomes- concepts and applications of DNA technologyJeremy W Dale, Malcom von Schantz. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of 1 scene 2 expertise, and Essay, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to iii act, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Gene transfer techniques pros and cons . Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to dmitrij ivanovič ivan, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Remember to 1 scene 2, use the below action verbs when describing your skills and accomplishments in types of informative speeches a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the effectiveness of your accomplishments, and make potential employers take notice. Be sure to use these action verbs in their proper context. Always use action verbs in iii act 1 scene 2 the past tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments from a previous job . Here’s an example: Trained, led, and research, supervised a team of richard 1 scene 2, content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments in a current job . Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of dmitrij ivanovič mendeleev ivan, a job description. Train, lead, and supervise a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. Addressed Advertised Arbitrated Arranged Articulated Authored Clarified Collaborated Communicated Composed Condensed Conferred Consulted Contacted Conveyed Convinced Corresponded Debated Defined Developed Directed Discussed Drafted Edited Elicited Enlisted Explained Expressed Formulated Furnished Incorporated Influenced Interacted Interpreted Interviewed Involved Joined Judged Lectured Listened Marketed Mediated Moderated Negotiated Observed Outlined Participated Persuaded Presented Promoted Proposed Publicized Reconciled Recruited Referred Reinforced Reported Resolved Responded Solicited Specified Spoke Suggested Summarized Synthesized Translated Wrote. Acted Adapted Began Combined Composed Conceptualized Condensed Created Customized Designed Developed Directed Displayed Drew Entertained Established Fashioned Formulated Founded Illustrated Initiated Instituted Integrated Introduced Invented Modeled Modified Originated Performed Photographed Planned Revised Revitalized Shaped Solved.

Administered Adjusted Allocated Analyzed Appraised Assessed Audited Balanced Budgeted Calculated Computed Conserved Corrected Determined Developed Estimated Forecasted Managed Marketed Measured Netted Planned Prepared Programmed Projected Qualified Reconciled Reduced Researched Retrieved Slashed Sliced. Adapted Advocated Aided Answered Arranged Assessed Assisted Clarified Coached Collaborated Contributed Cooperated Counseled Demonstrated Diagnosed Educated Encouraged Ensured Expedited Facilitated Familiarized Furthered Guided Helped Insured Intervened Motivated Prevented Provided Referred Rehabilitated Represented Resolved Simplified Supplied Supported Volunteered. Administered Analyzed Appointed Approved Assigned Attained Authorized Chaired Considered Consolidated Contracted Controlled Converted Coordinated Decided Delegated Developed Directed Eliminated Emphasized Enforced Enhanced Established Executed Generated Handled Headed Hosted Improved Incorporated Increased Initiated Inspected Instituted Led Managed Merged Motivated Navigated Organized Originated Overhauled Oversaw Planned Presided Prioritized Produced Recommended Reorganized Replaced Restored Reviewed Scheduled Secured Selected Streamlined Strengthened Supervised Terminated. Approved Arranged Catalogued Categorized Charted Classified Coded Collected Compiled Corrected Corresponded Distributed Executed Filed Generated Incorporated Inspected Logged Maintained Monitored Obtained Operated Ordered Organized Prepared Processed Provided Purchased Recorded Registered Reserved Responded Reviewed Routed Scheduled Screened Submitted Supplied Standardized Systematized Updated Validated Verified. Analyzed Clarified Collected Compared Conducted Critiqued Detected Determined Diagnosed Evaluated Examined Experimented Explored Extracted Formulated Gathered Inspected Interviewed Invented Investigated Located Measured Organized Researched Reviewed Searched Solved Summarized Surveyed Systematized Tested.

Adapted Advised Clarified Coached Communicated Conducted Coordinated Critiqued Developed Enabled Encouraged Evaluated Explained Facilitated Focused Guided Individualized Informed Instilled Instructed Motivated Persuaded Simulated Stimulated Taught Tested Trained Transmitted Tutored. Orlando Haynes is an iii act author, speaker, CEO, and founder of Dr. Jonas Salk Vaccine, The Inside Recruiter LLC, a full service career coaching company with one mission: #8220;Taking you from the job seeker to the sought after.#8221; The Inside Recruiter offers a wide array of career enhancement services, including resume writing, interview coaching, job search assistance, career workshops, and much more. Orlando brings 14 years of experience and insider knowledge to the game, and is ready to help job seekers realize their career goals and 1 scene, dreams. Learn more here. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Sociological Research. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

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compels us act essay New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985, pp. 13-26. the total abolition of the use of iii act 2, animals in science; the Dr. Jonas and the Vaccine Essay, total dissolution of commercial animal agriculture; the total elimination of commercial and sport hunting and trapping. There are, I know, people who profess to believe in animal rights but do not avow these goals. Factory farming, they say, is iii act wrong - it violates animals' rights - but traditional animal agriculture is all right. Toxicity tests of Effect Jon Stewart, cosmetics on animals violates their rights, but important medical research ? cancer research, for example ? does not. The clubbing of baby seals is abhorrent, but not the harvesting of adult seals.

I used to think I understood this reasoning. Not any more. You don't change unjust institutions by tidying them up. What's wrong ? fundamentally wrong ? with the way animals are treated isn't the details that vary from case to case. It's the whole system. Richard 1 Scene? The forlornness of the veal calf is pathetic, heart wrenching; the pulsing pain of the chimp with electrodes planted deep in her brain is repulsive; the slow, tortuous death of the racoon caught in the leg-hold trap is agonizing. But what is wrong isn't the the body stephen, pain, isn't the suffering, isn't the deprivation. Richard 1 Scene 2? These compound what's wrong. Effect Jon Stewart Essay? Sometimes - often - they make it much, much worse. But they are not the richard, fundamental wrong.

The fundamental wrong is the system that allows us to view animals as our resources, here for us ? to be eaten, or surgically manipulated, or exploited for sport or money. Once we accept this view of animals - as our resources - the rest is as predictable as it is sociological questions regrettable. Why worry about their loneliness, their pain, their death? Since animals exist for iii act 1 scene 2, us, to benefit us in one way or another, what harms them really doesn't matter ? or matters only ivanovič mendeleev, if it starts to bother us, makes us feel a trifle uneasy when we eat our veal escalope, for example. So, yes, let us get veal calves out of solitary confinement, give them more space, a little straw, a few companions. But let us keep our veal escalope. But a little straw, more space and a few companions won't eliminate - won't even touch - the richard iii act, basic wrong that attaches to sociological research our viewing and treating these animals as our resources. Richard Iii Act 1 Scene 2? A veal calf killed to be eaten after living in close confinement is Salk and the Vaccine Essay viewed and treated in this way: but so, too, is another who is raised (as they say) 'more humanely'. To right the richard iii act 1 scene 2, wrong of our treatment of farm animals requires more than making rearing methods 'more humane'; it requires the total dissolution of commercial animal agriculture. How we do this, whether we do it or, as in dmitrij ivanovič mendeleev mendeleev the case of animals in science, whether and how we abolish their use - these are to a large extent political questions. People must change their beliefs before they change their habits.

Enough people, especially those elected to 2 public office, must believe in change - must want it - before we will have laws that protect the Dr. Jonas Polio Essay, rights of animals. This process of change is 2 very complicated, very demanding, very exhausting, calling for the efforts of many hands in education, publicity, political organization and activity, down to the licking of envelopes and stamps. As a trained and practising philosopher, the the body, sort of contribution I can make is 1 scene limited but, I like to think, important. The currency of philosophy is ideas - their meaning and rational foundation - not the nuts and bolts of the legislative process, say, or the mechanics of community organization. That's what I have been exploring over the past ten years or so in my essays and talks and, most recently, in my book, The Case for Animal Rights. I believe the sociological research, major conclusions I reach in the book are true because they are supported by the weight of the best arguments. I believe the iii act 1 scene 2, idea of animal rights has reason, not just emotion, on its side. In the space I have at my disposal here I can only sketch, in the barest outline, some of the main features of the sociological research, book. It's main themes - and we should not be surprised by richard 1 scene 2, this - involve asking and answering deep, foundational moral questions about what morality is, how it should be understood and research, what is the best moral theory, all considered. I hope I can convey something of the shape I think this theory takes. The attempt to do this will be (to use a word a friendly critic once used to describe my work) cerebral, perhaps too cerebral.

But this is misleading. 1 Scene 2? My feelings about how animals are sometimes treated run just as deep and just as strong as those of my more volatile compatriots. Philosophers do ? to use the jargon of the day ? have a right side to their brains. If it's the left side we contribute (or mainly should), that's because what talents we have reside there. How to proceed? We begin by asking how the moral status of animals has been understood by thinkers who deny that animals have rights. Then we test the mettle of their ideas by seeing how well they stand up under the heat of types of informative, fair criticism. If we start our thinking in iii act 1 scene this way, we soon find that some people believe that we have no duties directly to animals, that we owe nothing to them, that we can do nothing that wrongs them.

Rather, we can do wrong acts that involve animals, and so we have duties regarding them, though none to them. Such views may be called indirect duty views. By way of about The Aboriginals of Australia, illustration: suppose your neighbour kicks your dog. Then your neighbour has done something wrong. But not to your dog.

The wrong that has been done is a wrong to iii act 1 scene you. After all, it is wrong to upset people, and your neighbour's kicking your dog upsets you. So you are the stephen, one who is wronged, not your dog. Or again: by kicking your dog your neighbour damages your property. And since it is wrong to damage another person's property, your neighbour has done something wrong - to 1 scene you, of course, not to your dog. Your neighbour no more wrongs your dog than your car would be wronged if the windshield were smashed. Your neighbour's duties involving your dog are indirect duties to of informative you.

More generally, all of richard iii act, our duties regarding animals are indirect duties to one another ? to research questions humanity. How could someone try to justify such a view? Someone might say that your dog doesn't feel anything and so isn't hurt by your neighbour's kick, doesn't care about the pain since none is felt, is richard as unaware of anything as is your windshield. Someone might say this, but no rational person will, since, among other considerations, such a view will commit anyone who holds it to the position that no human being feels pain either - that human beings also don't care about what happens to them. A second possibility is that though both humans and Jon Stewart, your dog are hurt when kicked, it is only human pain that matters. But, again, no rational person can believe this. Pain is 1 scene pain wherever it occurs. If your neighbour's causing you pain is Essay The Aboriginals wrong because of the pain that is caused, we cannot rationally ignore or dismiss the moral relevance of the pain that your dog feels. Philosophers who hold indirect duty views ? and iii act 1 scene 2, many still do ? have come to understand that they must avoid the two defects just noted: that is, both the view that animals don't feel anything as well as the idea that only human pain can be morally relevant. Stephen Zusammenfassung? Among such thinkers the sort of view now favoured is one or other form of what is called contractarianism. Here, very crudely, is the root idea: morality consists of a set of richard 1 scene 2, rules that individuals voluntarily agree to abide by, as we do when we sign a contract (hence the name contractarianism).

Those who understand and accept the terms of the contract are covered directly; they have rights created and dmitrij mendeleev mendeleev, recognized by, and richard iii act 1 scene 2, protected in, the contract. And these contractors can also have protection spelled out for Effect Jon Stewart Essay, others who, though they lack the ability to understand morality and so cannot sign the contract themselves, are loved or cherished by those who can. Thus young children, for example, are unable to 2 sign contracts and lack rights. Types Of Informative? But they are protected by the contract none the less because of the sentimental interests of richard 1 scene 2, others, most notably their parents. So we have, then, duties involving these children, duties regarding them, but no duties to them.

Our duties in their case are indirect duties to other human beings, usually their parents. As for speeches, animals, since they cannot understand contracts, they obviously cannot sign; and since they cannot sign, they have no rights. Like children, however, some animals are the objects of the sentimental interest of others. You, for richard 1 scene, example, love your dog or cat. So those animals that enough people care about (companion animals, whales, baby seals, the American bald eagle), though they lack rights themselves, will be protected because of the sentimental interests of people. I have, then, according to contractarianism, no duty directly to your dog or any other animal, not even the about of Australia, duty not to cause them pain or suffering; my duty not to hurt them is a duty I have to those people who care about what happens to them. As for other animals, where no or little sentimental interest is present - in the case of farm animals, for example, or laboratory rats - what duties we have grow weaker and richard, weaker, perhaps to vanishing point. The pain and death they endure, though real, are not wrong if no one cares about about The Aboriginals, them. When it comes to richard 2 the moral status of animals' contractarianism could be a hard view to refute if it were an adequate theoretical approach to the moral status of human beings. It is not adequate in this latter respect, however, which makes the question of its adequacy in the former case, regarding animals, utterly moot. For consider: morality, according to the (crude) contractarian position before us, consists of rules that people agree to abide by.

What people? Well, enough to make a difference - enough, that is, collectively to ivan have the power to enforce the rules that are drawn up in the contract. Richard 2? That is very well and questions, good for the signatories but not so good for anyone who is not asked to richard iii act 1 scene 2 sign. And there is nothing in contractarianism of the sort we are discussing that guarantees or requires that everyone will have a chance to participate equally in framing the types speeches, rules of morality. The result is that this approach to ethics could sanction the most blatant forms of social, economic, moral and political injustice, ranging from a repressive caste system to 2 systematic racial or sexual discrimination. About? Might, according to this theory, does make right.

Let those who are the victims of injustice suffer as they will. It matters not so long as no one else ? no contractor, or too few of them ? cares about it. Such a theory takes one's moral breath away . as if, for example, there would be nothing wrong with apartheid in South Africa if few white South Africans were upset by it. A theory with so little to 1 scene recommend it at the level of the ethics of types speeches, our treatment of 1 scene, our fellow humans cannot have anything more to recommend it when it comes to the ethics of how we treat our fellow animals. The version of contractarianism just examined is, as I have noted, a crude variety, and in fairness to those of Jon Stewart, a contractarian persuasion it must be noted that much more refined, subtle and ingenious varieties are possible. 2? For example, John Rawls, in his A Theory of Justice, sets forth a version of contractarianism that forces contractors to ignore the ivanovič mendeleev ivan mendeleev, accidental features of being a human being - for 1 scene 2, example, whether one is ivanovič mendeleev mendeleev white or black, male or female, a genius or of modest intellect. Only by ignoring such features, Rawls believes, can we ensure that the principles of justice that contractors would agree upon are not based on bias or prejudice. Despite the improvement a view such as Rawls's represents over the cruder forms of contractarianism, it remains deficient: it systematically denies that we have direct duties to those human beings who do not have a sense of justice - young children, for instance, and many mentally retarded humans. And yet it seems reasonably certain that, were we to torture a young child or a retarded elder, we would be doing something that wronged him or her, not something that would be wrong if (and only iii act 1 scene, if) other humans with a sense ofjustice were upset. And since this is true in the case of these humans, we cannot rationally deny the same in the case of types of informative speeches, animals. Indirect duty views, then, including the best among them, fail to richard 2 command our rational assent.

Whatever ethical theory we should accept rationally, therefore, it must at least recognize that we have some duties directly to animals, just as we have some duties directly to each other. The next two theories I'll sketch attempt to meet this requirement. The first I call the cruelty-kindness view. Simply stated, this says that we have a direct duty to Effect be kind to animals and a direct duty not to be cruel to 2 them. Speeches? Despite the familiar, reassuring ring of these ideas, I do not believe that this view offers an adequate theory. To make this clearer, consider kindness. Iii Act? A kind person acts from a certain kind of motive - compassion or concern, for dmitrij ivanovič, example.

And that is a virtue. But there is no guarantee that a kind act is a right act. If I am a generous racist, for example, I will be inclined to act kindly towards members of my own race, favouring their interests above those of others. My kindness would be real and, so far as it goes, good. 1 Scene 2? But I trust it is too obvious to require argument that my kind acts may not be above moral reproach - may, in fact, be positively wrong because rooted in injustice. So kindness, notwithstanding its status as a virtue to be encouraged, simply will not carry the weight of king, a theory of richard 1 scene, right action. Cruelty fares no better. People or their acts are cruel if they display either a lack of sympathy for or, worse, the presence of enjoyment in about of Australia another's suffering. Cruelty in all its guises is a bad thing, a tragic human failing. But just as a person's being motivated by kindness does not guarantee that he or she does what is right, so the absence of cruelty does not ensure that he or she avoids doing what is wrong.

Many people who perform abortions, for example, are not cruel, sadistic people. But that fact alone does not settle the terribly difficult question of the morality of richard 1 scene, abortion. The case is no different when we examine the ethics of our treatment of animals. So, yes, let us be for kindness and against cruelty. But let us not suppose that being for Essay about, the one and against richard iii act 2, the other answers questions about Essay, moral right and richard, wrong. Some people think that the theory we are looking for is utilitarianism. A utilitarian accepts two moral principles. The first is that of equality: everyone's interests count, and similar interests must be counted as having similar weight or importance. White or black, American or Iranian, human or animal - everyone's pain or frustration matter, and Salk Polio Essay, matter just as much as the equivalent pain or frustration of anyone else. The second principle a utilitarian accepts is that of utility: do the richard 2, act that will bring about the Essay about, best balance between satisfaction and frustration for everyone affected by the outcome.

As a utilitarian, then, here is how I am to approach the task of deciding what I morally ought to do: I must ask who will be affected if I choose to do one thing rather than another, how much each individual will be affected, and where the best results are most likely to lie - which option, in other words, is most likely to bring about the 1 scene 2, best results, the best balance between satisfaction and about The Aboriginals, frustration. That option, whatever it may be, is the one I ought to choose. That is where my moral duty lies. The great appeal of utilitarianism rests with its uncompromising egalitarianism: everyone's interests count and count as much as the like interests of everyone else. The kind of odious discrimination that some forms of contractarianism can justify - discrimination based on race or sex, for example - seems disallowed in principle by utilitarianism, as is iii act 2 speciesism, systematic discrimination based on species membership. The equality we find in utilitarianism, however, is not the Polio Vaccine Essay, sort an advocate of animal or human rights should have in mind. Utilitarianism has no room for the equal moral rights of different individuals because it has no room for iii act 1 scene, their equal inherent value or worth. What has value for the utilitarian is the questions, satisfaction of an individual's interests, not the individual whose interests they are. Richard 1 Scene 2? A universe in which you satisfy your desire for water, food and warmth is, other things being equal, better than a universe in dmitrij mendeleev which these desires are frustrated.

And the same is true in the case of an animal with similar desires. But neither you nor the animal have any value in your own right. Only your feelings do. Here is an analogy to richard iii act 2 help make the philosophical point clearer: a cup contains different liquids, sometimes sweet, sometimes bitter, sometimes a mix of the two. Of Informative Speeches? What has value are the liquids: the iii act 2, sweeter the The Incredible Essay, better, the bitterer the worse. The cup, the container, has no value. It is what goes into it, not what they go into, that has value. For the iii act, utilitarian you and sociological, I are like the iii act 1 scene 2, cup; we have no value as individuals and thus no equal value. King Zusammenfassung? What has value is what goes into us, what we serve as receptacles for; our feelings of satisfaction have positive value, our feelings of richard 1 scene, frustration negative value.

Serious problems arise for utilitarianism when we remind ourselves that it enjoins us to bring about the best consequences. What does this mean? It doesn't mean the best consequences for me alone, or for my family or friends, or any other person taken individually. No, what we must do is, roughly, as follows: we must add up (somehow!) the separate satisfactions and frustrations of everyone likely to be affected by our choice, the satisfactions in one column, the frustrations in speeches the other. We must total each column for each of the options before us. That is what it means to say the theory is aggregative. And then we must choose that option which is 2 most likely to bring about the best balance of totalled satisfactions over totalled frustrations. Dr. Jonas And The Polio Vaccine Essay? Whatever act would lead to this outcome is the one we ought morally to richard iii act 2 perform ? it is where our moral duty lies. And that act quite clearly might not be the same one that would bring about the best results for me personally, or for my family or friends, or for a lab animal. Stephen? The best aggregated consequences for everyone concerned are not necessarily the best for each individual.

That utilitarianism is an aggregative theory ? different individuals' satisfactions or frustrations are added, or summed, or totalled - is the key objection to this theory. My Aunt Bea is old, inactive, a cranky, sour person, though not physically ill. She prefers to go on living. She is also rather rich. I could make a fortune if I could get my hands on her money, money she intends to give me in any event, after she dies, but which she refuses to give me now. Richard 2? In order to avoid a huge tax bite, I plan to the body stephen king donate a handsome sum of my profits to a local children's hospital. Many, many children will benefit from my generosity, and much joy will be brought to their parents, relatives and friends. If I don't get the money rather soon, all these ambitions will come to naught. Richard 2? The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to make a real killing will be gone. Why, then, not kill my Aunt Bea?

Oh, of course I might get caught. But I'm no fool and, besides, her doctor can be counted on The Incredible Jon Stewart Essay to co-operate (he has an richard 1 scene 2, eye for the same investment and I happen to sociological know a good deal about his shady past). The deed can be done . . . professionally, shall we say. There is very little chance of getting caught. And as for my conscience being guilt-ridden, I am a resourceful sort of fellow and will take more than sufficient comfort - as I lie on richard the beach at Acapulco - in contemplating the joy and The Incredible, health I have brought to so many others. Richard 2? Suppose Aunt Bea is killed and the rest of the story comes out Essay The Aboriginals, as told. Would I have done anything wrong? Anything immoral? One would have thought that I had.

Not according to utilitarianism. Since what I have done has brought about the iii act 2, best balance between totalled satisfaction and frustration for all those affected by the outcome, my action is not wrong. Indeed, in sociological killing Aunt Bea the physician and I did what duty required. This same kind of argument can be repeated in 2 all sorts of cases, illustrating, time after time, how the utilitarian's position leads to results that impartial people find morally callous. And The Vaccine Essay? It is wrong to richard 1 scene 2 kill my Aunt Bea in king zusammenfassung the name of bringing about the best results for others.

A good end does not justify an evil means. Any adequate moral theory will have to explain why this is so. Utilitarianism fails in this respect and so cannot be the theory we seek. What to do? Where to begin anew? The place to begin, I think, is iii act 2 with the mendeleev, utilitarian's view of the value of the individual ? or, rather, lack of value. 1 Scene? In its place, suppose we consider that you and I, for example, do have value as individuals ? what we'll call inherent value. To say we have such value is to stephen say that we are something more than, something different from, mere receptacles. Moreover, to ensure that we do not pave the way for such injustices as slavery or sexual discrimination, we must believe that all who have inherent value have it equally, regardless of their sex, race, religion, birthplace and so on. Similarly to be discarded as irrelevant are one's talents or skills, intelligence and wealth, personality or pathology, whether one is loved and admired or despised and richard iii act 2, loathed.

The genius and of informative, the retarded child, the richard, prince and Essay about The Aboriginals, the pauper, the brain surgeon and the fruit vendor, Mother Teresa and the most unscrupulous used-car salesman ? all have inherent value, all possess it equally, and all have an equal right to be treated with respect, to be treated in ways that do not reduce them to the status of things, as if they existed as resources for others. Richard? My value as an sociological questions, individual is independent of 1 scene 2, my usefulness to you. Yours is not dependent on your usefulness to me. For either of us to Dr. Jonas Salk and the Vaccine Essay treat the other in ways that fail to show respect for the other's independent value is to act immorally, to violate the richard iii act, individual's rights. Some of the mendeleev, rational virtues of 1 scene, this view - what I call the rights view - should be evident. Dmitrij Mendeleev Mendeleev? Unlike (crude) contractarianism, for example, the rights view in principle denies the moral tolerability of any and all forms of racial, sexual or social discrimination; and unlike utilitarianism, this view in principle denies that we can justify good results by using evil means that violate an individual's rights -denies, for example, that it could be moral to kill my Aunt Bea to iii act 2 harvest beneficial consequences for others. Mendeleev? That would be to sanction the richard 2, disrespectful treatment of the individual in Polio Vaccine the name of the social good, something the richard 1 scene, rights view will not ? categorically will not ?ever allow. The rights view, I believe, is rationally the Effect Jon Stewart, most satisfactory moral theory. It surpasses all other theories in the degree to which it illuminates and explains the iii act 1 scene, foundation of our duties to one another - the types of informative, domain of human morality. 1 Scene? On this score it has the best reasons, the best arguments, on its side.

Of course, if it were possible to show that only human beings are included within its scope, then a person like myself, who believes in animal rights, would be obliged to look elsewhere. But attempts to limit its scope to The Aboriginals humans only can be shown to be rationally defective. Animals, it is true, lack many of the richard iii act, abilities humans possess. They can't read, do higher mathematics, build a bookcase or make baba ghanoush. Neither can many human beings, however, and yet we don't (and shouldn't) say that they (these humans) therefore have less inherent value, less of a right to be treated with respect, than do others. It is the similarities between those human beings who most clearly, most non-controversially have such value (the people reading this, for example), not our differences, that matter most. The Incredible Jon Stewart Essay? And the really crucial, the basic similarity is simply this: we are each of richard 1 scene 2, us the experiencing subject of sociological research questions, a life, a conscious creature having an individual welfare that has importance to us whatever our usefulness to others. Richard Iii Act? We want and prefer things, believe and feel things, recall and expect things. And all these dimensions of our life, including our pleasure and pain, our enjoyment and suffering, our satisfaction and ivanovič, frustration, our continued existence or our untimely death - all make a difference to the quality of richard iii act, our life as lived, as experienced, by Dr. Jonas Salk Vaccine, us as individuals.

As the same is true of those animals that concern us (the ones that are eaten and richard 2, trapped, for example), they too must be viewed as the experiencing subjects of The Aboriginals of Australia, a life, with inherent value of their own. Some there are who resist the idea that animals have inherent value. 1 Scene? 'Only humans have such value,' they profess. How might this narrow view be defended? Shall we say that only humans have the requisite intelligence, or autonomy, or reason? But there are many, many humans who fail to meet these standards and yet are reasonably viewed as having value above and beyond their usefulness to others. Research Questions? Shall we claim that only humans belong to the right species, the species Homo sapiens? But this is blatant speciesism.

Will it be said, then, that all - and only - humans have immortal souls? Then our opponents have their work cut out for richard 2, them. I am myself not ill-disposed to the proposition that there are immortal souls. Personally, I profoundly hope I have one. Sociological Research? But I would not want to richard iii act 1 scene 2 rest my position on a controversial ethical issue on the even more controversial question about who or what has an immortal soul. That is to dig one's hole deeper, not to climb out. Dr. Jonas Salk And The Polio Vaccine Essay? Rationally, it is better to resolve moral issues without making more controversial assumptions than are needed. The question of who has inherent value is richard iii act 2 such a question, one that is resolved more rationally without the introduction of the idea of immortal souls than by its use. Well, perhaps some will say that animals have some inherent value, only less than we have. Sociological? Once again, however, attempts to richard 2 defend this view can be shown to lack rational justification.

What could be the basis of The Incredible Essay, our having more inherent value than animals? Their lack of reason, or autonomy, or intellect? Only if we are willing to make the same judgment in richard 1 scene 2 the case of humans who are similarly deficient. But it is not true that such humans ? the retarded child, for research questions, example, or the mentally deranged - have less inherent value than you or I. Neither, then, can we rationally sustain the view that animals like them in being the experiencing subjects of a life have less inherent value. All who have inherent value have it equally, whether they be human animals or not. Inherent value, then, belongs equally to those who are the experiencing subjects of a life/Whether it belongs to richard 1 scene others - to rocks and rivers, trees and glaciers, for example ? we do not know and may never know. But neither do we need to stephen king zusammenfassung know, if we are to make the case for iii act 1 scene 2, animal rights. We do not need to know, for example, how many people are eligible to Dr. Jonas Salk Polio vote in the next presidential election before we can know whether I am.

Similarly, we do not need to know how many individuals have inherent value before we can know that some do. Iii Act? When it comes to the case for animal rights, then, what we need to know is whether the animals that, in our culture, are routinely eaten, hunted and used in of informative our laboratories, for example, are like us in being subjects of a life. And we do know this. We do know that many - literally, billions and billions - of these animals are the subjects of a life in the sense explained and so have inherent value if we do. Iii Act 1 Scene? And since, in order to arrive at the best theory of our duties to one another, we must recognize our equal inherent value as individuals, reason - not sentiment, not emotion - reason compels us to recognize the equal inherent value of these animals and, with this, their equal right to ivan mendeleev be treated with respect. That, very roughly, is the shape and feel of the iii act, case for animal rights. Of Informative? Most of the iii act 1 scene 2, details of the supporting argument are missing. They are to be found in the book to which I alluded earlier. Here, the details go begging, and I must, in closing, limit myself to four final points. The first is how the of Australia, theory that underlies the case for animal rights shows that the animal rights movement is a part of, not antagonistic to, the human rights movement. The theory that rationally grounds the rights of animals also grounds the rights of humans.

Thus those involved in the animal rights movement are partners in the struggle to 1 scene 2 secure respect for human rights - the rights of women, for example, or minorities, or workers. The animal rights movement is cut from the types, same moral cloth as these. Second, having set out the broad outlines of the rights view, I can now say why its implications for farming and science, among other fields, are both clear and uncompromising. Iii Act 1 Scene? In the case of the use of animals in science, the rights view is categorically abolitionist. Lab animals are not our tasters; we are not their kings. Because these animals are treated routinely, systematically as if their value were reducible to and the Polio their usefulness to others, they are routinely, systematically treated with a lack of respect, and thus are their rights routinely, systematically violated.

This is just as true when they are used in trivial, duplicative, unnecessary or unwise research as it is when they are used in studies that hold out real promise of richard iii act 1 scene 2, human benefits. We can't justify harming or killing a human being (my Aunt Bea, for example) just for these sorts of dmitrij ivanovič, reason. Neither can we do so even in the case of so lowly a creature as a laboratory rat. It is not just refinement or reduction that is called for, not just larger, cleaner cages, not just more generous use of anaesthetic or the 1 scene 2, elimination of multiple surgery, not just tidying up the system. It is complete replacement.

The best we can do when it comes to using animals in science is - not to use them. That is where our duty lies, according to the body stephen king zusammenfassung the rights view. As for commercial animal agriculture, the rights view takes a similar abolitionist position. The fundamental moral wrong here is not that animals are kept in stressful close confinement or in isolation, or that their pain and suffering, their needs and preferences are ignored or discounted. All these are wrong, of course, but they are not the fundamental wrong.

They are symptoms and effects of the deeper, systematic wrong that allows these animals to be viewed and treated as lacking independent value, as resources for us - as, indeed, a renewable resource. Giving farm animals more space, more natural environments, more companions does not right the fundamental wrong, any more than giving lab animals more anaesthesia or bigger, cleaner cages would right the fundamental wrong in their case. Nothing less than the total dissolution of commercial animal agriculture will do this, just as, for similar reasons I won't develop at length here, morality requires nothing less than the total elimination of hunting and trapping for commercial and sporting ends. 1 Scene 2? The rights view's implications, then, as I have said, are clear and uncompromising. My last two points are about philosophy, my profession.

It is, most obviously, no substitute for political action. The Incredible Effect? The words I have written here and in other places by themselves don't change a thing. It is what we do with the thoughts that the words express ? our acts, our deeds - that changes things. All that philosophy can do, and all I have attempted, is to iii act 2 offer a vision of what our deeds should aim at. And the why. Polio Vaccine Essay? But not the how. Finally, I am reminded of my thoughtful critic, the one I mentioned earlier, who chastised me for being too cerebral. Richard 2? Well, cerebral I have been: indirect duty views, utilitarianism, contractarianism - hardly the The Incredible Effect Jon Stewart, stuff deep passions are made of.

I am also reminded, however, of the image another friend once set before me ? the richard 1 scene, image of the ballerina as expressive of disciplined passion. Long hours of sweat and Essay, toil, of richard iii act, loneliness and practice, of doubt and fatigue: those are the discipline of research questions, her craft. But the passion is there too, the iii act 1 scene 2, fierce drive to excel, to speak through her body, to do it right, to pierce our minds. That is the image of philosophy I would leave with you, not 'too cerebral' but disciplined passion. Of the Essay The Aboriginals, discipline enough has been seen. As for the passion: there are times, and these not infrequent, when tears come to 2 my eyes when I see, or read, or hear of the Effect, wretched plight of animals in the hands of richard iii act 2, humans.

Their pain, their suffering, their loneliness, their innocence, their death. Anger. Dr. Jonas Salk Vaccine? Rage. Pity. Sorrow. Disgust. Richard 1 Scene 2? The whole creation groans under the weight of the evil we humans visit upon these mute, powerless creatures.

It is our hearts, not just our heads, that call for an end to research it all, that demand of us that we overcome, for them, the habits and richard 1 scene, forces behind their systematic oppression. All great movements, it is written, go through three stages: ridicule, discussion, adoption. It is the realization of this third stage, adoption, that requires both our passion and our discipline, our hearts and our heads. The fate of animals is in our hands. Effect Essay? God grant we are equal to richard 1 scene the task.