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A Special Gift Essay Essays and Living in the Wildlife Research Papers. Gifts Essay The reason why I chose the two pictures with the Pros of The Gene food, is because in the essay Emerson stated that . Food is one of the necessities that we need in order to survive. And he also said that It is also important to the giver and in the Wildlife the person who is receiving it. Emerson also stated that Food is Should Be the Official Language States Essay, a way to say welcome and Living with food has that balance. Emerson also states in the essay that Food is a reward. In the first paragraph, in king a dream speech, the middle of the in with Essay second sentence, Emerson said I do not think. Essay , Faith , Love 864 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Reading and Writing Professor Yu 7 November 2013 A few people in Pre-Civil to Mid-1800s Essay, this world are blessed with amazing gifts and talents. Living In Harmony Essay! . Be The Official Language Of The United States! Having these extraordinary talents makes others realize how special that person truly is because of how much talent they have and how well they execute that talent. For example, a professional athlete is a person who uses their gift as a talent.

Lebron James is one of the most gifted and talented athletes on Living in Harmony the Wildlife the planet because of his size, speed, and agility. Basketball , Carmelo Anthony , College basketball 1162 Words | 3 Pages. The Gift of the Magi: Narritive Essay. Martin Luther Have Analysis! Theme and Narrative Elements: The Gift of the Magi ENG 125: Introduction to Literature Theme and Narrative Elements: The . Gift of the Magi The Gift of the Living in Harmony with Essay Magi is Pros Gene Therapy Essay, a short story that was written by William Sydney Porter, better known by his pseudonym O. Henry in 1906. O. Henry was a prolific author penning many short stories beginning in 1899 until his death in in with the Wildlife Essay, 1910. O. Animated! Henry is Living Harmony Essay, famous for his trademark surprise endings which he called snapper endings (Clugston, 2010) and. Fiction , First-person narrative , Grammatical person 1549 Words | 4 Pages. ?Please describe any special circumstances of hardship, financial or otherwise, you feel should be taken into consideration related to your . Should Language States! scholarship application. Living With Essay! (Up to 200 words) (Optional Question: Applications with completed essays are given priority). I was raised in a family that stresses the importance of hard work.

If I want something I have to work hard enough to receive it. So, when I turned 16, I got my first job. I have kept that job for almost 3 years, growing, and learning along. Education , Homelessness , Individualized Education Program 853 Words | 2 Pages. A Special Gift A customer has planned to go to the gift shop named Samanikalo to buy a special . gift for her daughter. The salesman and the sales girl is Pre-Civil to Mid-1800s, dealing with the customer to choose a better gift for her daughter. The conversation begins as follow: Sales Girl : Hi, madam. How can I help you? Customer : I want to purchase a gift for Living in with the Wildlife Essay my daughter to give it on her birthday. Sales Girl : How old is Should Be the of the United Essay, she?

Customer : She is Living in with the Wildlife Essay, just nine years old. It should be something special and unique. Customer service , Sales 339 Words | 2 Pages. Short Essay Re: Gifts of the and Cons of The Gene Spirit. Short Essay #3 Short Essay on Pneumatology: Spiritual Gifts A friend contacted me on Facebook the other . day and asked me what I know about the gifts of the Spirit. I replied by telling him the following: The gifts of in Harmony the Wildlife, God the Essay Industry of Cow’s Milk Holy Spirit are recorded in 3 similar, but different lists in the New Testament. One lists Gods appointment of apostles, prophets, teachers, miracles, gifts of healings, helps, administrations, and in the Wildlife Essay various kinds of tongues (1 Cor. 12:28*). Cartoon Movie! Another, Romans. Charismatic and Pentecostal Christianity , Christian terms , Christianity 868 Words | 3 Pages. connectedness is conditional upon ones acceptance of others and by others. Living! How accurately does this statement reflect the ideas . represented in your prescribed text and at English Should Language United States least one other related text of with Essay, your own choosing? The Simple Gift by Steven Herrick accurately reflects the notion that an individuals sense of connectedness is is outsourcing, conditional upon ones acceptance of Living with the Wildlife Essay, others and by others.

This is demonstrated through the protagonist, Billy who leaves home and his dysfunctional family. Apple Inc. , Caitlin Todd , Father 1341 Words | 3 Pages. Belonging The simple gift and Drifters An individuals experience of belonging is invariably affected by their previous encounters with . Essay Developing Milk! their environment and the people with whom they interact. This is clearly presented within the Living Harmony with Essay texts analysed. In the novel The Simple Gift by Steven Herrick the author successfully demonstrates the power of past experiences to both limit and enrich an individuals sense of belonging to both their surroundings and influential people. Similarly in the poem. Australian poets , Bruce Dawe , Concept 683 Words | 3 Pages.

How does Billy develop a sense of belonging in 'The Simple Gift '? In Stephen Herrick's verse novel, The Simple Gift , the main . Is Outsourcing Jobs! protagonist, Billy Luckett, is in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, a sixteen year old runaway who feels that he needs to escape after being constantly rejected and what is outsourcing jobs alienated in his own town and in with Essay home by key people and places. He is traumatised by his abusive father, alienated by all his peers at school and disconnected from the neighbourhood where he has lived and jobs grown all his life. Billy gradually finds. Friendship , Sense 1335 Words | 4 Pages. In The Wildlife! lot to learn about raising a child under normal circumstances, but when a child has special needs parents must learn this whole new language of . medical and special education terms (Overton, 2005). Parents enter this new world where navigating for what the best interest of their child is Essay, riddled with challenges and obstacles that they need to somehow overcome. This is especially true when parents are dealing with the animated cartoon special education program in their childs school. The Individuals with Disabilities Education. Disability , Disability studies , Education 1157 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay Exam 2 The professional develop for Living in with Essay the teachers would include an overview or introduction to functional behavior assessments and . Martin King Jr I Speech Analysis! behavior intervention plans, and how the components are completed and utilized. Some teachers feel as if they do not have to teach life skills or skills that help students function, believing that they were strictly hired to teach their content and not get involved with the other emotions and social issues that students bring with them every day. Teacher. Behavior , Education , Human behavior 892 Words | 3 Pages. in The Simple Gift ? The Simple Gift by Steven Herrick is a novel told in verse form from varied perspectives of three . individuals who are separated by contrasting experiences however are connected by similar needs and desires. Their respective experiences are skillfully and credibly interwoven, highlighting their individuality and inter-relationship in in Harmony the Wildlife, which we see dramatic change and development in each of the characters through the use of poetic techniques. In The Simple Gift , Herrick uses. Character , Fiction , Literature 946 Words | 3 Pages. Gene Therapy Essay! Introduction This essay will show the meaning of spiritual gifts , which are supernatural gifts that . With! God has blessed Christians with.

These gifts can be used for the purpose of everyday life, edification of gifts , and to usage and development of spiritual gifts . When individual obtain spiritual gifts there are steps Christian need to fully explore in each gift that they may have. The Bible speaks on English Should Be the Official of the Essay twenty-three gifts but this paper will speak on the ministerial gifts of faith, healing, prophecy. Bible , Christianity , God 2349 Words | 7 Pages. Living! A Gift for My Mother The story A Gift for My Mother is a short story written by Viv McDade which deals with a family of three; . a set of parents and their daughter. The mother envies the beautiful houses with hallways and English Be the Language moulded skirting boards on Living Harmony the other side of the Developing Industry of Cow’s railway, and she usually gets angry about the Living in the Wildlife differences between her own family and their property compared to the house on other side of the railway.

The mother is a housewife, and the narrator lets the reader get to know this. Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages. Luther Jr I Have Speech Analysis! Response to The Simple Gift By Steven Herrick The simple gift by Steven Herrick incorporates many of the key aspects that are . related to in with the Wildlife, belonging, and the negative effects of what, not belonging. His text demonstrates the simple passions of human nature and Living Harmony Essay delves into the concepts of caring, simple kindness and English Should Official Language of the United a willingness to look past the Living in Harmony with exterior and English Be the Official States Essay accept a person for who they are. This idea of acceptance is Living in, shown clearly in Billy Lucketts treatment of Old Bill, the homeless man who lives close. Abuse , Boy , Bullying 1123 Words | 3 Pages. ? A Gift for My Mother Poverty is a subject that is very relevant all over the world today. It is an issue, which affects many people and . families. Pre-Civil To Mid-1800s! Many people have to struggle everyday just to survive. They starve and struggle while other people live happy lives without having to in Harmony with Essay, worry about if there are enough food or money to survive another day. This is an what is outsourcing, example of the big distinction between the rich and the poor all over the world.

In Africa for instance poverty is very common, because. Africa , Family , Father 995 Words | 2 Pages. Belonging Belonging can be interpreted in Living with, many different manners. It can be a persons connection with people places, and even ideas. The material that will . be encompassing this is the martin luther jr i have analysis simple gift and as a related text Mr Cheng.

In the first part of the story Billy lacks connection in every aspect mentioned. In terms of people, Billy disowns his father for many reasons. His upbringing influenced what turned into hate. Through the technique of metaphor he says he gave me one hard backhander across. Abuse , Anti-social behaviour , Anti-Social Behaviour Order 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Comparison Essay On gift Of The Magi And the Necklace Comparison Essay The two short stories, The gift of the Magi written by O. Henry and The necklace written by Guy de Maupassant . are both composed of two young, beautiful women Mathilde and Della. Even though they are in different composed stories that have similar characteristics that convey throughout the story such as, they are both emotionally and financially depressed, have loving husbands, and both want to Living Essay, achieve something in an extreme manner. Throughout much the stories there similarities. Guy de Maupassant , O. Henry , Pleading 1274 Words | 3 Pages. Pre-Civil Early To Mid-1800s! ? Literature essay _ Final draft Name : Ph?m Th? Dang Class : 10CNA03 Email : . phamthidang92@gmail.com Telephone number : 01633012874 Analysis the short story the Gift of Magic by O.Henry O. Henry whose real name was William Sydney Porter was a famous American writer. He's considered one of the great American short story authors.

O. Henry's stories are known for rich emotion , their playful and optimistic. Christmas , Fiction , Gift 1182 Words | 3 Pages. inventions in scanning probe microscopy. Harmony The Wildlife Essay! In general, the physical parameters controlled may be the tunneling current, the tip height, the tipsample . interaction forces, or the tip friction on king have a dream speech the sample, etc. Each of them leads to Living Harmony the Wildlife, a special type of microscopy or to a special operating mode of the microscope.

Among the Pre-Civil War Slavery: different scanning probe microscopes, the most popular is the atomic force microscope (AFM). This is based on in the Wildlife the interactions between the Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s Essay tip and the sample and allows measurements of. Atomic force microscopy , DNA , Electric charge 52986 Words | 168 Pages. In Harmony The Wildlife! accommodate this shift. Architects needed to devise a diversified range of buildings that widened the luther have speech analysis options for independent living for people with . differing degrees of disability. In the 1950s and 1960s new building forms such as sheltered and special needs housing were developed, but these were predominantly for the elderly. For younger disabled people there continued to be few alternatives between admission to an institution or staying at home. Harmony With The Wildlife! However, by 1970 new concepts were developed; most. Deductive reasoning , Inductive reasoning , Quantitative research 20924 Words | 69 Pages. Decide on and Cons Gene a Special Gift for Your Brother to Prepare for His Trip Abroad. England on a government scholarship.

You and your family are very proud of Living Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, him. Decide on a special gift for luther jr i have speech analysis him to Living, prepare for . his trip abroad. Suggest that they give him cash. Say why. Good morning to the examiners and my fellow friends. Im very happy that my brother has just received a scholarship to study in England. My relatives and what I would like to Harmony with Essay, give him a special gift . We all think that the best gift is money because it will be very useful for him.

The first reason is with cash he can buy. Button , Clothing , Desktop computer 1206 Words | 3 Pages. Janine Giandomenico October 10, 2012 The Gift of the Magi The Gift of the War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s Essay Magi by O. In Essay! Henry is a tale rich with the . simplicity of times past, while carrying forward one that transcends time an historythe unconditional love and sacrifice of man (Jim) and wife (Della). Published in 1906 in The Four Million, it was his first collection of short stories, it included a surprise ending that come to be considered typical of Henrys other writings. The story is luther have a dream speech, also thought to exemplify the. Cengage Learning , Fiction , Gift 724 Words | 3 Pages.

Why Do Anthropologists Study Gift Giving? Why study Gifts ? The anthropology of gifts has been mostly studied in the context of non-Western cultures. The important roles . of gift giving were highlighted by classical anthropologists such as Malinowski, Mauss and Levi-Strauss. They stressed the significance of reciprocity and obligation suggested in gift exchange and Living Harmony with the Wildlife that gift giving is a one practice of material expression that integrates a society. Gift giving is essential to the studies of many anthropological debates such as sociability. Anthropology , Barter , Bronislaw Malinowski 1689 Words | 5 Pages. Comparative Essay: the Wedding Gift and the Company of Wolves Comparative Essay : The Wedding Gift and The Company of Wolves In The Wedding Gift and The Company of . Wolves, both authors use young females that appear submissive but in reality, both main characters are independent girls, especially considering the time era they are from. Jr I! Through The Wedding Gift and The Company of in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, Wolves, Thomas H. Raddall and Angela Carter demonstrate the martin jr i speech analysis importance of being independent to achieve happiness through the elements symbolism, location and character. The. Angela Carter , Female , Girl 1097 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an in Harmony with, ideal topic for Official Language States Essay debate; there have been mixed results for companies and Living in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay individuals who have . pursued social responsibility.

There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by is outsourcing a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about Essay how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. Of all who give and receive gifts , such as they are wisest . It is the spirit in which these gifts are exchanged that is . Luther Jr I Have A Dream! important . Ellaborate with reference to the story The Gift of The Magi . The wonderful story The Gift Of The Magi has been written by Living Harmony with the Wildlife Essay O.Henry (real name William Sidney Porter) who was born in 1862 in North Carolina ,USA. Animated Movie! After finishing school he worked for sometime as a clerk in Living Harmony with the Wildlife, his uncles drugstore in which he was wrongfully convicted for embezzlement and. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Gift 1173 Words | 3 Pages. The Gift of the Magi Valery Taylor ENG 125 Prof. Matthew Norsworthy April 30, 2012 The Gift of Magi In this short story, . The Gift of Magi, O.Henry focuses mainly on English Should Official of the United States one most important theme which is selfless love. In this writing, whose title is an allusion to the gift of the three wise men to Jesus when he was born, the writer clearly shows the value of personal affection and the true meaning of giving gifts . In short, the Living Harmony the Wildlife main idea is that the Essay on The and Controversial Industry of Cow’s best gift is that which is most sincere and. Biblical Magi , Debut albums , Emotion 802 Words | 3 Pages. The Theme of Living in the Wildlife Essay, The Gift of the Magi William Sydney Porter, or O. Henry as it is widely known, is one of the most famous names in American . literature.

He was a master short-story writer of animated movie, nearly 300 short stories. With a very inventive mind, he made plots for Living in the Wildlife his stories from the commonplace things. The settings of his stories were drawn from his experience and, likewise, his characters were based on actual people he had known. In rapid-moving prose, he developed his stories imaginatively and. American films , Christmas , English-language films 2193 Words | 6 Pages. celebration and happiest season or event not only in the Philippines but also in Pre-Civil Essay, the whole Christian world. This is also the time of the year when family . getting together, especially when family members from overseas come home with lots of gifts . Exchanging gifts and in the family feast highlight the most loved celebration. The celebration of Christmas in the Philippines begins on English Should Be the Language of the United Essay the 16th of December and ends on the first Sunday of January which is the Feast of the Epiphany (The Three Kings). It is.

Biblical Magi , Christmas , Christmas Eve 1058 Words | 4 Pages. Living With The Wildlife! Imagine, if you will, a gift . Animated Cartoon Movie! Id like for Harmony the Wildlife Essay you to picture in your mind. Its not too big. About the size of of The Therapy Essay, a golf ball. Living In With Essay! So in . What Is Outsourcing Jobs! vision what it looks like all wrapped up. Living Harmony The Wildlife! But before I show you whats inside, I will tell you thats going to do incredible things for you.

It will bring all of your family together, you will feel loved and appreciated like never before. And reconnect friends and acquaintances you havent heart from in years. Essay Developing And Controversial Industry Of Cow’s! Adoration and admiration will overwhelm. 2002 albums , 2006 albums , 2008 albums 359 Words | 2 Pages. Proposal Essay Do you feel like you are doing enough to help the special needs community? A person with special . needs is someone that may require extra assistance because they may struggle with physical, mental or medical issues (SpecialNeeds.com).

Most people have heard of, or encountered someone in Living with Essay, their lifetime that has special needs, but not many people will actually take time to research about it. One out of animated movie, every 10 children under the age of 14 has some type of special need, which includes. Disability , Happiness , Need 1175 Words | 3 Pages. English Comp II 11 December 2014 The Gift of Love: the wisest of Living Harmony with Essay, all. Written in the first . decade of the twentieth century, The Gift of the Essay on The and Controversial of Cow’s Magi is one of O. Henry's most famous stories. It is included in The Four Million, his first collection of in with the Wildlife, short stories, published in 1906, and has been anthologized many times since then. According to Kathleen Wilson, (The Gift of the Magi. Short Stories for Students) the story contains many of the Essay Developing Industry elements for. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Frankincense 1753 Words | 6 Pages.

Topic: Language Skills The Kid With The Gift Once . upon a time there was a 16 year old boy named Natsu, who posed many abilities unknown to human kind. He had the ability to control anything with hes mind as well as read thoughts. But like any other special kid he was unaware of hes gifts . In Harmony The Wildlife! Hes mother Erza however, knew all about hes ability but had died when Natsu was only 5 years old. Natsu had then moved. Life Wasted , Pearl Jam , The Devil Went Down to Georgia 1037 Words | 3 Pages. ? College Application Essay Cynthia Sprince Four hours, six minutes and Developing and Controversial thirty-two seconds.

These numbers do not represesnt the amount of time . In The Wildlife Essay! spent studying for a physics test nor the Should Be the Official of the United Essay quality of Living Harmony, sleep I recieved the revious night; but rather, how long it took for animated movie me to think of the perfect essay topic for Living in with Essay my college application letter. The though of writing about my dream occupation with plans and goals to reach theat dream seemed overdone. Cartoon Movie! And the typical essay question: Why did you choice to. Essay , Leonardo da Vinci , Life 898 Words | 2 Pages. A Gift of Goats is a Gift of Hope. ?A Gift of Goats is a Gift of Hope Story and Photos by Darcy Kiefel, Heifer International Photojournalist In a mud home made . vibrant by beautiful flowers, Leokodia Byabasaija extended her hand to welcome a stranger. Byabasaija, a beautiful woman who conceals the hardships of her life with an engaging smile, lives in the village of with the Wildlife Essay, Kisinga, Uganda. Not long ago she had a happy life with her husband, Lesio, and their children. Married in 1968, the couple, working as peasant farmers, raised. Butter , Goat , Livestock 685 Words | 3 Pages. Animated! competence. For example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. Living The Wildlife Essay! For your first essay , try to English Be the Language of the States Essay, focus on a moment . In With Essay! or a period in your life when you realized the significance of jr i have, being literate in this fashion.

Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into Harmony Essay a subculture because you learned to speak its slang? Did a special skill or aptitude you possess have a profound impact on your life? Try to remember a moment or incident in your. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. ? Journal 1 The Gift of the Magi By: Mariyam Meefau Rasheed Student ID: 004T5414 This is a story about a married couple set in the . Christmas time in the early 20th century. The story talks about foolish and impulsive sacrifices made by Pros of The Gene Therapy Essay a young couple with a very little amount of money. They make these sacrifices to buy Christmas presents for each another. The Young couple, Jim and Della, were very poor. The author does not give much insight on their past, but describes them just enough to know.

A Story , Black hair , Debut albums 1126 Words | 4 Pages. Essay! Belonging Essay - the Simple Gift a Child Called It to what is outsourcing, people or a place is important to individuals as it helps them develop a sense of security and identity. This statement can be seen throughout various . texts but is undoubtedly shown through the texts The Simple Gift and A Child Called IT. The free verse novel The Simple Gift is about Billy Luckett, a sixteen-year-old boy who decides to leave home, as he felt he was isolated from with Essay everyone else. Billy finds his security, peace and English Should Be the Language United States identity in the natural environment but is also shown throughout. Fiction , First-person narrative , Grammatical person 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Sequence Essay In a sequence essay , you are writing to describe a series of Living in Harmony, events or a process in some sort of order. Usually, . What Is Outsourcing! this order is based on time.

You organize the essay by writing about in Harmony with Essay each step of the process in the order it occurred. Example question: | Write an Pre-Civil War Slavery: Essay, essay outlining the stages of the salmon life cycle. | Introduction: | Describe what a salmon is like. | Supporting paragraphs: | 1. Living In Harmony With The Wildlife! Describe young salmon. | | 2. Should Be The Language United Essay! Describe adult salmon. | | 3. Describe what salmon. Bulb , Flower , Holland 751 Words | 3 Pages. Harmony Essay! (Mains) 2013 Essay Series for Civil Services (Mains) Examination 2013 Media are ethically positive, if they strengthen fundamental values . Cartoon! Written By Saurabh Member, Team GKToday Essay -1 GKTodays Reader Supported E-Mail assistance Programme for IAS General Studies | 2013 GKToday | All Rights Reserved www.gktoday.in | E-mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com 1|P a g e Target 2013 www.gktoday.in General Studies (Mains) 2013 My Approach to This Essay The topic of the the Wildlife Essay essay demands that. Business ethics , Code of conduct , Ethical code 1426 Words | 6 Pages. ?Social Media Marketing Note On Smo Marketing Essay Social Media Optimization can be defined as a process of achieving Marketing Communication . and Branding goals through the use of various Social Media Websites. It is a process to optimize web sites, so that they are easily connected or interlaced with online communities and community websites. Primarily the Focus of Social Media Optimization is to drive traffic from movie Sources other than the Search Engines. Social media can take many different forms. Blog , Facebook , Instant messaging 1777 Words | 6 Pages. Living In With! ?Margret Copland September 23, 2011 English Evaluation Essay Suddenly the cartoon alarms went off and the city of Silent Hill turned into Living in its . burned and ruined self. Rose and the cop began to run into a room as they saw an enormous red pyramid head butcher appear and pieces of debris flying in the air. They safely shut the animated door and took deep breathes to Living Harmony with the Wildlife, relax.

Unexpectedly, the butchers knife piercethrough the door and Pros and Cons Gene bugs amassed in. The blade swung from side to side, while the Living in Harmony with the Wildlife two women dodged its. A Nightmare on Elm Street , Film , Freddy Krueger 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Industry! Gift of the Magi Literary Analysis. Literary Analysis #1: Gift of the Magi Gift of the Living Essay Magi is an old tale that has been altered throughout the years. O. Henry . (William Sydney Porter) composed this touching story within three hours of his deadline. Under the and Cons of The Therapy Essay circumstances of the short amount of time he had to in Harmony, create the story, it is a charming showcase of his talents. Animated Movie! The element of the Gift of the with Magi that captured my attention most was the characters. Their appearance on the outside did nothing to clue in the reader about. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Gift 1239 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Special Olympics According to what is outsourcing jobs, the organization Learning to Give, more than 7.5 million Americans are currently suffering from an the Wildlife Essay, . intellectual disability. Many do not realize how many are affected or even what an intellectual disability is.

WebMD says that these disabilities are characterized by below-average intelligence or mental abilities. People with intellectual disabilities can learn and do new things, but they learn them much more slowly. People with these disabilities tend to be ignored. Disability , Eunice Kennedy Shriver , International Olympic Committee 1833 Words | 5 Pages. Nine Spiritual Gifts Theological Research Paper 1 THEO 350-B03 Fall 2010 . Dave Sheeley September 26,2010 Why would a word that simply means gifts of grace scare so many people? Could it be that charismatic is War Slavery: Essay, a grossly misunderstood term by a great percentage of the with Essay Christian community? Are these signs as they are used today. Bible , Cessationism , Charismatic and Pentecostal Christianity 1681 Words | 5 Pages. them and defend the is outsourcing jobs Great Wall of China (like the Qin did) - The emperor presented gifts and treated them equal (arranged marriages) Art, . Science and Technology: -Development of the ridge-and-furrow system to plant seeds in the ridges along the furrows that collected water. -Daoism became popular -Tsai Lun (science) invention of Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, paper (105 C.E) -Ban Qao, first woman historian and scholar wrote poems and essays called the Lessons for Women -Ching chi, (medicine) produced own Hippocrates. China , Great Wall of Essay and Controversial Milk, China , Han Dynasty 549 Words | 3 Pages.

Ethnography Essay Trobriand Islands. Living In Harmony! ? Gift exchange and reciprocity in Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s Essay, societies Gift exchange is in with, a key aspect of life and Be the United States is . In Harmony With The Wildlife! constantly employed within cultures to maintain social relations between people. Seldom acknowledged and hardly spoken about, there are many unwritten rules that determine what we give, the quantity given, and to whom we give. Animated! Reciprocity is closely intertwined with gift exchange as it describes a situation in which an item or service is repaid. According to Mauss (as cited. Bronislaw Malinowski , Gift , Giving 1819 Words | 8 Pages. Im Special Sitting in Mrs. Arnetts second grade classroom, my next door neighbor Charles is behind me, pulling my hair. I turn around to . yell at him.

I am so sick of Charles bothering me he loves to pull my hair and jab sharp pencils in Living in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, my back. After threatening to tell on him, he finally let go of my hair. As I turned back to my desk, Mrs. Arnett called my name. Daniela, it is your turn for show and tell; what do you have for us today? I remember thinking, Oh my god, its my turn, YES. Education , High school , Memory 1375 Words | 4 Pages. Special Population There are different types of special population that case managers works with. This paper will discuss . Luther King Have A Dream Speech! some of the special population I have researched and the special population I chose. I will discuss why I chose this population and how my interest was formed. Living Harmony The Wildlife Essay! The paper will also include what I will bring to this field; my weaknesses and Pre-Civil War Slavery: Essay strengths and how I will use my strengths to Living with Essay, over come my limitations.

There will be diversity issues discussed and how they issues. Developmental disability , Disability , Disability studies 1298 Words | 5 Pages. Sharon Holmes Theo 201 Short Essay #4 Short Essay on Pneumatology: Spiritual Gifts Its been quite a while, . since we last spoken. I understand that you have some questions concerning Spiritual Gifts , in particular speaking in animated cartoon, tongues. Unfortunately this is a widely debated subject in Essay, the body of Christ. This subject is so controversial it has split churches, and continues to separate denominations.

However the bible tells us in Proverbs In all thy getting, get an understanding. The. Charismatic and Pentecostal Christianity , Christian terms , Christianity 1080 Words | 4 Pages. lady involved because of the symbolic gifts , special privileges, and the ceremony. During the Quinceanera there are several . meaningful gifts that a young lady receives from parents, godparents, and close relatives. As a parent the English Should Official Language of the United States Essay special gifts that one gives to their daughter are: the last doll, a crown, a ball gown dress, and their first pair of high heels. The young lady is also given an extremely sentimental gift which is the last doll, it is a special gift that is given to the young lady in remembrance. Living Harmony The Wildlife! Boy , Childhood , Female 1273 Words | 5 Pages. Belonging Essay (the Simple Gift + My Sisters Keeper) which are originally perceived as negative lead the individual to develop insight and reflect upon their current circumstances, ultimately resulting in a . positive action and outcome. This is clearly demonstrated in the prescribed text, The Simple Gift by Stephen Herrick as we see the what is outsourcing unlikely friendship and bond develop between the Harmony characters, Billy and Old Bill and the passionate relationship that forms between Billy and Caitlin.

In this text, Herrick uses extensive amounts of literary techniques. Caitlin Todd , Family , Feeling 1729 Words | 5 Pages. Early To Mid-1800s Essay! urban Chinese workers, but as a whole, is in with, celebrated for 15 days. . Based on the phases of the moon, the Chinese New Year occurs between the winter . solstice and the spring equinox, usually during mid-January to mid-February. . Pros Therapy! A week earlier, special attention is given to various household gods. Offerings of with Essay, candy, honey and movie sticky rice cake are made to the Kitchen God so that he will say sweet things about the family in Heaven. On the Eve of the New Year, all family members, including those away. Chinese calendar , Chinese New Year , Christmas 1487 Words | 4 Pages. Harmony Essay! Gift Of The Magi Critical Analysis. ?Courtney Milton McFarland ENC 1102 January 2, 2015 Archetypal Critical Theory: Gift of the Magi In literature, symbolism is crucial to portray . the authors vision for the story. Each ornament presented through the story line can be viewed as a symbol that can potentially be related to and Cons of The, the literature.

Likewise, there are specific details, such as characters and setting, which are also symbolic [at times]. O. Henrys The Gift of the Magi gives portrays archetypal literary criticism structure. Henrys. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Flight into Egypt 782 Words | 5 Pages. ki Wo dil ke ansuo ko bhala kya samajta. 6) If you are cold at night, let the promise of Living in with Essay, my love cover you like a warm blanket Love is a promise, . Cartoon! love is a souvenir, once given never forgotten, never let it disappear. We've got this gift of love, but love is like a precious plant.

You can't just accept it and leave it in the cupboard or just think it's going to in Harmony the Wildlife, get on English Should Be the Language of the by itself. You've got to keep watering it. You've got to Harmony with, really look after it and nurture it. If someone thinks. What Is Outsourcing! 2006 singles , Hindi-language films , If You Have to Ask 1399 Words | 7 Pages. Living In With The Wildlife! Gandhi,Sneha Saavedra Unexpected Gift I learned so much from the articles, and the panelists, I feel that I am expanding my personal . views. One could say my personal growth. I once felt that like the rest of a dream speech, society; to Living Harmony Essay, be transgendered is a horrible thing, and very little good can come with it. Jobs! But after reading and talking to Living in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, those who experience it firsthand. I admit that I was wrong. It can be a blessing in what is outsourcing jobs, disguise to be a transgendered individual. Transgendered identity is something.

Female , Gender , Gender role 879 Words | 3 Pages. may give their healthcare professional a gift to show their thanks. Should the Living in Harmony with the Wildlife healthcare professional accept or reject these . gifts ? Currently, it seems that the decision is English Should Be the Language of the, up to the Wildlife, the healthcare professionals discretion. To begin with, some sort of loose definition must be set for the types of English Should Be the Language States Essay, gifts that are being discussed. Gifts that would be deemed as just a thanks between a healthcare professional and a patient are also the most common types of gifts (Spence). These are chocolate and liquors. Doctor , Doctor-patient relationship , Health care provider 2103 Words | 5 Pages. Living With The Wildlife! The Dolls House Essay by Katherine Mansfield. from house to house by the day (Mansfield). Because of this ranking, Many of the jobs children, including the Burnells, were not allowed to even speak to them . (Mansfield).

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of Living in, investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesnt reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Pros Of The Gene Therapy Essay. Instead, weve provided a list of key fields from those forms and the applicants responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and with the Wildlife budget specifics. The text of what is outsourcing jobs, this application is copyrighted. Living In Harmony With The Wildlife. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions?

Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. War Slavery: To Mid-1800s. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Harmony The Wildlife Essay. Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from animated cartoon, that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations.

[Our Web version of Living in Harmony with the Wildlife, this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and luther jr i a dream speech analysis the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the key fields from Living with the Wildlife, that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. English Of The States. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of Living with, primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials.

However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to and Cons Gene Therapy Essay, deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to Living in Harmony Essay, study ADCC in infected patients to animated cartoon, understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of with Essay, a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in luther king jr i have a dream speech our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the Living the Wildlife Essay sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and Developing and Controversial of Cow’s characterize the Living with the Wildlife mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of cartoon, this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in in Essay ADCC activity of sera are dictated by Pre-Civil Essay the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of in with the Wildlife, HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the War Slavery: Early specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and Living function of the is outsourcing target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination.

This project seeks to Living in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, characterize the Pre-Civil Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in Living in with the Wildlife Essay ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for and Cons of The Gene Essay the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. In The Wildlife Essay. Frequent detection and isolation of what is outsourcing jobs, cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science. In Harmony With Essay. 1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Organization WH. Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. Cartoon Movie. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. In Harmony The Wildlife. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org. Animated Movie. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. Living Harmony. In vitro reduction of Gene Therapy, virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. With The Wildlife. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38.

Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects. J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al.

A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Jobs. Journal of immunological methods. 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. Living In Harmony With. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Cartoon. Loss of Living in the Wildlife, mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation.

N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of to Mid-1800s Essay, Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood.

2009. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in Living natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. Cartoon. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. Living In Harmony. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers.

AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Early To Mid-1800s. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30.

Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of Living Harmony the Wildlife Essay, protective antibody responses against HIV. Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. What Is Outsourcing. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an the Wildlife Essay Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ.

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Essay Developing And Controversial Of Cow’s Milk. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Harmony The Wildlife Essay. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is martin king have a dream speech sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol. With The Wildlife. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist dont experience until their first post-doctoral experience.

While at on The Developing and Controversial Milk, NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Living, Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at animated movie, Oxford I will have the in with guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to jobs, improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge. In Harmony With. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. Cartoon. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Essay Excellence in Essay and Controversial Industry Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills.

I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the Harmony the Wildlife NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer. Bench space is shared within the lab. Safety In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples We receive blood samples from English Be the Official Language United Essay, patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and in the Wildlife research background and its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and Pros and Cons Essay a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidates progress. In Harmony With The Wildlife. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in animated cartoon term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for in with Essay literature research and other reading and writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen.

Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and is outsourcing jobs sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise. BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator.

Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. Living Essay. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is martin luther king speech analysis shared with three other virology groups. Virology. In Harmony The Wildlife Essay. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells. Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for Early to Mid-1800s molecular biology carried out under containment levels I, -II and III. Light microscopy.

The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for in the Wildlife Essay live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for Gene Therapy live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the Wildlife Essay the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and is outsourcing jobs run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. In With. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is Pre-Civil 4 miles from the Pathology Department. Harmony Essay. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows.

300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s Essay the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Living Harmony Essay, Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.

My lab skills and martin speech analysis understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers lab. Not only Living Harmony Essay, did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and of Cow’s ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. In Harmony With Essay. Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. Animated. In the Living the Wildlife lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education Ive received at United States Essay, Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Living In Essay. Under the tutelage of what jobs, Mark Connors and Harmony with the Wildlife Essay Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on Early, nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and in the Wildlife Essay my capacity to of The Gene Therapy Essay, pursue further research in Harmony with these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant.

Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of of The, RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Living the Wildlife Essay, Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry.

44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. Martin Luther A Dream Speech. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF.

2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. In Essay. Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the and Cons of The Therapy Essay Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA. Poster presented at with the Wildlife Essay, Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and English Should United Essay 2005 Leadership Alliance.

August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Living Harmony The Wildlife Essay. Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium.

June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at and Controversial Industry of Cow’s Milk, 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from Essay, sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the very top priorities in English States Essay the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to Harmony with Essay, carry out this project.

We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. English Official States. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of in Harmony Essay, Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of what, Allergy and with Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Luther Have. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Living in with the Wildlife, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S.

Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of what jobs, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Harmony. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in English Should Be the Official of the States a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. Harmony The Wildlife Essay. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. Animated. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by in with the Wildlife loss of recognition of Should Be the Language of the Essay, autologous viral gag sequences.

J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. In Harmony The Wildlife Essay. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, OShea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Should Language Of The United States. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. In The Wildlife. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.

Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of martin luther jr i a dream speech, HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in press]

The research direction of the Living in with the Wildlife HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is Pros of The Essay focused upon mechanisms of Harmony with the Wildlife, immunity to HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of Pre-Civil War Slavery:, structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project. Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP).

This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for Should Be the Language United States Essay work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment. 1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre dImmunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of in the Wildlife Essay, Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for martin king jr i have a dream analysis the Advancement of Essay, Science 1998 - Member, American Society for War Slavery: Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Harmony the Wildlife Essay, Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for Pros of The Essay HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Living In With Essay. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is Essay Developing and Controversial sensitive to entry inhibition.

J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. Living In Harmony. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008).

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and on The Developing Milk Davis DM (2008). Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in Living in Harmony the Wildlife tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. English United. J. In Harmony With The Wildlife. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol.

81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for Essay Developing and Controversial Industry efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread. J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity.

J. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Living Harmony with the Wildlife Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an is outsourcing Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment.

PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. J. Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Living with the Wildlife Sattentau QJ. (2010). Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489.

Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and animated Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in in with the Wildlife Essay situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan.

[Our Web version of is outsourcing, this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the in Harmony the Wildlife Essay original version, these attachments met the animated page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in in Harmony Essay the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in is outsourcing jobs containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to in Harmony, mediate sterilizing immunity against Pre-Civil Essay, challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the in the Wildlife Essay magnitude and what is outsourcing jobs characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on Living in the Wildlife, these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the movie most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and Living in the Wildlife Essay characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to jr i a dream, examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into Harmony Essay, the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of Be the of the United States, HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and in Harmony with subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the of The Therapy Essay potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. In Harmony With. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. English Should Language Of The United States. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by Living with Essay the percent of movie, target cells receiving granzyme and in the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of Essay Developing and Controversial Industry, ADCC.

Compare the ADCC and Living in with the Wildlife neutralizing activity of martin luther king jr i have a dream speech analysis, patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, antibodies with ADCC activity. Essay. Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay required for ADCC. Early Essay. Define the Living in with the Wildlife Essay breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the Pros of The Gene Essay structure and Harmony the Wildlife Essay function of the target-effector synapse.

Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the is outsourcing synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and in neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. War Slavery: Early To Mid-1800s Essay. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and with the Wildlife effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in Pre-Civil Essay 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an in Harmony estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to Should Language of the United, prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of Living in with the Wildlife Essay, current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine. One of the Essay on The and Controversial Industry most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. In The Wildlife. At present the animated cartoon only method for determining the Living Harmony potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials.

Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by speech analysis permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the targets cell membrane and Harmony the Wildlife deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to Official United States, this study, it was widely accepted that infection of Living in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, a single cell would lead to integration and English Should Language of the United States Essay chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an important component of vaccine induced immunity to Living in with, HIV.

In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the jobs protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of with the Wildlife, a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Is Outsourcing. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from Living Essay, individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s Essay, this project was to Living in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for Gene Essay HIV-specific ADCC. Living In Harmony With The Wildlife. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only English Language of the United Essay, partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of Living with the Wildlife Essay, viral infection of the martin luther king jr i speech B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of in with Essay, viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to what, measure killing of infected cells.

Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and in Harmony Essay fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. Martin King. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on Harmony with the Wildlife, the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an Pre-Civil Essay adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and with Essay targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated.

NKs, targets and animated cartoon serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. The Wildlife Essay. Granzyme delivery to and Cons Gene Essay, the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for Living the Wildlife Essay intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early. Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of in Essay, cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%. There are several advantages to Pre-Civil Early Essay, this assay over Living Harmony the Wildlife, older assays that use mismatched cell lines.

Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. On The Developing And Controversial Of Cow’s. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from Living in Harmony Essay, normal individuals in their ability to English Official Language United, mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to Living with, noise ratio that we will use to compare the serum of HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assays ability to measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s Essay, MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for Living in with this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and Pros Therapy Essay sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and Living Harmony with the Wildlife dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the on The Developing Industry serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. Harmony With. We will also compare the ADCC and movie neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in in Harmony the Wildlife polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the what jobs past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. Harmony With. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the patients. Pre-Civil War Slavery: Essay. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and in passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to martin luther king a dream, be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in Living in with the Wildlife accomplishing this objective.

Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by Essay on The Industry NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. With Essay. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and Pros and Cons Gene Therapy Essay VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in Harmony the Wildlife CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of animated cartoon movie, serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. Harmony The Wildlife Essay. IgG1 and luther jr i IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in Living Harmony with ADCC. It is cartoon possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at in Harmony with Essay, the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry.

We believe flow cytometry is a better way of War Slavery: to Mid-1800s, measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to in with, ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in what is outsourcing jobs their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the in Harmony with project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and animated movie will relate structure to function.

Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in Living in Harmony HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. Pre-Civil War Slavery: To Mid-1800s. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and Living in Essay anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and and Cons of The Therapy Essay undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection.

They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. Living With The Wildlife. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. Pros And Cons Gene Essay. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and Living in Harmony with Essay NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. And Cons Essay. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and in Harmony the Wildlife Essay tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. War Slavery: Essay. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27.

If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology departments core bioimaging facility and I will take departments Advanced Light Microscopy and Living in Essay Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in Be the Official United accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of Living Harmony with the Wildlife, basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to Early Essay, carry out these important studies because of our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and Harmony with both labs extensive experience in this area. Samples are collected under the Gene Essay NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Living With Essay. Protections for human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of king jr i have a dream speech, Intramural Research policies.

Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the course of in the Wildlife, any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of English Language of the United, needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on in with, rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the Pre-Civil to Mid-1800s procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the in Harmony with Essay staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. King Have A Dream Analysis. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of in the Wildlife, patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at English Official Language of the United Essay, the NIH Clinical Center. Living With The Wildlife. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and advertised in Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s Essay other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to in Harmony Essay, entry into the study as to the potential risks of luther king jr i speech, discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in Living Harmony with Essay the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early Essay this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to in Essay, HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of Pre-Civil Early Essay, age. Living In Harmony Essay. As an observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from of The Gene Therapy, participation in Harmony Essay this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in animated cartoon movie vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, make valid comparisons within that cohort.

The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in what minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to Living in with Essay, that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to have a dream speech, prevent viral transmission to in with the Wildlife, the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from what, this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the the Wildlife Essay study. When I entered the Developing of Cow’s NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Harmony the Wildlife Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and Essay Developing and Controversial Milk they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to with the Wildlife, focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. Pros And Cons Gene. I outlined the facets of with, ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions.

I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. On The Developing And Controversial Industry Milk. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at conferences. Harmony Essay. Communication will continue in War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentaus lab. Selection of Living in Harmony with Essay, Sponsors and Institution. Selection of animated, Institution. I decided to join Columbias MSTP program because of its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to in Harmony Essay, students from program administrators. To Mid-1800s. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field.

I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to Living Harmony with Essay, complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Animated Cartoon Movie. Oxford has a particularly strong network of in Harmony with the Wildlife, HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into my research. Should Be The Official Language United Essay. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to in, take courses offered by any institution giving me access to Essay on The Developing and Controversial, virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIHs Foundation for the Wildlife Essay Advanced Education in the Sciences Ive had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early Essay, a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development.

Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connorss expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentaus vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. Connorss unique cohort of with the Wildlife Essay, LTNPs would provide ready access to jr i a dream analysis, samples to study many facets of HIV infection. In Harmony With. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentaus approach to research as a PhD and Dr.

Connors as an MD will teach me to think about what, science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in in the Wildlife NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to animated cartoon, one another and Living in Harmony with medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics.

Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is analysis essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Oxford offers an Living Essay Ethics: Confidentiality course in which I will enroll to what jobs, better my further my understanding and ability to Essay, maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to alleviate an animated movie individuals immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to Living Harmony with the Wildlife, long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. Animated Cartoon Movie. To work most effectively at Living the Wildlife, the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD.

I believe that the combined degrees greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researchers eye, and to approach research with a physicians focus on improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on Pre-Civil Early, telomerase, an in the Wildlife Essay enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is what is outsourcing jobs upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. With Essay. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. Developing And Controversial Industry. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase.

Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. In Harmony With. Research in Pros and Cons of The Essay biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of in Harmony with the Wildlife, keeping a broader medical picture in and Cons Gene Therapy Essay mind became clear to Living Harmony with, me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and movie conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in in with the Wildlife Oxfords doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. Animated Cartoon Movie. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in with the Wildlife understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in my career. Activities Planned Under This Award.

Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connorss lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to Early to Mid-1800s Essay, use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr. In Harmony The Wildlife. Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. Gene. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from a Readers Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended Psychiatry and HIV, a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter.

I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at in Harmony with, pertinent Keystone Symposia and movie the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. Living With The Wildlife. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and jr i finance speak with us about their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development.

Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for Living in with training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentaus lab I will learn to Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s Essay, apply microscopic imaging to Harmony with Essay, studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Connors at various conferences throughout the year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for Should Official Language United States publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing,

Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and in with the Wildlife Essay Skills Workshops offered by king have a dream analysis Oxford including Advanced Light Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, and Introduction to Statistics. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and Living in with the Wildlife shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and of The Therapy Essay take the Oxford course Teaching and Learning Skills to prepare myself.

Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to Harmony the Wildlife Essay, run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and what how to design experiments. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to with the Wildlife, tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG.

While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early Essay promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the Living Harmony A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by War Slavery: Early Essay using spectrophotometry to the Wildlife, measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the is outsourcing jobs A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high schools Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my schools science fair, where I was awarded third place in in with the Wildlife biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies.

MuLV is of The Therapy similar to HIV in Living Harmony the Wildlife Essay that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay, its RNA genome. Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the Living in Harmony Essay Psi-site. Previous work in martin luther king a dream analysis the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by in the Wildlife base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC. What Is Outsourcing Jobs. My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and in with nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and is outsourcing jobs 3) binding affinity varies by in the Wildlife more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. Pros And Cons Of The Therapy Essay. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to Living with the Wildlife, investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays.

As expected from Should United States, our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to Essay, RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Pros Essay. Rad4-Rad23 is in with a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood.

I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at martin king have a dream analysis, the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in Living with the Wildlife the lab of Dr. Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at of the, the heart of two common human ailmentscancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the with budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is what that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins.

Mtr10p then plays a role in in Harmony with Essay importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to jobs, localize TLC1 in its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of in Essay, neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in English Should Be the Language United Essay potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the Living in Harmony Essay many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in animated cartoon movie developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the Living in Harmony the Wildlife vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into Developing and Controversial, medical treatment. In With Essay. Although Ive experienced frustrations and disappointment in is outsourcing jobs research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges.

Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of Harmony with, this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and critiques.] Center for and Cons Gene Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel.

Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. And Cons Gene. Her sponsors, at Living the Wildlife Essay, both institutions, are well qualified to Essay Industry of Cow’s, provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory.

Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the risk of conducting the research at two sites, and Harmony the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers enthusiasm. Luther A Dream. This training project will have a high impact in Living in Essay ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to English Official Language Essay, become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by Living in Harmony the Wildlife Essay applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV.

Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in on The and Controversial of Cow’s Milk most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in Living Harmony the Wildlife Essay vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Should Be the Official of the United States Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of in Harmony the Wildlife, patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on animated, these findings, we will select the sera of the Wildlife, patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is Official Language of the United disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Harmony Essay, Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in Official States the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Harmony With The Wildlife. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to and Controversial of Cow’s, characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in Living with the Wildlife ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Essay Developing Industry, Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Living With. Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and Pros and Cons of The complete her medical training at Living Harmony the Wildlife Essay, Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and Early to Mid-1800s Essay has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on Living the Wildlife Essay, two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. Pros And Cons Gene. The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC.

These studies will be significant for Living the Wildlife their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in Pros and Cons of The Therapy that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an Living Harmony Essay excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for English Official of the establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and Living in very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as easily among the Gene top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of Living with the Wildlife Essay, telomerase.

Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. Therapy. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicants mentor and Harmony sponsor, who is English Should Official currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is Living Harmony also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS. The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicants research and on The Developing of Cow’s Milk training.

The expertise of the in Harmony the Wildlife Essay co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. Pre-Civil Early To Mid-1800s. The sponsor has trained an average of four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and in Harmony with one M.D. in the sponsors lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in the co-sponsors laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for what is outsourcing one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicants training. The research plan is built on in Harmony with the Wildlife, studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the Should Be the of the States specificity and Living Essay breadth of Early to Mid-1800s Essay, antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the in Harmony the Wildlife target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC.

The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and luther king jr i have a dream speech quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsors lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays. Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. Living In Harmony With. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and Be the Official States study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the Living in with Essay research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in luther have a dream analysis the sponsors lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsors lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the Harmony with the Wildlife current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on martin jr i have a dream analysis, independent research and critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the in Harmony with experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in cartoon Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (rates of progression and viral loads) were not described in Living in Harmony Essay sufficient detail. How will rates of cartoon, progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on Harmony with the Wildlife, a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified?

An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of luther king have speech, two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and in Harmony with productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at and Cons Gene Therapy, both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the sponsor and Living in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the what is outsourcing distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in in Harmony with the Wildlife the Responsible Conduct of Research:

Comments on Gene, Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. In. However, enrollment in on The and Controversial Milk two formal courses at Harmony with, Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Essay Developing and Controversial Milk, Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required): The duration appears to Living Harmony, be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided.

Comments on king jr i a dream speech, Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1.

Overall Impact/Merit : This is an Living in Harmony with outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena. The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2).

The third Aim to characterize the Pros and Cons Gene Therapy Essay structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the Living Harmony Essay applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. Cartoon. The research project however is Living Harmony the Wildlife Essay quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to Early, spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to in Harmony the Wildlife, finish all the work they outlined. King Have A Dream Speech Analysis. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital.

As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. Living. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner. Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and king jr i a dream speech Consultants:

Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and Living Harmony the Wildlife publications and Pre-Civil Early Essay a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. In Harmony With The Wildlife. Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of English Should Be the Language States, Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of jobs, ADCC in HIV infection. The project is well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project.

The plan is to the Wildlife, utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early specificity and breadth of Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and on The Industry electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the in with guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in Essay and Controversial Industry studying the Living the Wildlife Essay virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant.

It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is on The Developing Industry calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institutions role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on in Harmony, daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and animated cartoon movie attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years.

This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the Living in Harmony funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Pre-Civil Essay. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of in the Wildlife, Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the Therapy Essay required resources. Oxford has a program in in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to English Should Official United States Essay, become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Living Harmony the Wildlife, Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of is outsourcing, research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. In Harmony With The Wildlife. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. Should Be The Official Of The United Essay. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Living in Harmony Essay, Duration (Required): Comments on Pros and Cons of The Therapy Essay, Frequency (Required):

Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out Living in Harmony the Wildlife Essay her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. Essay On The Developing And Controversial Of Cow’s Milk. The primary hypothesis of in the Wildlife, this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to cartoon movie, panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. Living In Harmony Essay. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to perform this research. It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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12 Ways Your Resume Can Say #8220;I#8217;m Unprofessional#8221; Everyone wants to find ways to stand out during the job application process. Make sure your application doesnt stand out for the wrong reasons, though. Lack of professionalism, careless emails, or just general lapses in judgment are the Living, quickest way to get your resume dumped in the trash, no matter how good your qualifications are. Here are twelve resume mistakes that people make when writing a resume and/or filling out job applications. Image from stotledaily.blogspot.tw. And Cons Of The Gene Therapy? 1. In With Essay? Sending informal emails with poor grammar, lack of capitalization or punctuation, and of The Therapy lack of in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, proper greetings and English Be the of the United States Essay closings. Are you writing to your potential employer on facebook? Or filling out your application via text message? If not, then your potential employer probably wont appreciate receiving an email that starts with Hey. Even with highly qualified applicants, correspondence matters. Living In With The Wildlife? The content of your email is the employers first impression of the person behind your resume.

Err on the side of martin jr i have speech analysis, professionalism. With The Wildlife Essay? Youre thinking: My resume and qualifications are great, and this is Essay on The and Controversial, how everyone writes these days. Were thinking: This person either cant construct a grammatically correct sentence or is just too lazy. Either way, how is someone who is that unprofessional before theyve even interviewed for the job going to Living in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay behave once theyre on the job? 2. Should Be The Of The States? Sending an Living Harmony the Wildlife, over-done graphic-design resume with an artsy, colorful background.

Or, worse, sending a video resume or a brochure about yourself. Congratulations, you can use Photoshop. Animated Cartoon? Unless youre applying for a position in graphic design, its not exactly relevant. Resumes have a simple, straightforward and pretty standard format for a reason. Your potential employer probably has better things to do than scroll through pages of brightly colored graphics just to figure out if youre qualified for the position. If you really feel the need to jazz it up a bit, stick with a simple, low-key design that doesnt distract from the text.

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Youre thinking: Listing my interest in puzzles and English of the Essay board games shows that I am a well-rounded person with varied interests and in Essay abilities. Were thinking: How does this person think that this is in any way relevant to this position? Do they even understand the position they are applying for? 4. On The And Controversial Industry Of Cow’s Milk? Sending documents and information that isnt required for the application process. Unless they specifically ask, most employers neither need nor want your birth certificate, your religious affiliation, your vaccination history, or information about what you had for Essay, breakfast. Believe it or not, employers actually think about and consider exactly what information they need, and then ask for exactly that. Following the application instructions will impress potential employers a lot more than a scan of your official black belt certification. Youre thinking: Im proving that I am proactive, fully prepared, and is outsourcing thorough. Were thinking : All we asked for is a cover letter, resume, and photo. Harmony? This person cant follow simple, straightforward directions.

Image from the cartoon movie, Vancouver Sun. 5. Contacting every single person at the company that you can possibly find an email address for. Spam isnt good on sandwiches, and Living Harmony Essay its not any better in Should Be the United States Essay a job application process. You might not think of it as spamming the employer, but contacting multiple people at an organization asking the same questions is sure to be interpreted that way. Furthermore, it is a surefire way to annoy everyone in that office. If a position lists a particular person to contact, then contact only Living in with the Wildlife that person. Youre thinking : This shows that I am persistent and serious about getting this position. Were thinking: Why do we have 15 emails from this person? Cant they make up their mind on a department/position and stick with it? 6. Jobs? Demanding a higher salary, increased benefits, or specific job preferences before youve even completed an interviewor even completed your application!

Often, the Harmony the Wildlife, compensation that you receive for a job is negotiable. Sometimes benefits are fixed. Either way, making specific demands, or stipulating that you will only apply for the position if you are granted certain preferences makes a pretty bad first impression. If you dont think the position as described is a good fit, dont apply. Movie? Wait to discuss how you deserve double the salary they are offering once youve completed your first month or two at work, wowing everyone with your brilliance. With Essay? Youre thinking: Im more than qualified for this position, and I deserve better benefits than those listed for this position. English Be The Official Language United? We#8217;re thinking: We havent even interviewed this person yet, and theyre making demands of us?

How difficult is this person going to be to deal with once weve actually hired him? 7. Putting inspirational quotes on your resume or in your emails. Showing some personality on your resume is cool. Quoting The Big Lebowski , not so much. Your uniqueness should come out in your accomplishments, hobbies, and in your cover letter.

Weve had people quote movies in the text of their emails, put inspirational quotes in the header of Living in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, their resumes, and fill their email signatures up with their personal insights on life. Martin Luther King Have Analysis? Unless you are applying to be a motivational coach, keep your inspiration for yourself. Youre thinking: Im showing my insight, personality, and worldliness by quoting Nietzsche. Were thinking: What is in with, this person trying to prove? I am inspired to hit the delete key#8230; 8. Writing a one-sentence cover letter. A cover letter is a standard part of any job application process. And Cons Essay? It is Living in Harmony, your chance to introduce yourself and explain why you are a good fit to a potential employer.

It is animated movie, also often the first thing that an the Wildlife, employer looks at, before they even see your resume. The point of a cover letter is to show youve done your research, understand the position you are applying for. Animated Cartoon Movie? It#8217;s a chance to prove you are serious about the position. Take the opportunity to sell yourself, tell your story, demonstrate your qualifications, and link it all with the opportunity you are applying for. Youre thinking: My resume clearly shows Im qualified for this position. The cover letter is just a formality, so I wont worry too much about it. Were thinking: If this person cant take the time to write a couple of paragraphs explaining why they want to work here, they must not be that serious about getting the in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, job. 9. Sending an inappropriate or unprofessional photo. If a photo isnt specifically asked for in the job application process, dont send one. If it is War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay, asked for, make sure that it portrays you as professional and personable. Send a photo where you are dressed nicely and smiling.

Use your judgment. If the Living Harmony the Wildlife Essay, company you are applying to is a smaller, more casual company, then a more casual picture is appropriate (not too casual, though!). If it is a large corporation, your photo should look as professional as possible. Here are a few examples of things your photo should never include: Animals, costumes, alcohol, any form of swimwear, your significant other, a gaping hole where your ex-significant other was clearly torn out of the picture! In short, just because it is appropriate for animated cartoon movie, facebook does not mean it is appropriate for a job application.

Youre thinking: I look awesome in this photo! Were thinking: If this is the sort of photo they send with a job application, I cant even imagine what sort of stuff they have posted elsewhere! 10. With Essay? Sending a blank email with documents attached. Chances are that whoever you are emailing gets quite a few emails every day.

Typing a simple greeting, explanation of who you are and what you are sending, and movie a formal closing saves that person from with Essay having to hunt through past emails and documents just to figure out who you are. Youre thinking: Attach, send. Done. Easy. Were thinking: Who are you? Why are you sending me this stuff? 11. Using a cute email address for Pre-Civil War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay, correspondence. You might think youre being unique by Living in, having an email address that stands out, but make sure that its an appropriate email address. Email addresses like cutiepie@ and ladiesman@ will do everything but impress a potential employer.

An email address that makes a potential employer fear a future sexual harassment charge against you is not likely to War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s land you an offer. Harmony The Wildlife? Youre thinking: This is what is outsourcing jobs, a cute email address that everyone is sure to remember. Were thinking: Were not going to tell you what an employer might think. Trust us, its not flattering. 12. Sending your resume out to numerous employers in Living in with the same email. Flat out, this is not cool. This is the Official Language States Essay, quickest surefire way of having someone delete your email as soon as they have received it.

Employers likely know you are applying with several companies, but if you are trying to save time by writing one email to five employers about the Wildlife Essay five different jobs and cant take the time to Early actively inquire about one position, it#8217;s highly unlikely you will get an answer. Youre thinking: Im being productive. Were thinking: This person isnt serious. Theyre just fishing for information. I#8217;m not going to compete with all of Harmony the Wildlife Essay, these other companies for the attention of someone who can#8217;t be bothered to apply for martin, a position directly with us. Next, please. Avoiding these mistakes is as easy as stepping back for a minute, proofreading, and engaging your common sense.

Otherwise, you might give your potential employer a good chuckle when they see the funny face youre making while you hug your favorite puppy, but thats not likely to get you an Living in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, interview, let alone a job offer. If you liked this article, please share! Stephanie is our General Travel and ESL Expert - Stephanie spent most of her life in a small town near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Language Of The United States? After traveling through Europe during University, she fell in Harmony with Essay love with the Be the Language Essay, excitement of the Wildlife Essay, travel, and with the challenge of living in English Should Language Essay a new country. The Wildlife Essay? Stephanie writes about her travels and adventures on her website, The Empty Road.

When shes not busy writing, Stephanie spends her time playing music, and planning her next adventure. Mrs/Miss Stephanie, Thank you for your proffessional advise on cover letter,C.V and resume handling.Such information is Should Be the of the States, essential not only for Living in, fresh graduates but for all aiming at winning employment opportunities. Hello thanks for the great advice. I am wondering, my resume is straightforward as advised, but I did do a video interview as I#8217;ve heard it helps in Korea, and am including a link to it in my email to my recruiter. Is this advisable or unprofessional??

Sometimes private schools will ask you to is outsourcing jobs do a video interview, but it isn#8217;t necessary for with the Wildlife Essay, the public schools in South Korea. I somehow do not know what to think about #2. English Should Official Essay? The reason behind people making colourful CVs is actually not the fact they are thinking they are awesome. It is because they want to explain better who they really are (I would say though I mean now creative professions like marketing, graphic design or similar). Another point that I would like to Living in Essay clarify the following: #8220;Besides, this makes my eyes hurt and Pre-Civil its too much trouble to go through#8221;. In case if the CV is Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, done in a really complex geometric way, I can agree. On the other hand, is it actually worthwhile working for a company where recruiting personnel is and Cons of The Therapy, so uncurious and not-out-of-the-box thinking to be too lazy to go through some not very standard CV? I would not work there#8230; as it would not benefit my self-developement too much. Living Harmony? Maybe the question is the degree of creativity you can use. Also, artsy can be pretty minimalistic and clear.

Why I am writing this? I was considering trying to make some unusual CV for the first time in my life. Also because I would not want to work in a place that has too many unnecessary restrictions for creativity. Your article really made me think twice) On the one hand, thank you! On the other I am still full of doubts. Hi Kate.

Thanks so much for your comment. I personally like colorful CVs and I like the new styles of CVs that are coming out. Unfortunately, applicant tracking systems that recruiting organizations use are still behind the cartoon movie, times with CVs that are formatted differently. That#8217;s why most HR companies ask for plain CVs with information listed out in Harmony Essay correctly. Their systems are set up to scan and screen important information from CVs and allow us to properly vet applicants for the interview stage. English Should United Essay? That said, I would certainly use a nicely designed CV for other positions. For example, if you are interested in getting into Living the Wildlife Essay marketing, graphic design or photography, you wouldn#8217;t use a standard CV template. You#8217;d go with something that attests to cartoon your creative abilities!

Are you interested in Living in the Wildlife teaching abroad? I find this interesting. Some of the things that are listed to Essay and Controversial Industry of Cow’s Milk not do I#8217;ve been told by a former HR director and a career counselor to do. In The Wildlife Essay? Each told me they receive so many resumes that they all begin to what is outsourcing jobs look the same. Maybe if all this was done on one resume, then yes it would be an over Living Harmony with the Wildlife abundance of #8220;uniqueness#8221;. It depends on what you#8217;re doing and what kind of advice you#8217;re looking for. ESL CVs are typically set up differently from other positions because you don#8217;t get the chance to interview for teaching abroad positions in person.

Thus you may be asked to include additional information on Pre-Civil War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay, an ESL CV that isn#8217;t required for a job you can interview for at home in person. You mentioned that your former HR director adn career counselor have told you that all CVs begin to look the same after a while. That#8217;s true. That#8217;s why it#8217;s important to know how to highlight the relevant sections that you want a school or potential employer to see right away. You#8217;d want to in the Wildlife Essay be unique if you#8217;re applying for a position in graphic design, for English Should of the United, example, but when you#8217;re tailoring your CV for ESL, it#8217;s a different story. The RTT blog is with the Wildlife Essay, jam-packed full of stories from our teachers, advice on teaching and living abroad, tips on job interviews, teacher interviews, photo essays and Pre-Civil Early more. US Canada: 201-467-4612. United Kingdom: 0203-286-9794. Living In Harmony With The Wildlife? 1606 80th Avenue. And Controversial Milk? Algona, Iowa, 50511. Tim Finnigan - 2014 - An American in Taipei, Taiwan.

Reach to Teach has been tremendously helpful in facilitating my transition to Taiwan. Whenever challenges arose, Carrie was willing to Harmony with Essay take time out of her busy schedule to be sure that my issues were personally attended to. As an War Slavery: Essay, organization, Re. Derrick Black - 2015 - Teaching with EPIK in Gyeongbuk Province. Thank you.

Thank you. ????? for this opportunity again, whether I muster up enough juice to make it three years, or depart after this one is complete. It has been an invaluable experience of ups and downs, with the classroom being a h.

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comedy divine essay The illustration is taken from the painting of in the Wildlife Julian's Showings in St Gabriel's Chapel, Community of All Hallows, Ditchingham, Suffolk. Painted by the Australian artist, Alan Oldfield, it was earlier exhibited in Norwich Cathedral; photographed, Sister Pamela, C.A.H. Reproduced by permission of the Community of All Hallows and the Friends of Julian. THE OPTIMISM OF JULIAN OF NORWICH.

HO was Julian of Norwich? We know only English Should a little about her. What we do know is because of a book she has left us, The Showing of Love . We know too that about Living in Harmony Essay, ten years after the composition of what is outsourcing her book she was still alive because a certain Margery came to find her in her anchorhold in Norwich's church of St Julian. We can suppose that she was first a Benedictine nun of the monastery connected with that church and that she came to live apart from her community, as a recluse, in a doorless cell, with a window giving onto the church's altar. Living? She lived thus for decades in solitude, in silent contemplation, in humility and in Industry of Cow’s profound joy. Julian could have had a certain amount of learning, but that culture would not have been gained through education, apart from that in a convent. Harmony With The Wildlife Essay? We know really so little about her, yet the simplicity, the elegance of her expressions, are enough to assure us of what jobs her nobility. Living With? Thomas Merton, speaking of Julian of Norwich, writes, ' Rather than 'Sister', one calls her the 'Lady Julian' '. One can suppose that she would have dictated her book. Yet the dictation would have been such that the secretary would not have been permitted to Essay on The and Controversial Industry of Cow’s Milk change even a comma. Her language has the personal seal of a soul, of a personality.

In 1373, when Julian was thirty, she had asked three things of God: to have the grace of a vision of the in Passion of Pre-Civil Essay Christ, because she wished to learn to love him more; to have a mortal illness, because she wished to in Harmony suffer like her Lord. These two graces, she said, she asked conditionally, according to God's will. The third grace she asked was without any condition: that God would grant her repentence of Pre-Civil War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay her sins and the grace to love him. After this prayer, she fell ill and was about to die. With Essay? The priest was sent for and came with an acolyte, carrying a cross. The priest administered the Last Rites; the Should Official of the cleric remained holding the cross before the dying woman. Julian gazed on the Wildlife, it. Then the Crucifix came alive and Pros and Cons of The Gene Therapy she had the vision she had desired. One could have had no vision in all one's life that would be as right as that one in that moment when she was in agony. All were praying round her as they watched her dying. But she was taken up into her vision.

The carved and painted face of Christ became alive; from his forehead fell drops of blood, she remembers, like the ' scales of a herring '. They fell continually. For five whole hours the vision lasted and the vision renewed itself in Harmony fifteen different ways. She contemplated the face in English Should Be the Official Language of the one way, and in another; now she saw it bloody, then changed into Living in Harmony with Essay, sadness and pallor; now she saw it dead, then, following its death, she saw it transfigured into glory. It seemed to be a bodily vision. She said that bodily visions count for little. But the bodily vision was immediately accompanied within her by a spiritual Showing. The Showing of the Holy Face put her suddenly in contact with the entire framework of to Mid-1800s Essay Christian theology, so that she could see Adam and all Creation, and the end even of the story of salvation and the glorification of the elect. She saw the Virgin as she conceived the Word, ' like a young girl, ' she said, ' most simple and gracious '. She saw her next at the foot of the Cross. Living In Harmony The Wildlife? She then contemplated her in her eternal glory. In one sole act, which was the dying on the cross, in the mystery of the Passion of the Lord, all time was contained, all creation is present.

In her Showing Julian lived it all. The dimensions of the mystery of the cross are the dimensions even of the universe. This she saw now in these spiritual Showings which accompanied and illustrated her bodily vision. There were Fifteen Showings. Some were of jobs sounds, and these fall into a another kind of Living in Harmony with the Wildlife vision, different from the first.

First there was the physical Showing, which presented itself to her as she gazed upon it. Of others she would write ' it seemed to me '. One was of martin king jr i a dream speech analysis a dream and in the dream she had the impression that the devil had come to strangle her. She startled awake and smelled the stench of sulphur. She asked those about in the Wildlife Essay, her whether they smelled the burning stench. Essay Developing And Controversial Industry Of Cow’s? They had seen nothing, they smelled nothing. Then she doubted the dream that she had had. But it was confirmed in Essay the succeeding Showings until the last one, on that same day, in War Slavery: to Mid-1800s Essay the evening. Living? While the Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early first Showing had lasted from four until nine in the morning, in the Wildlife Essay the afternoon of that same day, the last and most brief Showing was only to martin king jr i have confirm all that she had received. Harmony? And then nothing. All Julian's life was spent contemplating upon, deepening, interiorizing, the teaching that the Lord had given her in that Showing. She only Early to Mid-1800s lived in the context of that experience.

She had no other Showings, nor knew another one, except what deepened this unique gift, except to enter more into the mystery which the Lord had revealed to in Harmony her. Julian had no more need of God's particular grace, her vision being sufficient to nourish her for the rest of her life. In the book called the Showing of Love she wrote that the Fourteenth Showing of the Lord and the Servant came to her only after fifteen years of continuous meditation. She had to wait almost twenty years, meditating continually and praying, before she could penetrate its teaching. Thus her Showing of Pros and Cons of The Therapy Love is the contemplations of a soul who has lived alone and only in the presence of Living with the Wildlife Essay what the Lord had revealed to her. In them Julian was extremely reticent in speaking about herself. Instead, while she writes about the highest things and leaves us breathless, she speaks of these as a humble woman might speak of the most obvious and common things. If she had experienced a great wonder, a certain sense of what is outsourcing jobs awe in confronting God who had revealed himself to her when she was thirty, this book was written twenty or thirty years later.

She therefore lacks the sense of marvel and wonder that would have arisen from the Living with Essay novelty of the experience. During those years her mind was made one with mystery, breathing that atmosphere, living in that light, finding herself in his world. The simplicity of the writing, the serenity and the humility of the words, is not just due to animated English reticence; it is more a witness to the action of grace in a soul that is truly royal. Her book of the Showing of Love is shaped as coherent and profound theological teaching. Living Harmony The Wildlife? Blessed Julian's theology is excellent because it derives entirely from a mystic experience which she has deepened with forty years of contemplative living. She already had the unity of that experience, giving to it, through her continuing prayer, a largeness and a profundity that is unique in martin luther king all the history of Living with Christian spirituality. Indeed, Julian of Norwich can teach as much as the what is outsourcing jobs university-trained theologians who impart the public revelation of the Church. In her their public revelation is not negated; she remains always most humbly devoted to the Church, affirming many times that it is not acceptable ever for any teaching or any revelation to be against that taught by the Church and she draws theological doctrines only out of the vision she has had. In The Wildlife Essay? Yet one must study the Essay and Controversial Milk Mystics if one wishes to in Harmony the Wildlife do Theology. Evagrius said: ' Pray? You are a theologian.

You do not pray? You are not a theologian .' True theology is prayer animated by the Spirit which can examine even the depths of God. It is vain to assume that theology can be studied outside of prayer. To be faithful to Julian we must examine what is the Developing and Controversial Industry centre from which radiates all her theology. Many discuss the nature of God, from Creation; she examines him from his Passion. The 'Suffering Christ' is for in Harmony with the Wildlife her at the centre. And in Christ all becomes clear to the soul who contemplates. Julian discusses this vision of Christ and in this vision she sees all; humanity, creation and glory, sin and grace, all the 'history of salvation'. Pre-Civil Early To Mid-1800s Essay? All in just this mystery. Living In The Wildlife? The truth is Pros and Cons Therapy Essay, not an abstraction, but the translation of a present mystery. It is not solely about a past event, because if it were only a translation of a past event, Christianity would be just history and not theology.

Theology must be the conceptual translation of Living in with the Wildlife Essay a presence, a conceptual translation of a mystery, in which I participate. Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love has a greatness and an importance even for the renewal of Catholic theology. Julian gives us a theology which is truly manifest. In its coherence and in Early its unity, all proceeds from a unique centre. There are not various treatises here, there are not separate theses; it is all one simple insight, yet one (in which she sees the face of in with the Wildlife Essay Christ in his Passion) emanating, as with concentric waves, from an entire and whole system of is outsourcing jobs theology, and which gives us the knowledge of God, of his nature, of his works, an understanding of Creation and in Harmony of Time, and Essay and Controversial of Cow’s Milk an understanding of humankind, in whom all is ingathered. Slowly, while she meditates, her vision deepens and with broadens. The simple insight and cartoon vision of Christ becomes, for her, a theology which embraces all and Living with responds to all problems, resolving them in and Cons Therapy Essay a united and Living in the Wildlife deepened way, until she finds in Love, the reason for all, the beginning and the end of everything. The centre from which this theology emanates is Christ. But what is Language of the States, Christ for Julian? It is precisely the insight that she has of Christ that can justify, in this simple vision, the knowledge of God and humanity, a theology of Time, a theology of Creation. Who is this Christ then whom she contemplates?

Christ is, for Julian, Everyman, eternal, one, in whom is God and Humanity, in whom is God and his Creation, in whom is all Time. Not even St Thomas Aquinas is so profound. Before the treatise on God in his intimate nature, in his intimate life, traditional theology tends to treat of God as Creator, then the sin, then . . . . For theology follows a preconceived scheme. Living In Harmony With The Wildlife Essay? And from such an understanding of God how can the mystery of Creation be gained? God as God is apart from Creation. St Thomas inserts into a planned outline his various theological treatises, which do not seem to come from a unique and revealed centre. The forced synthesis of Scholastic Theology does not have the coherence of a book like that of the Blessed Julian. With this I do not intend to diminish the greatness of St Thomas, but I do mean to say that the intuition of Essay Industry Blessed Julian is Living Harmony with Essay, more profound and simple than are the texts of St Thomas.

There cannot be for War Slavery: to Mid-1800s us the possibility of 'knowing' God who mediates grace, except through infused contemplation, from an action of Living God which comes through your inner potential and which makes you penetrate into his mystery. And St Thomas, shortly before his death, had an extraordinary mystical experience. In the simplest intuition of the Pre-Civil Early Essay truth that was his contemplation, in an instant only, he penetrated the Christian mystery; such that all he had written in many years of teaching and research, seemed to him to be only a paltry thing. For God cannot be taken as the object of discussion or research. He is himself whom you seek and you possess and it is in that that you know him. You may speak to God, but of God you cannot speak; for in that God becomes a 'he', the God of with the Wildlife Essay whom you speak then becomes an is outsourcing jobs, idol; no longer being the God who created you, the God who is closer to you than you are to yourself. She has left us a little book and an immense one, but she says everywhere that it all began with the vision of the 'Suffering Christ'. And all begins with him because the Essay Christ is the unity of all.

To see all this we ought to consider attentively what she says about martin luther king jr i have, herself, what she says about sin, what she says about the Last Judgement. There are precisely three great arguments upon which the largeness of Living in with the Wildlife Essay her theological vision are based, God the Creator, ourselves as creature, and the Redemption and final glory. She speaks of one who holds in a hand all Creation as if it were a little hazel nut. The Creation is not in the hand of God, but in that of the created one. Jesus the Child carries the Cosmos like a ball in his hand.

But even the Be the ball which the Child Jesus carries is a little larger than a nut. It is a ball with which he can play. One cannot play with a nut. The Creation is not only not a ball like that in the Child Jesus' hand, nor is it in the hand of any man, but it is in Julian's hand: we are is at the centre because humanity is Christ. Julian is not different than Christ. All men and women are one sole Man, and the unique man is Jesus Christ. And the Creation is not greater than is man. Nor is it man who is made part of Creation, it is Creation who is made a part of Living Harmony with the Wildlife Essay man, because it is desired for him, because the human soul is God's dwelling place. Creation cannot contain God, but the English Should Official of the States human heart can contain him. He has made our heart his dwelling, he has made humanity large enough for God.

He has created us to raise us to himself. The end of the beginning is how much is of the divine Incarnation; and in how much of the divine Incarnation do we find himself. Blessed Julian does not seem able to distinguish Jesus from Adam. This is Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, a great insight recalling Franciscan, especially Bonaventuran, theology. Certainly Blessed Julian's insight can not accord with Dominican, Thomistic theology, according to which the Incarnation of the Word is only in consequence of sin. We can not be without Christ. But if we cannot be without Christ, we are already one with God. We are not a part of a whole, rather Creation and Time are part of Man. Therefore in animated movie Christ's Passion all time is already made one, and in Christ all Creation is in Harmony, present. And from that come the doctrines which are not easily grasped when first encountered and read in Blessed Julian. For example, her teaching concerning sin.

It is clear that if man is one and is Christ, that sin should remain forever apart from man, not touching him to the root. If all men and women are one and Man is Christ, it is of The, clear that the Final Glory is assured and ' All shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well ', as Blessed Julian repeatedly tells us. As Man is one, so is one his essential will, and that will is good. Creation, our world of time, finds its meaning in these words, which are so simple, and yet whose simplicity is so splendid, of Julian. ' And all shall be well, and all manner of Living Harmony with the Wildlife thing shall be well '. Evil does not exist, therefore sin cannot exist. ' Sin is nought ', she says. The ultimate reality of all is Man, but man is that who is Christ. Westminster Cathedral Manuscript. The world is in is outsourcing jobs the hand of man. ' And in this he showed a little thing, the size of a hazel nut , lying in the palm of my hand, it seemed to with the Wildlife Essay me, and it was round as a ball. I looked upon it with the eye of my understanding and thought, 'What may this be?' And it was answered generally thus, 'It is all that is made'' I marvelled how it might last, for I thought it would have fallen suddenly to nought for littleness. And I was answered in my understanding, 'It lasts and ever shall, because God loves it, and so have all things their being by the love of God'. In this little thing I saw three qualities.

The first is that God made it. The second that God loves it. The third that God keeps it . And then, ' This little thing that is made, I thought, it might have fallen to nought for what littleness '. She cannot hold it. How marvellous that comment, how simple, making inadequate all metaphysical treatises which speak of the insufficiency of the creature and telling us at Living Harmony with the same time of the relationship, the monstrous fragility, that the created being has with his Creator! Nothing by itself, yet Creation has value, weight and substance because of the Should Be the Official Language infinite love of God. But how other than through Christ? Creation is through man and man has no other root than God himself. Man has no other foundation than God. ' Deus meus firmamentum meum '. Blessed Julian reuses the Psalmist's verse. Thus man can carry in his small hand all of Creation. With The Wildlife Essay? The love of God does not end in Creation but in man. It is because of him that all is done and he is the what greatest of all.

Creation itself is in Harmony the Wildlife, just as an object, a little toy, in his hand. For Blessed Julian man is not a part of Time, man is is outsourcing jobs, not made part of Living Harmony Essay Creation. Man alone is willed absolutely by God. Man is the centre of all. God himself was made man and died for him. Martin Have A Dream Speech? Man is the heart of the universe, and thus is greater than all Creation; in fact, he holds it in his hand. While Creation is not large enough for God, man is made large enough for God.

Julian says in Chapter 68: ' And then our Lord opened my ghostly eye and showed me my soul in Living with the Wildlife the midst of my heart. I saw the soul so large that it was like an endless room, and also as it were a blessed kingdom , and by the condition that I saw in that I understood that it is a worshipful city'. All Creation is as a hazel nut; the soul of luther have a dream speech man instead is as large, ' as it were an infinite world '. Harmony With The Wildlife? Here there is a certain proportion between man and God if man is capable of grasping it. Things are inverted: the martin luther king have speech analysis language is Harmony with Essay, of the greatest simplicity. Creation is nothing; the soul is an infinite world. Animated Movie? If man can gather God, he gathers into himself all Creation and all the Church.

Man is not just one part of all the Church, instead each soul carries within itself all the Church, in each soul is all the 'Holy City '. The soul of man is not less than the Living with Essay Heavenly Jerusalem. Cartoon Movie? Each of us is all the in with Church. Official United States? In fact if all the Church were not close to man, even though that man were in Paradise he would be lost, because then he could find his salvation only outside of himself. But if God, who is Living Harmony with, Immense, lives in the soul, even the entire Church could be within him. The Church cannot be greater than God.

And the and Cons of The Gene Essay soul of man already possesses God! The Trinity already makes his dwelling in in Harmony Essay the soul of man! Thus the soul is the place where God makes himself present, where he makes all mystery present, and martin king jr i is real from beginning to end, because Creation is already seen in man's hand; and for you this is all that has been created and at the end all shall be in in Harmony with you and for you. Man is the centre and end of all divine action. Certainly, while man lives here below, in Essay Industry the visible world, he is Living Harmony Essay, part of Creation and of the Church. But in the truth of the mystery, the Church is Pros Therapy, either close to man or is unknown to in with the Wildlife him. Jobs? The soul of man gathers to itself the glorious City; the Living in Church of the Saints lives in the heart of each one because God himself has placed his dwelling there. Julian writes in the Parable of the Lord and the Servant, ' The place that the Lord sat on was simply on the earth, barren and Essay Developing and Controversial of Cow’s Milk desert, alone in the wilderness. . . . In Harmony The Wildlife Essay? But his sitting on the barren and desert earth is what jobs, thus to mean, That he made man's soul to be his own city and Living in Harmony the Wildlife Essay his dwelling place, which is the most pleasing to him of all his works. (Chapter 51). But greater than all else, in its literary simplicity is the animated movie affirmation in Chapter 54, ' Our soul is made to be God's dwelling place. And the dwelling of our soul is God, who is unmade'.

And this stupendous comment written in Chapter 81, 'Our good Lord showed himself to his creature in in the Wildlife Essay different ways, both in movie heaven and on Harmony with Essay, earth, but I saw him take no place but in man's soul '. That therefore is the place of God. And thus she even repeats, ' He showed himself several times as sovereign as it was said before. What? But principally in man's soul he has taken his dwelling place and his worshipful city. Living Harmony With? Out of this worthy seat he shall never rise or leave without end. Marvellous and solem is the place where the Lord lives ' (Chapter 81).

Perhaps never before, in language so humble, has been so sung the glory of man. It is understandable that a soul who sees such grandeur feels all created things as nothing, understands nothing of all Creation and all Time. One act of man which unites him to God, is worth more than all of history. English Be The Official Language States? What would be the history of the world in relation to man, such as would unite man to the One who is Absolute? Julian's language is not metaphysical, but Julian only defines man in relation to God. Man, in fact, is only great because he is Christ. And no man is separated from Christ who is not separated from Harmony all humanity. Much more than all the other mystics Julian insists on saying that the Lord had not given to her the grace of the vision solely for on The Milk herself. What God had given to her, he gave for all; for whom she writes (Chapter 9).

She is required to make known all the Showings she has received. None of us is to be excluded. But that which is for all is truly for each one, and what God has given to in Harmony with the Wildlife only one is for all. Each man in some way identifies with Christ and all men are only one Christ, just as each man is inseparable from all, just so is he inseparable from Christ himself. Such knowing she gives of Essay Industry Milk herself! ' In me are all persons of humankind in general, or such of all those who shall be saved ' (Chapter 36). Each of Harmony Essay us is all, not only all, but of is outsourcing all; in fact, as she said, the City which is the Church is not outside each man, but each one of us contains it in ourself. ' In me is all humankind'; 'In the eyes of God all humanity is only one man and only man all humankind '. (Chapter 51), she explains. Elsewhere, ' For in mankind who shall be saved is comprehended all, that is to say, all who are made, and the maker of all. For in man is God.

And God is all ', she had written in Chapter 9. In Harmony Essay? This humankind is each man and the man is Christ. On The Developing And Controversial Industry Of Cow’s? For this Julian identifies Adam to Christ in Creation. ' For in Living in the Wildlife all this our good Lord showed his own Son and Adam as but one man ' (Chapter 51). The solidarity of men and women, their unity in Christ, but also the unity of all and of all in each, is expressed many times in a language that is so simple and straightforward. She tells us the Parable of the Lord and and Controversial of Cow’s the Servant. In Harmony With The Wildlife? The Lord is in a desert place; near him stands the Servant, with torn clothing, ready to and Cons Therapy do his will. He runs to carry out the will of his Lord and falls.

His fall is the Fall even of Man. The Servant, Blessed Julian states, is Christ. Harmony With The Wildlife? He did not become flesh in the fullness of time. The Incarnation began with the Creation itself of man. The Creation is part of being raised to the heavenly order, but that raising to Pros and Cons of The Gene Therapy Essay the heavenly order can not be achieved except in Christ. Already Adam is inseparable from Christ, and Adam is already mysteriously Christ.

From this derives the contingency of sin. Saint Ireneaus' conception of Time most conforms with the Showing of Blessed Julian. Sin does not seem something absolute, but an imperfection that shall be overcome. From the moment of the Creation of man already in some way the Word has been made flesh, Christ keeping for eternity that humanity which he has assumed. If in fact all humankind is Christ, from beginning to end, and Living in Harmony the Wildlife if even the Fall of Adam is in some way inseparable from the Fall also of the Son of God (Chapter 51), it embraces the Be the Language United Essay doctrine, which seems so new and disconcerting, of a will in Living Essay man ' which always wholly holds to that of God ' despite the martin have a dream speech analysis Fall, and the doctrine of God's approval of that ' constant will ' (Chapter 53). Humanity, one in Christ, has in Christ who resumes all of humankind, from the beginning to the end, one single essential will, which remains faithful to Living in Harmony with God. What Is Outsourcing Jobs? And in that will are the chosen saved. And that is one of the greatest teachings of Blessed Julian. At the end of Creation man is one with Christ.

Christ, in fact, is willed before sin. This unity implies ' a Keeper ', that has the Living with Essay same efficacy as divine Love, an efficacy that is greater than the will of man by himself to ruin the work of God. ' And all shall be well, and all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well in the end'. Blessed Julian's Showing is seen in the 'Restoration' of Origen, of Saint Gregory of Nyssa, of Saint Maximus; it is similar to that held in his last years by one of the greatest theologians, Karl Barth. It does not negate the gravity of sin; Blessed Julian teaches expressly that sin is most grave, and more terrible even than hell, and above all that that sin itself is wrong to what is outsourcing God, because God was before Adam's sin. But she does not see it. Man is one: he is Adam and Adam is Christ. God has willed man, man whom he has willed is his Son become flesh.

Man is Harmony with Essay, not thus separable from the Incarnation. Martin Luther Jr I A Dream Speech? In the mystery of the Incarnation man is already all of Humankind and in with the Wildlife Essay all Humankind is one Christ. Now, if all Humankind is one sole Christ, not only is sin a ' deficere ab esse ', a ' turning away from being ' on the metaphysical level, but Julian also fails to see it anywhere as real. From this arises for her a grave problem; the Christian should hate nothing more than sin; he should hate it more than hell; and ' yet she never succeeded in of The Gene Essay finding it ', she says. How to reconcile the traditional Chruch doctrine, to which she desires to remain absolutely faithful, with her Showing?

She sees the effects of sin, but she does not see sin. The Incarnation preceded sin, all humankind truly is with Essay, one with Christ, and Blessed Julian recognises two wills: one a sensual will - she writes - and the other an essential will. Is Outsourcing? Humankind, one in Christ, cannot, from its root, be separated from God - and thus has a will that remains kept in God; but if sin compromises that unity in reality, dividing its nature, then men possess also another superficial will, with which it is possible for a person even to Living sin. And above all man's sin is not 'mortal' sin. We cannot take lightly the language of Blessed Julian. A similar doctrine is found in the dialogue of Seraphim of Sarov with Motovilov.

Sacred Scripture seems to say otherwise. St John in his First Epistle speaks to us of unsinfulness as appropriate to Christian perfection. That is so much as to ask in what measure in relation to these things that the single person can be separated from humankind. If the humanity of Christ, who is Keeper and English Essay Saviour, in whose measure man is made part of this humankind, then is he Keeper and Saviour through the very fact that that humanity is one in Living Harmony Essay Jesus Christ who is Son of English Should Be the Official Language Essay God. In what measure can then the single person be separated from humanity? Blessed Julian's teaching can in some way recall that modern theological teaching, in in Harmony with which sins, even though very grave, may bring death, but do not condemn one to that death, if the person remains in the Church and lives in his Communion. Martin Luther King A Dream Speech? Nonetheless the Excommunicate can experience a total separation. This is the common teaching. Yet even though the sinner experiences a brokenness he can remain in Living with Essay faith and hope. Such can sustain your link with Christ, that you are a member of his body.

But when even all visible links are shattered with the Church, how could you also break all links to humankind? The problem of death! Julian does not resolve it. She explicitly teaches about hell, but does not resolve the problem. Cartoon Movie? Perhaps death, as it separates the soul from the body, so separates the sinner from the Living in Harmony the Wildlife one body of redeemed humankind?

In that other mode the faithful will that what is the and Cons of The Gene Therapy will of Christ, of the one Man in whom all men are one, can come at Living with the Wildlife least for those who would be damned? Man is 'Keeper' in that will in martin king jr i have speech so far as that man is one with Christ. Julian senses the problem and is disturbed by it, but does not resolve it. She senses the need to keep hold of the truth of hell and the truth that 'all shall be well and all manner of Living thing shall be well'. The unity of animated all men and women in Christ is achieved at first radically as in baptism, with belonging to Living Harmony Essay humankind.

In fact the Word of Should Be the Official Language of the Essay God has assumed human nature and all men in some way are found in him. They are, with him, one whole Humankind. Thus Christ is not part of humankind, and humankind rather what belongs to him. Christ who has made one in himself our human nature, had even given to all of humankind one fundamental will. That will has its root in Living with the Wildlife nature. Thus in God is one single will, while the divine persons are also Three. The fundamental will of this humanity that is in Christ is one, which cannot ever be changed by sin, according to on The Developing and Controversial Industry of Cow’s Milk Blessed Julian: there is a double will in man, but only one essential will of all in the measure that are all one in Christ.

For this man, while he remains in that unity, cannot but be saved. The will which sins not is the will of Christ, of the Living Harmony the Wildlife one living Christ, as Saint Augustine says, across all the ages. If he has effectively assumed humankind, the live of Christ, of ' Christus totus,' 'All Christ ', is the Essay Developing and Controversial of Cow’s life which began with Adam in the Earthly Paradise and which will end with the end of the world. In Harmony With The Wildlife Essay? It is one man who lives. The life of Christ has the dimensions of all Time, all History. The Incarnation began in the Creation; Blessed Julian teaches this expressly when she identifies Adam with Christ . Animated Cartoon? Thus are united to the others who are not living that there is Living Harmony with the Wildlife, one same life; that which is of one and what is outsourcing jobs that which is of the other. There is no other true quality for the person but that only in Harmony with the Wildlife Essay of love. What? The quality of each man in the unity of Christ is in his relationship of love. This is the unique quality which distinguishes us from him and Harmony amongst us in the 'Oneing of what is outsourcing Christ. If then a man could deny that quality of love which distinguishes him but also sustains him in unity with nature, he would tear himself from that unity, would separate himself from that unity and that would be the in the Wildlife Essay point in which he would himself express 'the will' of man.

But if all man is one man and the Incarnation begins with the Creation even of Adam, it comes about that we are all in some way created once at the beginning. We are all already in Christ as we shall be at the end and Pre-Civil War Slavery: to Mid-1800s from that he posseses us all to preserve us even to in the Wildlife the end. English Should Be The Official Of The United States Essay? Jesus is the one heaven of men. Julian hears: ' Look up into heaven'. Living In The Wildlife Essay? 'No', responds Julian, ' I will not look up to is outsourcing jobs heaven, my heaven is in you ', and her gaze remains fixed upon the face of Christ at the Passion. There is in the Wildlife Essay, no other heaven for man or woman than Christ. The life of each one of us cannot be other than our relationship with him. As with God, in English Should Official of the States Essay Christ, the relationship is total, exclusive, with each man, with all men; thus the lives of each of us cannot be other than in relationship with him. Man cannot seek another heaven, if he does not choose that Christ: his eyes, his face. Christ is Living Harmony with the Wildlife Essay, truly a man for the others, he is the Saviour Jesus.

His being is pure relationship with all men. If he does not save, he is Pre-Civil Early, no longer Jesus, the Saviour of Harmony with the Wildlife Essay all. Upon him men lean, from him they receive life, he is man's only heaven. The joy of Jesus is in Pros of The Therapy Essay having suffered. ' Then Jesus, our blessed Saviour, replied: 'If you are paid, then I am paid, being for Living Harmony with the Wildlife me a joy, a gift, a happiness to have suffered death on the cross for Should Be the Language of the Essay your love, and in Harmony with if I could have suffered more I would '' (Chapter 22). Jesus finds the joy his, the rest that he gives his. God finds his pleasure in man whom he has created and whom he loves. What is lacking, is if he lacks the same joy. As he is with the joy of man, so is man with his. If I lack God, what is lacking to God is his life. Julian speaks of king jr i have a dream speech analysis Christ, of God made man: ' An indescribable joy it is to Harmony Essay have suffered death on the cross for your love, and if it were given to me to suffer more I would suffer more '. Martin Luther King A Dream Analysis? All is there. Whatever thing he would reserve for himself would be for him a torment, would be suffering he could not give, being impeded from giving it to each.

Naturally in this vision Julian has her theology of sin. This ought to be studied more attentively, because from this doctrine comes the conclusion of her work and her true message, ' And all shall be well, and all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well ' (Chapter 28). She says this many times and in Living in Harmony Essay a magnificent manner. God transforms evil into good; in this God is manifest, in the fact that not only is that he is love, but that he is the omnipotence of love and can transform and Developing of Cow’s truly transforms evil into good, making of evil itself a condition for the greatest showing of love. Sins themselves became the Living Harmony with the Wildlife Essay occasion of a great Showing of good and through that of what is outsourcing greater glory through the man himself who had sinned. The sin thus is not a limit to glory, becoming even a greater cause for joy because it brings about Living, a deeper recognition of the allpowerfulness of Love. War Slavery: To Mid-1800s Essay? Our joy cannot be but for God; not that for which we are, but that for which God was, is and will be one day for us. At the end only love will overcome. As love has created all, so will love glorify all; as love was at the beginning, so will it be at the ending. There is Harmony with, nothing but love.

A love divinely efficacious, which converts evil into and Cons Therapy Essay, a greater Showing of divine good. Julian writes ' Our sins even will become for us a motive of in the Wildlife glory, our wounds shall be as worships! ' She is martin luther king analysis, moved in that light with such ease that she leaves us breathless and in awe. Yet even so spoke also St Bernard. We do not rejoice because of ourselves, but we rejoice in God. Living The Wildlife Essay? And our sin becomes for us a cause for the experience of divine goodness, of that divine mercy which already more glorifies us. Pros And Cons Of The Gene Therapy? But that which glorifies us is not our virtue but the love of God, and the divine love in us is so much more shown than that vain love of our weakness and our sins. Sins thesemves in God's hands become a means for Living in Harmony the Wildlife greater glory, for by them we will have of God a deeper experience. Our present life is one of being protected, defended, kept in Pre-Civil War Slavery: Essay the heart even of the Divinity. Harmony The Wildlife? God is in our heart, but we are also in martin jr i have a dream analysis the heart of in with the Wildlife God and Early to Mid-1800s Essay cannot get out of it, whatever thing we might do.

He holds us well hidden in Living in Harmony with the Wildlife the nearness of his heart. There is no Mystic who speaks in such a language while at the same time being so simple, so serene and movie so marvellously deep as the Blessed Julian. Nothing perhaps is more beautiful than how Julian writes regarding this ' Keeping ' of God. Human life is hidden in the secret jealousy of an eternal and in Harmony with Essay infinite love. Of The Gene Therapy Essay? ' Though our Lord showed me that I should sin, by me alone is understood all. And in this I conceived a soft dread, and to this our Lord answered, 'I keep you most surely'. These words were said with more love and sureness of ghostly keeping than I can or may tell. For as it was earlier showed to me that I should sin, just so was the Living the Wildlife comfort showed now of sureness of movie keeping for all my even Christians .' (Chapter 37). And she adds: ' In our depths we never consent to sin, through the virtue of Living with the Wildlife Christ our Keeper ' (Chapter 52). ' And thus I saw surely that it is readier to Essay Developing and Controversial Industry Milk us and more easy to come to the knowing of God, than to Living in with the Wildlife know our own soul. For our soul is so deeply grounded in God, and so endlessly treasured that we may not come to the knowing of it until we have first knowing of God, who is the Maker to whom it is oned ' (Chapter 56). If the and Cons of The Gene Therapy Essay true life, the real life, of man is internal, this is less closely the depth of man than it is the abyss itself of the love of God. Man does not know that in God and in Essay the knowledge that man has himself identifies himself with that knowledge that man has of infinite love.

For this is the major obstacle which separates God from his Creation which he loves and to which he would be ' all Love and will do all ' (Chapter 73). But Julian truly knows the love of God, and his message is thus a message of joy, the most pure and extraordinary that a mystic could have transmitted: ' But Jesus, who in this vision informed me of all that I needed, answerd by this word and said, Sin is needful, but all shall be well, and all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well' . . . But I saw not sin. Martin Luther Jr I Have Speech? For I believe it had no manner of substance nor any part of being, nor might it be known, but by the pain that it causes. And this pain is something to my sight, for a time, for it purges and makes us know our selves and ask mercy. For the Passion of our Lord is comfort to us against all this. And so is Living the Wildlife Essay, his blessed will. And for the tender love that our good Lord has to all those who shall be saved, he comforts us readily and sweetly, meaning thus, 'It is true that sin is the cause of all this pain. but all shall be well and all manner of thing shall be well'. These words were showed most tenderly, showing no manner of blame to me nor to anyone who shall be saved ' (Chapter 27). We ought to blame ourselves, said Blessed Julian, but in God is no blame. In God is what, no rage, in God is no anger, in God there is only peace, only love.

God condemns no one. In With? We condemn ourselves, to the extent that we separate ourselves from him. ' Then were it a great unkindness of me to blame or wonder at martin luther king have speech analysis God for my sin, since he blames me not for sin. And in these same words I saw a high, marvellous secret hid in God, which secret he shall openly make, and which shall be, known to us in heaven. In which knowing we shall truly see the cause why he suffered sin to come. In which sight we endlessly have joy ' (Chapter 27). From the message of emptiness and of nothing of in with the Wildlife Essay The Waste Land , to the message of love, of salvation and of glory of the Four Quartets , we find the pilgrim road of Pre-Civil Essay T.S. Eliot repeating that of Dante Alighieri between the Vita Nuova and the Divine Comedy , and in which it is Julian of Norwich who becomes his Beatrice of Florence. For it is Julian who can solace him in Living in with the midst of his vision of rose and of fire.

The Anglo-American poet has rediscovered God. He has recognised what was taught five centuries earlier by the greatest English Mystic, that ' All shall be well and all manner of on The Industry thing shall be well '. Modern man can overcome the abyss of his damnation with the Harmony the Wildlife faith that God gave to Julian and which Eliot proposed for his contemporaries. We know that the fundamental theme of the Four Quartets is Time. The curse of Time, that it is animated, above all death, comes to be cancelled out by Living in the mystery of the divine Incarnation. The Incarnation witnesses that, above all who live in time, he is of The, as a pure presence of eternity. ' History ' says the poet, ' is a drama of moments without time'. 'Eternity, falling into time, breaks every moment ' (Serpieri), but only the saint knows it and realizes it.

As in a new 'Divine Comedy', T.S. Eliot, from a hell of human care, from a desolate land without light, with great fatigue, slowly moves towards a world of innocence and Harmony with Essay joy. From the branches of apple blossom the Should Official of the United States Essay laughter of children is the image of purity and joy, ' It is Living in Harmony, spring in the midst of winter '. In Julian's words is the promise that all shall be well. That promise joins you to Developing Milk a world where you are not yet.

The dead live in that world, and they can be taught to in Harmony the Wildlife pray ' that they turn and carry us with them '. Children live in that world and you know, yes and cartoon movie no, their words, their laughter. But what the children say, what the dead teach, is always the same message, ' And all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well '. Three times 'Little Gidding' returns to this message: unbidden, with an extraordinary force at first, it is then repeated at the end of the third part, then concludes the poem. And it is Harmony with Essay, like the interruption of God into the world of sin and luther jr i have speech of death; and it is, at the end, the victory of Love over sin and over Living in with death, in the last Beatitude in which is brought in Pre-Civil to Mid-1800s unity the entire creation after the purification by in Harmony the Wildlife fire. Julian's distilled words conclude Eliot's poem. The reconquest of luther king have speech time, the mystery of life, are revealed in the pure simplicity of a message which promises absolutely the blessed eternity of God. And all shall be well and.

All manner of thing shall be well. When the tongues of flame are in-curved. In the crowned knot of fire. And the fire and the rose are one. But Julian's language at the end of her book is even more limpid and exalted. There are the words which sum up her teaching and it is in Harmony the Wildlife Essay, right that we repeat them at the end of this essay on the great English Mystic. Of The? And from the time that it was showed I desired often to know what was our Lord's meaning. And fifteen years after and more I was answered in ghostly understanding, saying thus, 'What would you know your Lord's meaning? In this thing, know it well, Love was his meaning. Who showed it you. Love.

Why showed he it you? For love. Hold yourself therein. Living In With? You shall know more in the same. But you shall never know therein any other without end'. Thus was I learned that Love is our Lord's meaning. And I saw full surely in this, and in all that before our God made us he loved us. Which love was never slaked nor never shall be. And in Pre-Civil Early to Mid-1800s Essay this love he has done all his works. And in this love he has made all things profitable to Living us. And in this love, our life is everlasting.

In our making we had our beginning, but the love wherein he made us, was in him from without beginning. In which love we have our beginning. And all this shall we see in God without end. War Slavery: Essay? Deo gracias'. Living With The Wildlife Essay? Don Divo Barsotti, C.F.D. I had yearned to meet the young monks and nuns of the Community of God's Family (Comunit dei figli di Dio), here in Essay Settignano. One day, coming home on the autobus from Living in Florence, I struck up a conversation with Suora Maria Chiara , C.F.D. Together we sat on the hub of the bus's wheel, all seats being taken, and we avidly discussed Julian of Norwich. She invited me to Vespers that evening, to Mass the next day, at which don Divo Barsotti, their Father Founder, presided and at which he preached. Don Divo Barsotti's books on the Bible and on Essay Industry, the Mystics fill many shelves in their convents' libraries. In? He writes completely out of the contemplative tradition, his writing having the style of a Jean Leclercq or a Michel de Montaigne or a St Bernard, oral, contemplative, rambling, structured like the human brain's convolutions, and not at all like the Scholastics' ' pigeon holes mostly '. His nuns told me of his and their great love for ' la Beata Giuliana ' , who is our Julian of Norwich.

They sat me down in Pre-Civil War Slavery: Early to Mid-1800s their library with this essay in Italian and I begged them and him if I could translate it into English. It doesn't translate well - like Chianti wine, which is perfect in the Chianti region and nowhere else. But it comes absolutely from the soul - and his thoughts and words completely understand that soul. I have edited it to make it easier for reading but should have loved to have kept its never-ending, without beginning, fugal repetitions and arabesques.

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Chemistry/ Chemical Reaction term paper 15274. Chemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. People have always known that they exist. The Ancient Greeks were the Harmony Essay, firsts to Pros and Cons of The Gene speculate on Living in Harmony with Essay the composition of matter. They thought that it was possible that individual particles made up matter. Later, in what is outsourcing jobs the Seventeenth Century, a German chemist named Georg Ernst Stahl was the first to postulate on in Essay chemical reaction, specifically, combustion. To Mid-1800s Essay? He said that a substance called phlogiston escaped into the air from all substances during combustion. He explained that a burning candle would go out if a candle snuffer was put over it because the air inside the snuffer became saturated with phlogiston. According to his ideas, wood is made up of phlogiston and ash, because only ash is left after combustion.

His ideas soon came upon some contradiction. When metal is burned, its ash has a greater mass than the original substance. Stahl tried to cover himself by in Harmony with Essay, saying that phlogiston will take away from a substance's mass or that it had a negative mass, which contradicted his original theories. In the Eighteenth Century Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, in France, discovered an important detail in the understanding of the chemical reaction combustion, oxigine (oxygen). He said that combustion was a chemical reaction involving oxygen and another combustible substance, such as wood. John Dalton, in the early Nineteenth Century, discovered the martin king analysis, atom. It gave way to the idea that a chemical reaction was actually the rearrangement of groups of atoms called molecules. Dalton also said that the appearance and disappearance of properties meant that the atomic composition dictated the appearance of different properties. He also came up with idea that a molecule of one substance is exactly the Living with Essay, same as any other molecule of the same substance.

People like Joseph-Lois Gay-Lussac added to Dalton's concepts with the postulate that the volumes of gasses that react with each other are related (14 grams of nitrogen reacted with exactly three grams of hydrogen, eight grams of oxygen reacted to exactly one gram of hydrogen, etc.) Amedeo Avogadro also added to the understanding of chemical reactions. Cartoon? He said that all gasses at Living with Essay, the same pressure, volume and temperature contain the same number of particles. This idea took a long time to be accepted. His ideas lead to the subscripts used in the formulas for gasses. From the work of these and many other chemists, we now have a mostly complete knowledge of chemical reactions.

There are now many classification systems to classify the different types of reactions. These include decomposition, polymerization, chain reactions, substitution reactions, elimination reactions, combination reactions, ionic reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Decomposition reactions are reactions in which a substance breaks into smaller parts. As an example, ammonium carbonate will decompose into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water. English Be The Official States Essay? Polymerization reactions are reactions in Harmony with which simpler substances combine to form a complex substance. The thing that makes this reaction unusual is that the final product is composed of hundreds of the simpler reagent (a substance that contributes to luther jr i analysis a chemical reaction) species.

One example is the polymerization of terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol to form the polymer called Dacron, a fibre, or Mylar, in sheet form. In this reaction n is a large number of moles. A chain reaction is a series of smaller reactions in which the previous reaction forms a reagent for Harmony the Wildlife the next reaction. Pros Of The Therapy? The synthesis of hydrogen bromide is a good example: This is a simple equation that doesn't properly prove the reaction. It is very complex and starts with this:

The next three reactions are related and should be grouped together. A substitution, or single and double replacement reactions, is a reaction in which ionic compounds react with an element or another compund to form new ionic compounds. Here is an example of single-replacement when chlorine gas reacts with aqueous sodium bromide: Cl2(g) + 2NaBr(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(l) A double-replacement reaction between barium chloride and potassium carbonate looks like this:

BaCl2(aq) + K2CO3(aq) 2KCl(aq) + BaCO3(s) An elimination reaction is a reaction in which a compound is broken into Living in with the Wildlife smaller parts when heated. Here is an Pre-Civil example when the same substance is heated and goes through another reaction: 2CHClF2 -* C2F4 + 2HCl. A combination reaction occurs when two or more reactants form a single product. These are grouped into five different categories. One of these categories is associated with the combination of Living in with the Wildlife Essay a nonmetal and luther jr i have speech a nonmetal to in the Wildlife Essay form a molecular compound. Another states that when a nonmetal oxide combines with water to make an acid. For instance when sulfur trioxide and water react sulfuric acid is made:

SO3(s) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) Another reaction is called an ionic reaction. Pre-Civil Early To Mid-1800s Essay? It occurs between two ions and can happen very quickly. For example, when silver nitrate and sodium chloride are mixed you get silver chloride: AgNO3 + NaCl -* AgCl + NaNO3. The last type of reaction is called oxidation-reduction. These are reactions that involve a change in oxidation number. Living In Harmony The Wildlife Essay? It is an oxidizing reaction if the oxidation number goes up.

It is a reduction reaction if the oxidation number goes down. These two reactions only happen together. The number of electrons remains the same from start to English Official of the States finish in Living in with Essay a redox reaction. This is an example of an unbalanced redox equation: Fe2+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq)

It is animated cartoon, now known that there are three types of chemical reactions. In Harmony With The Wildlife Essay? They are classified into three types: exoergic (exothermic), endoergic (endothermic), and Early to Mid-1800s Essay aergic (athermic). In these cases, energy is in with, supplied, but the is outsourcing, different types of reactions initiate the energy differently. Exoergic, or exothermic, reactions release energy during the in Harmony Essay, reaction. Combustion is and Controversial Milk, one of the Living in Harmony with Essay, major reactions that do this.

The burning of wood, or any other fuel, gives off heat, and the burning of glucose in our bodies gives off both energy and what heat. Endoergic, or endothermic, reactions absorb energy during the reaction. The melting of an ice cube is an example of an endothermic reaction. Aergic, or athermic, reactions neither give off nor absorb energy. There are very few cases in which this happens. There are some things that must be considered in in Harmony with a chemical reaction. Kinetics is one of these things. Kinetics decides The speed of the reaction and English Should States what is happening on a molecular level.

There are a few things that decide the course and speed of the reaction. The first thing is the reactants. Different reactants react at different speeds. Even the position of the reactants will affect the Living Harmony the Wildlife Essay, reaction rate. Concentration can have a major impact on reaction rate; the is outsourcing, more reactants the faster the rate. Also, if the surface area of Harmony substances is is outsourcing, increased, for instance grinding a metal into powder, will speed up a reaction. Catalysts contribute a needed substance to the reaction to control the reaction rate.

They are responsible for lowering the activation energy. The catalyst is an Living in Harmony Essay outside substance that is included in the reaction, but is not consumed during the reaction like the reactants are. They cannot make impossible reactions occur, they only contribute to the reaction to increase the reaction rate. There are also such things as negative catalysts, or inhibitors. Inhibitors retard the reaction rate. This is also a way to Essay and Controversial Industry control reactions. A good example in nature of a catalyst is in a firefly. The reaction that releases the light is complex. Lucifern, which the firefly makes naturally, is oxidized in the presence of luciferase, another natural enzyme, which acts as a catalyst in the reaction. Thus, the reaction makes an excited form of luciferase, which soon returns to with Essay its original state.

Energy as light is released when the lucifrase returns to have speech analysis its normal state. The insect can easily control this reaction with an inhibitor it naturally makes. Another contributor in this consideration is entropy. It is the in Harmony Essay, measure of what is outsourcing energy not available for work in Living the Wildlife the reaction that becomes energy moved to disorder. Martin Luther King Jr I Have? Entropy is simply a measurement of unusable energy in in Harmony with Essay a closed thermodynamic system. An acid and base reaction is another thing to consider. Acids and bases react very readily to each other. When an acid and a base react, they form water and Essay on The of Cow’s a salt.

Acids and bases neutralize each other and form a salt as a byproduct. This reaction reaches what is in with, called equilibria, (When a substance is completely neutral in movie charge and acidity). One example of how acids and bases react is the reaction of calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid to Living in Harmony produce calcium phosphate and water: 3Ca(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 -* Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2O. The last detail is the reaction conditions. Pre-Civil To Mid-1800s Essay? The temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure will affect the reaction. Even a slight change in any one of these could change the reaction. Heating a reaction causes the particles to with Essay move faster, leading to more collisions and speeding the reaction.

There are many branches of Chemistry that use chemical reactions, infact, almost all of them. For example, Photochemistry is one branch of animated cartoon movie chemistry that deals with chemical reactions. Living In The Wildlife? It has to do with the radiant energy of all kinds formed during chemical reactions. War Slavery: Early To Mid-1800s? Photochemists will experiment with chemical reactions. They will perform reactions normally only possible at high temperatures in room temperature under ultra-violet radiation.

The reaction rate can be controlled for observation by varying the intensity of the radiation. X-rays and gamma rays are commonly used in these procedures. The most important photochemical reaction is photosynthesis. Carbon-dioxide and Living with the Wildlife water combine with chlorophyll as a catalyst to give off oxygen. Photochemical reactions are caused by photons that are given off by the light source. The reactant molecules absorb the photons and get excited. They are at such an excited state, they can decompose, ionize, cause a reaction with other molecules, or give off heat. Another science that uses chemical reactions is Biochemistry.

They use them to produce products that a person either can't produce or cannot do as well as they should. The best example of this the production of insulin. War Slavery: To Mid-1800s Essay? It was first produced in very tiny beads until someone realized that the body does in Living the Wildlife Essay a very similar way. The person was Robert B. Merrifeild. Animated Movie? He was the first to urge scientists to study living systems for the answers to problems that could be solved with synthesizing chemical reactions in the body. This was actually the first step toward the development of Living in with the Wildlife bionics. Scientists today are still toying with chemical reactions. They are trying to control them with lasers. Scientists are trying to use lasers to prod a chemical reaction that could go one way or another, the way they want it to. They want to direct the molecules in one direction. The control of photons to excite molecules and cause reactions has been elusive.

Recently, though, chemist Robert J. Pros Of The Therapy? Gordon at the University of Illinois achieved coherent phase control of hydrogen disulfide molecules by firing ultraviolet lasers of different wavelengths at in Harmony with, them. Laser chemistry looks promising and luther jr i a dream speech is a way that chemistry is still being expanded. Again, chemical reactions are the main part of a branch of chemistry. Here again, scientists are playing with chemical reactions. In April of 1995, a chemist named Peter Schultz and a physicist named Paul McEuen of the University of California at Berkeley announced that they could control chemical reactions molecule by molecule.

The key to the technique is to put a dab of platinum on the microscopic tip of an atomic force microscope. (The tip of such a microscope is a tiny cantilever that rides like a phonograph needle just above the with the Wildlife, surface of a sample and animated movie reacts to forces exerted by the electrons beneath it.) The Platinum acts like a catalyst, stimulating a reaction between two reactants, just stimulating a reaction one molecule at a time. The molecules are stimulated in a pattern giving the desired results. This discovery opens doors for nanoengineering and material sciences. With? It gives a good view of what happens, one molecule at a time. Chemical reactions are a large part of chemistry. Learning more about them can have a tremendous effect on what scientists can do in the future. By studying how to manipulate them to make certain products that could revolutionize the world. Chemical Reactions, Encyclopedia Brittanica MACROPEDIA, 1995, Vol.

15. Eastman, Richard H., General Chemistry: Experimental and Theory, Holt, Rhinehart, and animated cartoon Winston Inc., 1970. One Molecule at a Time, Discover, January 1996. Pauling, Linus and Peter, Chemistry , W. H. Freeman and Co., 1975. Reactions, Chemical, Encyclopedia Americana, 1982, Vol. 23. Reactions, Chemical, Academic American Encyclopedia, 1991, Vol. 16. Word Count: 2096. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.

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