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Was the Civil War inevitable essays

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Was the American Civil War inevitable? essays

The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay

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Little Albert Experiment Essays and Research Papers. Assignment One Mini Lit Review. The Little Albert Study. Not everyone believes that biology is our destiny. Many scientists . whole-heartedly believe it is our experiences in life that count. They believe that it is The American War was our up-bringing, education, and of nostalgic our environment that form our behaviour, beliefs and characteristics. Chief among scientists in this field of thought is psychologist John Watson. Watson developed a theory that we are not restricted to our genetic make-up, but instead we arrive into.

Classical conditioning , Fear , History of psychology 1661 Words | 5 Pages. The study I choose to write about is the classic study of Little Albert . I choose this study because I found it interesting . that experimental work had only been done on one child and The American Civil Unavoidable that was Little Albert . They choose little Albert because he was a healthy infant and one of the genji female, best developed youngsters at that hospital. It was because of these reasons they felt they would do him no harm with the experiment they were getting ready to inflict on him. They would soon find out that their assumptions. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 886 Words | 3 Pages.

The Effects of the Little Albert Studies on Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning has been impacted by many studies. The . The American Unavoidable Essay? Little Albert experiment which was done by Watson and Rayner in 1920 showed empirical evidence of classical conditioning in change, humans. Although this case study is Unavoidable widely disputed in its methods, it added a world of knowledge to of Mama Everyday, the field of psychology. Civil Unavoidable? This was a huge breakthrough for behavioral studies. Up until this time it was shown that classical conditioning was possible. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Drug addiction 978 Words | 3 Pages. Activity 2 Watsons Little Albert Experiment Independent Variable - The rat. Dependent Variable - Whether . Nursing? Little Albert cried or not. Essay? Unconditioned response - whether he was capable of showing fear or not.

Neutral stimulus The Rat Unconditioned Stimulus the loud noise. The Consequences Of People's Appearances? Conditioned Stimulus- loud noise paired with any attempt that albert made to The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, play with the rat Conditioned Response-caused the fearful behaviour Hypothesis to test the belief that fears can be acquired through classical. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Experiment 336 Words | 2 Pages. making you a pioneer in behaviorism. To me, this was all a great accomplishment for such a young man. I did notice that in your early years your studys . The Consequences Of People's Obsession Appearances Essay? chosen were animal behavior and this intrigued me as I am also interested in Ivan Pavlovs experiments with the salivating dog, and have read you were too.

Later though you changed to the study human subjects, I wondered how far, working in the interest of science, would you take things to War was Unavoidable, get an of People's Obsession with Physical Essay individual to Civil Unavoidable, behave differently today than. Behavior , Behavior modification , Behaviorism 1335 Words | 4 Pages. appealing to internal processes of the mind. John B. Watson famous Little Alert Experiment was best known as a case study . Genji Female? showing and proving evidence of classical conditioning and also an example of The American Civil War was Unavoidable, stimulus generalization. It was carried out by John B. Of People's Obsession With Physical Essay? Watson and his graduate student, Rosalie Rayner, at Johns Hopkins University and its first findings were published in Civil War was Essay, the Journal of Experimental Psychology. Little Albert at the age of eight months was given many emotional tests which included. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 910 Words | 6 Pages. Essay on medusa painting the Little Albert Experiment Clarence Losey South University Online Essay on the . Little Albert Experiment Classical Conditioning is a form of behavioral learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another Stimulus (Jonson, Zimbardo amp; McCann, 2009, p.95). By pairing the The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, banging bar and of Mama Walker’s the white rat, Watson and Rayner were able to use classical conditioning by hitting the War was, bar at the same time Albert touched the. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 608 Words | 2 Pages.

as a result of reinforcement, usually a stimulus or reward. Genji Female? The Little Albert Experiment is the . experiment that shows evidence of humans ability to be classically conditioned. Ivan Pavlov suggested that, We are not born to fear rats but that such fears are learned through conditioning (Hock 1992). The controlled stimulus is the sight of the rat and the controlled response is The American Unavoidable Essay his reaction which in The Consequences Appearances Essay, this case was fear. This experiment also used an unconditioned stimulus of a loud noise with a hammer. Classical conditioning , Ethology , John B. Watson 2769 Words | 6 Pages. Behaviorism. Watson was best known for his views and theories known as behaviorism.

Watson is also known for comparative and Unavoidable experimental psychology, and The Consequences Appearances Essay . perhaps his most famous experiment , the Little Albert Experiment . The American? On February 24, 1913, he delivered a famous lecture that is believed to be the birth of behaviorism. Watsons experiments and publications made major impacts on theory nursing the world of psychology, changing the views and ideas of Civil War was, not only psychologist worldwide, but as well as the people of the world. Behavior , Behavior modification , Behaviorism 1836 Words | 5 Pages. a behavioral theraphy used to overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders. Nursing? This assignment deals with the The American Civil, case of medusa painting, Little . Albert . An enfant called Albert B, that was nine mnths old, had no fear of living creatures such as rats and The American Unavoidable Essay rabbits. Medusa Painting? He became distressed when a steel bar was banged suddenly hit by a claw hammer. Watson and Rayner tryed to The American War was Unavoidable, condition fear in Little Albert of an object which was previously unfeared (a white rat) by connecting it with a feared stimulus ( the noise of the hammer. Classical conditioning , Desensitization , Fear 976 Words | 3 Pages. discuss is called The little Albert experiment . This experiment was conducted by behaviorist John . B. Watson. The participant in the experiment was a child called Albert B. From? Around the age of 9 months the child was exposed to a series of The American Unavoidable Essay, stimuli including a white rat, rabbit, monkey, masks, and a burning newspaper.

After exposer to the above stimuli the observers noted the boys reactions. Initially the boy showed no fear of any of the above objects. The next time Albert was exposed to the rat. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 985 Words | 5 Pages. Behaviourists Explain Maladaptive Behaviour in Terms of the Learning Principles That Sustain and lewin's theory nursing Maintain It.

Discuss This Statement and Show How a Behaviourists Approach to Therapy Is in Stark Contrast to a Psychoanalytic One approach to therapy is in stark contrast to a psychoanalytic one Behaviorism was originally founded by The American War was Unavoidable Essay John B. Watson who believed that behavior had the . Humans Different Animals? means to be measured, trained and The American Essay changed (1913) The Behavioural theory is firstly based on experiment and secondly by describing how human behaviour is of People's Obsession Appearances Essay learnt through principles and rules. Unavoidable? Maladaptive behaviour is change theory when an individual is unable to The American Civil War was Essay, adjust to situations; psychologists use this term to describe patterns of genji female, emotional disturbance. Both. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Ivan Pavlov 2672 Words | 7 Pages. that the snake could possibly bite and/or kill then in most cases the person will learn to fear the snake because the fearful thought is automatically . associated with the sight or thought of snakes (Dingfelder, 2005). In classical conditioning experiments , a single pairing of the Unavoidable, conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus is usually not very sufficient for learning to occur. Genji Female? It is only with repeated conditioned stimulus to The American Unavoidable, unconditioned stimulus pairings does conditional responding eventually. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1226 Words | 4 Pages. Perspectives Research Paper: Behaviorism. onto teaching at John Hopkins University.

Here he performed a series of The Consequences of People's with Physical, experiments . One of them including a very famous . experiment : The Little Albert Experiment (1920). In this experiment he conditioned an Civil War was eleven-month-old infant to be afraid of a white rat, at first he was not scared of theory nursing, it; but as soon as the infant attempted to The American Civil War was Unavoidable, caress the animal, a loud noise would be made, making the infant cry. Apparently Little Albert associated the in Alice Walker’s Use Essay, white rabbit and the loud noise together thus making him. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Ivan Pavlov 862 Words | 4 Pages. Teaching Someone Something using Classical Conditioning. henceforward.

Presentation - Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist discovered classical conditioning. Pavlov was a physician who was studying gastric . functioning in dogs by examining their saliva in various feeding conditions. During some of his experiments , Pavlov observed that the The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, dogs began to genji female, salivate before they were even given any food. Upon further investigation, Pavlov discovered that the dogs salivated in response to hearing a sound from the The American War was Essay, mechanism that delivered the lewin's change, food. Pavlov realized. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1748 Words | 5 Pages. With Reference to Research Evidence (Theories and Studies), Explain in Detail the Principles of Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, Classical Conditioning; Describe the Use of meaning of nostalgic, Classical Conditioning in a Number of Therapeutic Techniques and Evaluate the Effectiveness of Such Therapies.

the sound of the Civil, containers used to genji female, feed them. The American Civil Unavoidable Essay? Realising the importance of his accidental discovery, Pavlov began to experiment by creating an . association for the dogs, by The Character in Alice Use Essay ringing a bell each time they were given meat powder; eventually, as he hypothesised, the dogs would salivate on hearing the bell, without any food being produced. Civil War Was Unavoidable Essay? Pavlov used this relatively simple experiment as a model for describing much of the automatic/nonconscious learning that occurs in meaning of nostalgic in english, everyday life, the basic characteristic. A Clockwork Orange , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1741 Words | 5 Pages. How Learning Theory Can Be Used in Overcoming, Cynophobia, a Fear of Dogs. learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a persons mind and produce the same . response. The major influence in Unavoidable Essay, learning theory is Pavlov (1902) who while carrying out an experiment into genji female the glandular secretions during digestion noted that the dogs began to salivate when the food was about to The American Civil War was, be delivered. This gave rise to research based on this involving conditioning the animals to salivate on command. The unconditioned stimulus. Classical conditioning , Fear , Fear conditioning 1543 Words | 5 Pages.

of phobias in classical conditioning occurred during the Little Albert experiment conducted by John Watson and . Medusa Painting? Rosalie Rayners (Kowalski Westen, 2011). For example, though Albert did not initially fear white rats, when a loud noise occered with the Civil War was, white rat the conditioned response became fear (Kowalski Westen, 2011). This created a phobia of change nursing, white rats and Unavoidable Essay other objects used during the experiment (Kowalski Westen, 2011). Makes Humans Different From? For Albert , classical conditioning created these behaviors. Addictions. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1036 Words | 4 Pages. Habituation: form of War was Unavoidable Essay, adaptive learning in which an organism stops paying attention to of nostalgic, an unchanging, often repeated stimuli II. Classical Conditioning . (C.C.) ( Learning through Associations: A. Pavlov - First demonstrated CC with experiments with dogs 1. 3 Phases i. Natural stimulus causes a natural reflex or response (unlearned ii. Neutral stimulus and the natural stimulus are repeatedly paired eliciting a response iii.

Neutral. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 774 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment Classical Conditioning Paper. this, Watson experiment on a youngster named Albert . Albert was conditioned using a steel bar, a hammer, and a . white rat (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009.) At the beginning of the experimentation, Albert was familiarized with a white rat. The American Civil Essay? He had shown no indication of anxiousness or fear when touching it or interacting with it. Following the initial interaction, Albert would reach for the white rat and of People's Essay then right following, a person would pound the hammer alongside a steel bar triggering Albert to violently. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1343 Words | 5 Pages.

Forward conditioning CS US Backward conditioning US CS ? NOT EFFECTIVE Simultaneous cond. ? not effective Stimulus generalization Performance of . learned response to stimuli similar to original training stimulus E.g., Watson Rayner Little albert (1920) CS ? US ? UR CS? CR White rat ? banging noise ? scared White rat ? scared Stimulus discrimination Learning to make a response to The American Civil Essay, a specific stimulus and not another (prevent stimulus generalization). CS (rabbit) ? US (none) CS (rat). Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning , Fear conditioning 298 Words | 3 Pages. states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in lewin's change nursing, explaining behavior. It's important to note that classical conditioning . involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, sound of a tone and genji female the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in War was Unavoidable, response to food.

By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 1047 Words | 3 Pages. Use classical conditioning principles to of People's Obsession with Essay, explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitisation can be used to overcome fears and phobias. the case of Little Albert . Through the use of the principles of classical conditioning the The American Civil War was Essay, young infant was conditioned to fear a . Genji Female? white rat. This in turn generalized to a number of other small fluffy animals and The American Civil Essay objects. Although this experiment by Watson and in Alice Walker’s Everyday Rayner was a huge success in terms of demonstrating that fear could be conditioned in humans it was also highly unethical in that Little Albert was never reconditioned and so had to deal with the consequences of this experiment for the rest. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1175 Words | 3 Pages. for the The American Civil Unavoidable Essay, sake of this paper we are going to focus strictly on how classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring a phobia through classical conditioning. . Animals? An example of War was Unavoidable Essay, a formed phobia is the experiment conducted by in english John Watson and The American War was Unavoidable Essay his colleague, Rosalie Rayner, known as the Little Albert . Little Albert formed a phobia of medusa painting, white rats as a result of pairing the white rats (as well as other white fury objects) with loud banging sounds simultaneously as the The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, white rat was visually introduced (Northern. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1307 Words | 7 Pages.

Assignment 3: Essay Little Albert and Classical Conditioning There have been several classic experiments to . study and describe classical conditioning; one of the more famous is the Little Albert experiment . Humans From? Over the The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, years, the experiment has lost some of its validity due to meaning of nostalgic in english, numerous interpretations by several introductory psychology textbooks. It is, therefore, beneficial to Civil War was, go back to the original (or primary) source and read what the authors of the The Character in Alice Walker’s, experiment themselves had to say. Copy and. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 401 Words | 2 Pages. Little Albert-Classical Conditioning. terms of learning through classical conditioning. What is unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS), and conditioned response (CR)? Two months . after pretesting, Albert was shown a white rat, and The American War was Unavoidable anytime Albert touched the The Consequences with Essay, rat, he was exposed to the sound of the hammer hitting a steel bar.

After seven trials, Albert cried and demonstrated avoidance on Civil Unavoidable presentation of the ratthe conditioned stimulusin the absence of the loud noise.(Watson J. B., Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 523 Words | 2 Pages. Little Albert Study: Emotional Responses Could Be Conditioned or Learned. graduate student Rosalie Rayner who he later married to carry out an experiment to prove that emotional responses could be conditioned or . learned.

He believed that environmental factors influence behaviour despite the biological make up of human beings. Watson and medusa painting Rayner used an 11 month old baby Albert in the now famously known Little Albert study. Albert was a healthy and stable baby at Essay the time of the genji female, experiment . The American War Was Unavoidable? When Albert was 9 months old, he was presented with white rats, rabbits and The Consequences of People's Obsession with Physical cotton. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 711 Words | 2 Pages. Research Essay: Elements of The American War was Unavoidable Essay, Classic Conditioning. Research Essay: Elements of Classic Conditioning In the Little Albert experiment of Conditioned Emotional . Reactions, baby Albert was exposed to genji female, various stimuli which were paired with a loud banging noise on a bar.

A rat was put next to Albert and when he would reach for the rat, they would bang that bar to get baby Albert to display fear by crying. Albert was conditioned to the point that by simply showing him the rat he would cry and want to War was Unavoidable Essay, crawl away. He knew that along with the rat. Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning , History of psychology 630 Words | 2 Pages. it is meaning a reflex. It comes naturally whenever they see food. This is called an unconditioned response, this means a stimulus response that needed no . learning. Pavlov did an experiment to show his theory. He presented a dog with a bowl of Civil War was, food and measured the saliva the dog produced. What Humans From? But after doing this same experiment over and over again the The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, dog began to medusa painting, associate things with the bringing of the food, therefore started to produce saliva before the food was brought to The American, him, e.g. whenever he seen. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 634 Words | 2 Pages.

from Vassar and came to theory, Johns Hopkins as a grad student. She collaborated with Watson on the famous Little Albert study of . conditioned emotional responses in 1920. She collaborated with him. The Little Albert experiment was a famous psychology experiment conducted by behaviorist John B. Watson and graduate student Rosalie Raynor. Previously, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov had conducted experiments demonstrating the conditioning process in dogs. Watson was interested in The American Civil Essay, taking Pavlov's research. Behavior modification , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 410 Words | 2 Pages. ? Little Albert : Conditioned Emotional Reactions Victoria Whelchel Intro to Psychology Dec. 9, 2014 Jade Bost . The Consequences Appearances Essay? Explain the initial pairing of the banging bar and Civil War was Essay the rat in terms of learning through classical conditioning.

What is medusa painting unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS), and conditioned response (CR)? Albert is a nine month old boy who was subject to emotional testing. The American Civil War Was Unavoidable? He went through a series of pretesting and lewin's change theory nursing was eventually introduced to a white rat. Albert initially. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 464 Words | 4 Pages. Classical conditioning and phobias. conditioned stimulus is presented alone, it no longer predicts the coming of the unconditioned stimulus hence the The American War was Unavoidable, conditioned responding gradually stops. . One of the most famous experiments of classical conditioning was John B. Watson's experiment in which a fear response was conditioned in a young boy known as Little Albert . The child initially showed no fear of medusa painting, a white rat so it was a neutral stimulus, but however what did startle him and cause him to be afraid was if a hammer was struck against. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 425 Words | 2 Pages. Principles of Behavioralism in Human Being. 2.0 Human Behaviour From Classical Conditioning Perspective 4 . 3.1 Pavlovs Classic Experiment 4 3.2 Watsons Little Albert Experiment 5 3.3 Other Characteristics of Classical Conditioning . Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 3578 Words | 11 Pages.

articles Psychology as a Behaviorist Views it, also published Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology. He was elected president of the The American Civil War was Unavoidable, . American Psychological Association [1920] John published the most famous conditioning experiment : The Little Albert study. [1921] He became a vice president in the J. Of People's Obsession With Physical Essay? Walter Thompson advertising agency [1925] John published Behaviorism [1935] His 2nd wife, Rosalie died. John became devastated and began abusing alcohol. [1946] John retired from his. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Furman University 278 Words | 2 Pages. University where he remained until 1920. While teaching psychology at Johns Hopkins University, he acted as the department chair and Civil the director of the genji female, . The American Civil War Was Unavoidable Essay? psychological laboratory.

Watson set up his own laboratory where he ran a variety of psychological experiments based on the direction of animal behaviour. After that, he shifted his research in genji female, animal behaviour to Civil War was Essay, human behaviour and focused his study on The Character in Alice Walker’s Use Essay children. It was here that John Watson produced some of his greatest accomplishments. War Was Unavoidable? In 1913. Behavior , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 3471 Words | 5 Pages. accurately studied. Watson had very little interest in the work of Freud because it could not be observed.

One of Watsons most famous . experiments came with a subject Little Albert . Watson conditioned fear in the young boy by making loud, scary noises simultaneously to introducing him to a rabbit. The boy originally loved the rabbit but was conditioned to medusa painting, be terrified of it because of the accompanying noise. Little Albert was traumatized for life because of the experiments . Today, Watson would be disbarred. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 745 Words | 2 Pages. to unconditioned stimuli and of the potential to condition responses from The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay previous no stimuli.

Pavlov performed his experiments at the . Institute of Experimental Medicine in Petrograd. Change Theory Nursing? There, he reflected on The American Civil War was his previous work. He had noticed during his previous work that dogs naturally produced amounts of of Mama in Alice, saliva depending on what they were given to eat. Civil? The dogs salivated little amounts for makes animals moist food, larger amounts for dry food, and varying amounts for inedible objects. He then had the theory. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 401 Words | 2 Pages. Describe and Discuss the Civil Unavoidable, Behaviourist Approach in Psychology. results and reach conclusions. For example Watson and Reynar used an experiment when carrying out research on little . Albert . Where they aimed to show that you can condition a phobia into people and successfully condition the fear of rats into Albert by showing him a rat then quickly scaring him by striking a steel bar. By using an experiment they then had more scientific evidence to lewin's theory nursing, support their theory. A limitation of using experiments is that they often lack eco-logical validity.

This means it is. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 826 Words | 2 Pages. AP Psychology Chapter Outlines: Study Notes. opened her car door and got attacked by a swarm of bees that got in through an open window. Lucy developed a phobia of cars and now takes the bus to Essay, work. . During this situation, US is beesattack, UR is fear CS is cars, CR is fear. 4. Theory? In the experiment , Pavlov presented food, and the dog salivated. Then, he began to ring the The American Civil, bell before he presented the food, at first, the dog didnt have response. Genji Female? Then, after he repeated this action again and Civil War was Unavoidable again, then once the bell rang, the dog started salivated. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 473 Words | 2 Pages. determine what a person would become, in other words the genji female, environment influences the development of the The American War was Unavoidable, individual.

Behaviourists didnt concern themselves . with the internal mechanisms which occur inside the organism. In 1913, John Watson (of Little Albert experiment ) founded the behaviourist approach by setting out its main assumptions on genji female an article in the journal The Psychological Review. John Watson stated in The American Civil Essay, the review Psychology as the Behaviourist views it is a purely objective experimental. Behavior , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 4925 Words | 14 Pages. Pavlovs experiment , he associated the ringing of a bell with the meaning of nostalgic, sight of food, teaching a hungry dog to salivate when the bell would ring. . The dog naturally responded with salivation to the meat powder. When Pavlov used classical conditioning to teach the dog to associate the ringing of a bell with meat powder, the dog responded to the ringing of the bell with salivation, even when there was no meat powder involved. Though these results were originally mistakenly found, this experiment alone is. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 545 Words | 2 Pages. C H A P T E R 5 LEARNING kowa_c05_162-194hr.indd 162 9/13/10 11:03 AM A n experiment by John Garcia and his colleagues adds . a new twist to The American War was Unavoidable Essay, all the of People's Physical, stories ever told about wolves and sheep. The researchers fed a wolf a muttonburger (made of the War was, ?nest sheep ?esh) laced with odorless, tasteless capsules of lithium chloride, a chemical that induces nausea.

Displaying a natural preference for mutton, the animal wolfed it down but half an hour later became sick and vomited (Garcia. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 21843 Words | 87 Pages. + (association formed/pairing made) Bowl or steps Dog salivating CS . CR Learned S-R Little Albert generalized his fear of lewin's change, rats into fear of anything with white fur, including a Santa Claus mask, a rabbit, etc. The American Civil War Was Unavoidable? Typically, the CS occurs slightly before the UCS. There are types of conditioning that change this order and overlapping- its in a. Classical conditioning , Extinction , Fear conditioning 375 Words | 2 Pages. Conditioned emotional reactions The little Albert experiment Reference:Watson, John B. amp; Rayner, Rosalie. . (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Genji Female? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1-14. In this journal article, Jhon B. Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner performed one of the most influential experiments in psychology to prove that emotional responses could be conditioned or learned vs Sigmund Freuds theories of The American Civil Essay, sexual and life-preservation to be solely the shaping of. Classical conditioning , Emotion , Experiment 624 Words | 2 Pages.

Albert Einstein The Theory Of Special Relativity Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I'm not sure about the . Genji Female? universe. Albert Einstein * Who was Albert Einstein? For almost everybody Einstein was and Civil Essay still is the most important physicist that has ever lived. He made world-changing discoveries and has the most influence on our thinking about physics today. Of Nostalgic? Albert Einstein was born on March 14th 1879 in The American War was, Ulm, a city far in the south of The Character in Alice Everyday, Germany. He went. Albert Einstein , Energy , General relativity 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Experiment 22 Title: Reactions of aldehydes and ketones Aim: The purpose of this experiment is to The American Civil War was Essay, compare some . The Consequences Obsession Physical Appearances Essay? reactions of ethanal and The American Unavoidable Essay propanone. Introduction: We have chosen ethanal and lewin's change theory nursing propanone as relatively safe examples of The American Essay, aldehydes and ketones to illustrate their reactions in simple test-tube experiments . The reactions or properties to be investigated are as follows: A. Condensation (addition-elimination) B. Oxidation C. Triiodomethane (iodoform) reaction Requirements: . Acetic acid , Aldehyde , Ammonia 499 Words | 3 Pages. Experiments in physics lab report Department of Electrical Engineering Isabela State University Ilagan Campus, Calamagui 2nd, City of . Ilagan, Isabela baccaljoemel@yahoo.com Submitted to: Engr. Rafael S. Ramos Physics12 Professor Submitted by: Joemel L. Baccal BSEE IIA Experiments in Physics Lab Report Joemel L. Baccal Department of Electrical Engineering Isabela State University - Ilagan Campus, Calamagui 2nd, City of Ilagan, Isabela baccaljoemel@yahoo.com Abstract In. Atom , Electric charge , Electricity 826 Words | 4 Pages.

?The Philadelphia Experiment The Philadelphia Experiment took place in the fall of 1943 when a group of scientists funded . by the U.S. government set out to turn a U.S. Cannon Class destroyer escort into an invisible war machine. Makes Different From? The initial conspiracies surrounding the The American, experiment were formulated by two scientists, William L. Moore and Charles Berlitz. With Appearances Essay? After extensive research, Moore and Berlitz concluded that The Philadelphia Experiment went awry when a U.S. Naval Destroyer was used to conduct. Annotated bibliography , Charles Berlitz , Conspiracy theories 1592 Words | 5 Pages. ALBERT EINSTEIN: The Miracle Mind The book, Albert Einstein: The Miracle Mind, written by The American War was Essay Tabatha Teatts is about this . centurys greatest physicist, Albert Einstein. He was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Germany to Hermann Einstein and Pauline Koch. The Consequences Of People's With Appearances Essay? Alberts original name was Ainstein and his ancestors were of Jewish origin.

Down the generation, for some unknown reason, the name was changed to Einstein. Civil? When he was about one year old, his family moved to Munich to set up an electrical engineering. Albert Einstein , Einstein family , Hans Albert Einstein 2270 Words | 6 Pages. Albert Bandura He was born in a small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada on December 4, 1925. He went to elementary and nursing high school . in a school with minimal resources. He received his bachelor degree from the The American War was Essay, University of British Columbia in Psychology in 1949. In 1952 he received his Ph.D from the University of Iowa. In Iowa, he met Virginia Varns, she was an change theory nursing instructor in the nursing school. The got marry and later she had two girls.

After he graduated, he took a postdoctoral. Albert Bandura , Behavior , Educational psychology 737 Words | 3 Pages. ? Experiment #1: Introduction to Experimentation Submitted by: Neann Klara M. De Jesus . BS Psychology II Submitted to: Dr. Geraldine E. Tria ABSTRACT SUMMARY The first experiment done by the class was called Introduction to Experimentation. Its main objective is to give basic knowledge about War was Essay some of the logic of experimentation. The class was divided into groups of 2. In each group there was an meaning of nostalgic in english experimenter (E) and a subject (S). The. Empiricism , Experiment , Hypothesis 1222 Words | 8 Pages. What I find most admirable about Albert Einstein is the way he thought up his theories and The American Civil Unavoidable Essay had the medusa painting, ability to conduct . experiments on them.

By doing this, he answered many questions of the scientific realm of the world. Some of the Civil, traits I admire are: 1. A trait I admire is his curiosity because he always wanted to find out how things worked. Genji Female? When he was five years old his father gave him a compass. It was a mystery to him. He wanted to The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, know why the arrow always pointed north. Of Nostalgic? His father.

Manhattan Project , Nobel Peace Prize , Nobel Prize 870 Words | 4 Pages. EXPERIMENT 1: REACTIONS OF ENOLATE IONS WITH CARBONYL GROUPS Aims In this experiment we used two techniques for The American the reactions . of enolate ions with carbonyl groups. What Makes Humans From? One technique used was Doebner reaction and The American Civil War was Unavoidable the other technique used was Claisen-Schmidt reaction. Therefore the makes from animals, aim of this experiment is to synthesize trans p-methoxycinnamic acid and to synthesize dibenzalacetone via an aldol condensation reaction between acetone and benzaldehyde. The products would be recrystallized using ethanol. Acid , Aldehyde , Aldol condensation 1824 Words | 6 Pages. EXPERIMENT 5 REDOX TITRATION: TITRATION USING SODIUM THIOSULPHATE Objectives 1. War Was Unavoidable Essay? 2. To prepare a standard solution of potassium iodate for use . to determine the humans animals, concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution accurately.

To acquire the proper techniques of carrying out a titration. Introduction Redox titrations using sodium thiosulphate as a reducing agent is known as iodometric titration since it is used specifically to titrate iodine. The reaction involved is: I2 + 2Na2S2O3 I2 + 2S2O322NaI + Na2S4O6. Chemical reaction , Chemistry , Iodine 1141 Words | 5 Pages. ? Experiment : 1 Tittle : Preparation of bis(acetylacetonato)copper(II) complex Objective : To synthesis the . bis(acetylacetonato)copper(II) complex Introduction : A complex ion is Civil War was usually form with high charge density metal ion as a central and The Consequences of People's Essay formation of coordinate covalent bond (dative bond) with high electron molecules or ions.

These molecules or ions are functioning as ligands (electrophile in organic compounds). They are easily attracted by electrophile (electron deficiency. Ammonia , Coordination chemistry , Coordination complex 1723 Words | 11 Pages. ? Experiment 2: IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWNS BY TLC AND MP IN COMBINATION Introduction: Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is one of The American War was Unavoidable Essay, . the most valuable techniques in organic chemistry. This is a best method of separating and identifying mixtures of genji female, two or more compounds. The separation is accomplished by the distribution of the mixture between two phases: one that is stationary and one that is moving or mobile. Chromatography works on the principle that different compounds will have different.

Analytical chemistry , Chemical compound , Chemistry 1428 Words | 5 Pages. process of distillation. Distillation is the separation of volatile substances mixed with nonvolatile substances by boiling the mixture to War was Essay, alter the The Consequences of People's with Physical Essay, phase of . the volatile substance. The researchers used the simple distillation set up to conduct the experiment . 25 ml of The Bar Vodka was used and Civil War was Unavoidable Essay 7 ml of distillate was collected before a temperature of 95 degrees Celsius was reached. Collected distillate was then subjected to a flammability test to confirm ethanol content. The percent ethanol was computed.

Alcoholic beverage , Boiling point , Distillation 956 Words | 5 Pages. FIRE RESISTANT BALLOON: Materials - 1 matchbox - 1 candle - 1 yellow colored balloon - 1 blue colored balloon - Half a cup of water . What Makes From Animals? Procedure: 1. For this experiment , the independent variable is War was whether the balloon is medusa painting filled with water or not. The American Unavoidable Essay? The dependent variable is genji female what happens to the balloon when it is placed above the lit candle. This is determined by observing the balloon. The American War Was Essay? The constants (control variables) are how much the of People's Obsession with Physical, balloon is inflated and the amount. Atlantic Ocean , Ice , Magnet 2181 Words | 7 Pages. The Life of Albert Einstein Psy300 BF01BSP3 February 22, 2013 . THE LIFE OF ALBERT EINSTEIN As we all know Albert Einstein was no ordinary man.

He was a man of determination, strength, struggle and a curiosity of the unknown. This is a man who dared dream to influence society, challenge the strong and Civil War was Unavoidable Essay overcome the weak minded. But there was a time when Albert was just a kid, and of Mama Walker’s Use Essay like all kids he had. Albert Einstein , Mathematics , Mother 1031 Words | 3 Pages. the famous ones is the The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, social learning theory from Albert Bandura (Ormord, 2012). The Consequences Obsession With Appearances Essay? However, there are many issues involved in this theory and . also many supportive evidences as well as controversies.

Social learning is also known as observational learning, it is a theory that explains how people are influenced by Civil War was Unavoidable observing others behaviors, especially the aggression of children (Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart, Roy, 2008). According to Albert Banduras social learning theory, children tend to. Aggression , Albert Bandura , Behavior 1355 Words | 4 Pages.

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Was the Civil War inevitable essays

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Was the Civil War inevitable essays

Analysis of Disability by Nancy Mairs. The American Civil War Was! Author of disability Nancy Mairs whos a feminist and a cripple, has accomplished a lot in writing and teaching. Her remarkable personality shows in medusa painting, many of her essays especially in Disability which was first published in 1987 in the New York Times. In this essay, Nancy Mairs shows how disabled people are constantly excluded, especially from the War was Unavoidable, media. By giving out facts and including her personal experiences, Mairs aims for meaning in english making some changes regarding the relationship between the media and people with disabilities.

Mairs thesis is shown implicitly in the first and last paragraphs. The American War Was Unavoidable! Her main goal is to show everyone that people with disabilities are just like everybody else and they should be included and accepted in all daily activities. By using irony, intensity, humor and self-revelations, Nancy Mairs succeeds to get her message through. Nancy Mairs starts her essay by medusa painting describing herself as a crippled woman with multiple sclerosis. She talks about her condition and how shes never seen a crippled woman like her in the media.

Then she mentions some television shows about disabled people that focus almost entirely on disabilities and neglect the persons character. Mairs states that although disability changes a lot in ones life, it doesnt kill him/her. She for example, can do what every other woman her age can do. And although shes a great consumer, advertisers never choose someone like her to represent their products publicly; and the reason for that, according to The American War was, Mairs, is that people cannot yet accept the genji female, fact that disability is something ordinary. The consequences of this situation are hash on disable people, for they might feel like they dont exist. Finally, Nancy Mairs says that anyone might become disabled. But if one sees disability as a normal characteristic then it wont be hard on Civil Essay him/her psychologically. And then once again, Mairs mentions that disabled people should be included in of Mama Walker’s Use Essay, daily activities.

Nancy Mairs starts Disability with self-revelations which show through her entire essay, like for instance: I am a forty-three-year-old woman crippled with multiple sclerosis; take it from me; Im the advertisers dream The fact that Nancy Mairs mentions herself a lot makes her essay lack objectivity. But the reason behind this is War was, that few are the people who can relate to this topic. The Consequences With Physical Appearances! So no one really knows what this is Essay, about as much as Mairs and all disabled people who form a minority do. This tells us that the what makes humans different from, author knows what shes talking about. Since this essay is addressed to people who dont know much about disability, its purpose is not merely to inform us about the physical disability itself but also about the psychological effects of the constant isolation and exclusion of people with disabilities. The American Unavoidable! This makes the of People's Obsession Physical Appearances, essay persuasive rather than argumentative since the War was Unavoidable, author only medusa painting mentioned her attitude towards this subject.

But what a better way to do it than having a person with disability talk about his/her personal experiences? Persuading people of Civil Essay, Mairs point of view which is that disabled people should be included in the daily activities couldnt be done by The Consequences of People's Obsession with Essay just stating objective facts. This kind of persuasion needs examples. To prove that disabled people are unfairly treated, Nancy Mairs gives an example of a crippled women who was stopped from doing what she wanted to The American Civil War was Essay, do, though she was still physically able to do it. The Character In Alice! She also gives examples of products to prove that shes regular consumer and that theres no reason theres no reason why people with disabilities couldnt get the opportunity to appear in the media and represent these products. Nancy Mairs is well known for her style in writing. She uses irony to show that the reason why media always excludes disabled people is ridiculous: if you saw me pouring out puppy biscuits, would you think these kibbles were only for the puppies of the The American Unavoidable, cripples.

She also uses humor: she got as far as a taxi to the airport, hotly pursued by makes from animals the doctor. Intensity is also shown when she says: advertisers who determine deny the existence of me and Civil War was Unavoidable Essay my kind absolutely. This intensity is The Consequences of People's Obsession with Essay, nothing but the result of a strong anger caused by the mistreatment of disabled people. This style gives the essay a kind of Essay, vivacity, sparkle and even strength. It shows that Mairs is not afraid of making fun of the advertisers. So basically, Nancy Mairs refers to emotions: you might feel as though you dont exist, in any meaningful social sense at all. What Makes Humans Different From! While in some cases appealing to emotions can be inappropriate, in Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, this particular essay its not. It is only inappropriate when a certain topic requires logic and reason. Actually getting people to The Character in Alice, accept disability and people carrying it requires neither logic nor reason. Theyre just human beings who deserve to be treated like anyone else.

This essay lacks some evidence though: I once asked a local advertiser; one of those medical dramas which makes these two stories less credible and Civil leaves us wondering whether they are true or simply made up. But as for the rest of the essay, the of nostalgic in english, information is based on personal experiences and emotions that dont require much evidence. Unavoidable! As for medusa painting the audience, this essay is addressed to all people who read the Civil War was, New York Times, while it should have been addressed specifically to advertisers so they can make a change regarding the inclusion of disabled people. Nancy Mairs in her disability has done a good job in lewin's change theory, delivering her message. I believe she managed to persuade the Civil War was Essay, audience that there is no reason to exclude disabled people from the media.

Her information was clear and made sense, her examples were enough to support her thesis and her tone added a certain flavor to her essay. Disability can actually make certain changes if it is genji female, addressed to The American Unavoidable Essay, its right audience and I certainly recommend it to my friends and anyone who might be interested in this topic. Nancy Mairs is a writer afflicted with multiple sclerosis. In her essay, #8220;Disability#8221;, she explains how the media fails to accurately portray individuals living with a debilitating disease. This causes people with a handicap to feel inadequate, isolated, and The Character in Alice Everyday Use Essay lonely. #8230; Nancy Mairs Disability shows us the The American Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, view a disabled woman has on how the world perceives people with disabilities. Nancy is a forty- three year old crippled woman.(Bedford Reader 13).Nancy is a woman who spends most of her time in #8230; The essays that Nancy Mairs and Rosie Anaya wrote discuss the genji female, medias lack of proper representations for Unavoidable those with disabilities. Mairs speaks about how people with disabilities have the same sense of normality as those who do not. Anaya talks #8230; According to Mairs, the only thing #8220;normal#8221; about seeing disabled people on TV was their daily appearance on a medical drama. As the time went by since 1987, Anaya wrote on how disabilities have become more normal in our everyday #8230; In her essay, Disability, Nancy Mairs argues that our society must take the disability as normal. Humans Different Animals! She describes her own experience where she finds the people taking disability as abnormal especially in media.

She says, I once asked a local #8230; And yet the The American Civil, advertisers, who determine nowadays who will be represented publicly and lewin's change who will not, deny the existence of me and my kind absolutely. (paragraph 4) In this passage, Mairs displays her emotions of frustration and The American Unavoidable anger towards the #8230; David from Healtheappointments: Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out The Consequences of People's Physical Appearances, https://goo.gl/chNgQy. Unavoidable Essay! Havent found what you want? 10 Dorrance St #700, Providence, RI 02903, USA. Copyright 2003 - 2017 - Healtheappointments is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and genji female Wales. Company Registration No: 4964706. VAT.

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Cosi by Louis Nowra (Notes by The American Civil Unavoidable Essay, English Works) Cosi s depiction of the funny farm: what is normal? by change theory, Dr Jennifer Minter, English Works. Set in The American War was Unavoidable Essay the remnants of medusa painting a burnt-out theatre, and drawing upon the political and social context of the Vietnam War, Louis Nowras play Cosi challenges our perceptions about love, madness and politics. Whilst the inmates in the asylum suffer from various degrees of insanity and drug addictions, they often appear at times more sane than their visitors. The more the audience personalises the characters and the more we become aware of similarities between the inmates and the normal people, then the more we are encouraged to challenge the Unavoidable, stereotypical perception of a mad person. As the borders become hazy, we start to think about the subtle signs of madness and darkness in our own lives.

Nowra uses humour, irony and cynicism to blur the boundaries and The Consequences with Appearances, subvert the distinctions between madness and sanity: The differences among the inmates shows that it is difficult to Civil Unavoidable Essay, stereotype the patients. Justin tells Lewis, Youll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal (5). He also tells Lewis, A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperors new clothes. (7) which alludes to genji female, the fact that the sane person is clothed; the madman nakedly exposes his madness. Lewis becomes a bridge between the two worlds and War was Essay, his commitment and attachment to meaning, the insane reveal his growing awareness of their problems and often their similarities The role reversal between Roy and Lewis and The American, similarities between Roy and Nick shed light on the superficial distinctions. The fact that there is humans different from, not a clear distinction between the characters who are obviously mad, and those who are suffering from an The American, addiction, already makes the audience question the genji female, stereotypes of madness. Whilst some of the characters are obviously mad such as Doug and Ruth, characters like Zac and Cherry rarely exhibit obvious signs of madness. Likewise, Julie is suffering from a drug addiction and is much more capable, more aware and more realistic than the War was, other inmates, but just as sad, nonetheless.

Nowra constructs Lewis as a bridge between the two worlds, which enables him to show how these two worlds clash and collide. This function as a bridge also helps the playwright concentrate on similarities between the inside and the outside world so that the The Consequences of People's Obsession with Physical Appearances Essay, audience once again does not have a clear sense of distinction. At the outset of the play, Justin asks Lewis, what ward are you from, suggesting that he could easily be mistaken for an inmate. As the audience becomes increasingly aware of the inmates personal problems, we recognise important similarities. As Justin reaffirms to Civil War was, Lewis, Youll discover this, is lewin's, that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal But you get my drift? (5). The fact that Lewis grandmother was certified insane also links him to the two separate worlds.

As such, members of the audience are challenged to Unavoidable, reflect upon their own backgrounds and problems and many would be able to identify with some aspects of the characters, especially where love is concerned. One of the The Consequences Obsession Physical Appearances, reasons that Roy chooses the The American Civil Unavoidable, play is because of his disturbed childhood and the fact that he is seeking to recapture an idyllic world of love. He, too, has a story of madness hidden in the closet. He chooses Mozarts opera Cosi in an attempt to recapture or rekindle his idealistic dream of childhood a romantic idyll that he never experienced. In Alice Everyday! He hopes that it will help him escape the depressing life at the asylum, and Civil War was Unavoidable Essay, recapture his ideal. He wants the play to recapture lullabies sung to me by my beautiful mother. This is particularly sad given Roys life as an orphan. (64) Another way that Nowra challenges the meaning of nostalgic, stereotypes of madness is evident in the relationship between Roy and Lewis whereby their role reversal seems to imply that Roy is more rational than Lewis.

Initially Roy appears more capable and confident than Lewis and Lewis is hesitant, naive and inexperienced. As Roy constantly humorously reminds the audience, he could direct a poofter to a mans dunny. Roy chooses the play, which becomes an important theme in Cosi. Also the The American Unavoidable Essay, way Nowra sets Lewis up for ridicule makes the audience think that perhaps Lewis is, at times, more insane or peculiar than Roy. Nowra vindicates Roys choice of play, which again shows that he is in touch with the makes, needs of the inmates. At times, Roy appears decisive and War was Unavoidable, authoritative and medusa painting, has worthy dreams of The American War was Essay introducing culture to the asylum. In this instance, he not only sets himself apart from those in the asylum but also from Australians. Of Mama Walker’s Everyday! Nowra caustically states that Australians are only familiar with the culture on cheddar cheese.

Not only is the role reversal between these two main characters an indicator of the Civil War was Essay, inability to typecast people, but there are similarities between Nick and Roy. The Character Of Mama In Alice Walker’s Everyday! Both have visions of grandeur; both simplistically want to change their environment etc. Is this another form of madness? As Nowra would also suggest, just because Roy is an orphan, or has visions of grandeur, or as it turns out has stage fright does not make him automatically insane. However, as their relationship develops, ironically Lewis grows in stature and Unavoidable, confidence and Roy becomes diminished especially through stage fright, which perhaps gives the audience a glimpse into his insanity.

He appears to be incorrigible he irritates people to such an extent that he is constantly moved from ward to ward Nick seems to share some of the stereotypically mad syndromes exhibited by Roy such as a delusional tendency towards self- grandeur, which once again encourages the audience to question who is mad. Again, Justins reference to the Emperors nakedness also sheds some light on the way Nowra makes us question the differences between sanity and insanity. When Justin tells Lewis, A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperors new clothes. (7) this alludes to the fact that the madman shows his madness. His madness is clearly evident from his nakedness. As such Justin also alludes to what humans different animals, the fact that the difference is The American War was, that sane people conceal their madness in many subtle and not so subtle ways. Perhaps we can see that Roys delusions of grandeur are obviously misplaced in the asylum and that this could be a sign of his madness. However, Nick also shows similar delusions, but they are perhaps more subtle. Roy shares similarities with Nick, which makes us question whether Nick is The Character Walker’s Everyday, insane or Roy is just as sane.

As a visionary, Roy is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. He instigates the play and has a grand idea of bringing culture to the institution. He wants to implement his ideals for The American Unavoidable Essay a better life, just like Nick. I aim for the stars. Similarly Nick believes that the moratorium ends up changing Australia forever. Of Mama Walker’s Everyday Use Essay! He is just as arrogant and supercilious in his belief that politics is the only worthy ideal and can be stripped of empathy and Civil, sentiment. Nick is set up for The Character of Mama in Alice Walker’s Everyday Use Essay ridicule by hypocritically sympathising with the Vietnamese victims but scorning and humiliating the right wing nuts and the funny farm. Also Nowra constructs characters such as Nick and Lucy to show that often there are also similarities between their outlook and behaviour and the inmates. In fact, there are many similarities between the patients and the citizens in the world. For example, Roy and The American War was Unavoidable Essay, Nick both share a vision and both world views are legitimized throughout the play. Nick is rather simplistic in his world view, believing that the march and moratorium can change the of Mama in Alice Everyday Use Essay, world. He is happy that Australia was forever changed. He belittles the play and believes that those who are focusing on Civil love are being trivial. (Such people are definitely mad.) However, Nowra shows that Roy is just as idealistic, but perhaps he holds a more realistic vision about love and hatred.

Neither visions are more important than each other. Of Nostalgic In English! As a visionary, Roy is a perfect contrast to Nick and is just as naive and Civil Essay, simplistic in his own way. However, the lewin's theory nursing, similarities between characters enables Nowra to subvert the clear distinctions between mad and sane. Roy instigates the play and has a grand idea of Civil War was Unavoidable Essay bringing culture the institution. he wants to implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. I am for the stars. Throughout the course of the play, Nowra suggests that typically mad people do have more difficulty with the of People's Appearances, concept of illusion than sane people do.

Ruth struggles with the Unavoidable Essay, concept of the play and focuses on how many steps she must literally take. She states, I can handle something being an illusion and real but not at the same time. Roy wants to use toy soldiers as a backdrop and he wonders whether the of People's with, typically mad audience will recognize these as symbols. Henry also takes a literal view of the soldiers uniform and the Albanian communists, which he believes denigrates his fathers involvement in The American Civil Essay war. Conversely, there are signs of fantasy in Nicks and Lucys world as they show aspects of Cosi in their own love relationships. Nowra constructs the characters of the real world as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness and fantasy. They believe it is so easy to save the world and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule.

Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending, and yet they do not achieve perhaps any more or less than the mad patients. Personally, and professionally, Lewis changes and matures as he gains real-life experience. Lewiss skills as a director are challenged as he directs the play, Cosi Fan Tutte, and gains in stature as he becomes personally committed to Obsession Physical Appearances, the inmates. The American Civil War Was Unavoidable Essay! His goal is to try to bring them out of themselves, but in such a gloomy and genji female, dark setting and the constant threat of Dougs pyromaniac tendencies suggest that the play is War was Essay, doomed from the start. Initially Lewis is Use Essay, inexperienced and naive and has had very little experience either directing a play or working with certified patients, which makes the goal somewhat farcical. The American Civil Unavoidable Essay! As a result, Lewis has a lot to learn, and ironically Roy, an genji female, inmate, helps him to become more assertive and sympathetic towards the actors. War Was Essay! Roy constantly reminds him that the actors are crying out for direction not only because they have irrational tendencies, but they also have difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality. Because such characters already inhabit the boundary areas, they have difficulty thinking symbolically that is they may struggle to differentiate real from toy soldiers. Roy also reminds Lewis that he is dealing with a mad audience.

Not only does he specifically need to tell Ruth just how many steps she must take, but he also needs to protect Henrys vulnerabilities and the sense of betrayal he feels on account of his father when Lewis wants to dress up the two protagonists as Albanians. Likewise, Ruth fears being set up for ridicule should she forget the words of a song. However, despite these difficulties Lewis does rise to the occasion and his choice to humans from animals, work on the play instead of joining the moratorium testifies to his growing confidence and desire to stage a successful play which he does. Even Roy, subtly admires Lewiss ability when he gives him a list of instructions. Nowra positions Lewiss involvement at the mental asylum as a journey of Civil Essay self-discovery. Genji Female! Not only The American War was Unavoidable Essay, does he have a personal link with madness, as his grandmother was certified insane, but Lewis must challenge his stereotypical attitudes towards madness.

Lewis comes to medusa painting, appreciate that there are no clear-cut boundaries. He realises as Justin says that they are normal well not quite. The fact that towards the end of the play Lewis drops his guard and becomes comfortable and intimate with the patients shows that he no longer fears them, because he sees them as people with foibles and shortcomings rather than as madmen. Personally, he also matures and Civil War was Essay, develops as a person. He shows greater sensitivity and compassion. As Lewis becomes more deeply involved in the play, he has to challenge his personal priorities and think about his commitment to people. Lewis must temper his arrogance and gains sensitivity and compassion towards the inmates. At first he was dismissive of medusa painting their ability to act, but he cajoles them and The American, learns that he must be careful of setting them up for ridicule. He realises that they fear exposure and humiliation; he must provide a comfortable and reassuring context for them to explore their creative side. When he is forced to choose between attending the moratorium or practicing the play, he opts for the play which shows a fundamental shift in his views, values and change nursing, priorities. The American! Lewis also becomes more assertive when he categorically states to Lucy that he will not let the patients down.

He knows that if the play fails this could be embarrassing; they could look ridiculous which will severely harm their self-esteem. The sub-text of the play within a play, makes Lewis realise the meaning, significance of love as opposed to The American Unavoidable Essay, war. Initially he is flippant and cavalier, but when it affects him personally he is insulted. He realises that war is not necessarily the real theatre and that love plays an enormous role in peoples lives . In fact, although Nowra does not suggest that their lack of love causes madness, it is a contributing factor in what makes humans different from many of their conditions whether it be madness or addiction. His views on love evolve. If he previously echoed Lucys views that love is War was Essay, a bourgeois indulgence of the privileged few, he is forced to confront its significance when Lucy flippantly reveals her affair. Nowra states that Lewis is what makes humans from animals, stunned thus showing the degree of his personal offence. Lewis spontaneously quotes Cosi , Womens constancy is like the Arabian phoenix.. which underscores his chauvinistic attitude which will be exposed as hypocritical. The American Civil Essay! Finally, Lewis choice also shows his shift from believing that the arena of war is the most important issue, thus challenging the priority of genji female Nicks views. Lewiss views about love and politics are tested and eventually he shows a change in priorities.

Lewiss flippant and cavalier view of War was Unavoidable Essay love is tested. Medusa Painting! Previously he, like Lucy and Nick, prioritised to war as the real theatre. This is the time of the Vietnam War and many students are involved in anti-war marches. Lewis echoes Lucys and Nicks beliefs that love is a bourgeoise indulgence. The American Civil Essay! Lewis also reflects the medusa painting, view exposed in the opera that women could not be trusted. He also realises that many inmates lack love and The American Unavoidable Essay, that this may be a contributing factor to their sadness, loneliness and desperation. Roys admission.

He is forced to realise that he is not that constant either and enjoys the attention from Julie and Cherry. Lewiss chauvinistic views are challenged. Womens fidelity and change theory, constancy are a subtext and Civil Essay, he is found wanting; also social context of free love and independence. One of the defining aspects within Cosi occurs with the irony of a play within a play, namely the production of Mozarts Cosi Fan Tutte which works to promote the importance of love within the wider spectrum of Cosi. It is no accident that Roy chooses a play so focused on love, and it this which serves as the genji female, basis for underlying ideas of Lewis and the inmates about love and fidelity, regardless of whether or not they are agreement with the The American Unavoidable Essay, play. On numerous occasions ideas are extracted from medusa painting Mozarts opera supporting the importance of love and fidelity, such as the idea that a Womens constancy is like that of the Arabian Phoenix, everyone swears by it by no-one has seen it.. Other characters draw upon the contentious idea of the play as a comedy and The American Civil Essay, Henry remarks that Cosi Fan Tutte has corrupting influence, stating that whether women can be true is a tragedy not a comedy as Lewis suggests. Roys perception on loves place in in Alice Everyday Use Essay the world is The American Civil War was Unavoidable, unique as he demonstrates both the destruction it can cause as well as the joy it can bring. Of People's With Physical Essay! Roy generally serves as the The American War was, secondary protagonist, driving the plot through sheer determination at times coupled with sporadic fits of depression. It is during one of those fits that the darker side of Roy is revealed when he states that love is what you feel when you dont have enough emotion left to hate, a reference to Roys dissatisfaction with personal experiences in love.

This becomes clear when Roys true childhood is exposed. Roy spent his childhood moving between orphanages, always deprived of love. Medusa Painting! His delusions about his mothers beautiful Parisian gowns provides a form of Civil Unavoidable release. To balance the presence of love in Cosi , Nowra also injects an element of realism into the play through politics, primarily those surrounding the Vietnam War. Medusa Painting! Set in a period of political turmoil, the characters of Lucy and Civil Essay, Nick prioritize politics over love, a concept which Lucy calls an indulgence for the privileged few. The concept of politics and war is theory nursing, further embedded into Cosi symbolically through fire and darkness, and it this which weakens and almost destroys the production of Cosi Fan Tutte and by extension the ideas of Civil Essay love, demonstrating its vulnerability. This suggests that love does shit all for the starving masses and for all that love is within Cosi Fan Tutte, it is useless with the real world of Vietnam where fire and darkness prevail. Nicks and Lucys attitude to the play about love reveals much about their own self-centred and rather arrogant attitude towards the vulnerable people in society. Nick tells him that he is just performing an opera about a few upper class twits (76) at a funny farm. (77) Lucy is insensitive when she tells Lewis that she is sleeping with him but having sex with Nick. Lucy belittles Lewiss involvement in the play because she thinks a play about love is typical of the upper class twits who are removed from the meaning, real battle of life. Lucy thinks that love is the last gasp of bourgeois romanticism (33) Lucy interprets love according to Civil, her narrow political framework.

She tells Lewis, that love is an emotional indulgence of the privileged few (70). She hates him doing an opera about love and fidelity while thousands of Vietnamese are being killed by American troops. Of People's Obsession With Physical Appearances! Nick is critical of their desire to do a play about Civil War was Essay, love and infidelity in this day and age (41) Theyre definitely mad. Nowra constructs these characters of the in english, real world as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness.

That they believe it is so easy to save the world and Civil Unavoidable, make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and medusa painting, the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule. In the world of Cosi , Nick and Lucy represent the real world. The American Civil Unavoidable! They are typical of the informed, educated students who are trying to make a difference. They are involved in real life issues, important issues of the day, such as politics. They idealistically believe that they can make a difference and realize their world view. Nick believes that it is possible to make changes. He is genji female, getting fed up with our society. He is typical of those who changes and we want them now! Lucy also extols Nicks virtues because she notices how he gets things done and does things that matter (70).

The most important thing in their lives is the moratorium march which is critical of Australias involvement in Vietnam. Following the march, Nick is really happy that Australia was changed forever today. 76. Self-importantly, Lucy declares her support for Nick: Hes doing a play thats relevant and hes doing something about the war in Vietnam. After rehearsals well go on War was Essay to the moratorium meeting. Its going to be huge. Absolutely huge.

The biggest protest ever seen in in Alice Use Essay Australia. (70) Nowra deliberately constructs Roy as a character who hovers on the border between madness and The American Civil War was Unavoidable, sanity and thereby challenges the audiences preconceived and settled notions about insanity and the audience is often left in Obsession Essay suspense wondering why Roy has been certified. As an intellectual and Civil Essay, cultured person, Roy appears to of People's Obsession Essay, be one of the most lucid characters in Unavoidable Essay the play and in english, cynically mentors the naive and simple-minded Lewis. The American Essay! Such a role reversal between them is in english, instructive and the play about love eventually mirrors to Lewis his own hypocrisy, which proves to War was Essay, be a fortuitous choice. Meaning Of Nostalgic! Also similarities abound between Roy and Nick such as their simple-minded delusions of grandeur which once again undermines distinctions between sanity and insanity. If Roy aims for the stars, Nick believes that their march single-handedly changed the world. Furthermore, Roys desire to bring culture to this place is portrayed in an honourable light, albeit sarcastically; however Nowra reserves his sarcasm not for The American Civil War was Essay Roy but for The Character of Mama Australians who believe that culture is the stuff that grows on The American Civil Unavoidable Essay stale cheddar. Although Roy does have anti-social tendencies and shortcomings such as his paranoia and Obsession Physical, stage-fright and The American Unavoidable Essay, a deprived childhood which has yielded to romantic illusions, it would be too simplistic to conclude that these are a sign of madness.

Notes on Cosi , Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes) For Excellence in theory nursing VCE: please see our recently published Arguments and Persuasive Language.